Theory, Design, and Applications of Unmanned

Theory, Design, and Applications of Unmanned
اسم المؤلف
A. R. Jha, Ph.D.
التاريخ
24 يوليو 2023
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440
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Theory, Design, and Applications of Unmanned
Aerial Vehicles
A. R. Jha, Ph.D.
Contents
FOREWORD xiii
PREFACE xix
CHAPTER 1 HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF UNMANNED AERIAL
VEHICLES 1
Introduction 1
Typical Physical Parameters of UAVs for Commercial
Applications 2
Various Categories of Unmanned Vehicles 3
UAVs for Border Patrol Operations 3
Chronological History of UAVs and Drones 6
UAVs Operated by Various Countries for Surveillance
and Reconnaissance 10
Comments 11
Deployment Restriction on UAVs 11
FAA Designations and Legal Regulations 12
Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle 15
Civilian Applications of UAVs 15
Pizza Delivery by Small UAVs or Drones 15
Drone Deployments for Miscellaneous Commercial
Applications 15
Drones for Commercial Aerial Survey Applications 16
Drones for Remote Sensing Applications 16
Drones for Motion Picture and Filmmaking 17
Drones for Sports Events 17
Role of Drones in Domestic Policing Activities 18VI CONTENTS
Drones for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Exploration and
Production 18
UAVs for Disaster Relief Activities 19
Drones for Scientific Research in Atmospheric
Environments 19
Classic Example of Search and Rescue Mission 20
UAVs or Drones for Animal Conservation Functions 20
Drones for Maritime Patrol Activities 21
Drones for Cooperative Forest Fire Surveillance Missions 22
NASA Contribution to Firefighting Technology 22
Cooperative Forest Fire Surveillance Using a Team of
Micro-UAVs 24
Real-Time Algorithm 25
Development of a Cooperative Surveillance Strategy 28
Critical Aspects of Fire Monitoring Scheme Based
on Autonomous Concept 29
Potential Algorithms for Fire Monitoring Purposes 38
Conclusions on Forest Fire Surveillance Concept 43
Summary 44
References 45
CHAPTER 2 UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES FOR MILITARY
APPLICATIONS 47
Introduction 47
Various Categories of Unmanned Vehicles for Combat
Activities 48
UAVs for Combat Operations 49
Functional Capabilities of the GCS Operator 50
Description of GCS 50
Operating Requirements for UAV Operator or Pilot 55
Location of GCS 56
Role of Portable UAV GCS 57
Operator Responsibility for Payload Control 59
Role of Sensors aboard the UAV 59
Role of Lynx Advanced Multichannel Radar 60
Locations of GCSs 61
Landing of Fire Scout Helicopter 63
Deployment of Commercial-off-the-Shelf Components
for the Control Station 63
GCS for Each UAV Category 63
Next Generation of GCS 64
Impact of Human Factors on Control Station 66
Weapons Best Suited for High-Value Targets 66
Combat UAVs Operated by Various Countries 67CONTENTS VII
BAe UCAV: European UAV 68
BAe System Taranis: British UAV 69
Dassault nEUROn (European UCAV) 69
Rustom (Warrior): Indian UAV 70
Israeli UAVs 72
UAVs Operational in the United States 73
MQ-1 Predator Series 74
General Atomics MQ-9 Reaper 74
Guizhou Sparrow Hawk II (Chinese UAV) 75
Guizhou Soar Eagle Chinese UAV 76
Miscellaneous UAVs Designed and Developed by U.S.
Companies 77
Smallest UAV Developed by NRL (USA) 77
U.S. UAVs for Space Applications 78
Classification of Small UAVs 78
RQ-7 Shadow UAV Developed by AAI Corporation (USA) 79
UAV for Maritime Surveillance 79
Miniaturized Components for Synthetic Aperture Radars 80
Miniature Sensors for Reconnaissance Missions by
Small UAVs 80
Uncooled Thermal Imaging Camera for Small UAVs 81
Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar Surveillance 81
Miscellaneous Compact Sensors for Tier-1 and Tier-2 UAVs 82
Data Link Types 82
NANOSAR-C 83
Operating Modes 83
Image Processing and Exploitation 84
System Performance Parameters 84
Options Available 84
Hunter–Killer UAVs for Battlefield Applications 84
Autonomy of Hunter–Killer Platforms (MQ-9) 87
Role of Micro Air Vehicles 88
Technical Specifications for Tier-1, Tier-2, and Tier-3 MAVs 88
Wasp III MAV 89
Raven RQ-11 B MAV 90
Puma AE MAV 91
RQ-16 A T-Hawk 92
Small Tactical Munitions, Miniaturized Electronics, and
Latest Component Technology for Future MAVs 94
Unmanned Ground Vehicles 96
Role of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle in
Counterterrorism 97
Qualifications and Practical Experience for UAV Operators 99
Summary 100
References 101VIII CONTENTS
CHAPTER 3 ELECTRO-OPTICAL, RADIO-FREQUENCY, AND
ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS FOR UNMANNED
AERIAL VEHICLES 103
Introduction 103
RF Components for UAV and UCAV Sensors 104
RF and Microwave Passive Components 104
Synthetic Aperture Radar, a Premium Sensor for UAVs 105
NANO-SAR Performance Parameters 107
RF Components for Reconnaissance and Surveillance
Receivers 107
Connectors and Cables for Tactical Data Link 108
Data Security 109
Semiactive Passive Microwave Components for UAVs 109
Semiconductor-Based Limiters 110
Ferrite RF Limiters 110
Yttrium-Iron-Garnet-Tunable Filters 111
Working Principle of a Magnetically Tunable Filter 112
Solid-State Tunable Oscillators for UAV
Applications 112
Reconnaissance and Surveillance Receivers 114
Low-Noise MMIC Amplifiers 116
Performance Parameters of MMIC Amplifiers for
Deployment in the Next Generation of UCAVs 117
Reliability and Structural Integrity of the Transistors
Used in MMIC Amplifiers 118
Electro-Optical Sensors for UAVs 119
Lasers and Their Critical Roles in UAVs 120
Laser Seeker for UAV Applications 121
Laser Illuminator 122
Laser Ranging System for Precision Weapon Delivery 124
Electro-Optical Guided Missile 124
IR Lasers to Counter the IR Missile Threat 125
Diode-Pumped Solid-State IR Lasers 125
Other Types of Lasers Available but Maybe Not Suitable
for UAV Applications 126
Space Communication Laser System Employing Rare
Earth Materials 128
Forward-Looking Infrared Sensors 129
Forward-Looking Infrared Sensors for UAV
Applications 130
IRST Sensor for UAV Deployment 131
Performance Capabilities and Limitations of IRST
Sensors 131
Types of Infrared Detectors 137
Description and Performance Capabilities of Most
Popular IR Detectors 137
Photon Detectors 137CONTENTS IX
Low-Power, High-Speed IR Detectors 138
Optical Detectors 141
IR and Television Cameras 141
Performance Capabilities of Various Gyros for UAV
Navigation 141
Most Popular Gyros Deployed by Aviation Industry 142
Performance Summary for Various Types of Gyros 142
Summary 143
References 146
CHAPTER 4 UAV NAVIGATION SYSTEM AND FLIGHT
CONTROL SYSTEM CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS 147
Introduction 147
UAV Navigation System 149
Algorithms 149
Algorithms Appropriate for SINS Functioning 150
Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS) Algorithms 151
Development and Experimental Evaluation of Prototype
UAV Navigation System 153
SINS Correction Algorithm 154
Requirements of UAV’s Automatic Flight Control System
(AFCS) 156
Critical Functions of AFCS 157
Critical Functions of the AFCS 158
Principal Design Objective of the AFCS 158
Definitions of Operating Modes and Functions
Associated with Modes 158
Essential Components or Subsystems of AFCS 160
Critical Functions of AFCS 161
Software for AFCS 161
Properties of Specialized Software 162
Basic Performance Specification Requirements for the
AFCS Module 162
Indication of Emergency Conditions from AFCS
Algorithms 163
Programming and Adjustment of AFCS 163
UAV Fault Detection and Isolation 164
Kalman Filtering 172
Description of Various Errors 176
Calculation of Estimated Error of UAV Speed in SINS
Algorithms 177
Role of Compensation Circuit Filter in the Joint SINS/
SNS System Operation 181
Extended Kalman Filtering Technique 182
Summary 187
References 189X CONTENTS
CHAPTER 5 PROPULSION SYSTEMS AND ELECTRICAL
SOURCES FOR DRONES AND UAVS 191
Introduction 191
Power Sources for Commercial Drones, Tactical Drones,
and Minidrones 192
Electrical Power Sources for Commercial and
Minidrones 192
Electrical Power Sources for Nano- and Micro-UAVs 193
Battery Suitability 195
Compact or Miniaturized High-Capacity Batteries
for Commercial Drones 199
Fuel Cells for Heavy-Duty UAVs 201
Power Sources for Drones, Electronic Drones, and
Micro-UAVs 207
Propulsion Sources for Electronic Drones and
Quadcopters 207
Suitability and Deployment of Appropriate Sources for
UAV Propulsion 210
Propulsion Systems for Micro-UAVs and Commercial
Electronic Drones 210
Future Market Forecast for Hybrid or Electronic
Drones 211
Propulsion Systems for Full-Size UAVs and UCAVs 213
Categories of Propulsion Systems 214
Distinction between Combustion Turbines and Jet
Engines 214
Propulsion Systems for UCAVs 216
Summary 219
References 222
CHAPTER 6 UNMANNED AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE
TECHNOLOGY 223
Introduction 223
Example of UAV with Autonomous Capability 224
Encouraging Signs of Autonomous Capability in the
Auto Industry 225
Smart Materials for UAVs 226
Smart Components for UAVs 227
Gyros for UAV Applications 227
Motion Controllers for UAV Application 230
Military Role of Unmanned Autonomous Vehicle 231
Role of Electronic Switch Modules 232
Role of Critical Miscellaneous Components 233
Integrated Simulation Capability of UAV 234
Description and Performance of Sensors aboard
Autonomous UAVs 243
Propulsion Systems for Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles 246CONTENTS XI
Description of Propulsion Systems That Could Be
Deployed for Autonomous Vehicles 247
Specific Propulsion Systems Best Suited for
Autonomous Vehicles 247
Summary 249
References 251
CHAPTER 7 SURVIVABILITY OF UNMANNED AUTONOMOUS
VEHICLES 253
Introduction 253
Critical Issues and Factors Responsible for UAV Survival 253
Stealthy Fuselage Features and Control Surfaces 254
Smart Optical Materials 255
Stealth Technology Vital for UAV Survival 256
RCS Reduction Techniques by Vehicle Structural
Design Concepts 256
Techniques Currently Available for RCS Reduction 259
Latest Paints Best Suited for RCS Reduction 261
IR Signature Estimation and Reduction Techniques 261
Thermal Expressions Used in the Calculation of IR
Signature 262
Sample Calculation 263
IR Radiation Intensity (IR Signatures) at Various
Elements of the UAV 263
IR Signature due to Aircraft Skin Temperature 267
IR Energy Generated by Various Aircraft Elements 267
MAM Technology for Small and Lightweight Munitions 269
Specific Details on MAM Technology 269
3D Printing Technology 272
Potential Applications of Pyros Munitions 273
Potential Benefits of AMT 274
Summary 278
References 280
INDEX 283
283
Index
A
Additive manufacturing technology
(AMT), 270, 272, 274,
276–278
Aerial survey applications, 16
AFCS, see Automatic flight control
system
Air operations center (AOC), 60
Allan variance method, 142
AMT, see Additive manufacturing
technology
Arab Defense command (ADCOM)
system, 67
Armed UCAV aircraft, 197
Automatic flight control system
(AFCS)
adjustment, 164
automatic angular
stabilization, 159
automatic en route flight,
159–160
automatic landing mode, 160
automatic takeoff mode of
operation, 160
block diagram, 148
components/subsystems, 160
critical functions, 157–158, 161
longitudinal and lateral
channels, 161
manual control mode, 158
principal design objective, 158
programming, 163–164
return to home mode, 159
roll and yaw channels, 160
software, 161–163
B
B-1B bomber, 257
Black RAP, 261
Border patrol operations
Hellfire missiles, 6
IRS missions, 3–4
long-range underwater
drone, 3, 5
rotary-wing vehicle
configurations, 3–4
sensor requirements, 5
British Aviation (BAe) System
Taranis, 69284 INDEX
British Aviation (BAe) UCAV,
68–69
British UAV, 69
Broad Area Maritime Surveillance
Demonstration (BAMS-D)
UAV, 79–80
C
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), 258
Chinese UAV, 75–77
CIA UAV programs, 6–7
Civilian applications
aerial survey applications, 16
animal conservation functions,
20–21
commercial applications, 15–16
cooperative forest fire
surveillance, 22, 24–25
cooperative surveillance strategy,
28–29
disaster relief activities, 19
in domestic policing activities, 18
firefighting technology, 22–24
fire monitoring scheme
assumptions, 26–28, 32–33
autonomous technology,
29–30
cooperative monitoring
scheme, 34
cooperative tracking, 37–38
distributed algorithm, 38–39
EMBYR program, 31–32, 43
fire perimeter tracking error,
31–32
latency profile, 35–36
load balancing algorithm,
40–43
minimization of latency, 34
perimeter tracking, 37
potential algorithms, 38
static fire monitoring, 31
UAV updates, sawtooth
waveform, 33–34
maritime patrol activities, 21–22
motion picture and
filmmaking, 17
oil, gas, and mineral exploration
and production, 18–19
pizza delivery, 15
real-time algorithm, 25
remote sensing applications, 16
scientific research, 19–20
search and rescue mission, 20
sports events, 17–18
Civilian UAV, 47
Combat UAV, 13, 49, 59, 67
Commercial-off-the-shield (COTS)
components, 7, 63
Compensation circuit filter,
173–175, 181–182
Cooperative forest fire surveillance,
22, 24–25
Cooperative surveillance strategy,
28–29
Coriolis vibratory gyros (CVG),
142–143
Cryogenic detectors, 134
D
Dassault nEUROn, 69–70
Data security, 109
Decentralized multiple-UAV
technique, 26
Department of Defense, 8
Deployment restriction, 11–14
Digital RF memory (DRFM), 105
Diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS)
laser technology, 125–127
Dragon Eye UAV, 77, 201, 221
DRS E6000, 81
dSPACE SCALEXIO
software, 232INDEX 285
E
Eagle program, 7
Ecological Model for Burning in
the Yellowstone Region
(EMBYR) program,
31–32, 43
EKF techniques, see Extended
Kalman filtering
techniques
Elbit Hermes 450 vehicles, 72–73
Electro-optical guided missile
(EOGM), 124–125
Electro-optical (EO) sensors,
see Lasers
European UAV, 68–70
Extended Kalman filtering (EKF)
techniques
RGPE technique, 183
SFDA schemes, 182–187
F
Fault detection and
isolation (FDI)
applications, 165
categories, 165
fault detection filter–based
method, 169
feedback control theory, 166
FTCS, 167
knowledge-based methods, 166
limit-value checking technique,
165–166
model-based FDI approach,
167–169
neural network–based method,
169–171
observer-based method, 169
parameter estimation–based
method, 169
parity space–based method, 169
UAV manufacturing facility
faults, 168
vibration-based FDI methods, 166
Fault tolerance control system
(FTCS), 167
FDI, see Fault detection and
isolation
Federal Aviation Agency (FAA)
designations and legal
regulations, 12
Ferrite RF limiters, 110–111
Fiber optic gyros (FOGs), 142–143
Firefighting technology, 22–24
Fire monitoring scheme
assumptions, 32–33
autonomous technology, 29–30
cooperative monitoring
scheme, 34
cooperative tracking, 37–38
distributed algorithm, 38–39
EMBYR program, 31–32, 43
fire perimeter tracking error,
31–32
latency profile, 35–36
load balancing algorithm, 40–43
minimization of latency, 34
perimeter tracking, 37
potential algorithms, 38
static fire monitoring, 31
UAV updates, sawtooth
waveform, 33–34
Fire Scout helicopter–based
GCS, 64
Fluidic actuators, 229–230
Forward-looking infrared (FLIR)
sensors
broad FOV, 130
cooled and uncooled detectors,
129–130
LRUs, 131
moderate FOV, 130
narrow FOV, 130286 INDEX
Fuel cells
advantages, 201–203
high capacity fuel cell, 203–204
open-circuit cell voltage, 203–204
performance capabilities, 202–203
power requirements, 205
thermodynamic efficiency, 203–204
Fuel consumption, 103
Fused deposition modeling (FDM)
technology, 94, 270–271
G
GaAs MMIC amplifiers, 115
Gasoline-based internal combustion
engines (ICEs), 192,
208–209
GCS operator, see Ground control
station operator
General Electric (GE) Scorpion
software program, 261
Global Navigation Satellite System
(GNSS), 148
Ground control station (GCS)
operator
air traffic control operations, 54
consoles, 53
COTS components, 63
displays/monitors, 50, 54
EO and electromagnetic sensors,
53, 55, 59–60
Fire Scout helicopter-based
GCS, 64
flight dynamics, 54
functional capabilities, 50
GCS location, 56, 61–62
human factors impact, 66
next generation, 64–66
onboard computers, 54
online chat room, 55
operating requirements, 55–56
portable UAV GCS, 57–59
two-way communications, 51
Guizhou Soar Eagle Chinese UAV,
76–77
Guizhou Sparrow Hawk II, 75–76
Gyros
Allan variance, 142
angle orientation
measurement, 141
multicomponent structure, 141
standard variation vs. averaging
time, 142
types, 142
H
Handheld UAS, 13
Hellfire missiles, 6, 8, 66, 86, 94, 99,
191, 196, 217, 220
High-altitude, long-endurance
(HALE) UAV, 14, 22, 76
Hunter–killer UAVs, 3, 13, 49,
84–88, 191, 254
Hypersonic UAS, 13
I
Indian Air Force MIG-21, 222
Indian UAV, 70–72
Inertial Navigation System (INS),
147–148
Infrared (IR) sensors
classification, 133–134
description and performance
capabilities, 137
FLIR sensors
broad FOV, 130
cooled and uncooled detectors,
129–130
LRUs, 131
moderate FOV, 130
narrow FOV, 130
high-power, high-speed IR
detectors, 138–139
IR signatures, 134–136INDEX 287
IRST sensor
performance capabilities and
limitations, 131–132
TDI circuits, 131
low-power, high-speed IR
detectors, 138
LRF sensor, 132–133
optical detectors, 141
photon detectors, 137–138
PMT detectors, 140
quantum IR detectors, 139
semiconductor materials, 137
UCAV sensor applications, 139
Iron ball paint, 259, 261
IR search and tracking (IRST)
sensors
performance capabilities and
limitations, 131–132
TDI circuits, 131
IR sensors, see Infrared sensors
Israeli UAV, 72–73
K
Kalman filtering
compensation circuit filter,
173–175, 181–182
divergence phenomenon, 172
EKF techniques
RGPE technique, 183
SFDA schemes, 182–187
errors
acceleration errors, 175
angular velocity sensor
errors, 177
description, 176–177
estimated UAV errors,
177–181
hypothetical models, 177
statistical analysis, 177
implementation of, 173
mathematical models, 177
modifications, 172
transfer function, 173
Kerr effect, 143
L
Laboratory-based pattern
recognizable interfaces for
state machines (L-PRISM)
concept, 241–243
Laser range finder (LRF) sensor,
132–133
Lasers
atmospheric absorption, 120
attenuation, 120
classification, 120–121
definition, 120
DPSS laser technology, 125–127
dye lasers, 126
EOGM, 124–125
IR lasers, 125
laser-based ranging system, 124
laser illuminator, 122–123
laser seeker, 121–122, 145
optical fiber lasers, 126
space communication laser
system, 128–129
TEA lasers, 126–128, 145
Line replacement units (LRUs), 131
Lithium thionyl chloride
(LiSOCl2) batteries,
195–197, 205–206
Load balancing algorithm, 40–43
Logistic UAV, 13
Long-range underwater drone, 3, 5
Low-altitude, long-endurance
(LALE) UAV, 13
Low-altitude, short-endurance
(LASE) UAVs, 23, 26
Low-noise MMIC amplifiers,
116–117
Low-noise reconnaissance and
surveillance receivers, 105288 INDEX
Low-power, high-speed IR
detectors, 138
Lynx advanced multichannel radar
(AMR) systems, 60–61
M
Magnetically tunable (MT) filter,
112–113
MAM technology, see Multiple
additive manufacturing
technology
Market forecast, hybrid/pure
electronic drones, 211–213
MAVs, see Micro air vehicles
Medium-altitude, long-endurance
(MALE) UAS, 13
Medium-altitude, long-endurance
(MALE) UAV, 13
MEMS-based accelerometers,
228–229
Mentis UCAV, 222
Mercury-cadmium-tellurium
(HgCdTe) detectors,
129–130
Micro air vehicles (MAVs)
additive manufacturing
technology, 95
characteristic features, 88
FDM technology, 94
miniaturized electronics, 94–96
Puma AE MAV, 91–92
Raven RQ-11 B MAV, 89–91
RQ-16 A T-Hawk, 92–94
SLS technology, 94–95
small tactical munitions, 94–96
technical performance
specifications, 89
Wasp III MAV, 89–90
Microelectromechanical system
(MEMS)-based gyros, 143,
145–146, 227–228
Micro-RF connectors, 105–106
Micro-UAVs, 13, 24–25
MIG-21 jet engines, 218, 248
Military UAV
ADCOM system, 67
BAMS-D UAV, 79–80
British UAV, 69
Chinese UAV, 75–77
Emirate United 40, 67
European UAV, 68–70
Fire Scout helicopter landing, 63
GCS operator
air traffic control operations, 54
consoles, 53
COTS components, 63
displays/monitors, 50, 54
EO and electromagnetic
sensors, 53, 55, 59–60
Fire Scout helicopter–based
GCS, 64
flight dynamics, 54
functional capabilities, 50
GCS location, 56, 61–62
human factors impact, 66
next generation, 64–66
onboard computers, 54
online chat room, 55
operating requirements, 55–56
portable UAV GCS, 57–59
two-way communications, 51
hunter–killer UAVs, 84–88
Indian UAV, 70–72
Israeli UAV, 72–73
Lynx AMR systems, 60–61
MAVs
additive manufacturing
technology, 95
characteristic features, 88
FDM technology, 94
miniaturized electronics, 94–96
Puma AE MAV, 91–92
Raven RQ-11 B MAV, 89–91
RQ-16 A T-Hawk, 92–94
SLS technology, 94–95INDEX 289
small tactical munitions,
94–96
technical performance
specifications, 89
Wasp III MAV, 89–90
MQ-1 Predator, 49, 52
MQ-9 Predator, 49, 52
MQ-9 Reaper, 74–75
operators, qualifications and
practical experience,
99–100
payload control, 59
RQ-7 Shadow UAV, 79
search, reconnaissance, and target
tracking missions, 49
surveillance/reconnaissance
functions, 48
synthetic aperture radars, 80–82
Tier-1 and Tier-2 UAVs
data link types, 82–83
forward-and side-looking IR
cameras, 82
image processing and
exploitation, 83–84
miniaturized batteries, 82
minicomponents, 80–82
NANOSAR-C, 83
operating modes, 83–84
stealth computer, 82
system performance
parameters, 84
UCAVs, 97–99
UGVs, 96–97
unmanned underwater UAV,
49, 51
URWVs configurations, 49–50
U.S. UAV, 73–74, 77–78
weapons, 66–67
Miniature UAV classifications, 10
Mini-UAVs, 48
MMIC amplifiers, 144
broadband amplifiers, 116
cost, 116
GaAs MMIC amplifiers, 115
HEMTs, 116–119
MESFET devices, 118–119
narrowband amplifiers, 116
performance parameters, 117
wideband amplifiers, 116–117
Monte Carlo simulation method,
40–42
MQ-8B Fire Scout helicopter, 62
MQ-1 Predator, 3, 49, 74, 101
MQ-9 Reaper, 3, 13–14, 49, 74–75,
101, 254
Multiple additive manufacturing
(MAM) technology
advantages, 269–270
AMT, 270, 272, 274, 276–278
applications of, 276
for commercial passenger
transports, 275
control fins, 272
FDM, 270–271
GPS performance, 274–275
new United Launch Alliance
Vulcan launch vehicle, 274
Pyros laser-guided missile,
270–271, 273–274
SLS, 270–271
SpaceX, 273
Multiport radio-frequency
connectors, 107–108
N
NANOSAR-C, 83
NANO-SAR sensors, 105–107, 144
Narrowband MMIC amplifiers, 116
Navigation system
GNSS, 148
INS, 147–148
SINS
barometric height
measurement vector, 152
correction algorithm, 154–156290 INDEX
correction tasks, 153
functioning, 150–151
Kalman filtering, 172–187
orientation error, 152
parameter measurement
equation, 152
propagation error, 152
roll, pitch, and yaw angles, 154
Navy’s X-47 B UCAV, 224–225
Nickel–cadmium (Ni–Cd) batteries,
193, 199–201, 206–207
O
Onboard sensors, 1
Optical detectors, 141
Orbital UAS, 13
P
Photomultiplier tube (PMT)
detectors, 140
Photon detectors, 137–138
Physical parameters, 2
Power Insight 2.0 software, 232
Power sources
battery suitability
battery replacement, 196
common factors, 195
performance capabilities,
196–199
reliability, 195–196
for commercial drones, 192–193,
199–200
fuel cells
advantages, 201–203
high capacity fuel cell,
203–204
open-circuit cell voltage,
203–204
performance capabilities,
202–203
power requirements, 205
thermodynamic efficiency,
203–204
for heavy-duty UAVs, 192–193,
201–205
LiSOCl
2 batteries, 195–197,
205–206
micro-UAVs, 193–195,
199–200, 206
for minidrones, 192–193
nickel–cadmium batteries, 193,
199–201, 206–207
propulsion sources
for electronic drones and
quadcopters, 207–208
gas turbine jet engines,
209–210
for small drones, 208
PUMA AE nano-UAV, 195
rechargeable batteries, 206–207
for tactical drone, 192, 206
zinc–silver batteries, 193, 199
PRO-FX application software, 232
Propulsion systems
autonomous vehicle technology,
246–249
for commercial electronic drones,
210–211
gas turbine
critical performance
parameters, 215
critical stages, 214
definition, 214
jet turbine
classifications, 215
critical performance
parameters, 215
operation, 214
for micro-UAVs, 210–211
power requirements, 213–214
for UAVs, 216, 218–219
for UCAVs, 216–219
Puma AE MAV, 91–92
Pyros, 94–96, 270–271, 273–274INDEX 291
Q
Quadrotor drones, 213
Quantum IR detectors, 139
R
Radar-absorbing materials (RAMs),
257–260
Radar-absorbing paint (RAP),
257–259, 261
Radar cross section (RCS) reduction
techniques
CNTs, 258
comprehensive shaping of
fuselage structure, 259
distributed loading technique,
259–260
dodge vapor paint, 261
genetic algorithms, 260
iron ball paint absorber, 261
iron-ferrite paint, 261
new stealth nanopaint, 261
passive loading concept,
259–260
radar-evading camouflage
paint, 261
RAM, 257–260
RAP, 257–259, 261
shaping active loaders, 259–260
Raven RQ-11 B MAV, 4, 89–91
RCS reduction techniques, see Radar
cross section reduction
techniques
Reconnaissance and surveillance
receivers
MMIC amplifiers
broadband amplifiers, 116
cost, 116
GaAs MMIC amplifiers, 115
HEMTs, 116–119
MESFET devices, 118–119
narrowband amplifiers, 116
performance parameters, 117
wideband amplifiers, 116–117
performance parameters, 114
RF connectors, 107–108
room-temperature noise figure,
114–115
Reconnaissance UAV, 12
Red Wagon, 7
Remote control rotary-wing UAV,
213
Remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs),
224–225
RESCHU-SP simulations, 236–237
Research and development
(R and D) activities, 13
Research Environment for
Supervisory Control of
Heterogeneous Unmanned
Vehicle (RESCHUV)
approach, 236
Residual generation, padding
and evaluation (RGPE)
technique, 183
RQ-4, 9
RQ-16 A T-Hawk, 92–94
RQ-7 Shadow UAV, 79
Russian and Chinese UAVs, 222
Rustom (Warrior), 70–72
S
Selective laser sintering (SLS)
technology, 94–95,
270–271
Semiactive passive microwave
components
ferrite RF limiters, 110–111
MT filter, 112–113
semiconductor-based limiter, 110
solid-state tunable oscillators,
112, 114
YIG-tunable filter, 111–113
Semiconductor-based limiter, 110292 INDEX
Sensor fault detection and
accommodation (SFDA)
schemes
nonlinear model-based SFDA
schemes, 182
test conditions and
procedures, 183
UAV
jet engine output thrust, 185
longitudinal equations of
motion, 184–185
longitudinal trim, 185–186
nonlinear decoupled
six-degree-of-freedom
model, 184
physical configuration, 184
unknown inputs, 186–187
SFDA schemes, see Sensor
fault detection and
accommodation schemes
SINS, see Strapdown Inertial
Navigation System
Small unmanned aerial vehicle
(SUAS), 15
Solid-state neodymium-doped
yttrium aluminum
garnet (Nd:YAG) laser,
123–124, 145
Space communication laser system,
128–129
SpaceX, 273
SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft, 257
Steepest decent method, 179
Stinger missile, 66
Stirling microcoolers, 130
Strapdown Inertial Navigation
System (SINS)
barometric height measurement
vector, 152
correction algorithm, 154–156
correction tasks, 153
functioning, 150–151
Kalman filtering, 172–187
orientation error, 152
parameter measurement
equation, 152
propagation error, 152
roll, pitch, and yaw angles, 154
SU-27 jet interceptors, 222
Surface-to-air missiles, 8
Surveillance and reconnaissance
functions, 10–11
Survivability, unmanned
autonomous vehicles
IR signature estimation and
reduction techniques
aircraft skin temperature, 267
GE Scorpion software
program, 261
material emissivity, 261–262
preliminary thermal
calculations, 268
radiation intensity, 262–267
sample calculation, 263
spectral bandwidths, 268
thermal expressions, 262–263
MAM technology
advantages, 269–270
AMT, 270, 272, 274,
276–278
applications of, 276
for commercial passenger
transports, 275
control fins, 272
FDM, 270–271
GPS performance, 274–275
new United Launch Alliance
Vulcan launch vehicle, 274
Pyros laser-guided missile,
270–271, 273–274
SLS, 270–271
SpaceX, 273
RCS reduction techniques
CNTs, 258
comprehensive shaping of
fuselage structure, 259INDEX 293
distributed loading technique,
259–260
dodge vapor paint, 261
genetic algorithms, 260
iron ball paint absorber, 261
iron-ferrite paint, 261
new stealth nanopaint, 261
passive loading concept,
259–260
radar-evading camouflage
paint, 261
RAM, 257–260
RAP, 257–259, 261
shaping active loaders,
259–260
smart metals and alloys, 255
smart optical materials,
255–256
stealth features and control
surfaces, 254–255
Synthetic aperture radar (SAR), 105
T
Tactical data link, 108–109
Tactical UAS, 13
Target UAV, 13
Themis computer system
(RES-32), 63
Thermal IR cameras, 141
3D printing technology, see Multiple
additive manufacturing
(MAM) technology
Tier-1 and Tier-2 UAVs
data link types, 82–83
forward-and side-looking IR
cameras, 82
image processing and
exploitation, 83–84
miniaturized batteries, 82
minicomponents, 80–82
NANOSAR-C, 83
operating modes, 83–84
stealth computer, 82
system performance
parameters, 84
Time delay integrating (TDI)
circuits, 131
Transverse excited atmospheric
(TEA) lasers, 126–128
U
UAVs with rotary-wing vehicle
(URWV) configurations,
49–50
United 40 (Emirate UAV), 67
Unmanned autonomous vehicles
(UAVs)
EO/EM/IR sensors and
components, 244–245
forward-looking infrared
sensors, 244
ground control operator,
223–224
infrared and optical cameras,
244–245
integrated simulation capability
atmospheric environment, 234
CCS operator
recommendations, 240
digital elevation map/
horizontal map, 234
Ethernet protocol, 234
graphical configuration, 234
hierarchical pattern-oriented
state diagram concepts,
240–241
layered finite-state machine
diagrams, 240
L-PRISM, 241–243
operator tasks, 237, 239
RESCHU-SP scenario,
236–238, 240
RESCHUV approach, 236
single hardware license, 234294 INDEX
supervisory control, 235
supervisory quantitative UAV
model, 235–236
military role, 231–233
Navy’s X-47 B UCAV, 224–225
programmable controllers, 233
propulsion systems, 246–249
RPVs, 224–225
smart automobiles/cabs, 225
smart components
fluidic actuators, 229–230
MEMS-based accelerometers,
228–229
MEMS-based gyros, 227–228
motion controllers, 230–231
smart materials
advantages, 226, 231
applications, 231
characteristics, 231
properties, 226
survivability (see Survivability,
unmanned autonomous
vehicles)
VFX programmable displays, 233
Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs),
96–97
USAF 160 Strategic Reconnaissance
Wing, 7
U.S. Navy MQ-88 Fire Scout
unmanned helicopter, 51
U.S. UAV, 73–74, 77–78
W
Wasp III micro-UAV, 89–90, 194
Wideband MMIC amplifiers, 117
WP-13 turbojet engines, 11, 219
Y
Yttrium-Iron-Garnet (YIG)-tunable
filters, 111–113
Z
Zinc–silver (Zn–Ag) batteries

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