Plastics Failure Analysis and Prevention

Plastics Failure Analysis and Prevention
اسم المؤلف
John Moalli, Editor
التاريخ
12 أغسطس 2023
المشاهدات
353
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Plastics Failure Analysis and Prevention
John Moalli, Editor
Table of Contents
Preface vi
John Moalli
Chapter 1. Failure Mechanisms 1
Plastics Failure Due to Oxidative Degradation in Processing and Service 1
Myer Ezrin, Amanda Zepke, John Helwig, Gary Lavigne and
Mark Dudley
Durability Study of Conductive Copper Traces Within Polyimide Based
Substrates 9
Elena Martynenko, Wen Zhou, Alexander Chudnovsky Ron Li and
Larry Poglitsch
Fatigue Behavior of Discontinuous Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene 17
Mustafa Sezer and Ahmet Aran
Ductile Failure and Delayed Necking in Polyethylene 25
W. Zhou, D. Chen, Y. Shulkin, A. Chudnovsky, N. Jivraj, K. Sehanobish,
and S. Wu
Chapter 2. Processing and Assembly 31
The Role of a Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) on Mechanical Properties
in Thermally Welded Low Density Polyethylene Blown Film 31
Timothy E. Weston and Ian R. Harrison
Effects of Processing Conditions on the Failure Mode of an Aliphatic
Polyketone Terpolymer 39
Nicole R. Karttunen and Alan J. Lesser
Orientation Effects on the Weldability of Polypropylene Strapping Tape 45
MJ Oliveira and DA Hemsley
Joint Performance of Mechanical Fasteners under Dynamic Load –
Self-Tapping Screws in Comparison with Threaded Inserts in Brass and Plastic 53
Axel Tome, Gottfried W. Ehrenstein, and Frank Dratschmidt
Defect Cost Analysis 63
Christoph Roser and David Kazmerii
Chapter 3. Environmental Effects 73
Environmental Stress Cracking (ESC) of ABS (II) 73
Takafumi Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki Nishimura, and Fumiaki Miwa,
Takashi Kuriyama, and Ikuo Narisawa
Residual Stress Development in Marine Coatings Under Simulated
Service Conditions 79
Gu Yan & J R White
Estimation of Long-term Properties of Epoxies in Body Fluids 89
Steven W. Bradley
Mechanical Performance of Polyamides with Influence of Moisture and
Temperature – Accurate Evaluation and Better Understanding 95
Nanying Jia and Val A. Kagan
Temperature-Moisture-Mechanical Response of Vinyl Ester Resin and
Pultruded Vinyl Ester/E-Glass Laminated Composites 105
S. P. Phifer, K. N. E. Verghese, J. J. Lesko, and J. Haramis
Freeze-thaw Durability of Composites for Civil Infrastructure 113
J. Haramis, K.N.E. Verghese, and J. J. Lesko
Chapter 4. Morphology and Fractography 121
Fractography of ABS 121
Hiromi Kita, Masatoshi Higuchi, Atsushi Miura
Fractography of Metals and Plastics 127
Ronald J. Parrington
Crack Propagation in Continuous Glass Fiber/Polypropylene Composites:
Matrix Microstructure Effect 135
M. N. Bureau and J. Denault, F. Perrin, and J. I. Dickson
Fracture Behavior of Polypropylene Modified with Metallocene Catalyzed
Polyolefin 143
Laura A. Fasce and Patricia M. Frontini, Shing-Chung Wong, and
Yiu-Wing Mai
Morphology and Mechanical Behavior of Polypropylene Hot Plate Welds 149
MJ Oliveira, CA Bernardo, and DA Hemsley
The Influence of Morphology on the Impact Performance of
an Impact Modified PP/PS Alloy 159
S. P. Bistany
Morphological Study of Fatigue Induced Damage in Semi-crystalline Polymers 165
Nathan A. Jones and Alan J. Lesseriii
Chapter 5. Modeling of Failures and Failure processes 173
Failure Analysis Models for Polyacetal Molded Fittings in Plumbing Systems 173
L.J. Broutman, D.B. Edwards, and P.K. So
Progressive Failure Analysis of Fiber Composite Structures 179
Matt H. Triplett
Calculating Thermally Induced Stresses Using a Nonlinear Viscoelastic
Material Model 187
N. Schoeche and E. Schmachtenberg
Evaluation of a Yield Criteria and Energy Absorbing Mechanisms of Rubber
Modified Epoxies in Multiaxial Stress States 193
Robert S. Kody and Alan J. Lesser
Chapter 6. Design and Life Prediction 201
Shelf Life Failure Prediction Considerations for Irradiated Polypropylene
Medical Devices 201
Michael T. K. Ling, Samuel Y. Ding, Atul Khare, and L. Woo
Determining Etch Compensation Factors for Printed Circuit Boards 209
Anthony DeRose, Richard P. Theriault and Tim A. Osswald, and
Jose M. Castro
Activation Energies of Polymer Degradation 219
Samuel Ding, Michael T. K. Ling, Atul Khare and Lecon Woo
Estimation of Time-temperature-collectives at Describing Ageing of
Polymer Materials 227
D. Blaese and E. Schmachtenberg
Chapter 7. Test Methods 233
Standard Test Procedures for Relevant Material Properties for Structural
Analysis 233
Gerald G. Trantina and Joseph T. Woods
Factors Affecting Variation in Gardner Impact Testing 241
Mark Lavach
Radiation Resistance of Multilayer Films by Instrumented Impact Testing 247
Robert Wojnarowski, Michael T. K. Ling, Atul Khare, and L. Woo
Aspects of the Tensile Response of Random Continuous Glass/Epoxy
Composites 253
Okenwa I. Okoli, G.F. Smithiv
Comparing the Long Term Behavior of Tough Polyethylenes by Craze Testing 259
KC Pandya and JG Williams
Chapter 8. Failure Prevention 267
Design Aids for Preventing Brittle Failure in Polycarbonate and Polyetherimide 267
Joseph T. Woods And Ronald P. Nimmer
10 Common Pitfalls in Thin-Wall Plastic Part Design 275
Timothy A. Palmer
Defect Analysis and High Density Polyethylene Pipe Durability 281
Shaofu Wu, Kalyan Sehanobish, and Noor Jivraj
Practical Risk Analysis – As a Tool for Minimizing Plastic Product Failures 289
Subodh Medhekar, John Moalli, Robert Caligiuri
Attachment Design Analysis of a Plastic Housing Joined with Snap-fits 297
Dean Q. Lewis and Gary A. Gabriele, and Bob Brown
Avoiding the GIGO Syndrome – Combining the Real and Virtual Worlds in
Analysis of Polymer Product Failures 307
John Moalli, Steven Kurtz, Robert Sire, Sanjeev Srivastav, Ming Wu
Chapter 9. Case studies 313
Case Studies of Inadvertent Interactions Between Polymers and Devices in
Field Applications 313
Joseph H. Groeger, Jeffrey D. Nicoll, Joyce M. Riley, Peter T. Wronski
Case Studies of Plastics Failure Related to Improper Formulation 323
Myer Ezrin and Gary Lavigne
Translating Failure Into Success – Lessons Learned From Product Failure
Analysis 329
John E. Moalli
Index 337
A
ABS 73, 121, 241
activation energy 219
adhesives 9, 89
aerospace 113, 179, 289
ageing 228
amorphous 25
anchoring strength 56
antioxidants 316, 206, 247
appliances 96, 314
arcing 313
Arrhenius 219, 229
Arrhenius equation 92
ASTM 173
automotive 9, 53, 95, 135, 179
B
ballooning 25
blends 143
blistering 79
blowmolding 159
body fluid 89
bonding 21, 96, 323
fiber-matrix 20
boundaries 161
brittle 21, 143
C
cables 318, 324, 326
cars 253
cavitation 25, 146, 193
chain mobility 95
chlorine 174
circuit boards 210
coatings 79
coefficient of thermal expansion 212
cohesive strength 89, 94
composite
composites 105, 113, 135, 179, 253
Compton secondary electrons 202
construction 105
container 313
continuum 307
cooling 39, 212
copper 11, 212
corrosion 79, 105
corrosion resistance 253
cost 63
crack 17, 95, 143
front 131
propagation 73
tip 73, 146
cracking 161
cracks 112
crash 253
craze 261
radius 171
formation 267
crazes 169
crazing 25, 73, 146, 206, 259
Index338 Index
creep 25, 58, 89, 90
crystallinity 167
crystallites 220
crystallization 149, 161
cup 333
cure 210
cyclic loading 310
D
damping 58
decohesion 261
deformation 143, 146, 168
degradation 201
degree of cure 212
delamination 79, 105
density 262
design 63, 329
diaphragm 317
diffusion 113, 206
DIOP 318
disbonding 193
displacement 58
DOP 318
drawing 25
DSC 2, 114, 128, 167
dynamic load 56
E
EDS 129
EDX 318
electronics 9
electrons 201
elongation 202, 220
energy 262
entanglement 96
environmental stress cracking 73
EPDM 219
epoxy 89, 195
EPR 220
erosion 313, 314
Event Tree Analysis 289
extrusion 31, 159
F
failure
analysis 307
criterion 179
mode 290, 293
modes 300
progressive analysis 179
scenario 291
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis 289
failure tree analysis 299
fatigue 9, 17, 60, 165
Fault Tree Analysis 289
fibers 20, 179
fibrillation 45, 123
fibrils 169
filler 316
films 31, 48
finite element analysis 307
fitting 174
flaking 79
flaws 165
FMEA 331
force 55
fractography 121, 127
fracture
brittle 21
surface 20
free radicals 220
free volume 114
frequency 165Index 339
FTIR 128, 281, 318
G
gamma 202
gas fuel system 292
gelation 210
Gerdner impact test 241
glass fiber 135
glass transition temperature 89
GPC 2
grease 325
growth 165
H
HDPE 281
heat resistance 227
hip implant 310
HIPS 241
housing 297, 313, 332
hydroperoxides 247
hysteresis 56
I
ICP 128
impact 159, 300
inelastic void 193
initiation 143
injection molding 227
insulation 313
interphase 114
ionization 201
IR 327
irradiation 247
ISO 289
J
joints 95
L
lamellae 29, 169
lamina 179
laminates 9, 105, 179, 209
Lamination Theory 212
lifetime 165, 228
ligaments 25
load 58
cyclic 17
dynamic 60
loads 233
local stress 73
lubricants 316
M
marine 79
material cost 227
Mean Time between Failures 289
medical 201
metallurgy 127
microcracking 25, 105
microscope 127
microscopy 281
missile 9
mobility 96
moisture 89, 92
molding 135
molecular weight 174
morphology 158
motor 325
N
necking 29
nitrocellulose 127
nucleation 152, 165
O
OIT 203
optical emission spectroscopy 128
orientation 45340 Index
oven aging 219
overmolding 311
oxidative induction time 219
oxygen 201, 206, 247
P
pacemakers 9
packages 9
packaging 201, 247
parison 159
PBT 235
PC 241
PE 326
petrochemical 289
pharmaceutical 313
photons 202
piping 173
plastic deformation 267
plasticization 89
plasticizer 318
plasticizers 316
plumbing 173
polyacetal 173
polyamides 95
polybutylene 173
polycarbonate 267, 311
polyester 219
polyetherimide 267
polyethylene 25, 31, 48, 143, 219, 259,
281
polyimide 10
polyketone 39
polypropylene 45, 135, 143, 149, 165,
201, 206, 219, 316
polysulfone 89
polyurethane 311
PPS 314
Preliminary Hazard Analysis 289
prepregs 210
prestress 55
processing 39
pultrusion 105
PVC 313, 318
pyrolysis 314
R
radiation
treatment 247
radicals 201, 247
recycling 135
relay 313
residual stress 79, 210, 212, 311
risk 289
analysis 289
prioritization number 294
priority number 290
rubber 333
rubber particles 73, 193
S
SAXD 167
SAXS 32, 34
screw 55
SEM 11, 73, 112, 123, 128, 159, 161,
168, 195, 219, 282, 316
semicrystalline 25
serration 123
severity 293
shear 146
shifting factor 229
shrinkage 79, 105
siding 244
sizeIndex 341
critical 165
sizing 330
snap 297
softening 167
solvents 73
spherulites 161
sports equipment 179
steel 25
sterilization 201, 247
stiffness 105, 179
strain 144
strain energy 122
strapping 45
stress 174, 244, 330
field 259
intensity 170
striations 123, 132
submicrocracks 165
surface
embrittlement 174
surfactants 73
swelling 89
switch 313, 314
T
talc 317
tape 45, 324
TD 323
TEM 73, 281
temperature 31, 89, 159, 219
tensile
stress 187
tensioning 45
TGA 129
thermal expansion coefficient 187
thermal gradient 311
thermoplastics 233
tie molecule 220
tissue rejection 89
tools 95
toughening 143
toughness 122
traces 11
triphenylphosphate 325
U
UV 331
V
viscoelastic
deformation 58
vitrification 210
voids 154
volume 96
von Mises stress 267
W
wall
thickness 159
warping 310
water 113
WAXD 167
weldability 45
welding 149
whitening 206
Y
yield stress 25
yielding 146

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