A Textbook of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

A Textbook of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
اسم المؤلف
R.S. KHURMI, J.K. GUPTA
التاريخ
18 مارس 2019
المشاهدات
1٬824
التقييم
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A Textbook of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
[For the Students of B.E.; UPSC (Engg. Services) UPSC (Civil Services); Section *B’ of AMIE (India) and Diploma Courses]
(S.l. UNITS)
R.S. KHURMI, J.K. GUPTA
Contents
( h.tplvr No. Pages
t Introduction 1-37
1.1 Definition
1.2 Fundamental Units
1.3 Derived Units
1.4 System of Units
1.5 S.l. Units (International System of Units)
1.6 Metre
1.7 Kilogram
1.8 Second
1.9 Kelvin
1.10 Presentation of Units and their Values
1.11 Rules for S.l. Units
1.12 Mass and Weight
1.13 Force
1.14 Absolute and Gravitational Units of Force
1.15 Thermodynamic Systems
1.16 Properties of a System
1.17 State of a System
1.18 Temperature
1.19 Absolute Temperature
1.20 Thermodynamic Equilibrium
1.21 Equality of Temperature
1.22 Pressure
1.23 Gauge Pressure and Absolute Pressure
1.24 Normal Temperature and Pressure (N.T P.)
1.25 Standard Temperature and Pressure (S.T.P.)
1.26 Energy
1.27 Types of Stored Energy
1.28 Heat
1.29 Sensible Heat
1.30 Latent Heat
1.31 Specific Heat
1.32 Mechanical Equivalent of Heat
1.33 Work
(v)1.34 Heat and Work – A Path Function ‘6
1.35 Comparison of Heat and Work 17
1.36 Power ‘ 7
1.37 Laws of Thermodynamics 18
1.38 Perfect Gas 19
1.39 Laws of Perfect Gases 19
1.40 General Gas Equation 20
1.41 Joule’s Law 21
1.42 Characteristic Equation of a Gas 2 1
1.43 Specific Heats of a Gas 21
1.44 Enthalpy of a Gas 23
1.45 Ratio of Specific Heats 23
1.46 Entropy 24
1.47 Thermodynamic Processes 25
1.48 Work done During a Non-flow Process 26
1.49 Application of First Law of Thermodynamics to a Non-flow Process 27
1.50 Classification of Non-flow Processes 27
1.51 Thermodynamic Cycle 33
1.52 Reversibility and Irreversibility of Thermodynamic Processes 35
1.53 Flow Processes 35
1.54 Application of First Law of Thermodynamics to a Steady Flow Process 36
2. Air Refrigeration Cycles 38-76
2.1 Introduction 38
2.2 Units of Refrigeration 39
2.3 Coefficient of Performance of a Refrigerator 39
2.4 Difference Between a Heat Engine, Refrigerator and Heat Pump • 40
2.5 Open Air Refrigeration Cycle 41
2.6 Closed or Dense Air Refrigeration Cycle 41
2.7 Air Refrigerator Working on Reversed Carnot Cycle 41
2.8 Temperature Limitations for Reversed Carnot Cycle 43
2.9 Air Refrigerator Working on a Bell-Coleman Cycle (or Reversed Brayton or Joule Cycle) 51
3. Air Refrigeration Systems 77-124
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Merits and Demerits of Air Refrigeration System 78
3.3 Methods of Air Refrigeration Systems 78
3.4 Simple Air Cooling System 78
3.5 Simple Air Evaporative Cooling system 98
3.6 Boot-strap Air Cooling System 102
3.7 Boot-strap Air Evaporative Cooling System 105
3.8 Reduced Ambient Air Cooling System 109
3.9 Regenerative Air Cooling System 116
3.10 Comparison of Various Air Cooling Systems used for Aircraft 120
(vi)4. Simple Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems 125-193
4.1 Introduction 125
4.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Vapour Compression Refrigeration
System over Air Refrigeration System 126
4.3 Mechanism of a Simple Vapour Compression Refrigeration System 126
4.4 Pressure – Enthalpy (p-h) Chart 127
4.5 Types of Vapour Compression Cycles 128
4.6 Theoretical Vapour Compression Cycle with Dry Saturated Vapour after Compression 128
4.8 4.7 Theoretical Theoretical Vapour Vapour Compression Compression Cycle Cycle with with Superheated Wet Vapour after Vapour Compression after Compression ‘1 5’47
4.9 Theoretical Vapour Compression Cycle with Superheated Vapour before Compression ; 1
4.10 Theoretical Vapour Compression Cy< Ie with Under-coiding or Subcooling of
Refrigerant 147
4.11 Actual Vapour Compression Cycle 173
4.12 Effect of Suction Pressure 175
4.13 Effect of Discharge Pressure 175
4.14 Improvements in Simple Saturation Cycle 1’8
4.15 Simple Saturation Cycle with Flash Chamber 1 78
4.16 Simple Saturation Cycle with Accumulator or Pre-cooler 180
4.17 Simple Saturation Cycle with Sub-cooling of Liquid Refrigerant by Vapour Refrigerant 18 1
4.18 Simple Saturation Cycle with Sub-cooling of Liquid Refrigerant by Liquid Refrigerant 1 86
5. Compound Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems 194- 233
5.1 Introduction 194
5.2 Advantages of Compound (or Multi-stage) Vapour Compression with Intercooler 195
5.3 Types of Compound Vapour Compression with Intercooler 195
5.4 Two Stage Compression with Liquid Intercooler 196
5.5 Two Stage Compression with Water Intercooler and Liquid Sub-cooler 201
5.6 Two Stage Compression with Water Intercooler, Liquid Sul>cooler and Liquid
FlashChamber
5.7 Two Stage Compression with Water Intercooler, Liquid Sub-cooler and Flash
Intercooler 2 11
5.8 Three Stage Compression with Water Intercoolers 216
5.9 Three Stage Compression with Flash Chambers 219
5.10 Three Stage Compression with Flash Intercoolers 223
5.11 Three Stage Compression with Multiple Expansion Valves and Flash Intercoolers 227
6. Multiple Evaporator and Compressor Systems 234-272
6.1 Introduction 234
6.2 Types of Multiple Evaporator and Compressor Systems
6.3 Multiple Evaporators at the Same Temperature with Single Compressor and
Expansion Valve
6.4 Multiple Evaporators at Different Temperatures with Single Compressor.
Individual Expansion Valves and Back Pressure Valves
tviii6.5 Multiple Evaporators at Different Temperatures with Single Compressor,
MultipleExpansion Valves and Back Pressure Valves
6 6 Multiple Evaporators at Different Temperatures with Individual
Compressors and Individual Expansion Valves
6.7 Multiple Evaporators at Different Tem|>eratures w ith Individual
Compressors andMultiple Expansion Valves
6.8 Multiple Evaporators at Different Temperatures with
Compound Compression and Individual Expansion Valves
6.9 Multiple Evaporators al Different Temperatures with Compound
Compression, Individual Expansion Valves and Flash Intercoolers
6.10 Multiple Evaporators at Different Temperatures w ith Compound
Compression.Multiple Expansion Valves and Flash Intercoolers
7. Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Systems 273- 293
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Simple Vapour Absorption System
7.3 Practical Vapour Absorption System
7.4 Thermodynamic. Requirements of Refrigerant-Absorbent Mixture
7.5 Properties of Ideal Refrigerant Absorbent Combination
7.6 Comparison of Refrigerant-Liquid Absorbent Combination isay NH. – water)
with Refrigerant Solid Absorbent – Combinationtsay NH, – CaCI >
7.7 Advantages of Vajxiur Absorption Refrigeration Sxstem over Vapour
Compression Refrigeration System
7.8 Coefficient of Performance of an Ideal Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System
7.9 Domestic Electrolux (Ammonia Hydrogen) Refrigerator 28 .
7.10 Lithium Bromide Absorption Refrigeration System 2«*
8. Refrigerants 294-315
8.1 Introduction 294
8.2 Desirable Properties of an Ideal Refrigerant 295
8.3 Classification of Refrigerants 295
8.4 Halocarbon Refrigerants 295
8.5 Azeotrope Refrigerants 299
8.6 Inorganic Refrigerants <0 1
8.7 Hydro-carbon Refrigerants 302
8.8 Designation System for Refrigerants 303
8.9 Substitutes for Chloro-Fluro-Carbon (CFC) Refrigerants <04
8.10 Comparison of Refrigerants <05
8.11 Thermodynamic Properties of Refrigerants 306
8.12 Chemical Properties of Refrigerants 309
8.13 Physical Properties of Refrigerants
8.14 Secondary Refrigerants Brines9. Refrigerant Compressors 316-357
9.1 Introduction 316
9.2 Classification of Compressors 317
9.3 Important Terms 317
9.4 Reciprocating Compressors 318
9.5 Work Done by a Single Stage Reciprocating Compressor h i
9.6 Work Done by a Single Stage, Single Acting Reciprocating
Compressor without Clearance Volume
9.7 Power Required to Drive a Single Stage Reciprocating Compressor
9.8 Work Done by a Reciprocating Compressor with Clearance Volume
9.9 Volumetric Efficiency of a Reciprocating Compressor
9.10 Factors Effecting Volumetric Efficiency of a Reciprocating Compressor
9 11 Overall or Total Volumetric Efficiency of a Reciprocating Compressor
9 12 Multi-stage Compression
9.1 3 Advantages of Multi-stage Compression
9 14 Two Stage Reciprocating Compressor with Intercooler
9. 1 5 Assumptions in Two Stage Compression with Intercooler
9 16 Intercooling of Refrigerant in a Two Stage Reciprocating Compressor
9 1 7 Work Done by a Two Stage Reciprocating Compressor with Intercooler
9.18 Minimum Work Required for a Two Stage Reciprocating Compressor
9 19 Performance Characteristics of Refrigerant Reciprocating Compressor
9.20 Hermetic Sealed Compressors
9.2 1 Rotary’ Compressors
9 22 Centrifugal Compressors
9.23 Advantages and Disadvantages of Centrifugal Compressors over
Reciprocating Compressors 350
9.24 Capacity Control of Compressors 351
9.25 Capacity Control for Reciprocating Compressors 351
9.26 Capacity Control of Centrifugal Compressors 352
9.27 Comparison of Performance of Reciprocating and Centrifugal Compressors 354
10. Condensers 356- 375
10.1 Introduction 358
10.2 Working of a Condenser 359
10.3 Factors Affecting the Condenser Capacity 360
10.4 Heat Rejection Factor 360
10.5 Classification of Condensers 360
10.6 Air Cooled Condensers 361
10.7 Types of Air Cooled Condensers 362
10.8 Water Cooled Condensers 362
10.9 Types of Water Cooled Condensers 363
10.10 Comparison of Air Cooled and Water Cooled Condensers 165
10.11 Fouling Factor 366
10.12 Heat Transfer in Condensers 366
10.13 Condensing Heat Transfer Coefficient 368
10.14 Air-side Coefficient 369
fix)10.15 Water-side Coefficient
10.16 Finned Tubes
10.17 Evaporative Condensers
10.18 Cooling Towers and Spray Ponds
10.19 Capacity of Cooling Towers and Spray Ponds
10.20 Types of Cooling Towers
10.21 Natural Draft Cooling Towers
10.22 Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers
10.23 Forced Draft Cooling Towers
10.24 Induced Draft Cooling Towers
It Evaporators
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Working of an Evaporator
11.3 Capacity of an Evaporator
11.4 Factors Affecting the Heat Transfer Capacity of an Evaporator
11.5 Heat Transfer in Evaporators
1 1.6 Heat Transfer During Boiling
11.7 Heat Transfer Coefficient for Nucleate Pool Boiling
1 1.8 Fluid Side Heat Transfer Coefficient
11.9 Types of Evaporators
11.10 Bare Tube Coil Evaporators
11.11 Finned Evaporators
11.12 Plate Evaporators
11.13 Shell and Tube Evaporators
11.14 Shell and Coil Evaporators
11.15 Tube-in-Tube or Double Tube Evaporators
11.16 Flooded Evaporators
11.17 Dry Expansion Evaporators
11.18 Natural Convection Evaporators
11.19 Forced Convection Evaporators
11.20 Frosting Evaporators
11.21 Non-frosting Evaporators
11.22 Defrosting Evaporators
11.23 Methods of Defrosting an Evaporator
11.24 Manual Defrosting Method
11.25 Pressure Control Defrosting Method
11.26 Temperature Control Defrosting Method
11.27 Water Defrosting Method
11.28 Reverse Cycle Defrosting Method
11.29 Simple Hot Gas Defrosting Method
11.30 Automatic Hot Gas Defrosting Method
11.31 Thermobank Defrosting Method
11.32 Electric Defrosting Method
(x)12. Expansion Devices 398-407
12.1 Introduction 398
12.2 Types of Expansion Devices 399
12.3 Capillary Tube
12.4 Hand-operated Expansion Valve 4(H)
12.5 Automatic (or Constant Pressure) Expansion Valve 401
12.6 Thermostatic Expansion Valve 402
12.7 Low-side Float Valve 404
12.8 High-side Float Valve 405
13. Food Preservation 408- 421
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Advantages of Food Preservation 409
13.3 Causes of Food Spoilage 409
13.4 Methods of Food Preservation 411
13.5 Food Preservation by Refrigeration 413
13.6 Domestic Refrigerators for Food Preservation 413
13.7 Commercial Refrigerators for Food Preservation 413
13.8 Cold Storages for Food Preservation 414
13.9 Frozen Storages for Food Preservation 416
13.10 Methods of Food Freezing 417
14. Low Temperature Refrigeration (Cryogenics) 422- 449
14.1 Introduction 422
14.2 Limitations of Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems for
Production of Low Temperature 423
14.3 Cascade Refrigeration System 424
14.4 Coefficient of Performance of a Two Stage Cascade System 426
14.5 Solid Carbon Dioxide or Dry Ice 430
14.6 Manufacture of Solid Carbon Dioxide or Dry Ice 430
14.7 Liquefaction of Gases 435
14.8 Linde System for Liquefaction of Air 438
14.9 Claude System for Liquefaction of Air 441
14.10 Advantages of Claude System over Linde System 443
14.11 Liquefaction of Hydrogen 444
14.12 Liquefaction of Helium 445
14.13 Production of Low Temperature by Adiabatic Demagnetisation of a Paramagnetic Salt 446
15. Steam Jet Refrigeration System 450-4M
15.1 Introduction 450
15.2 Principle of Steam Jet Refrigeration System 451
15.3 Water as a Refrigerant 451
15.4 Working of Steam Jet Refrigeration System 452
15.5 Steam Ejector 4)2
Analysis of Steam jet Refrigeration System
Efficiencies used in Steam Jet Refrigeration System
Mass of Motive Steam Required
Advantages and Disadvantages of Steam Jet Refrigeration System
16. Psychrometry i167-533
16.1 Introduction 467
16.2 Psychrometric Terms 468
16.3 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures 470
16.4 Psychrometric Relations 470
16.5 Enthalpy (Total heat) of Moist Air 474
16.6 Thermodynamic Wet Bulb Temperature or Adiabatic Saturation Temperature 481
16.7 Psychrometric Chart 484
16.8 Psychrometric Processes 488
16.9 Sensible Heating 488
16.10 Sensible Cooling 489
16.11 By-pass Factor of Heating and Cooling Coil 490
16.12 Efficiency of Heating and Cooling Coils 492
16.13 Humidification and Dehumidification 498
16.14 Methods of Obtaining Humidification and Dehumidification 499
16.15 Sensible Heat Factor 500
16.16 Cooling and Dehumidification 500
16.17 Cooling with Adiabatic Humidification 506
16.18 Cooling and Humidification by Water Injection (Evaporative Cooling) 507
16.19 Heating and Humidification 512
16.20 Heating and Humidification by Steam Injection 513
16.21 Heating and Dehumidification -Adiabatic Chemical Dehumidification 520
16.22 Adiabatic Mixing of Two Air Streams 524
17. Comfort Conditions !134-543
17.1 Introduction 534
17.2 Thermal Exchanges of Body with Environment 535
17.3 Physiological Hazards Resulting from Heat 537
17.4 Factors Affecting Human Comfort 538
17.5 Effective Temperature 538
17.6 Modified Comfort Chart 540
17.7 Heat Production and Regulation in Human Body 540
17.8 Heat and Moisture Losses from the Human Body 542
17.9 Moisture Content of Air 542
17.10 Quality and Quantity of Air 543
17.11 Air Motion 543
17.12 Cold and Hot Surfaces 543
17.13 Air Stratification 544
17.14 Factors Affecting Optimum Effective Temperature 544
17.15 Inside Summer Design Conditions 545
17.16 Outside Summer Design Conditions 546
(xii)18. Air Conditioning Systems 549- 596
18.1 Introduction 549
18.2 Factors Affecting Comfort Air Conditioning 549
18.3 Air Conditioning System 550
18.4 Equipments Used in an Air Conditioning System 550
18.5 Classification of Air Conditioning Systems 550
18.6 Comfort Air Conditioning System 551
18.7 Industrial Air Conditioning System 552
18.8 Winter Air Conditioning System 553
18.9 Summer Air Conditioning System 555
18.10 Year-Round Air Conditioning System 561
18.11 Unitary Air Conditioning System 561
18.12 Central Air Conditioning System 561
18.13 Room Sensible Heat Factor 565
18.14 Grand Sensible Heat Factor 567
18.15 Effective Room Sensible Heat Factor 568
19. Cooling Load Estimation 597- 640
19.1 Introduction 597
19.2 Components of a Cooling Load 598
19.3 Sensible Heat Gain through Building Structure by Conduction 599
19.4 Heat Gain from Solar Radiation 603
19.5 Solar Heat Cain (Sensible) through Outside Walls and Roofs 603
19.6 Sol Air Temperature 606
19.7 Solar Heat Gain through Glass Areas 607
19.8 Heat Gain due to Infiltration 607
19.9 Heat Gain due to Ventilation 610
19.10 Heat Gain from Occupants 610
19.11 Heat Gain from Appliances 611
19.12 Heat Gain from Products 612
19.13 Heat Gain from Lighting Equipments 615
19.14 Heat Gain from Power Equipments 615
19.15 Heat Gain through Ducts 6 16
20. Ducts 641-898
20.1 Introduction 641
20.2 Classification of Ducts 642
20.3 Duct Material 642
20.4 Duct Construction 643
20.5 Duct Shape 644
20.6 Pressure in Ducts 644
20.7 Continuity Equation for Ducts 645
20.8 Bernoulli’s Equation for Ducts 646
20.9 Pressure Losses in Ducts 649
20.10 Pressure Loss due to Friction in Ducts 649
20.11 Friction Factor for Ducts 650
20.12 Equivalent Diameter of a Circular Duct for a Rectangular Duct 654
(xiii)20.13 Friction Chart for Circular Ducts 664
20.14 Dynamic Losses in Ducts 666
20.15 Pressure Loss due to Enlargement in Area and Static Regain 666
20.16 Pressure Loss due to Contraction in Area 669
20.17 Pressure Loss at Suction and Discharge of a Duel 670
20.18 Pressure Loss due to an Obstruction in a Duct 671
20.19 Duct Design 679
20.20 Methods for Determination of Duct Size 6BO
20.21 System Resistance 693
20.22 Systems in Series 694
20.23 Systems in Parallel
21 Fans 699-725
21.1 Introduction 699
21.2 Types of Fans 700
21.3 Centrifugal Fans
21.4 Axial Flow Fans
21.5 Total Pressure Developed by a Fan
21.6 Fan Air Power
21.7 Fan Efficiencies
21.8 Fan Performance Curves
21.9 Velocity Triangles for Moving Blades of a Centrifugal Fan
21.10 Work Done and Theoretical Total Head Developed by a Centrifugal Fan for
Radial Entry of Air
21.11 Specific Speed of a Centrifugal Fan
21.12 Fan Similarly Laws
21.13 Fan and System Characteristic
21.14 Fans in Series
21.15 Fans in Parallel
22. Applications of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning 726-745
22.1 Introduction 726
22.2 Domestic Refrigerator and Freezer 727
22.3 Defrosting in Refrigerators 728
22.4 Controls in Refrigerator 729
22.5 Room Air Conditioner 730
22.6 Water Coolers 731
22.7 Capacity of Water Coolers 733
22.8 Applications of Air Conditioning in Industry 734
22.9 Refrigerated Trucks 736
22.10 Marine Air-conditioning 737
22.11 Ice Manufacture 738
22.12 Cooling of MilkIMilk Processing) 739
22.13 Cold Storages 740
22.14 Quick Freezing 740
22.15 Cooling and Heating of Foods 741
22.16 Freeze Drying 742
22.17 Heat and Mass Transfer through the Dried Material 743
Index 747-754
(xiv)INDEX
Absolute humidity, 469, 473
– pressure, 12
– temperature, 10
– units of force, 7
– zero temperature, 11
Actual vapour compression cycle, 173
Adiabatic chemical dehumidification, 520
– index, 23
– mixing of two air streams, 524
– saturation temperature, 481
Advantages of centrifugal compressors over
reciprocating compressors, 350
– Claude system over Linde system, 443
– compound vapour compression with
intercooler, 195
– food preservation, 409
– multi-stage compression, 331
– steam jet refrigeration system, 457
– vapour absorption refrigeration system
over vapour compression refrigeration
system, 278
– vapour compression refrigeration system,
126
Air conditioning system, 550
– cooled condensers, 361
– equipment used in, 550
– motion, 543
– refrigeration systems, methods of, 78
– stratification, 544
Air refrigerator working on
– Bell-Coleman cycle, 51
– reversed Carnot cycle, 41
Air side coefficient, 369
Ammonia hydrogen refrigerator, 285
Analysis of steam jet refrigeration system, 453
Antifreeze, 314
Application of First law of Thermodynamics to
non-flow processes, 27
– of air conditioning in industry. 734
– to steady flow process, 36
Aspect ratio, 656
Assumptions in two stage compression with
intercooler, 331
Atmospheric natural draft cooling towers, 372
Automatic expansion valve, 401
– hot gas defrosting method, 394
Axial flow fans, 701
Azeotrope refrigerants, 299
Bare tube coil evaporator, 383
Base mounted air cooled condensers, 362
Bell-Coleman cycle, 51
Bernoulli’s equation for ducts, 646
Boot-strap air cooling system, 102
– evaporative cooling system, 105
Brayton cycle, 51
Brines, 313
Boyle’s law, 19
8y-pass factor, 490
– of heating and cooling coil, 490
Capacity of cooling towers, 371
– an evaporator, 379748 A Textbook of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
– spray ponds, 371
Capacity control of compressors, 351
– centrifugal compressors, 352
– of water coolers, 733
– reciprocating compressors. 351
Capillary tube, 399
Cascade refrigeration system, 424
Causes of food spoilage. 409
Celsius or centigrade scale. 10
Central air conditioning system. 561
Centrifugal compressors, 350
– fans, 700
– specific s,)eed of, 713
Characteristic equation of a gas, 21
Charle’s law, 19
Chemical properties of refrigerants. 309
Classification of air conditioning system, 550
– compressors, 317
– condensers, 360
– ducts, 642
– non-flow processes. 27
– refrigerants. 295
Claude system tor liquefaction of air 441
Clearanc e far tor. 3 1 7
Closed air refrigeration cycle, 41
– system, 8
Coefficient of putormance ol
– an ideal vapour absorption refrigeration
system, 278
– heat pump. 40
– refrigerator, 39
– two stage cascade system. 426
Cold and hot surfaces, 543
Cold storages, 740
– tor food preservation, 414
Comfort air conditioning system. 551
– chart, 518
Comparison ot heal and work, 1 7
Comparison ot refrigerants. 305
– air c ooled and water cooled c ondensers,
365
– performance of reciproc attng and
centrifugal compressors. 354
– refrigerant-liquid absorbent with refriger¬
ant-solid absodxml combination. 277
– various air cooling systems used for
air-craft. 120
Complete mlerc exiling, 332
Commercial refrigerators tor food preservation,
413
Components of a cooling load, 598
Compressor c apacity, 318
Compression efficiency, 455
Compression ratio, 117
Compound compression, 194
Condenser, working of, 359
Condensing heat transfer coefficient, 368
Constant pressure expansion valve, 401
– pressure prexess, 29
– temperature process, 30
– volume prexess, 27
Contact factor, 492
Continuity equation for ducts, 645
Controls in refrigerator, 729
Cooling load, 597
– towers, 371
– (apacity of, 371
– of foext, 741
– of milk, 739
– types of, 371
Cooling and dehumidification, 500
Cooling and humidification by water injection,
507
Cooling with adiabatic humidification, 506
Cryogenics. 422
D
Dalton s law of partial pressures, 470
Defrosting evaporators, 390
– in refrigerators, 727
Degree of saturation. 468. 472
Dehumidification, 498
– and cooling, 500
– methcxls of obtaining, 499
Derimerits of air refrigeration system, 78
Dense ait refrigeration cycle, 41
Derived units, 2
Designation system for refrigerants, 303
Desirable properties of an ideal refrigerant, 295
Dew point depression, 470
– lemperature, 469
– lines, 485
Difference’ between a heat engine, a refrigerator
and a heal pump, 40Index 749
Disadvantages of centrifugal compressors over
reciprocating compressors, 350
– steam jet refrigeration system, 457
– vapour compression refrigeration
system, 126
Discharge pressure, 317
– effect of, 175
Domestic electrolux refrigerator, 285
– refrigerator and freezer, 727
– refrigerators for food preservation, 413
Double tube’ condensers, 363
– evaporators, 385
Dry air, 468
Dry bulb temperature, 469
– lines, 485
Dry expansion evaporators, 387
Dry ice, 430
– manufacture of, 430
Duct, classification of, 642
– Bernoulli’s equation for, 646
– construction, 643
– continuity equation for, 645
– design, 679
– friction factor for, 650
– material, 642
– pressure in, 653
– pressure losses in, 649
– shape, 644
Dynamic losses in duct, 666
E I
Effect of discharge pressure, 175
– suction pressure, 175
Effective room sensible heat factor, 568
– temperature, 538
Efficiency of heating and cooling coils, 492
Efficiencies used in steam jet refrigeration
System, 454
Electric defrosting method, 396
Ejector refrigeration system, 450
Energy, 12
– in transition, 1 2
Enthalpy of a gas, 23
– lines, 486
– moist air, 474
Entrainment efficiency, 454
Entropy, 24
Equality of temperature, 11
Equipment used in air conditioning systems, 550
Equivalent diameter of a circular duct for a
rectangular duct, 654
Evaporative condensers, 370
– cooling, 507
Evaporators, types of, 382
– capacity of, 379
– working of, 377
Expansion devices, types of, 399
Extended surfee evaporators, 384
Extensive properties, 9
, I
Factor affecting the condenser capacity, 360
– the heat transfer capacity of an
evaporator, 379
– comfort air conditioning, 549
– the human comfort, 538
– the optimum effective temperature, 544
– the volumetric efficiency of a
reciprocating compressor, 328
Fahrenheit scale, 10
Fan air power, 703
– and system characteristic, 717
– efficiencies, 703
– in series, 718
– in parallel, 718
– performance curves, 705
– similarity laws, 714
Finned evaporators, 383
Finned tubes, 370
First law of thermodynamics, 18
Float valve, high side, 405
– low side, 404
Flooded evaporators, 386
Flow boiling, 381
Flow process, 26, 35
Fluid side heat transfer coefficient, 382
Food preservation, advantages of, 409
– by refrigeration, 41 3
– cold storages for, 414750 A Textbook of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
– c ommerc ial refrigerators for, 4 1 3
– domestic refrigerators for, 4 1 3
– frozen storages for. 416
– methods ot, 411
I < ere e, 7
forced convection dir ccxded condensers, <62
– draft c exiling towers, 374
– evaporators, 389
hailing taclor, ibb
F reeve drying, 742
1 tic tion < hart for c ir< ular duels, 664
factor tor due ts, 650
I rosting evaporators, 389
( ro/en storages for food preservation, 416
Iundamental units, 2
G |
( *auge pressure, 12
( ,ay Iussac law, 20
General gas equation, 20
Grand sensible heat factor, 567
Gravitational units of force, 7
H
Halo-cadxjn refrigerants, 295
Hand operated expansion valve, 400
Heat, 14
1 teat and work 1b
fb’dt gain due to infiltration, 607
due to ventilation, 610
from applianc es, 611
– from ex c upants. bit)
– from prexiuc ts. 612
– solar radiation, 603
lighting equipments, 615
– power equipments, 615
through duels, 616
Heat rejection factor, <60
Heat losses from the human Ixxfy, 542
I leaf prcxluction and regulation in human bexfy,
540
Heat transfer in condensers, 366
evapirators, <80
– during boiling, 381
– coefficient for nucleate pool boiling,
<81
– through dried material, 74 <
Heating and dehumidific ation, 520
– humidilic ation, 5 1 2
– by steam infec tion, 573
– of fexxis, 74 1
Hermetic sealed compressors, <48
High side float valve. 405
Humidilic ation, 498
– methods of obtaining, 499
Humidity, 4b8
– ratio, 471
Humid specific heat, 474, 490
Hydro-c arbon refrigerants, <02
lc c manufacture, 7 <8
ImpTtect interc exiling. <32
Improvements in simple saturation cycle*, 178
Incomplete interc ooling. <32
Indue ed draft c ooling tower, <74
Industrial air conditioning system, 552
Inorganic refrigerants, <01
Inside summer design conditions. 545
Intercooling ol refrigerant in a two stage
rec iprex ating c ompressor, 3 32
Intensive prop*rties, 9
Internal energy, I <
International system ot units, 2
Irreversible c y( Ie, <4
– process, 25
Isentropic proc ess, <1
Isobaric process, 29
|so< horic process, 27
Isolated system, 9
Isothermal process, <0
joule s ( yc Ie, 5 1
– law 21
joule- 1homson c cx*llic lent, 435Index 751
It
IV
Kelvin, 4
Kilogram, 3
Kinetic energy, 13
_u
Latent heat, 14
Laws of perfect gas, 19
– thermodynamics, 18
Limitations of vapour compression refrigeration
for production of low temperature, 423
Linde system for liquefaction of air, 438
Liquefaction of gases, 435
– helium, 445
– hydrogen, 444
Lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system,
287
Low side float valve, 404
Manual defrosting method, 391
Manufacture of solid carbon dioxide or dry ice,
430
Marine air conditioning, 737
Mass, 6
– of motive steam required, 455
– transfer through dried material, 743
Mean radiant temperature, 536
Mechanical draft cooling towers, 373
– equivalent of heat, 1 5
Mechanism of a simple vapour compression
refrigeration system, 126
Merits of air refrigeration system, 78
Metre, 3
Methods of air refrigeration system, 78
– defrosting an evaporator, 390
– determination of duct size, €>80
– food freezing, 417
– food preservation, 411
Milk processing, 739
Minimum work required for a two stage
reciprocating compressor, 334
Modified comfort chart, 540
Moist air, 468
– enthalpy of, 474
Moisture content, 471
– lines, 485
– losses from the human body, 542
– of air, 542
Multiple evaporators at the same temperature
with single compressor and expansion
valve, 236
– at different temperatures with single
compressor, individual expansion valves
and back pressure valves, 239
– compound compression and individual
expansion values, 256
– flash intercoolers, 260
– individual compressors and individual
expansion valves, 247
– multiple expansion valves, 251
– multiple expansion valves and back
pressure valves, 242
– multiple expansion valves and flash
intercooler, 265
Multi-stage compression, 194, 330
– advantages of, 331
Natural convection air cooled condensers, 362
– draft cooling towers, 372
– evaporators, 388
Non-equilibrium process, 25
Non-flow process, 26
– classification of, 27
Non-frosting evaporators, 389
Normal temperature and pressure, 12
Nozzle efficiency, 454
Nucleat boiling, 354
Open air refrigeration cycle, 41
– system, 9
Outside summer design conditions, 546
Overall volumetric efficiency of a reciprocating
compressor, 330
Percentage humidity, 472752 A Textbook of Refrigeration
Perfect gas, 19
– intercooling, 332
Performance characteristics of refrigerant
reciprocating compressor, 339
Physical properties of refrigerants, 3 1 1
Physiological hazards resulting from heat, 537
Plate evaporators, 384
Polytropic process, 33
Potential energy, 13
Power, 17
– required to drive a single stage
reciprocating compressor, 322
Practical vapour absorption system, 275
Presentation of units and their values, 4
Pressure, 11
– control defrosting method, 391
– enthalpy chart, 1 27
– in ducts, 644
– of water vapour, 473
Pressure losses in ducts, 649
– at suction and discharge of a duct, 670
– due to contraction in area, 669
– due to enlargement in area and static
regain, 666
– due to friction in ducts, 649
– due to obstruction in a duct, 671
Principle of steam jet refrigeration, 451
Production of low temperature by adiabatic
demagnetisation of a paramagnetic salt,
446
Propeller fan, 701
Properties of a system, 9
– ideal refi gerant absorbent combination,
277
Psychrometer, 470
Psychrometric chart, 484
– terms, 468
– relations, 470
– processes, 489
Quick freezing, 740
Quality and quantity of air, 54 3
Quasi-static process, 25
and Air Conditioning
R |
Ratio of specific heats, 23
Reciprocating c ompressors, 318
Reduced ambient air cooling system, 109
Refrigerated trucks, 736
Regenerative air cooling system, 1 16
Relative coefficient of performance, 39
Relative humidity, 469, 472
– lines, 486
Remote air cooled condenser, 362
Reverse cycle defrosting method, 393
Reversed Carnot cycle, 4 1
– temperature limitations for, 43
– Brayton cycle, 51
– Joule cycle, 51
Reversible adiabatic process, 31
– reversible cycle, 34
– reversible process, 25
Room air c onditoner, 730
– sensible heat factor, 565
Rotary compressors, 348
Rules for S.l. units, 5
u
Saturated air, 422
Second, 4
Second law of thermodynamics, 18
Secondary refrigerants, 3 13
Sensible heat, 14
Sensible cooling, 489
– heating, 488
– heat factor, 500
– heat factor line, 513
Sensible heat gain through building structure by
conduction, 599
Shell and coil condensers, 364
– evaporators, 385
Shell and tube condensers, 365
– evaporators, 385
S.l. units, 2
Simple air cooling system, 78
– evaporative cooling system, 98
– hot gas defrosting method, 39.3
– vapour absorption system, 274Simple saturation cycle, improvements in, I 78
– with acc umulator or prec ooler, 180
– with flash chamber, 178
– with sub-cooling of liquid refrigerant by
liquid refrigerant, 180
– with subcooling ot liquid refrigerant by
vapour refrigerant, 181
Solar heat gain through glass areas, 607
– outside walls and roots, 60 3
Sol air temperature, 606
Solid c arbon dioxide, 4 30
– manufacture of, 4 30
Specific entropy, 25
Specific heat, 14
– of a gas, 2 1
– at constant pressure, 22
– at constant volume, 22
Specific humidity, 471
– lines 485
– speed of a centrifugal tan. 71 3
– volume lines, 486
Spray |x>nds, 371
– capacity of. 371
Standard temperature and pressure. 1 2
State* of a system. 10
Static regain, 599
Steam ejec tor. 452
Steam jet refrigeration system
– advantages and disadvantages ot. 4 57
– analysis of. 45 3
– princ iple of. 451
– efficiencies ot, 454
Stored energy, 12
Substitutes for Chloro-Huoro-Carbon <( !(•
refrigerants, 304
Suction pressure, 317
– effect of. 1 75
– volume, 317
Summer air conditioning system. 555
System of units, 2
System resistance, 693
– in parallel. 694
– in series. 694
Swept volume. 3 17
Temperature, 10
– control defrosting methexi. 391
Index 753
limitations loi reversed Carnot cycle, 4.3
lheorc4ic.il head developed by a centrifugal tan
tor radial entry ol ait, 709
theoretical vapour compression with dry saturated
vapoui after c omprosmun. 1 28
with superheated vapour after
< (impression, 1 37
– with superheated vapour belore
compression. 146
with wet vapour alter compression,
I 14
– with undercooling or sub-cooling of
letngerant. 147
thermal exchanges ot body with environment.
5 35
thermobank defrosting method. 395
Ihrrmodvnarmc cycle 33
– equilibrium I I
– processes. 25
– properties ot refrigerants 30h
– requirements <>t refrigerant absorbent
mixture*, 277
– s\sh>ms. 8
– wet bulb temperature. 481
thermostatic expansion salve*. 402
three* Mage i ompression with flash chambers,
219
with dash intercoolers. 22 3
– with multiple* expansion salves and flash
inpTc oolprs, 227
– with water intercoolers, 21b
legal pressure developed by a fan 702
– volumetric efficient \ of a reciprocating
< ompre^or. 330
Icann! energy, 1 3
total heat ot moist air, 474
– line’s. 486
tulx* axial fan. 701
IuImmh-IuIx* condensers. 363
– evaporators. 38 5
Iwo stage compression with water intercooler,
liquid subcooler and flash intercooler.
21I
– with liquid interc ooler. 196
– with water intercooler liquid sub-cooler
and liquid flash chamber 204
– with water intercooler and liquid sub¬
cooler. 201
Two stage reciprocating compressor with
intercooler, 3 31754 IVXlDOOvi Or nOTriyvrvwvn ar। MM Mr at- UvfMfuOfllnQ •*– ^ul i-
– work done by a, 333
Types of air cooled condensers, 362
– compound vapour compression with
intercooler, 195
– cooling towers, 371
– expansion devices, 399
– evaporators, 382
– fans, 700
– multiple evaporator and compressor
system, 235
– stored energy, 13
– vapour compression cycles, 128
– water cooled condensers, 363
uI
Unitary air conditioning system, 561
Units of refrigeration, 39
V I
Vacuum pressure, 11
Vane axial fan, 701
Vapour absorption system, simple, 274
– practical, 275
Vapour compression cycles, types of, 128
– density, 473
– pressure lines, 486
Velocity triangles for moving baldes of a
centrifugal fan, 706
Volumetric efficiency of reciprocating
compressor, 318, 326
w|
Water as refrigerant, 451
– cooled condensers, 362
– coolers, 731
– side coefficient, 370
– defrosting method, 392
Weight, 6
Wet bulb depression, 469
– temperature, 469
– temperature lines, 485
Winter air conditioning system, 553
Work, 15
Workdone by a centrifugal fan for radial entry of
air, 709
– during a non-flow process, 26
– single stage, single acting, reciprocating
compressor, without clearance volume,
319
– with clearance volume, 324
– two stage reciprocating compressor with
intercooler, 333
Working of a condenser, 359
– an evaporator, 377
– steam jet refrigeration system, 452
Y|
Year round air conditioning system. 561
Zeroth law of thermodynamics, 18

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