Indoor Environment – Airborne Particles and Settled Dust

Indoor Environment – Airborne Particles and Settled Dust
اسم المؤلف
Lidia Morawska and Tunga Salthammer
التاريخ
4 يونيو 2021
المشاهدات
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Indoor Environment – Airborne Particles and Settled Dust
Edited by
Lidia Morawska and Tunga Salthammer
Contents
Foreword V
Preface VII
List of Contributors XI
List of Symbols and Abbreviations XV
Part 1 Fundamentals 1
1.1 Fundamentals of Indoor Particles and Settled Dust 3
L. Morawska and T. Salthammer
Part 2 Sampling and Measurement 47
2.1 Introduction to Sampling and Measurement Techniques 49
L. Morawska and T. Salthammer
2.2 Measurement of Airborne Particles 56
A. Schmidt-Ott and Z.D. Ristovski
2.3 Sampling of Surface Dust in Buildings 82
T. Schneider
2.4 Analysis of Chemical and Biological Properties 105
K. A. BéruBé, R. J. Richards, T. Jones, T. Moreno,
S. Thomas, and A. Nevalainen
Part 3 Applications and Case Studies 141
3.1 Organic Compounds Adsorbed on Particles and Settled
House Dust 143
G.A. Ayoko and E. Uhde
3.2 Indoor Chemistry as a Source of Particles 167
C. J. Weschler
3.3 Particle Concentration Levels and Size Distribution Characteristics
in Residential and Non-Industrial Workplace Environments 190
L. Morawska and C. He
3.4 Asbestos and Mineral Fibers
D. Bake 225
3.5 Environmental Tobacco Smoke Particles 245
W.W. Nazaroff and N.E. Klepeis
3.6 The Effect of Filtration in Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning
Systems 275
D.S. Ensor, K.K. Foarde, J.T. Hanley, and D.W. van Osdell
3.7 Motor Vehicle Emissions as a Source of Indoor Particles 297
L. Morawska
3.8 Modeling of Indoor Particle Concentration 319
M. Jamriska
3.9 The Phenomenon of “Black Magic Dust” in Housing Units 340
M. Wensing, H.-J. Moriske, and T. Salthammer
4 Exposure and Risk Assessment 357
4.1 Assessment of Exposure to Airborne Particles 359
M. Singh and C. Sioutas
4.2 Health Effects of Airborne Dust and Particulate Matter Indoors:
A Review of Three Climate Chamber Studies 387
L. Mølhave
4.3 Reference Values of Environmental Pollutants in House Dust 407
W. Butte
Subject Index 437
ACH air exchange
ADI acceptable daily intake
AM arithmetic mean
APS aerodynamic particle sizer
AHRAE American Society of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning
Engineers
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
BREC building-related environmental complaints
BRI building-related illness
BRS building-related symptoms
C concentration
CAPS concentrated air particles
CFU colony-forming units
CMD count median diameter
CPC condensation particle counter
D molecular diffusity (diffusion coefficient)
DBP di-n-butyl-phthalate
DIBP di-isobutyl-phthalate
DINP di-isononyl-phthalate
DEHP di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
DMA differential mobility analyzer
DMPS differential mobility particle sizer
DOP di-octyl-phthalate
D
p particle diameter
EC electrostatic classifier
ECD electron capture detector
EDS energy dispersive spectrometer
EDXRF energy dispersed X-ray fluorescence
ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
ELPI electrical low-pressure impactor
EM electron microscopy
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
EPXMA electron probe X-ray microanalysis
XV
List of Symbols and AbbreviationsETS environmental tobacco smoke
FAAS flame atomic absorption spectrometry
FID flame ionization detector
FT-IR Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy
GC gas chromatography
GFAAS graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry
HDM house dust mite
IAQ indoor air quality
IC ion chromatography
ICP-AES inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectrometry
ICP-MS inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry
INAA instrumental neutron activation analysis
I/O indoor/outdoor
LOI loss on ignition
M mass
MMAD mass median aerodynamic diameters
MMD mass median diameter
MCS multiple chemical sensitivity
MD median
MS mass spectrometry
MVOC microbiological originated volatile organic compounds
Np
particle concentration
NDIR non-dispersive infrared
NMD number median diameters
OPC optical particle counters
OT odor threshold
P percentile
PAS photoelectric aerosol sensor (or photoacoustic spectroscopy)
PAD photoacoustic detector
PCR polymerase chain reaction
POM particulate organic matter
PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
PID photoionization detector
PIXE particle-induced X-ray emission
PM particulate matter
PM2.5 suspended particulate matter (< 2.5 µm)
PM10 suspended particulate matter (< 10 µm)
PUF polyurethane foam
RH relative humidity
RI retention index
RSD relative standard deviation
RPM respirable particulate mass
RSP respirable suspended particulate
RT retention time
XVI List of Symbols and AbbreviationsSBS sick building syndrome
SD standard deviation
SEM scanning electron microscopy
SERA area-specific emission rate
SMPS scanning mobility particle sizer
VOC sum of volatile organic compounds
SIM single ion mode
SOA secondary organic aerosols
SVOC semi-volatile organic compounds
t time
T temperature
TDS thermal desorption
TEM transmission electron microscopy
TEOM tapered element oscillating microbalance
TIC total ion chromatogram
TNF tumor necrosis factor
TSP total suspended particles
TVOC total volatile organic compounds
(use only as defined by ECA report no. 19!)
TLV threshold limit value
µm micrometer
µg microgram
V volume
VDI Verein Deutscher Ingenieure
VVOC very volatile organic compounds
WDXRF wavelength-dispersed X-ray fluorescence
XRF X-ray fluorescence
List of Symbols and Abbreviations XVII
Subject Index 437
Subject Index
A
accumulation mode 10, 200, 218, 253, 374
acoustic rhinometry 394, 397, 399
acrylic latex caulk 182
adhesive film effect 352, 353
adsorption/desorption property 145
adsorption effect
– PAH 147
– PCDD/PCDF 147
aerodynamic particle sizer
– time-of-flight 64
aerodynamic size 372
aerosol
– chemical composition 186
– production 179
– water-soluble product 187
aethalometer 61
agglomerates 75
airborne biological particles
– aseptic technique 127
– centrifugal sampler 127
– collection technique 127
– culture medium 127
– cyclone 127
– impactor 127
– sampling 127
airborne effect 353
airborne particles
– analysis 105
– sampling 50
– sampling inlet 50
– size distribution 5
air cleaner
– electronic air cleaner 277
– fiberglass 277
– polymeric material 277
air cleaning 293
air-conditioning 215, 218
air-conditioning system
– heating, ventilation, and
air-conditioning (HVAC) 275
air-exchange rate 36, 172, 174, 186, 191,
201, 258, 267, 367
air filter 219
airflow model
– AIRNET 325
– BREEZE 325
– COMIS 325
– CONTAM 325
– ESP 325
– NORMA 325
air freshener 177
air mixing 263, 269
air motion 265
air quality monitoring network 365
air quality standard 252
air speed 262
airway obstruction 389
aliphatic acid 159
ALK sampler 92
alkylphenol 160
allergen analyses 131
allergy symptom 370
D-terpinene 169
ambient air concentration 365
analysis of fibers
– quality assurance 235
– round robin test 236
Anderson impactor 127, 288
anthrax 133
antimicrobial 289
Arizona test dust 69, 71
asbestos
– amphibole 228
– bronchial carcinoma 241
– chrysotile 228
– health hazard 241
– mesothelioma 241
asbestos content
– material sample 234
asbestos fiber 225, 226
– concentration 237438 Subject Index
– determination 234
– EDXA spectra 233
– transmission electron microscopy 234
automated colorimetric analysis (AC)
– multi-species analysis 121
– photomultiplier tube 121
Autonomous Pathogen Detection System
133
B
Bacillus anthracis 133
background concentration 213
background house
– PM
10 315
– PM
2.5 315
bacterial toxin 129
beta attenuation 58
E-(1o3)-glucan 128, 132
E-(1o3)-d-glucan 389
bimodal size distribution 276
bioaerosol
– allergens 28
– animal dander 28
– bacteria 28
– beta-glucans 28
– cat allergen 38
– coagulation 38
– cockroaches 28
– endotoxins 28
– fungal spores 38
– fungi 28
– mites 28
– molds 28
– mycotoxins 28
– pollens 28, 38
– spores 38
– viruses 28
bioaerosol exposure model 292
bioaerosol monitoring 133
bioassay 128
biohazardous agent 134
biological contaminant 370
biological material
– Bacillus subtilis 287
– collection efficiency 288
– disinfection effect 291
– filtration 287
– rate constant 291 f.
biological particles 17, 126
– airborne biological particles 127
– allergenic potential 128
– E-(1o3)-glucan 128
– damp indoor conditions 127
– direct counting 130
– endotoxin 128
– image analysis 130
– immunotoxic potential 128
– microscopy 130
– natural source 127
– pro-inflammatory marker 128
– tumor necrosis factor 128
– wet surface 127
biological sources 276
biosensor 133
bioterrorism 133
biowarfare aerosol 292
bisphenol A 425
black magic dust
– air-exchange rate 345
– ambient air 352
– factors 354
– flow profile 349
– fogging 344, 347, 351
– inactive phenomenon 352
– microbiological influence 352
– nitrogen dioxide 344, 348
– PAH level 351
– particle size distribution 348
– PM
10 344, 349
– questionnaire 340, 341
– SEM analysis 351
– semi-volatile organic compound 347,
348
– swab sample 345
– temperature differences 352
– thermographic investigations 345, 349
– TVOC 347
– volatile organic compound 344
– wipe sample 345
black smoke 302, 303
black soot phenomenon 340
blinking rate 396
blue haze 167
body perceptions 401
BRM vacuum sampler 93
Brownian diffusion 264
building envelope 31, 309, 380
building-related illness 127
C
cadmium 412, 414, 416
CALINE4 308
carbaryl 421
carcinogenic potential
– asbestos fiber 243
– ceramic fiber 243
– mineral fiber 243
carpet 88, 415Subject Index 439
Carpettester 93, 96
cascade impactor 376
cellular content 394
ceramic fiber 227
charcoal stove 215
charger-electrometer combination
– corona discharge 73
chemical markers of microbial biomass
– ergosterol 131
– 3-hydroxy fatty acid 131
– muramic acid 131
chemical reaction 167, 372
chlordane 412, 421
chlorpyrifos 420, 421
chromatography 119
chronic exposure model 381
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
(COPD) 378
CIAR study 247, 249
cigarettes 245, 253
cigars 245, 253
cigarette smoking 208, 213
clean-air delivery rate (CADR) 267
cleaning 27, 183, 196, 214
climate chamber studies 387
clothes washing 204
coagulation 30, 258, 259, 265
coarse mode 10
coarse particle 8, 218, 373
Collison nebulizer 288
colony-forming units (CFU) 28
colorimetry 119
– automated colorimetric analysis (AC)
121
combustion 15, 258, 327
– aerosol 38
– coal 18
– diesel 18
– ETS 18
– petrol 18
– source 213, 214
computational fluid dynamics (CFD) 326
condensation 259
condensation particle counter (CPC) 61
condensed-phase product 186
control
– emission 266
– measures 266
convection transport 297
convective transport 309
cooking 15, 183, 191, 196, 209, 214
copper 412, 416
coughing 397
count median diameter 256
cubic cells in tear liquid 400
cuboidal cells 394
culturing methods
– bacteria 129
– fungi 129
– growth condition 130
– incubation 130
– medium 130
cut-off size 128
D
Danish town hall study 389
daytime (source) periods 374
DDE 421
DDT 412, 420, 421
dendrites 20, 279
deposition
– coefficient 219
– loss 200, 214
– loss rate 33
– rate 32, 34, 35, 196, 200, 367
– surface 258, 268
deposits
– black magic dust 340
diacyl peroxide 169
diazinon 421
dibutylphthalate 423
diesel emission 297, 301
– particle 302
– tracer 302
di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) 423
differential mobility analyzer (DMA) 65
differential mobility particle sizers (DMPS)
66
diffusion charging sensor (DC) 74
diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) 20
diffusion-limited cluster aggregation
(DLCA) 20
dispersion 301
– air mixing 263
– function of distance 306
– gradient 306
– model 306
distribution of pollutants 409
diurnal variation 208
d-limonene 170
draught 397
dust 9
dustdetector 93, 98
dust-fall method
– adhesive label 100
– dry beaker 99
– glass plate 99
– plastic plate 99440 Subject Index
– polystyrene cup 99
dust spot efficiency 284
DustTrak 199
duty cycle 276
DVM (dust vacuum method) 94
E
ECORISK model 40
EDXA see energy dispersive X-ray
microanalysis
effective penetration efficiency 37, 200
electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) 63
electrical mobility measurement 65
electron bombardment 105
electron microscopy (EM) 105
– advantage 115
– disadvantage 115
– sequential screening 116
– unsuspected elements 116
electron probe X-ray microanalysis
(EPXMA) 105
electronic air cleaner
– corona discharge 281
– diffusional charging 280
– silicone compound 281
electrostatic filter 279
element analysis 120, 124
ELPI see electrical low-pressure impactor
EL sampler 97
emission control 267
emission factor 26, 327
– cigarettes 253, 254, 256
– cigars 253, 255, 257
– ETS 268
emission rate 26, 27, 37
– ETS particle 268
emission sources
– candles 27
– cigarette smoking 37
– cleaning 25, 27
– cooking 25, 27, 37
– incense 27
– incense sticks 27
– mosquito coil 27
– smoking 25, 27
– VCM (Vacuum Cleaner Motor) 27
endocrine disruptors 425
endotoxin 25, 128, 132, 389
energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) 105
energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence
(EDXRF) 125
energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis
(EDXA) 231
entrapment 372
environmental protection agency 252
environmental risk 407
environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) 204,
327
– analysis 153
– benzo[a]pyrene 259
– chemical composition 252, 259, 260,
261
– components 154
– concentration level 155
– deposition 245
– dispersion 245
– dynamic behaviour 262
– emission factor 252
– exposure 245, 266
– extraction 153
– field studies 246
– health effect 155, 252
– in offices 246
– material-balance modelling 246
– nicotine 259
– nitrosamines 259
– PAH 259
– particle deposition rates 265
– pyridine 259
– reactions with ozone 262
– residence 246
– sampling 153
– semi-volatile organic compound 259
– size distribution 252
– sorption 245
– transport 266
epidemiological study 187, 365, 380
epiphaniometer 74
epithelial
– cells 397
– damage 394, 400
equivalent diameter
– aerodynamic 12
– diffusion 12
– light-scattering 12
– mass equivalent 12
ERDA study 192
ETS see environmental tobacco smoke
ETS studies
– Arizona 246, 248
– Australia 249
– China 251
– Czech Republic 249
– Finland 246, 251
– France 249
– Germany 248, 249
– Hong Kong 246, 249
– Italy 249Subject Index 441
– Lisbon 246
– Malaysia 248
– New Jersey 248
– Portugal 249
– Spain 249
– Sweden 249
– Switzerland 249
– Tennessee 246
evaporation 259, 265
EXPOLIS study 192, 195, 205, 209, 251,
376
exposure assessment 40
– central station 360
– gaseous co-pollutant 379
– microenvironment monitoring 360
– personal exposure monitoring
– PM
10 360
– PM
2.5 360
– volatile organic compound 379
extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) 25
extraction
– derivatization 148
– solvent extraction 148
– thermal desorption 148
eye redness 394, 399
F
FEV
1 399
fiber concentration 240
fiber dust
– analyzing processes 229
– asbestos fiber 226
– length-to-diameter ratio 225
– measurement 227
– mineral wool 226
fiber number concentration
– phase-contrast optical microscope 230
fibrous filters
– diffusion 278
– electrostatic attraction 278
– inertial deposition 278
– interception 278
field studies
– acoustic rhinometry 392
– bronchial sensitivity 393
– day care center offices 387
– eye examination in slit lamp 392
– eye sensitivity to CO2 392
– homes 387
– lung function 393
– mood scale rating 392
– nasal lavage 392
– questionnaire 393
– schools 387
– skin examination 392
– stability of performance 392
– tear liquid 393
– test for distraction 392
filtration efficiency 267
fine particles 8
fireplace 215
flame atomic absorption spectrometry
(FAAS) 121
flame retardants 158, 424
floor cleaner 175
floor dust
– cat allergen 403
– cultivable micro fungi 403
– desorbable VOC 403
– dog allergen 403
– dry residue 403
– endotoxins 403
– fiber content 403
– histamine basophilic leukocytes 403
– macromolecular organic compounds
(MOD) 403
– micro fungi 403
– mite allergen 403
– organic fraction 403
– size range 403
– water content 403
– water-soluble fraction 403
flow patterns 309
foam formation 397, 399
fog 9
fogging sampling 343
forced vital capacity 400
fractals 20
free radical reaction 179
fume 9
G
gas chromatography 148
gas heating 215
gasoline vapour 167
geographic information system (GIS) 364
geometric standard deviation 253, 256
German Environmental Surveys (GerES)
412
Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption
Spectrometry (GFAAS)
– contamination 122
– graphite tube 122
– ion analysis 122
– metal analysis 122
gravimetric measurement
– filter size 57
gravitational settling 264, 372442 Subject Index
H
Handheld Advanced Nucleic Acid Analyzer
(HANAA) 133
Harvard six-city study 192, 247
hayfever 394
headache 397
health effect 380
– asthmatic 389
– comfort 387
– complaint 387
– exposure 387
– lung function 389
– risk 40
– sedimented dust 389
– symptom 387
heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning
(HVAC) 275
– HVAC system 322
– UVGI lamps 290
– UV light 289
heavy head 397
HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter
– in-situ testing 286
– US Military Standard MIL-STD-282
286
heterogeneous reaction 181
high flow personal sampler (HFPS) 376
histamine 396
hormonally active properties 425
house dust 9
– analysis 40, 54
– biological composition 24
– cadmium 413
– carbaryl 421
– chemical composition 22
– chlordane 421
– chlorpyrifos 420, 421
– composition 408
– copper 413
– crude dust 417
– DDE 421
– DDT 420, 421
– deposition 35
– diazinon 421
– digestion 417
– evaluation 54
– exposure 396
– exposure assessment 6
– extraction of pollutants 54
– fraction 22
– heavy metal 418
– inorganic pollutant 418
– lead 413
– lindane 414, 420
– loss on ignition (LOI) 19
– methoxychlor 420, 421
– objective effect 396
– organophosphate 425
– organotin compound 427
– PAH 423
– passive sampling 417
– pentachlorophenol 6, 414, 418, 420
– permethrin 414, 420, 421
– pesticide 420
– pesticide content 415
– phenol 426
– phenylphenol 421
– phthalate 424
– piperonylbutoxide 414, 420
– polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 422
– propoxur 420, 421
– pyrethroids 22
– reference values 409
– regional/spatial variation 411
– sampling 53, 411, 416
– sieving 54, 417
– size distribution 19, 409
– SVOC 41
– temporal changes 412
– trace element 418
– vacuum cleaner 417
– zinc 413
house dust particles
– metals 368
– PAH 368
– pesticides 368
HPLC 148
human
– epithelial cell 133
– exposure 193
– exposure study 178
– response 132
humidity of the skin 397
HVAC see heating, ventilation, and
air-conditioning (HVAC)
hydrogen peroxide formation 173
hydroxyl radical 167, 169, 178, 179, 186
I
IAQ see indoor air quality
IAQ model
– air-exchange rate (ACH) 328
– air filtration 329
– airflow balance equation 333
– air mixing 329
– balance equation 321
– balance model 331
– classification 320Subject Index 443
– coagulation 330, 331
– commercial building with HVAC
system 332
– conservation of mass 319
– deposition 330
– deposition rate 330
– deposition velocity 330
– filtration efficiency 330
– improvement 335
– I/O ratio 328
– macromodels 321
– mass balance model 321
– mass conservation 322
– material balance model 322
– micromodels 321
– modelling approach 334
– modelling scenario 331
– multi-compartment model 321
– parameterization 326
– particle resuspension 328
– penetration factor 328
– removal mechanism 331
– residential building ventilated naturally
334
– residential building with HVAC system
333
– selection 320
– single-compartment 321, 331
– sink terms 322
– sources 327
– steady-state concentration 332
– steady-state model 331
– validation 320
– ventilation 328
immunoassays 131
immunological methods 131
immunological reaction 388
impactor 62
– multistage 63
– variable-pressure 64
incense burning 202, 203
indoor
– activity 371
– aerosol 167
– air quality (IAQ) 319
– chemistry 167
– combustion source 368
– concentration 370
– particle characteristic 190
– particle concentration modelling 319
– source 207, 218, 360, 366
– source strength 206
indoor chemistry and exposure model
(ICEM) 180
indoor to outdoor concentration ratio (I/O)
197, 214
– general trends 211
inductively coupled plasma atomic
emission (ICP/AES)
– argon gas plasma 123
– extraction method 123
inductively coupled plasma mass
spectrometry (ICP/MS)
– ultra-trace element 123
infiltration 37, 196, 199
infiltration factor 200, 205, 367, 372
inflammation 389, 402
inflammatory effect 388
inflammatory response 132
inhalation 39
inorganic fiber
– concentration 238
– synthetic 238
inorganic fibrous particles
– geometric dimension 232
– measurement 231
– sampling 231
– sampling head 232
– scanning electron microscope 231, 233
inorganic particles
– analysis 118
– filtration 118
institute of occupational medicine sampler
(IOM) 376
instrumental neutron activation analysis
(INAA)
– cellulose filter 123
– high volume samplers 123
intake 39
– settled dust 40
interleukin 133
ion analysis 122
I/O ratio see indoor to outdoor
concentration ratio
irritation 390, 397, 404
isothiazolinones 152
J
joint particle diameter 72
L
lead 412, 414, 416
leucocytes 394
light scattering
– calibration 71
– detection efficiency 67
– detection limit 71
– index of refraction 68444 Subject Index
– light source 69
– nephelometers 66
– photometers 66
– Poisson-like distribution 70
– scattering pattern 67
Limulus bioassay 132
lindane 420
linoleum 182
lognormal distribution 253, 258
longitudinal studies 378
loss on ignition (LOI) 23
– distribution 24
low-level exposure 387, 395
lung function 394
LWW sampler 97
lymphocytes 394
M
mammalian cell 132
man-made mineral fibers (MMMF) 227
man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF) 227
mass balance
– model 366
– modelling 202
mass concentration 171, 172, 178, 182
mass measurement 57, 76
– black carbon 61
– polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) 74
mass median diameter 253, 256, 258,
259
mean particle diameters 178
measurement of airborne particles 56 ff.
– airflow 51
– analysis 51
– calibration 53
– connectors 51
– in situ measurements 51
– sampling tubes 51
measurement of particles 49
mechanically ventilated buildings
– PM
2.5 215
mechanical ventilation 218
metal analysis 122
meteorological condition 299, 372
methoxychlor 420, 421
microbalance methods
– piezoelectric quartz 58
microbial fragments 128
microbial growth 128
microbial metabolism 128
microbial metabolite 129
microbial volatile organic compounds
(MVOC) 128
microenvironment exposure models 366
mineral fiber 225
mineral wool 226, 239
minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV)
286
mist 9
monitoring network
– NO
x 195
– ozone 195
– PM
10 195
monitoring station 208
mood scale 397, 404
motor vehicle emission 297, 327
– ash 298
– carbon 311
– coagulation 307
– concentration gradient 311
– concentration profile 299, 301, 310
– decrease in concentration 312
– dilution 307
– dispersion 299
– emission factor 300
– horizontal distribution 307
– hydrocarbon 311
– indoor concentration level 313
– large scale 300
– monoxide 311
– outdoor background 298
– PAH 298
– particle number concentration 308
– PM
10 303, 311
– PM
2.5 303, 311
– practical implication 308
– small scale 300
– soot 298
– spatial variation 301
– submicrometer particle 307, 312
– sulphate particles 298
– trace element 298
– TSP 311
– ultra-fine particles 300
– vehicle flow 300
– vertical profiles 310, 312
mouse macrophage 132
movement
– classroom 210
– general human activity 210
– people 196
multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) 390
multipollutant personal sampler 376
mycotoxin 129
N
nasal lavage 397, 399
nasal lavage sample 132Subject Index 445
national ambient air quality standard
(NAAQS) 359
national survey 408
naturally ventilated buildings
– indoor particle concentration 201
– I/O ratio 201
naturally ventilated homes 196
natural convection flow 264
Navier-Stokes 321
neurotoxic symptom 388
New York State study 247, 261
nicotine 262, 426
nightly average data 368
nighttime (non-source) periods 374
nonylphenol 425
no smoking section 264
nucleation 259
nuclei mode 9
number concentration measurement 61, 76
O
odor intensity 397
office building 218, 219
open street 311
optical particle counter (OPC) 61
optical sizing 66
organic compounds
– adsorption particles 143
– aliphatic acid 159
– alkylphenol 160
– D-terpinene 169
– analysis 145, 148
– diacyl peroxide 169
– d-limonene 170
– ETS 152
– flame retardants 158
– isothiazolinones 152
– PAH 152
– PCDD/PCDF 160
– pentachlorophenol 151
– pine oil 169
– plasticizer 156
– pyrethroids 151
– rate constant 174
– sampling 145
– sesquiterpenes 173
– terpene 170
organic dust 389
organic matter 409
organophosphates 424
organotin compound 426
outdoor air infiltration 368
outdoor particle
– background concentration 193
– characteristic 194
– monitoring station 194
outdoor source 371
ozone 167
ozone/alkene reaction 184
ozone concentration 170
ozone indoor sources
– air purifier 168
– electrostatic filter 168
– photocopier 168
ozone/limonene reaction 173
– chamber study 176–
– hydrogen peroxide 174
– relative humidity 176
– submicron particle 174
ozone reaction
– acrolein 175
– formaldehyde 175
– glyoxal 175
– H
2O2 175
– methyl glyoxal 175
– nonanal 175
ozone/terpene reaction 169, 177, 186
– carboxylic acid 185
– diacyl peroxide 186
– organic hydroperoxide 185
– oxidized compound 185
– ozonide 185
– peroxy hemiacetal 185
– products 185
ozone/VOC reaction
– chamber study 178
P
PAH 422
– concentration level 155
– health effects 155
– mass measurement 75
– particle-bound 75
– sampling extraction analysis 154
PAN study 394
particle characteristic
– concentration level 193
– size distribution 193
particle classification
– extrathoracic fraction 10
– inhalable fraction 10
– particle source 8
– particle properties 11
– region of deposition in the lung 10
– respirable fraction 10
– size 8
– terminology 7
– thoracic fraction 10446 Subject Index
particle concentration
– average 202
– baking 203
– cigarette smoking 203
– cooking 203
– dusting 203
– frying 203
– incense burning 202
– sautéing 203
– short-term 202
– toasting 203
particle concentration profile
– distance from a road 304
– field studies 305
– fine aerosols 305
– mass concentration 304
– spatial variation 305
particle count 170, 171
particle deposition
– deposition rate 32
– diffusion 32
– flux 32
– respiratory tract 39
– sedimentation 32
– surface charge 32
– velocity 33, 36
particle filter 266
particle filtration 266
particle formation mechanism 258
particle generation 15
particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE)
– energetic ion 126
– heavy metal 126
– impactor sample 126
– wavelength dispersion 126
particle infiltration 32
particle inhomogeneity 70
particle loss rate 30
particle mass concentration 8
particle size
– count median diameter (CMD) 14
– log-normal size distribution 14
– mass median aerodynamic diameter
(MMAD) 14
– mass median diameter (MMD) 14
– number median diameter (NMD) 14
– number size distribution 15, 183
– size distribution 13, 172, 174, 199, 315
– –effect of indoor sources 211
– surface distribution 15
– volume distribution 15
particle surface area 72
particle transport
– coagulation 29
– condensation 29
– deposition 29
– evaporation 29
particle volume 171
particulate constituent 184
particulate matter (PM) 359
– chemical properties 21
– definition 9
– fractal structure 20
– physical properties 11
– shape 12
– sources 4
particulate organic matter (POM) 407
partition coefficient 144 ff.
passive sampling 344
PCDD/PCDF 160
peak expiratory flow 400
peak-hour traffic 314
penetration
– coefficient 31, 32
– efficiency 367
– factor 31, 32, 36, 196
pentachlorophenol (PCP) 151, 412, 420
– probability plot 410
perceived exposure 400
permethrin 420, 421
– carpet 415
– frequency distribution 415
personal cascade impactor sampler (PCIS)
376
personal cloud 191
personal exposure 194, 359
– active smoker 378
– assessment studies 377
– chemical composition 377
– cooking 381
– dusting 381
– environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) 380
– monitoring 374
– non-smoker 378
– particle size 377
– personal exposure monitor (PEM) 375
– sampler 375
– sweeping activities 381
personal monitoring 365
perspiration 397
pesticide
– air sampling 150
– building product 150
– carbamates 419
– chlorophenol 419
– dust sampling 150
– occurrence 149
– organochlorine 419Subject Index 447
– organophosphorus 419
– pest control 149
– pyrethroids 419
– treated consumer good 149
P-FLEC 95
phenylphenol 421
photoelectric aerosol sensor (PAS) 75
phthalate 423
pine-oil 169, 183
piperonylbutoxide 420
plaque-forming units (PFU) 28
plasticizer 156, 352, 423, 424
PM dosimetry 365
PM size distribution 364
PM
10 17, 197, 205
see also particle mass concentration
– classroom 216
– domestic residence 216
– exposure 207
– I/O ratio 199
– restaurant 216
– shopping mall 216
PM
2.5 17, 197, 205
see also particle mass concentration
– classroom 216
– exposure 207
– hospital 217
– I/O ratio 197, 206
– regulations 276
– school 216
pollutant transport 264
polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE)
427
polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 421
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 132
population exposure 360
– annual arithmetic mean (AAM) 361
– annual average of quarters 361
– annual geometric mean (AGM) 361
– expected peak day concentration (EPDC)
361
population-weighted exposure
– health consequence 364
portable air cleaners 266
predicted particle concentration 181
predictive modelling
– chamber study 179
probability sampling design 377
probability-selected population 191
pro-inflammatory marker 128
propoxur 420, 421
proximity house 314
– PM
10 315
– PM
2.5 315
PTEAM study 27, 31, 192, 196, 247, 261
pyrethroids 151
Q
quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) 59
questionnaires 391
R
radon 11
rate constant 174
real-time measurement 191
reference values 418, 427
– classification 419
– unexposed population 410
respirable asbestos fiber
– scanning electron microscope 230
respirable fiber
– light-optical microscope 228
respirable particles 143
respiration 388
respiratory illness 389
respiratory infection 370
respiratory protection 266
respiratory tract 175, 187, 252, 258
restriction on smoking 266
resuspension
– settled dust 35
– submicrometer particles 35
resuspension rate 36
Reuter centrifugal sampler 127
risk assessment 240, 427
road dust 303
S
sampler
– high flow personal sampler (HFPS) 376
– multipollutant personal sampler 376
– personal cascade impactor sampler
(PCIS) 376
sampling 84 ff.
– adhesive 98
– adhesive foil 84
– annular denuder 147
– appropriate fraction 147
– collection 85
– dust-fall method 99
– filter disc 147
– house dust 147
– lead 93
– nozzle 93
– pesticides 93
– removal 85
– removal efficiency 84
– sampling nozzle 87448 Subject Index
– spot size 88
– strategy 87
– Tenax TA 147
– transport 85
– transport property 88
– vacuuming 84, 87
– wiping 84, 87, 96
sampling nozzle
– area 94
– carpet dust 94
– pressure 94
– pump 94
– sampling 94
sampling technique 49
saturation vapour pressure 144 ff.
scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
105, 112
– carbon tapes 114
– charging 114
– coating material 114
– drum-like mounting 113
– electron filaments 114
– epoxy resin 113
– field emission 114
– pin stub 113
– polyurethane foams 114
– scattered electrons 114
– sticky tapes 114
scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS)
66, 177
secondary organic aerosol (SOA) 146,
167, 172, 173, 186
secondary particle formation 265
segregation 267
self-nucleation 180
SEM see scanning electron microscopy
semi-volatile organic compound (SVOC)
144, 253, 353, 407
sensory effect
– Nervous Trigeminus 388
– odor 388
– perceived poor air quality 388
– sensory irritation 388
sesquiterpenes 173
settled house dust 145
sick building syndrome (SBS) 390
single compartment model
– cross-ventilation 324
– exfiltration 324
– infiltration 324
– infiltration flow rate 323
– volumetric flow rate 323
size distribution 256
size distribution measurement 62, 76
size-specific volume concentration 367
skin
– humidity 398
– temperature 397, 399
sleepiness 397
smog 9
smoke 9
smoking 191
sorption processes 143
source
– apportionment 25
– signature 25 f.
– strength 367
south-eastern Brazil indoor air quality
study (SEBIAQS) 215
spatial distribution 194, 195
spatial variability 194
spectrometry
– flame atomic absorption spectrometry
(FAAS) 119
– graphite furnace atomic absorption
spectrometry (GFAAS) 119
– inductively coupled plasma – atomic
emission spectrometry (ICP/AES) 119
– inductively coupled plasma – mass
spectrometry (ICP/MS) 119
– neutron activation analysis (INAA) 119
– particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE)
119
– X-ray fluorescence (XRF) 119
squamous cells 394
steady-state condition 36
STEPP tester 96
STØV91 study 391
STØV-II study 394
street canyon 309, 311
submicrometer particle 204, 302
– source 213
sub-micron particle 181
sudden black dust deposits 342
supermicrometer particle 210
surface dust 82 ff.
– degradation 84
– deposition 85
– deposition rate 84
– deposition velocity 84
– instrument 92
– memory 89
– recovery efficiency 92
– redistribution 84
– removal efficiency 89, 92
– resuspension 84, 85, 88
– sampling 85, 92
– sampling efficiency 89, 100Subject Index 449
– sampling position 86, 88
– simulation of condition 100
– surface compartment 83
– surface contaminant 82
– track-in 83
– tracking 85
– transfer 84
– transport 89, 100
– transport process 82, 83
– vacuum cleaners 92
– visibility 86
– visual assessment 86
– visual impression 82
– visual perception 82
surface measurement 74, 76
surface reaction 181, 183
surface sampler
– BRM vacuum sampler 93
– Carpettester 93
– HVS3 93
– P-FLEC 95
surrogate surface 99
swab sample 343
synthetic mineral fibers (SMF) 227
– health hazard 242
synthetic vitreous fibers (SVF) 227
T
tapered element oscillating microbalance
mass detector (TEOM) 59
tear film stability 389, 396, 397, 403
tear liquids 396
– neutrophil granulocytes 400
TEM see transmission electron
microscopy
TEOM see tapered element oscillating
microbalance mass detector
terpene 167, 170, 173
terpene indoor sources
– cleaning product 168
– solvent 168
– terpene 168
– wood-containing material 168
thermal bridges 353
thermography 345
thermophoresis 100
THP-1 monocytic cell line 133
throat irritation 397
time-activity profile 364
total suspended particles (TSP) 8, 68, 359
tracer gas mixing 263
transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
– chemical analysis 106
– contaminating elements 107
– dry preparation method 106
– mesh size 108
– particle aggregation 107
– particle suspension 106
– pioloform film 109
– polycarbonate filter 107
– sterile technique 106
– supporting film 106
– TEM grid 108
– ultrasonication 107
transport model 325
tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP) 424
tumor necrosis factor 128
U
ULPA (Ultra Low Penetration Air) filter
– IEST RP-7 286
ultra-fine particle 8, 183, 184, 187, 217,
302, 303, 374
– chamber study 177
ultra-fine particle counter 175
urban traffic 302, 304
V
vacuum cleaner bag 408
VacuuMark sampler 92
vacuuming 204
vapor pressure 262, 265
ventilation 172, 252, 267, 269
ventilation filter test standard
– ASHARE standard 52.1 282
– ASHARE standard 52.2 282
– KCl aerosol challenge 283
– loading dust removal 282
ventilation rate 219
vertical mixing 310
very volatile organic compound (VVOC)
407
visual analogue scales 391
volatile organic compound (VOC) 178,
388, 407
W
water-soluble ions
– colorimetric technique 121
– ion chromatography 119
– ion-exchange resin 121
– phase 121
– teflon filters 119
wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence
(WDXRF) 125
wipe sample 343
wiping 84, 96
– collection capacity 97450 Subject Index
– manual 97
– polyurethane foam (PUF) 97
– pressure 97
– PUF roller 98
X
X-ray elemental mapping
– digital mapping 110
– dwell time 110
– electron image 112
– multi-element capability 112
– pixel 110
– probe dwell 110
– spatial resolution 115
– topography 112
X-ray fluorescence (SRF)
– energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence
(EDXRF) 125
– nucleopore filter 125
– wavelength dispersive X-ray
fluorescence (WDXRF) 125
X-ray microanalysis 105
– background 109
– detector system 109
– electron beam 110
– magnification 109
– peak 109
– probe current 109
– spectral interpretation 109
Y
Yeast 131
Yersinia pestis 133
Z
zinc 414, 416
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