The Science and Technology of Flexible Packaging

The Science and Technology of Flexible Packaging
اسم المؤلف
Barry A. Morris
22 أبريل 2023
(لا توجد تقييمات)

The Science and Technology of Flexible Packaging
Multilayer Films from Resin and Process to End Use
Barry A. Morris
Table of Contents
Cover image
Title page
Table of Contents
Part I: Why multilayer films?
Chapter 1. Introduction to flexible packaging
1.1 History of packaging
1.2 Benefits of packaging
1.3 Size of market
1.4 Packaging value chain
1.5 Needs along the value chain
1.6 Assembling a package: benefits of multiple layers
1.7 Packaging trends
Part II: Basic processes
Chapter 2. Converting processes for flexible packaging
2.1 Extrusion
2.2 Film converting
2.3 Coating and lamination
2.4 Orientation
2.5 Metallization
2.6 Printing
Chapter 3. Flexible packaging equipment
3.1 Unit operations
3.2 Brief description of packaging equipment
Part III: Material basics
Chapter 4. Commonly used plastics and substrates in flexible packaging
4.1 Polymer resin and substrate function
4.2 Commonly used plastics in flexible packaging
4.3 Commonly used substrates in flexible packaging
4.4 Material specifications
4.5 Regulatory considerations
Chapter 5. Rheology of polymer melts
5.1 Basic terms
5.2 Importance of rheology in flexible packaging
5.3 Rheological measurements
5.4 Factors influencing polymer rheology
5.5 Relaxation, creep and constitutive equations
Further reading
Chapter 6. Polymer blending for packaging applications
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Why blend?
6.3 Blending processes
6.4 Physics of blending
6.5 Dispersion of rigid particles and nanocomposites
6.6 Rheology of polymer blends
6.7 Characterizing polymer blends
6.8 Conclusion
Part IV. Film properties
Chapter 7. Heat sealing in flexible packaging
7.1 Why it is important
7.2 How to measure
7.3 Typical values
7.4 Factors that influence heat seal performance
7.5 Science of heat sealing
7.6 Modeling heat seal and hot tack
7.7 Easy open seal technology
7.8 Reclosable seal technologies
7.9 Ultrasonic sealing
7.10 Failure analysis and troubleshooting
7.11 Selecting sealant resins
Further reading
Chapter 8. Barrier of flexible packaging films
8.1 Why it is important
8.2 How to measure
8.3 Typical permeation values
8.4 Science of permeation
8.5 Emerging technologies
Chapter 9. Strength, stiffness and abuse resistance of multilayer flexible packaging films
9.1 Why it is important
9.2 How to measure
9.3 Typical values
9.4 Engineering principles for multilayer films
Chapter 10. Adhesion in multilayer flexible packaging
10.1 Why adhesion is important
10.2 How to measure adhesion
10.3 Fundamentals
10.4 Tie resin technology
10.5 Laminating adhesive technology
Chapter 11. Thermoforming, orientation, and shrink properties of flexible packaging films
11.1 Thermoforming
11.2 Orientation and shrink
Chapter 12. Frictional and optical properties of flexible packaging films
12.1 Frictional properties
12.2 Optical properties
Part V. Effect of the converting process on film properties
Chapter 13. Effect of processing on quality of flexible packaging films
13.1 Thermal stability
13.2 Die lip buildup (die drool)
13.3 Moisture related issues
13.4 Flow maldistribution and instability issues
13.5 Curl
Chapter 14. Effect of the blown film process on film properties
14.1 Stress–strain history in blown film
14.2 Air versus water quench blown film
14.3 Development of blend morphology in blown film
Chapter 15. Effect of processing on interlayer adhesion
15.1 Adhesion to substrates in extrusion coating
15.2 Interlayer adhesion in coextrusion
Appendix: Relating stress to process control variables in extrusion coating/lamination and cast film processes
Part VI: End use considerations
Chapter 16. End-use factors influencing the design of flexible packaging
16.1 Environmental effects on package performance
16.2 Packaging–product interactions
16.3 Aging
16.4 General considerations
16.5 Cost
Chapter 17. Designing flexible packaging for sustainability
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Quantifying environmental impact
17.3 End-of-Life Considerations
17.4 Packaging design for sustainability
17.5 Conclusion
Part VII: Structure design and modeling
Chapter 18. Analytical and modeling tools for flexible packaging design and process optimization
18.1 Identification of packaging structures
18.2 Modeling
18.3 Final word
Appendix A. Writing guide for packaging films and other multilayer structures
A.1 Guide to multilayer structure writing: packaging and industrial applications
Appendix B. Examples of flexible packaging film structures
B.1 Medical packaging
B.2 Food packaging
B.3 Industrial/consumer films
‘Note: Page numbers followed by “f” indicate figures and “t” indicate tables.’
AA. See Acrylic acid (AA)
Abrasion resistance, 252
ABS. See Acrylonitrilebutadiene-styrene (ABS)
Abuse resistance, 310e311, 327,
engineering principles for multilayer
films, 318e345
flex fatigue, 317
mechanical properties, 311e313
puncture and impact resistance,
scratch and abrasion resistance,
shipping tests for package durability,
stiffness, 313e314
tear strength, 314
typical values, 318
Acid copolymer resins (ACRs), 196, 547.
See also Ethylene acrylic acid;
Ethylene methacrylic acid
Acid copolymers, 129, 182, 275, 470, 554
ACRs. See Acid copolymer resins
Acrylic acid (AA), 275
Acrylic acid-grafted polyethylene
(PE-g-AA), 364e365
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS),
Active packaging, 633e636
antimicrobial, 634e636
odor scavenging, 633e634
oxygen scavenging, 293
Additive technology for control of film
migrating additives, 439e440
migratory slip additive performance
factors, 441e453
nonmigrating additives, 440e441
strategies to reduce COF, 438f
theory of friction and how additives
work, 437e439
Additives, 94, 140e141. See also
fillers, 104
in flexible packaging, 104
inorganic antiblocking agent, 104
modifiers, 98e104
stabilizers, 94e98
and treatments, effect on heat seal
performance, 197e198
Adherend chemistry, 380e384
Adhesion, 70, 428e429, 501e502, 539.
See also Interlayer adhesion
to aluminum foil, 251
of multilayer films, 351, 360
adhesion of coatings, 354
boundary layer, 370e371
chemical interaction, 367e370
diffusion, 366e367
fracture mechanics analysis of peel
test, 354
mechanical interlocking,
oxidation of LDPE, 351e352
peel test, 352e354
polymers in coextrusion, 352t
tie resin technology, 351, 371e396
wetting and work of adhesion,
to PE, 251
to substrates in extrusion coating, 539
air gap, 540e566
die, 539e540
effect of coating thickness on peel
strength, 573e594
extruder, 539e540
nip, 566e573
Adhesive application, 42
Adhesive lamination, 42, 43f
extrusion coating and lamination vs., 44
key components, 42e43
key factors affecting properties, 43e44
Adhesives, 16, 89
Advanced coatings, 299e300
ALD, 300
DLC, 300
Aesthetics, 70
AFM. See Atomic force microscopy
Aging, 636e639, 638f
effects, 246
Air gap, 540
antioxidant and low temperature
experiments, 551t
contact angle results, 557t
cooling, 559e565, 578e579, 584
effects plot for cooling in, 563f
extrusion coating trial evaluating factors,
guidelines, 565e566
with IR thermometer, 562f
Newtonian velocity profile,
orientation, 554e559
oxidation, 542e554
ozone treatment
of melt curtain, 550f
on peel strength, 549t
sample process time calculations, 542t
stress, 554e559
tensile properties of 25-mm EAA
coating, 558t
TIAG, 540, 565t
Air ring, 30
Air-quench blown film. See also
Coextrusion blown film;
Monolayer blown film
process, 447
water-quench blown film, vs., 525e530,
526te527t, 528f, 531t
ALD. See Atomic layer deposition
Alkoxy radicals (RO$), 95
Alkyl radicals (R$), 95
Aluminum foil, 4, 104e105, 272, 364
Amide structure, 446e447
Amorpha in Turkey, 4f
Amorphous polyester (APET), 74, 90,
Amorphous polymers, 410
Anaerobic and pyrolytic waste-to-energy
process, 648
Analysis of variance method (ANOVA
method), 563
Analytical techniques, 247
Anisotropic shrinkage, 503
Annealing, 104
temperature, 418e419
711ANOVA method. See Analysis of
variance method (ANOVA
Antagonistic effects, 456, 456f
Antiblock, 99
additives, 57e58, 440e441
Antifog, 103
additives, 435
Antimicrobial, 634e636
Antioxidant system, 95
Antistat additives, 101e102, 435
APET. See Amorphous polyester (APET)
Area creation, 598e603, 601f
Area ratio, 600e601
Arrhenius equation, 214, 578
Aseptic packaging, 54
Assembling package, 15e18
ASTM D1003, 453
ASTM D1306 method, 315
ASTM D1746, 453
ASTM D2457, 453
ASTM D2838, 414, 427
ASTM D3354, 437
ASTM D5342 method, 313
ASTM D747 method, 313
ASTM D882, 311
ASTM E96, 268
ASTM F1249 method, 268e269
ASTM F1921, 187
ASTM F392 method, 317
Atomic force microscopy (AFM), 247,
446, 451
Atomic layer deposition (ALD),
Attenuated total reflectance (ATR), 658
Attribute models, 661, 662f
Auto adhesion, 198
early theories, 199e200
Backside transfer, 245
Bag-in-box packaging, 707, 707t
Bakery packaging, 700, 705t
“Ballooning” effect, 621
Bar sealing, 61
Barrier, 69e70
bag-in-box liner requirements, 673t
screws, 27
selection, 673e674
Barrier packaging, 259
antimicrobial packaging, 261
barrier needs by food type, 262t
degree of protection, 265t
deleterious pathogens, 260
emerging technologies, 293e300
extrinsic factors, 259, 259t
intrinsic factors, 259, 259t
measurement, 261
conversion factors, 266t
gas permeation, 266e268
moisture vapor transmission rate,
organic molecules permeation, 269
oxygen permeation value (OPV), 261
modified atmosphere packaging (MAP),
permeation values, 269e278
scalping, 261
science of permeation, 278e293
Base films, 420
Basket weaving, 3e4
Bend under own weight, 313
Bending stiffness, 309, 323e327
comparison of adhesive and extrusion
laminated films, 325t
force and deflection, 324f
model results, 326t
redesign of thermoforming web, 327f
Beta gauges, 31
Biaxial orientation, 415, 419, 423
Biaxial-orientated polyester (BOPET),
44, 412e413
Biaxial-orientated polypropylene
(BOPP), 44, 412e413
Biobased polymers, 91
biosourced monomer-based polymers,
PBS, 93e94
PHAs, 92e93
PLA, 92
starch polymers, 94
Biodegradation additives, 649
Biosourced monomer-based polymers,
Biot number (Bi number), 564e565
Birefringence, 413
“Black box” approach, 666
Bleached paper, 107
Blend morphology, 167f, 530e532
development in blown film, 530e532
effect of minor phase concentration,
elongated second phase, 532f
material characteristics, 532e533
processing factors, 533e534
Blending, 149e150, 155. See also Melt
melt blending, 152e155
morphology development in immiscible
blends, 160e169
pellet premixing, 151e152
processes, 150e155
properties vs. percent of polymer, 156f
TEMs, 156f
thermodynamics, 157e160
Blister packaging, 55
Block copolymers, 78
Blocking, 57e58, 437
force measurement, 437f
Blooming additives, 101
Blow-up ratio (BUR), 33, 337e338, 417,
479e480, 516, 594e595
Blown film, 421, 441e442
air ring, 30
air-quench blown film vs. water-quench
blown film, 525e530, 526t
bubble instability, 479e483, 479fe480f
cast film processes vs., 39, 39t
coextrusion blown film, 32, 519e525
collapsing frame, 30
cylindrical spiral mandrel die design, 29f
development of blend morphology in,
dual lip air ring, 30f
examples, 515
extruder, 29
gauge control, 30e31
haul-off roll, 30
inner bubble cooling, 30
key factors affecting properties,
line, 504e505
polymers, 28
process, 7, 29, 29f, 515f
scale-up, 35, 35t, 516, 517t
stressestrain history in, 515e525
tubular die, 29e30
winders, 31f
windup, 31e35
Bond strength, 367. See also Seal
strength; Peel strength
Bonding at interface, 200. See also
BOPET. See Biaxial-orientated polyester
BOPP. See Biaxial-orientated
polypropylene (BOPP)
Bottom web, 54
Boundary layer adhesion mechanism,
Branched PE, 77
Branching, 77e78, 140, 140f
Long chain (LCB), 77
Short chain (SCB), 77
Breakeven analysis, 644f
Brookfield viscometer, 132
Bullet drop test model, 668e669
BUR. See Blow-up ratio (BUR)
Cache strain, 311
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), 98
Cantilever tests, 313
Capillary melt shear viscometry, 133
712 INDEXbasic equations, 133e134
corrections to capillary rheology data,
134e135, 134f
Capillary number, 161
Capillary rheology data, corrections to,
134e135, 134f
Carbon double bonds, 439
Carbonyl index (CI), 543
CarreaueYasuda model, 222, 223t
Cast film, 36, 36f
blown film processes vs., 39, 39t
cast film/extrusion coating, 601
chill roll, 36e37
coextrusion, 37
die, 36
extruder, 36
key factors affecting properties, 37e39
pinning technology, 36e37
windup, 37
CED. See Cohesive energy density
Cellophane, 4, 106
Cereal box liners, 700, 704t
CFR. See Code of Federal Regulations
Chamfering, 469
Channel leakers, 245e246
Chaotic flow, 471
CHDM. See Cyclohexane dimethanol
Cheese packaging, 700e705, 706t
Chelating agents, 635
Chemical interaction, 367e370
Chemical resistance, 278
Chemistry, 204e205
Chill roll
cast film, 36e37
extrusion coating and lamination, 41
release, 99e101
Chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), 69
Christensen models, 410
Chrome plating, 363
Chromium-based catalysts, 76, 79
CI. See Carbonyl index (CI)
Clamshell packaging, 54e55
Clamshell resins properties, 647t
Clarifying agents, 102e103, 457
Clay-coated paper, 108
CLH. See Crystallization line height
Cling additives, 440
Cling films, 426e428
Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum),
59, 260
co-PET. See PET copolymer (co-PET)
“Coat hanger” dies, 36
adhesion, 354
adhesive resin, 375e378
and lamination
adhesive lamination, 42e44
extrusion coating and lamination,
Coating thickness, 554, 559e563
on peel strength, 573e574
adhesion of LDPE, 574fe575f
nonporous substrates, 582e588
peel test analysis, 588e594
Perkins Southwick test method, 575f
porous substrates, 576e582
Coca-Cola, 11e12
COCs. See Cyclic olefin copolymers
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 111,
Coefficient of friction (COF), 57, 99, 197,
435e437, 436f. See also Dynamic
COF; Static COF
correlation of kinetic, 444f
effect of sled weight, 437f
Coextrudable adhesives, 378e396
coextrudable tie resin technology,
factors affecting peel strength, 380e392
Coextrudable tie resin, 392e396
Coextruded films, 322, 707
Coextrusion, 14, 450e451, 455e456,
455f, 465
cast film, 37
extrusion coating and lamination, 41
layer multiplier technology, 369
layer rearrangement in, 483e486
layer redistribution in three-layer
coextrusion, 483fe484f
Coextrusion blown film, 32, 519e525.
See also Air-quench blown film;
Monolayer blown film;
Water-quench blown film
effect of coextrusion, 522f
effect of process time, 522f
Elmendorf tear strength, 525f
machine direction (MD)
elongation, 524f
rate, 521f
yield strength, 524f
normalized bubble temperature profile,
properties, 523t
width of temperature plateau, 521f
COF. See Coefficient of friction (COF)
Coffee package, 423e424
Cohesive energy density (CED),
157e158, 281
Collapsing frame, 30
Compatibility, 156
Compatibilizers, 104
Complex viscosity, 136, 406, 407f
Compostable packaging, 649
Compression ratio, 26e27
Compuplast, 671
Computer modeling and simulation, 661
Condensation, 76
polymers, 470
Conductive sealing (CS). See Hot bar
Cone and plate viscometer, 135, 135f
Constitutive equations, 141e144, 141f
Consumer Packaging Goods (CPG), 12
Consumption patterns, 9e11
Contact angle, 361
Contamination, 244e245
Converting costs, 641
Converting processes, 25, 25t
coating and lamination, 40e44
extrusion, 25e29
film converting, 29e40
orientation, 44e46
printing, 46e47
single screw extruder, 25f, 26t
Cooling, 559e565
in air gap, 578e579
nonporous substrates, 584
porous substrates, 578e579
kinetics, 33e34
in nip
nonporous substrates, 584e586
porous substrates, 579e581
Coordination catalyst polymerization, 76
Copolymers, 78
CoPP. See Random copolymer
Corotating twin-screw extruder,
Cost, 640, 667e669
environmental costs, 642e649
financial costs, 640e642, 640t
Covalent bonds, 76
Cox-Merz rule, 136
CPET. See Crystalline polyethylene
terephthalate (CPET)
CPG. See Consumer Packaging Goods
Crack or peel front, 590. See also
Fracture; Peel test
Cradle-to-gate LCA, 645
Creep, 130, 141e144, 141f
Creep test, 402e403
Creep/recovery, 142e144, 142fe143f
Critical attribute, 456
Critical surface tension, 361
Critical to quality (CTQ), 13, 633e634
INDEX 713Critical thickness (for adhesion),
359e360, 359f, 590
Cryogenic microtoming, 657
morphology, 75, 337, 415
regions, 273
Crystalline polyethylene terephthalate
(CPET), 90, 618
Crystallinity, 402, 609
Crystallization, 205e206
continuum of molecular forces, 205f
half time, 406e407, 408f
model calculation, 206f
secondary, 500e501, 503
stress and strain induced, 208e209, 503
time, 598e603, 601f
types of molecular forces, 205t
Crystallization line height (CLH),
Crystals, 74, 281e282
CTFE. See Chlorotrifluoroethylene
CTQ. See Critical to quality (CTQ)
Cup method, 268
Curing, 42, 44
Curl, 494, 496f, 506f, 681
aging of three layer films, 499f
causes, 494e497
changing tie resin of coextruded blown
film, 498t
design of experiment and curvature
results, 506t
differential shrinkage, 495e497,
measuring curl, 496f
modeling, 502e508
strategies for reduction, 497
balance modulus, thickness, location,
and shrinkage of layer, 501e502
matching freezing points or
crystallization rates, 499e500
matching shrinkage of layers, 499
post-quench crystallization, 500e501
quench rate increase, 500
reducing polymer crystallinity,
497e498, 498t
of two-layer blown film, 497t
Cyclic olefin copolymers (COCs), 69,
85e86, 85f, 273, 425e426.
See also Biobased polymers
Cyclohexane dimethanol (CHDM), 90
Cylindrical spiral mandrel die design, 29f
Dairy products, 260
DDR. See Draw down ratio (DDR)
hot tack test, 185f
tests, 185
Deborah number (De), 35, 122e123,
468e469, 474f, 554, 605e606,
Deformation, 311
Delamination, 624e628
peeleseal technology, 351
technology for recycling multilayer
films, 648
Design of experiments (DOEs),
experiments, 663e664
factorial design, 662e663, 663f
primary limitation, 665
Diamondlike coatings (DLC), 300
Dichroism, 413
Die, 539e540
cast film, 36
drool, 467e470, 468t
exit region, 469, 469f
extrusion coating and lamination, 40
swell, 468
Die drip; See Dieddrool
Die lip buildup; See Dieddrool
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),
194, 403, 405f, 518e519, 657,
Diffusion, 207, 279, 366e367, 380e381,
coefficient, 269, 443
diffusion-in experiment, 443
diffusion-out experiment, 443e444
at interface, 200e201
heat seal process effects, 202
polymer properties, 203e205
Diffusive flux, 609
Dimensional stability, 90
Dimensional thermoformability index
(DTI), 403e404
Dioctyl phthalate, 101
Dipole forces, 77
Directional tear technology, 340e342
Dispersion, 159e160
of rigid particles, 169e171
stabilization, 162
DLC. See Diamondlike coatings (DLC)
DMA. See Dynamic mechanical analysis
DMTA. See Dynamic mechanical
thermal analysis (DMTA)
DOEs. See Design of experiments
Dog bone profile, 472
Domain size, 457e458
Double bubble processes, 45e46, 45f,
412, 415
Dow chemical hot tack tester, 185f
Down gauging, 309
Draw down ratio (DDR), 32e33,
321e322, 417, 497, 516, 534,
595, 602, 603f
Draw ratio, 473, 474f, 479, 534
Draw resonance, 42, 478e479
Drying, 42, 95
DSC. See Differential scanning
calorimetry (DSC)
DTI. See Dimensional thermoformability
index (DTI)
Dual bore capillary rheometer, 135f
Dual compartment pouch concept, 669f
Dual ovenable packaging, 618
DuPont, 661, 674e675
bending stiffness test method, 313, 314f
company, 4
disco purge method, 466, 467f
sealant selector tool, 675f
Selar PA, 297
spring hot tack test, 185e186, 186f
Dwell time, 63, 183, 191
Dynamic COF, 436
Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA),
403, 605
Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis
(DMTA), 403
Dynamic rheology measurements,
Dyne test, 361
E-beam irradiation, 404. See also
Irradiation, Pasteurization;
E/GMA. See Ethylene-coglycidyl
methacrylate (E/GMA)
EAA. See Ethylene acrylic acid (EAA)
Easy-open seal technology, 230
examples, 231e232, 233f
lidding films, 235e238
mechanisms, 231f
PB-1 blends, 232e235, 234f, 236f
EBA. See Ethylene butyl acrylate (EBA)
Ecoflex, 94
ECPs. See Ethylene copolymers (ECPs)
Edge bead, 40, 129, 472e478, 474f
forces on melt curtain leading to,
Edge Tear Instabilities, 478e479
Edge weave, 42, 129, 478e479
Edible oil packaging, 707, 707t
Elastic modulus. See Tensile modulus
714 INDEXElasticity, 125
effects, 484e486, 485f
Electrical theory of adhesion, 199e200
Electron beam irradiation. See E-beam
Electron spectroscopy for chemical
analysis (ESCA), 247, 368e369,
446e447, 543, 625
Elmendorf tear resistance test, 314
Elongation, 311
Elongational viscosity, 121f
measurements, 533
EMA. See Ethylene methyl acrylate
EMAA. See Ethylene methacrylic acid
Emerging barrier technologies
advance coatings, 299e300
layer multiplication, 294e297
nanocomposites, 297e299
oxygen scavenging, 293e294
Empirical and statistical models, 661e665
fishbone diagram for heat seal problem,
Encapsulation, 635
End use, 130, 391e392
factors influencing flexible packaging
design, 617
aging, 636e639
cost, 640e649
environmental effects on package
performance, 617e623
general considerations, 640
packagingeproduct interactions,
End-of-life scenarios, 647e649
Engineering strain, 312
Engineering stress, 312
Environmental costs, 642e649. See also
Financial costs
breakeven analysis, 644f
end-of-life scenarios, 647e649
LCA, 645e647
product life cycle, 645f
SaVE Tool, 643t, 644f
Environmental effects on package
performance. See also
Packagingeproduct interactions
foods and dosage levels, 623t
humidity, 619e621
irradiation, 621e623
pressure, 621
storage modulus, 619f
temperature, 617e619
Environmental stress cracking (ESC),
623e624, 628
EPDM. See Ethylene propylene diamine
monomer (EPDM)
EPR. See Ethyleneepropylene rubber
Erucamide, 100t, 439, 442, 444t
correlation with COF, LLDPE film, 444f
surface concentration on LLDPE film,
442e443, 444f, 444t
ESC. See Environmental stress cracking
ESCA. See Electron spectroscopy for
chemical analysis (ESCA)
Essential work of fracture (EWF),
Ethylene, 79
ethylene-based ionomers, 76e77
ethylene-bis-stearamide, 439
scavenger, 260
Ethylene acrylic acid (EAA), 70, 203,
364e365, 555, 697
N,N-Ethylene bisamide, 439
Ethylene butyl acrylate (EBA), 374
Ethylene copolymers (ECPs), 82e83,
248, 636. See also Biobased
in flexible packaging, 82t
Ethylene methacrylic acid (EMAA), 203
Ethylene methyl acrylate (EMA), 70,
203, 364e365, 582
EMA-based tie resin, 465
Ethylene propylene diamine monomer
(EPDM), 103, 150
Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), 6e7, 70,
150, 182, 274, 364e365, 435,
569, 659e660, 698
EVA-based tie resin, 465
Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH), 7, 58,
69, 87e88, 87f, 150, 269e272,
406, 407t, 408f, 503, 505, 505t,
507f, 572, 595, 619e620, 658,
Ethylene-coglycidyl methacrylate
(E/GMA), 369
Ethyleneepropylene rubber (EPR), 158,
EUP. See European Pharmacopeia (EUP)
European Pharmacopeia (EUP), 113
EVA. See Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)
EVA copolymerestyrene vinyl phenol
(EVAeStVPh), 159
EVOH. See Ethylene vinyl alcohol
EWF. See Essential work of fracture
Exfoliation, 170, 297
Extensional flow, 122f
Extensional measurements, 136e137
extrudate drawing test, 138f
Extensional viscosity, 121f, 403
Extrinsic factors affecting food quality,
259, 259t
Extrudate distortion, 125e128,
470e472, 471f
Extruder, 539e540
blown film, 29
cast film, 36
extrusion coating and lamination, 40
speed, 533
temperature, 533
Extrusion, 25e29, 124e125
in blown film, 129e130
elasticity, 125
equations for simple shear flows,
film fabrication processes, 129e130
flow in transfer pipes, 125
flow instabilities, 128e129, 470e493
flow of polymers, 125
haze, 454
melt fracture. See also Extrudate
distortion, 125e128
melt swell, 128f
processes, 7
recirculation secondary flows, 128f
shear thinning behavior, 124e125
velocity profile, 128f
viscosity, 125
Extrusion coating, 7, 540f
adhesion to substrates in, 539
air gap, 540e566
effect of coating thickness on peel
strength, 573e594
die, 539e540
extruder, 539e540
nip, 566e573
and lamination, 40, 40f, 371e378
adhesive lamination vs., 44
coating adhesive resin, 375e378
coextrusion, 41
examples, 374e375
key components, 40e41
key parameters affecting properties,
polymer, 373e374
substrate, 371e373
Factorial design, 662e663, 663f
Failure analysis for heat sealing, 242.
See also Heat sealing
analytical techniques, 247
causes, 242e247, 243te244t
INDEX 715Failure analysis for heat sealing (Continued)
troubleshooting checklist, 247e248
types of seal failures, 242
Falling dart impact test, 315e316
Fast quench process, 447
Fatty acid amides, 99, 439e440, 439t,
FCNs. See Food Contact Notifications
FDA. See U.S. Food and Drug
Administration (FDA)
FEA. See Finite element analysis (FEA)
Feedblock technology, 32, 37
Fick’s first law, 265e266, 279, 442e443
Fick’s second law, 279
Fickian diffusion equations, 269
Fillers, 104, 140e141
Filling, 58e59
Film, 291e292, 291f
blocking, 435
converting, 245
blown film, 29e31
cast film, 36e39
film-to-film COF properties, 436
film-to-metal COF properties, 436
lamination and printing, 12
structure, 386e388, 405e406
temperature, 406e409, 406t
thermal properties and thermoforming
temperatures, 407t
thickness, 193e194, 276e277
and additive level, 447e448, 448f
measurement, 31, 401
heat seal curves, 194f
Film fabrication, 124e125, 234e235,
442, 447
additives and treatments, 197e198
in blown film, 129e130
elasticity, 125
equations for simple shear flows,
film fabrication processes, 129e130
film thickness, 193e194
flow in transfer pipes, 125
flow instabilities, 128e129
flow of polymers, 125
LLDPE extrudate distortion, 129f
melt fracture, 125e128
melt swell, 128f
and package design, 195e197
recirculation secondary flows, 128f
sealant resin, 194e195
shear thinning behavior, 124e125
substrate adhesion, 195
thickness measurement, 31
velocity profile, 128f
viscosity, 125
Financial costs, 640e642, 640t. See also
Environmental costs
converting costs, 641
indirect packing costs, 641e642
material costs, 641
modeling, 642
other costs, 642
packing labor and overhead costs, 641
Finite element analysis (FEA), 669
Finite element model, 411
Finite velocity, 467
Flame treatment, 364
Flaring of die exit to reduce die drool,
Flex fatigue, 317
Flexible packaging, 3, 9, 642e645, 648.
See also Modeling flexible
packaging structures
film structures
food packaging, 699e707
industrial/consumer films, 707e709
medical packaging, 698e699, 698t
flexible packaging films, markets for,
rheology, importance in, 123e131.
See also Rheology
end use, 130
extrusion and film fabrication,
polymer characterization, 130e131
typical shear rate ranges, 124f
value chain, 11f
Flexible Packaging Association, 9
Flexographic printing, 47, 47f
FLH. See Frost line height (FLH)
Flood feeding in extrusion, 25. See also
accelerated reaction rate in coextrusion,
flow-induced orientation, 609
instabilities in coextrusion, 679
maldistribution and instability issues,
bubble instability in blown film,
draw down, 472e479
interfacial instabilities, 486e493
layer rearrangement in coextrusion,
sharkskin and extrudate distortion,
microcalorimetry, 544
Fluoroelastomers, 125e128
Fluoropolymer, 469e470
Food Contact Notifications (FCNs), 111
Food packaging, 10, 110e111,
266e268. See also Industrial/
consumer films; Medical
bag-in-box packaging, 707, 707t
bakery packaging, 700, 705t
cereal box liners, 700, 704t
cheese packaging, 700e705, 706t
edible oil packaging, 707, 707t
fresh-cut produce, 706e707
frozen food packaging, 705e706, 706t
milk pouches, 705, 706t
poultry/fish packaging, 700, 704t
primal meat packaging, 699, 699t
processed meat packaging, 699e700
film structures, 701te704t
regulatory compliance
in European Union, 112e113
in United States, 111e112
retortable pouches, 707
salty snack packaging, 700
snack food packaging, 700, 705t
subprimal meat packaging, 699t
Foreign contamination, 465
Forming process, 401e402
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
(FTIR spectroscopy), 109, 247,
287, 368e369, 450, 465, 543,
IR frequencies of chemical compounds,
trichroism, 337e338
energy, 130, 211, 554, 590
model, 363
mechanics, 210e212
analysis of peel test, 354
Free radical polymerization, 75
Free volume, 443
Freezing line height, 516e518
Fresh-cut produce, 706e707
Frictional properties, 435
additive technology, 437e441
blocking, 437
coefficient of friction, 436e437
importance, 435e436
Frost line, 515
Frost line height (FLH), 33e34, 516, 534
Frozen food packaging, 705e706, 706t
FTIR spectroscopy. See Fourier
transform infrared spectroscopy
(FTIR spectroscopy)
Gamma backscatter techniques for
measuring film thickness, 31
Gamma capacitance techniques for
measuring film thickness, 31
Gamma gauges for measuring film
thickness, 31
Gamma ray transmission for measuring
film thickness, 31
Gas, 86
fading, 98
flush packaging, 59e60
permeation, 266e268
standard methods for measuring, 267t
phase-fluidized bed reactor, 79
Gas barrier, 69, 269
EVOH, 269e272
OPV and MVTR values for high barrier
polymers, 270t
OTR and MVTR values for barrier
substrates, 271t
PA, 272
PVDC, 272
resins and substrates, 272
Gas chromatography (GC), 266
Gas sealing. See Hot air sealing
Gauge control, 30e31
GC. See Gas chromatography (GC)
Gelbo flex test, 317
Generally accepted as safe (GRAS), 111,
GHG emissions. See Greenhouse gas
emissions (GHG emissions)
“Glass” oxide coatings, 290
Gloss, 453, 458
Good and Girifalco equation, 160
Grafted PE, 84
Graham’s law, 293
GRAS. See Generally accepted as safe
Gravure printing, 46e47, 46f
Grease resistance and barrier, 69, 274
acid copolymers, 275
film thickness, 276e277
ionomers, 275e276
and oil resistance, 251, 251f
oil type, 277
paper, 108
PE, 274e275
PP, 276
“Greaseproof paper”, 107
Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG
emissions), 617
Grocery sacks, 709, 709t
Gross melt fracture, 128, 471
Gussets, 245e246
Halogens, 425e426
HALS. See Hindered amine light
stabilizers (HALS)
Haul-off roll, 30
Haze, 481e482, 482f
Haze and transparency, 454
coextrusion, 455e456
factors, 456e458
monolayer polyethylene film, 454e455
HDPE. See High density polyethylene
Health-care packaging, 113
Heat seal, 212e216, 215f
coatings, 235e237
model, 214f, 678e679, 679f
dwell time, 191
pressure, 192
product contamination, 192e193
seal bar design, 192
temperature, 191e192
process effects, 202
results of horizontal form fill seal trial,
temperature curves, 63f, 188e190, 189f
temperature window, 189fe190f
Heat seal initiation temperature (HSIT),
63, 188
Heat sealing, 60e61, 130, 181, 198
bonding at interface, 200
crystallization, 205e206
die design, 62
diffusion at interface, 200e205
early theories of auto adhesion,
easy-open seal technology, 230e238
factors influencing performance, 62e65,
failure analysis, 242e248
in flexible packaging, 181
fracture mechanics, 210e212
hot tack, 182f, 207e210, 216e219
curves, 190e191
interfacial bond strength, 205e206
laboratory tests
comparing with packaging line
studies, 188
heat seal tests, 183e184
hot tack measurement, 184e188
mechanisms of self-adhesion, 198f
reclosable seal technologies, 238e239
science of, 198e212
seal crimper, 62
seal strength of packages, 182e183
sealant, 182
layer, 181
selecting sealant resins, 248e253
squeeze flow, 219e230
troubleshooting, 242e248
types, 61e62
ultra sonic (US), 239e242
Heat transfer models, 672
Heavy duty bags, 708, 708t
Hencky strain. See Logarithmic strain
Henry’s law, 265
Herman’s orientation function, 339
Heterogeneous nucleation, 102
HFFS. See Horizontal form fill seal
High barrier
polymers, 277
substrates, 272
High density polyethylene (HDPE), 6,
62, 69, 81e82, 150, 187e188,
195, 273, 467, 494, 545e546,
595, 659, 673, 697
blown film trial, 505t
structure, 673
HDPEetieeEVOH test structure,
High impact polystyrene (HIPS), 91,
High pressure processing (HPP), 621.
See also Pasteurization;
High speed puncture, 315e316
High stress region, 469
High-clarity shrink film, 709, 709t
Highly crystalline polyolefins, 69
Hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS),
HIPS. See High impact polystyrene
HMWeHDPE films, 421
Homogeneous nucleation, 102
homopolymer polypropylene (hPP or
hoPP), 321e322
“Hook”, 371
Hookean solids, 122e123
Horizontal form fill seal (HFFS), 51e53,
53f, 697
Horizontal thermoform fill seal, 53e54,
Hot adhesion, 207
Hot air sealing, 61
Hot bar sealing, 195, 239, 242
Hot knife sealing, 61
Hot tack, 51, 65, 65f, 130, 181e182,
182f, 207e210, 216e219, 217f,
INDEX 717Hot tack (Continued)
comparison of hot tack performance,
curves, 190e191, 190f
effect of delay time, 220f
DSC, 209f
master hot tack curve, 218f
model prediction, 221f
resin design strategies, 208f
strain or stress induced crystallization,
effect on, 208e209
temperature window breadth, 251
transient elongation viscosity, 210f
Hot tack initiation temperature (HTIT),
187, 190e191
Hot wire sealing, 61
HPP. See High pressure processing (HPP)
hPP. See homopolymer (hPP)
HSIT. See Heat seal initiation
temperature (HSIT)
HTIT. See Hot tack initiation temperature
Humidity. See Relative humidity
Hydrocarbon resins, 103
Hydrodynamics, 470
Hydrogen bonding, 77, 415
Hydrogen chloride (HCl), 94e95
Hydroperoxide (ROOH), 95, 260, 630
Hydroxyl (OH), 368
Hydroxyl radicals ($OH), 95
Hyperelastic constitutive models, 410
Hyperelastic model, 410
6I. See Isophthalic acid (6I)
I-beam, 323e324
ICH. See International Conference on
Harmonization (ICH)
Immiscible blends, 156
Impact resistance, 315
high speed puncture, 315e316
slow puncture, 315
Impartation, 628e630
Improved collection, marking, and
sorting systems, 648
Impulse sealing, 61
pasteurization, 617
sterilization processes, 617
Indirect packing costs, 641e642
force, 77
sealing, 61
Industrial/consumer films. See also Food
packaging; Medical packaging
grocery sacks, 709, 709t
heavy duty bags, 708, 708t
high-clarity shrink film, 709, 709t
stretch cling pallet wrap, 708t
stretch wrap, 707e708
trash bags, 708
coextrusion structures,
Infrared (IR), 155e156. See also ATR;
detectors, 268e269
radiation, 658
spectroscopy, 31
Initial process time studies, 594e598
Inner bubble cooling, 30
Inorganic agents, 635
Institute of Mechanical Engineers
study, 8
Interaction parameter, 157
Intercalation of clay, 297
Interfacial/interface, 361
adhesion, 486
bond strength, 205e206
continuum of molecular forces, 205f
model calculation, 206f
types of molecular forces, 205t
defect model, 363
instabilities, 486
fundamental studies, 486e487
input parameters for film structure,
490t, 492t
methods to improving stability,
velocity profile of two-layer flow,
adhesion to substrates, 361, 363.
See also Surface tension;
Thermodynamics; Wetting
polymer blends, 149, 160e161,
relationship to solubility parameters,
160, 363
Interlayer adhesion. See also Adhesion
in coextrusion, 594
crystallization time, temperature, and
area creation, 598e603, 601f
flow accelerated reaction rate,
initial process time studies,
interfacial area creation and
temperature, 600f
process time master curve, 603e608
after forming, 410
relating stress to process control
variables, 612e613
Intermolecular forces. See Van der Waals
International Conference on
Harmonization (ICH), 113
Intramolecular forces, 77
Intrinsic factors for food safety, 259, 259t
Ionic bonding, 415
Ionic bonds, 76e77
Ionomers, 76e77, 82e83, 129, 206, 251,
275e276, 415, 415fe417f, 450,
chemical structure, 83f
morphology, 83f
sealant bonds, 206
IR. See Infrared (IR)
Irradiation, 420, 621e623. See also
ISO 2493 method, 313
ISO 7765e2 method, 316
Isomerism, 77e78
polypropylene, 78f
Isophthalic acid (6I), 86
Isotactic polymer, 78
Isotactic polypropylene, 84f
Japanese Pharmacopeia (JP), 113
JMP, 662
K-BKZ models, 410e411
Kinetic coefficient of friction (COF).
See Coefficient of friction;
Dynamic COF
Kraft paper, 107
L/D. See Length to diameter ratio (L/D)
Labeling laws, 8, 59, 635e636
Laboratory heat seal tests, 183e184
Laboratory hot tack measurement,
deadweight hot tack test, 185f
Dow chemical hot tack tester, 185f
DuPont spring test, 186f
Packforsk hot tack tester, 186f
Laboratory puncture tests, 330
718 INDEXLako Tool, 62
Lamella (polymer crystals), 337, 628. See
also Crystalline morphology
Laminates, 328e332
Laminations, 420
extrusion coating and, 371e378
Layer multiplication, 294e297, 345
LCA. See Life cycle analysis (LCA)
LCB. See Long chain branching (LCB)
LDPE. See Low density polyethylene
Leakers, 641
Length to diameter ratio (L/D), 131, 468,
Lidding films, 235, 423
heat seal coatings, 235e237
peelable seal resins, 237e238
Lidding stock, 699
Life cycle analysis (LCA),
calculation for clamshell packaging,
data for packaging resins and films, 646t
model, 674e678, 676t, 677f
Light barrier, 69, 278
packaging, 260
Limiting tear resistance, 342
Limonene (also d-limonene), 277, 624,
Linear low density polyethylene
(LLDPE), 6, 70, 79e81,
124e125, 129, 150, 182, 195,
274, 327e328, 421, 422f, 439,
441, 444f, 444t, 470e471, 473f,
478e479, 545e546, 617e618,
659, 697, 707e708
bubble stability, 480
melt strength additive, 480f, 481, 482f
elmendorf tear resistance, 481f
LLDPEeLDPE monolayer films,
414e415, 480f
melt strength measurements, 480f
Linear polymer, 77
Linear stability analysis, 483
Linear thermal shrinkage, 413
Linear viscoelasticity, 131
Listeria monocytogenes
(L. monocytogenes), 260
LLDPE. See Linear low density
polyethylene (LLDPE)
Lockup seal, 230
Logarithmic strain, 312
Long chain branching (LCB), 77, 402,
Longer-chain polyamides, 272
Loss modulus, 136
Low density polyethylene (LDPE), 5, 56,
70, 79, 124e125, 150, 182, 373,
439e440, 471, 474f, 478, 540,
542e543, 628, 659, 697
structure, 625
LDPEeLLDPE blends,
LDPEetieeEVOH film, 410, 410f
LDPEetieeEVOHetieeHDPE films,
421, 604
Low residual stress, 401
polymers, 435
sealant layers, 435
Lubricants, 101
m-LLDPE. See Metallocene LLDPE
(m-LLDPE); Metallocene
polyethylene plastomer
MAA. See Methacrylic acid (MAA)
Machine direction (MD), 323, 334, 412,
516, 550e553
Machine direction orientation (MDO),
films, 44, 45f, 46
processes, 401, 417, 418f
Machine wrap film, 707e708
Maddock screw element, 155f
Magnetic flux, 401
Maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene,
84, 84f, 451
MAP. See Modified atmosphere
packaging (MAP)
Material costs, 641
Material selection, 69
Maxwell model, 142e143
MaxwelleStephan equation, 292
MD. See Machine direction (MD)
MDO. See Machine direction orientation
Mechanical interlocking, 365e366
Medical packaging, 698e699, 698t.
See also Food packaging;
Industrial/consumer films
flow index. See Melt index (MI); Melt
flow rate (MFR)
forming processes, 406
fracture, 102, 125e128. See also
Extrudate distortion
strength, 122, 252, 403
stretching, 419
swell, 125
ratio, 125
Melt blending, 152
barrier energy transfer screw, 155f
circulatory flow patterns, 153f
corotating twin-screw extruder, 154e155
distributive and dispersive mixing,
Maddock screw element, 155f
melting mechanism, 152e153
mixing, 152
elements, 153e154
pin mixing section, 154f
Saxton mixing section, 154f
stress and velocity distribution, 153f
twin-screw extruder modular elements,
Melt flow rate (MFR), 131e132, 132t.
See also Melt index
ranging, 415
viscosity vs. shear rate curves, 132f
Melt index (MI), 108e109, 131e132,
132t, 171, 212, 545e546, 664.
See also Melt flow rate
viscosity vs. shear rate curves,
Melt strength additive (MSA), 481, 481t
Metalized OPP. See Metalized oriented
polypropylene (Metalized OPP)
Metalized oriented polypropylene
(Metalized OPP), 274
Metallized film, 105e106, 372
balloon film, 423
Metallocene catalysts, 81
Metallocene LLDPE (m-LLDPE),
158e159, 455
Metallocene polyethylene plastomer
(mPE), 150, 210
Methacrylic acid (MAA), 275, 547
Methyl ethylene, 84. See also
MFR. See Melt flow rate (MFR)
MI. See Melt index (MI)
Microbes, 621
Microlayer. See also Layer multiplier
films specialty, 458
technology, 294e295, 344e345
Microscopy, 247, 657e658, 658f
Migrating additives, 435, 439e440.
See also Antistat additives; Chill
roll release; Slip additives
effect of increasing film thickness, 446f
equilibrium surface concentration
increases, 446f
model calculation, 445f
slip additives of, 442e446
INDEX 719Migrating agents, 635. See also
Migrating additives
Migratory slip additive performance
factors, 441
additives, effect of, 449e450
amide structure, 446e447
coextrusion, 450e451
fatty acid amide slip problems, 451
film fabrication, 447
film thickness and additive level,
migration of slip additives, 442e446
multilayer structures, 450e451
polymer surface, 441e442
storage temperature, 449
tips and classic references, 452e453
Milk pouches, 705, 706t
Minitab, 662
Mixing, 152
elements, 153e154
pin mixing section, 154f
Saxton mixing section, 154f
MMT. See Montmorillonite (MMT)
Modeling, 410e411, 502e508
base case structure, 504t
financial costs, 642
sensitivity analysis, 504f
Modeling flexible packaging structures,
660e681. See also Flexible
packaging; Packaging structure
attribute models, 661
case study, 673e681
barrier bag-in-box liner requirements,
barrier selection, 673e674
curl, 681
flow instabilities in coextrusion, 679
heat seal model, 678e679, 679f
input for flow matching model, 680t
packing costs, 678
sealant selection, 674, 675t
stiffness and LCA model, 674e678,
676t, 677f
empirical and statistical models,
examples, 666e673, 666t
package design, 666e671
processing/converting, 671e673
theoretical/fundamental models,
Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP),
59e60, 260, 633e634
in food packaging, 60t
gases in, 60t
Modifiers. See also Additives
antiblock, 99
antifog, 103
antistats, 101e102
chill roll release, 99e101
clarifying agents, 102e103
compatibilizers, 104
lubricants, 101
nucleating agents, 102e103
opacifiers, 98
pigments, 98
plasticizers, 101
process aids, 102
slip agents, 99
tackifiers, 103
tougheners, 103
Modulus, 122
Moisture vapor barrier, 272, 273f
PCTFE, 272e273
Polyolefins, 273
PVDC, 273
Moisture vapor transmission rate
(MVTR), 252, 268e269, 270t,
421, 528, 529f
Moisture-related issues, 470
Moisturization technique for polyamide,
495, 501t
Molecular architecture, effect on heat
sealing, 203e204
Molecular chain length variations, 371
Molecular factors affecting melt
rheology, 139
additives, 140e141
branching, 140
chemical interactions, 140
fillers, 140e141
MW, 139
MWD, 140
Molecular forces, 76
effect of bonding on polymer properties,
primary bonds, 76e77
secondary bonds, 77
Molecular weight (MW), 72, 139,
158e159, 204, 272, 402, 443, 465
species, 621
Molecular weight distribution (MWD),
72e74, 129, 131, 140, 140f,
158e159, 195, 281, 412, 443,
471, 479, 487, 545e546, 664
Monolayer and coated barrier systems,
Monolayer blown film, 516e519, 516f.
See also Air-quench blown film;
Coextrusion blown film;
Water-quench blown film
crystallization and temperature profiles,
machine direction velocity profile, 518f
MD rate, 518f
scale-up rules, 517t
Monolayer extrusion, 470
Montmorillonite (MMT), 297
MooneyeRivlin models, 410
Mooning, 246e247
of seals, 191
Morphology, 149, 156e157
Morphology development of polymer
blend morphology, 167f
in blown film, 169
calculating viscosity ratio, 167f
compatibilizers in reducing coalescence,
HDPEePS blend viscosity ratio, 167f
in immiscible blends, 160e169, 160f
morphology development, 168f
single droplet breakup mechanisms,
single screw extrusion solid bed melting
model, 168f
viscoelastic droplet deformation,
mPE. See Metallocene polyethylene
plastomer (mPE)
MSA. See Melt strength additive (MSA)
Multi-manifold dies, 37
Multilayer barrier shrink film and bags,
Multilayer films, 12, 342
engineering principles for, 318
bending stiffness, 323e327
EWF, 343e344
mechanical properties, 318e323
microlayer technology,
puncture, scratch, and abrasion
resistance, 327e335
tear resistance, 335e342
Multilayer nonshrink barrier films,
Multilayer structures, 450e451
MVTR. See Moisture vapor transmission
rate (MVTR)
MW. See Molecular weight (MW)
MWD. See Molecular weight distribution
MXD6, 86
“Nano” scratch tests, 317
Nanocomposites, 169e171, 171f,
297e299, 298fe299f
Nanoparticles, 171
Near-infrared spectroscopy (Near-IR
spectroscopy), 31
Neck-in, 40, 129, 472e478, 473fe474f,
475t, 476f
Net stress, 554e555
Net ultimate hot tack (NUHT), 217
Neutral axis, 323e324
Newtonian fluid, 122
Newtonian model, 124
Newtonian plateau, 123e124
Nip, 566
boundary conditions, 566e567
cooling in, 579e581, 584e586
examples, 569e573
extrusion coating and lamination, 41
solidification, 567e569
thermal diffusivity, 566
time in, 567e569
Nitrocellulose-based waterproof
coatings, 106
Nitrogen flushed packaging, 260
No-slip condition, 469e471, 489
Nominal stress, 312
Non-Fickian diffusion, 279
Non-Newtonian behavior, 533
Nonmigrating additives, 435
Nonpolar polymers, 198
Nonporous substrates, extrusion coating
on, 582. See also Porous
in air gap, 584
in nip, 584e586
practical implications, 587e588
stress, 587
TIAG, 583e584
Normal force, 436e438
x. See Oxides of nitrogen (NOx)
Nucleating agents, 75, 102e103, 457
Numerical simulation, 671
NUHT. See Net ultimate hot tack
Nylon, 86, 156e157. See also Polyamide
OBCs. See Olefin block copolymers
Odor scavenging, 633e634
Ogden models, 410
OGTR. See Oxygen gas transmission rate
OH. See Hydroxyl (OH)
barrier, 69. See also Grease barrier
resistance, 274
acid copolymers, 275
film thickness, 276e277
ionomers, 275e276
PE, 274e275
PP, 276
type, 277
Oleamide, 100t, 439, 442
Olefin block copolymers (OBCs), 382
Oleophobic chemicals, 107e108
Oleyl palmitamide, 100t, 439
OPA. See Oriented polyamide (OPA)
Opacifiers, 98
OPET. See Oriented polyethylene
terephthalate (OPET)
OPP. See Oriented polypropylene (OPP)
Optical microscopy, 292
Optical properties, 453
definitions and measurement, 453
gloss, 458
haze and transparency, 454e458
Microlayer films specialty, 458
OPV. See Oxygen permeation value
Organic molecule permeation, 269
Organoleptics, 294, 628e633
impartation, 628e630
scalping, 630e633
Orientation, 44, 411e429, 554e559.
See also Biaxial orientation
affecting factors
oriented multilayer films, 420e429
polymer characteristics, 415e416
processing factors, 416e420
double bubble process, 45e46, 45f
machine orientation process, 45f
MDO process, 46
release stress, 414
tenter frame process, 44f, 45
Oriented multilayer films
adhesion, 428e429
base films, 420
laminations, 420
multilayer barrier shrink film and bags,
multilayer nonshrink barrier films,
shrink films and labels, 424e426
stretch and cling films, 426e428
Oriented polyamide (OPA), 420
Oriented polyester, 69, 105, 272, 420,
550e553, 569e572, 667, 697.
See also Biaxial-oriented
Oriented polyethylene terephthalate
(OPET), 309
Oriented polypropylene (OPP), 69, 104,
188e189, 697. See also Biaxialoriented polyester
Oscillatory flow, 471
OTR. See Oxygen transmission rate
adhesion of LDPE in extrusion
food quality, 260
Oxides of nitrogen (NOx), 98
barrier, 252
headspace (MAP), 59
scavenging, 293e294
Oxygen gas transmission rate (OGTR),
Oxygen permeation value (OPV), 261,
270t, 421, 628
Oxygen transmission rate (OTR), 265,
424, 528, 529fe530f, 620f, 699
PA. See Polyamide (PA)
PA66, 86, 86f
PA6I/6T, 86. See also DuPontdSelar PA
Package(s), 697
design, 195e197, 666e671
dual compartment pouch concept,
hot tack, 197f
development models, 666t
failures, 617, 628, 641e642
integrity loss, 623e628
environmental stress cracking, 628
peel strength and delamination,
shipping tests for durability, 317e318
Packaging, 3, 259, 618. See also
Environmental effects on package
performance; Flexible
packaging; Modeling flexible
packaging structures
Amorpha, 4f
assembling package, 15e18
benefits, 7e9
blowpipe, 4
Cellophane advertisement, 5fe6f
consumption patterns, 9e11
drivers and trends, 18t
five layer flexible packaging structures,
flexible packaging value chain, 11f
hunter-gatherer societies, 3
INDEX 721Packaging (Continued)
line studies, lab results to, 188
machinery, 7
milestones in history, 3f
needs along value chain, 13e15
packagingeproduct interactions, 623
active packaging, 633e636
negative consequences, 624f
organoleptics, 628e633
package integrity loss, 623e628
PE, 5
plastics materials, 7
structure identification, 657e660
analytical techniques, 660t
DSC, 659e660
FTIR, 658e659
microscopy, 657e658, 658f
technology, 260e261
three layer flexible packaging structures,
trends in context of value chain, 18e19
two-layer flexible packaging structures,
value chain, 11e13
Packaging equipment, 51
aseptic packaging, 54
horizontal thermoform fill seal, 53e54,
pouch machines, 51e53
retail packaging, 54e56
tray sealer, 54
unit operations, 56e65
uses, 52t
hot tack tester, 186f
test, 187
costs, 678
labor and overhead costs, 641
Paper, 106
paper-based packaging, 4
paper-making process, 364
types in packaging, 107e108
Paperboard, 56, 106
for packaging, 108
Pasteurization, 617, 621
PB-1. See Polybutene-1 (PB-1)
PBAT. See Poly(Butylene Adipate
PBS. See Polybutylene succinate (PBS)
PC. See Polycarbonate (PC)
PC-PMMA. See Polycarbonate/
polymethyl methacrylate
PC-SAN. See Polycarbonate/styrene
acrylonitrile (PC-SAN)
PCL. See Poly caprolactone (PCL)
PCTFE. See Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
PDI. See Poly-dispersity index (PDI)
PE. See Polyethylene (PE)
PE film, 697
PE-g-AA. See Acrylic acid-grafted
polyethylene (PE-g-AA)
Peak hot tack strength, 248
Pebax, 101e102. See also Antistat
PECVD. See Plasma-enhanced chemical
vapor deposition (PECVD)
angle, 237, 354e360
arms, 182
force, 130
rate, 357e359
seals, 230. See also Easy open seal
technology; Peelable seal resins
speed, 237
Peel strength (PS), 130, 554, 557f, 595,
624e628, 637f
affecting factors, 380
end use, 391e392
film structure, 386e388
processing, 388e391
tie resin functionality, 384e386
tie resin matrix and adherend
chemistry, 380e384
coating thickness effect on, 573e574
adhesion of LDPE, 574fe575f
nonporous substrates, 582e588
peel test analysis, 588e594
Perkins Southwick test method,
porous substrates, 576e582
effective contact time, vs., 602f
of EMAA to aluminum foil, 638f
to EVOH, 605f
to EVOH vs. process time
for blown film, 596f
for coextrusion coating, 597f
Peel test(s), 182e183, 183f, 184t,
352e354, 550e553
analysis, 588e590
application of peel strength model,
experiment, 588e589
fracture mechanics analysis, 354
peel angle, 354e360
peel rate, temperature, and
viscoelasticity, 357e359
practical implications, 592e594
thickness, 359e360
viscoelastic energy dissipation,
Peelable seal resins, 237e238. See also
Easy open seal technology
PEI. See Polyethylene imide (PEI)
Pellet mixers, 151
Pellet premixing, 151e152, 151f
PEN. See Polyethylene naphthalate
Pendant drop method, 361e362
Pendulum impact test, 316
PEO. See Polyethylene oxide (PEO)
Permanent additives, 101e102
Permeability, 69
co-efficient, 279
Permeant, 261
Permeation, 261, 278
chemical resistance, 278
through defects, 290e293
factors affecting permeability, 281
environmental effects,
permeant factors, 282e284
polymer factors, 281e282
thickness, 282
gas barrier, 269e272
grease and oil resistance, 274e277
light barrier, 278
moisture vapor barrier, 272e274
through multilayer films, 280
organic molecules, 277
through perforations, 290, 292e293
through pinholes, 290e292
through polymer films, 278e293
Peroxy radicals (ROO$), 95
Perturbation methods, 487
PET. See Polyethylene terephthalate
PET copolymer (co-PET), 632
PETG. See Polyethylene terephthalate
glycol (PETG)
Pharmaceutical packaging, 259
PHAs. See Polyhydroxyalkanoates
Phase inversion onset, 169
Phenolic antioxidants, 95
Phosphite antioxidant, 95
Physical aging, 636
PIB. See Polyisobutylene (PIB)
Pigments, 98, 150
Pinning technology, cast film, 36e37
722 INDEXPLA. See Polylactic acid (PLA)
Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor
deposition (PECVD), 299e300
Plasticizers, 101
Plate-out. See Die drool
Plateau hot tack strength, 217
Plateau initiation temperature, 63, 188
Plug-assisted thermoforming, 409
Pneumatic sealing, 61
PO. See Polyolefin (PO)
Polar ethylene copolymers, 205
Polar polymers, 69e70, 470
Polar sealants, 200
Poly caprolactone (PCL), 295e296
Poly-dispersity index (PDI), 74
Poly(Butylene Adipate co-Terephthalate)
(PBAT), 94
Polyamide (PA), 44, 86, 95, 156e157,
272, 404, 501, 569, 618e619, 698
Polyamide 6 (PA6), 6e7, 69, 86, 86f,
150, 326e327, 636, 658
crystallizes, 500
PA6/HDPE-g-MAH layer combination,
Polybutene-1 (PB-1), 85, 150, 231e232
blends, 232e235, 234f, 236f
Polybutylene succinate (PBS), 93e94
Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 90
Polycarbonate (PC), 150, 391, 484, 631
Polycarbonate/polymethyl methacrylate
(PC-PMMA), 344
Polycarbonate/styrene acrylonitrile
(PC-SAN), 344
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE),
89, 89f, 272
Polydynamics, 671
Polyester, 89e91
Polyethylene (PE), 5, 15, 75, 77e79, 248,
274e275, 318e321, 404, 435,
466, 619, 697
blown film, 454
chain structure differences, 81f
chemical structure, 78f
ethylene copolymers, 82e83, 82t
films, 327e328, 336e340
DuPont static puncture test of
multilayer film, 329f
fracture mechanics parameters, 336t
HDPE, 338f
LDPE, 340f
plate-like lamellae structure, 337f
grafted PE, 84
HDPE, 81e82
LDPE, 79
LLDPE, 79e81
oxidative degradation, 630
Polyethylene imide (PEI), 368
Polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), 90, 272
Polyethylene nucleation, 102
Polyethylene oxide (PEO), 295e296
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 15, 54,
69, 132, 150, 184, 188e189, 272,
366, 465, 569, 618
Polyethylene terephthalate glycol
(PETG), 90, 425e426, 465
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), 92e93
Polyisobutylene (PIB), 427
Polylactic acid (PLA), 92, 93f, 157, 277,
biaxially oriented film, 93t
thermal properties, 93t
Polylactide (PLA). See Polylactic acid
Polymer blending
blending, 149e150
physics, 155e169
processes, 150e155
dispersion of rigid particles, 169e171
morphology, 149
morphology development in blown film,
nanocomposites, 169e171, 171f
for packaging applications, 149
rheology, 171e172
Polymer processing aids (PPAs),
Polymer(s), 121, 201, 373e374, 618,

  1. See also Biobased polymers;
    Lidding films
    blends, 457e458
    chains, 411, 412f
    characterization, 130e131
    chemistry, 72
    branching and isomerism, 77e78
    crystallinity, 74e75
    molecular forces, 76e77
    MW, 72
    MWD, 72e74
    polymerization process, 75e76
    crystallizes, 439e440
    elasticity, 533
    films, 515
    pellets, 25
    polymer-free volume, 447
    chemistry, 204e205
    molecular architecture, 203e204
    thermal properties, 203
    substrates, 364
    surface, 441e442
    Polymerization process, 75
    condensation, 76
    coordination, 76
    free radical, 75
    Polyolefin (PO), 85e86, 273, 497
    antioxidants for stabilizing,
    autooxidative degradation, 95f
    labels, 426
    polyolefin-based shrink labels, 426
    polyolefin-based tie resin, 380
    slip agents for, 100t
    Polyolefin plastomer (POP), 700.
    See also Metallocene
    polyethylene plastomer
    Polyoxymethylene (POM), 157
    Polypropylene (PP), 69, 84e85, 150,
    182, 273, 276, 466, 471,
    560e563, 618e619
    Polystyrene (PS), 91, 91f, 344e345, 471,
    484, 618
    Polytrimethyl terephthalate (PTT), 90
    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), 69, 87, 87f,
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 55, 91, 91f,
    282, 412
    Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC), 6e7,
    69, 88e89, 88f, 272, 421, 624,
    POM. See Polyoxymethylene (POM)
    Porous substrates, extrusion coating onto,
  2. See also Nonporous
    cooling in air gap, 578e579
    cooling in nip, 579e581
    practical implications, 582
    TIAG, 577e578
    Post-quench crystallization, 500e501,
    Potassium ionomers, 101e102
    Pouch(es), 51
    drop impact, 670
    heat sealing, 670
    machines, 51
    HFFS machine, 51e53
    VFFS machine, 51
    tear-opening, 670e671
    Poultry/fish packaging, 700, 704t
    Power law model, 578
    PP. See Polypropylene (PP)
    PP-tie-EVOH-tie-PP sheet, 407e409,
    408fe409f, 416
    PPAs. See Polymer processing aids
    Pressure, 65, 139, 192, 284, 409, 437,
    609, 621
    Pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs),
    INDEX 723Pressureevolumeetemperature
    apparatus (PVT apparatus), 494,
    PRF. See Puncture resistance factor
    Primal meat packaging, 699, 699t
    Primary bonds, 76e77
    Printability, 70
    Printing, 46e47
    Process aids, 102
    Process time, 542, 577e578
    calculating TIAG, 541t
    initial process time studies,
    master curve, 603e608
    sample calculations, 542t
    Processed meat packaging, 699e700,
    Processing effect on quality
    curl, 494e508
    die drool, 467e470
    flow maldistribution and instability
    issues, 470e493
    moisture-related issues, 470
    thermal stability, 465e467
    Processing parameters, 409
    Processing/converting, 671e673, 672t
    Product contamination, 192e193, 193f
    Propene, 84. See also Polypropylene
    PS. See Peel strength (PS);
    Polystyrene (PS)
    PSAs. See Pressure-sensitive adhesives
    PTT. See Polytrimethyl terephthalate
    Puncture resistance, 253, 315, 327
    high speed puncture, 315e316
    laminates, 328e332
    polyethylene films, 327e328
    slow puncture, 315
    Puncture resistance factor (PRF), 329
    Pure surface winders, 31
    Purge compounds, 466e467
    PVC. See Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
    PVDC. See Polyvinylidene chloride
    PVOH. See Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH)
    PVT apparatus. See Pressureevolumee
    temperature apparatus (PVT
    Pyrolysis, 648
    Quality, 641
    processing effect
    curl, 494e508
    die drool, 467e470
    flow maldistribution and instability
    issues, 470e493
    moisture-related issues, 470
    thermal stability, 465e467
    Quality control tests (QC tests), 109
    Quench rate, 500, 502e503, 525e526
    Random copolymer polypropylene (rPP
    or coPP), 321e322
    Rate of elongation. See Rate of strain
    Rate of strain, 33, 121, 138
    Rate of stretching. See Rate of strain
    Reclosable seal technologies, 238e239.
    See also Easy-open seal
    Refractive indices (RI), 440, 458
    Registration, 57e58
    Regression analysis, 664
    Regulatory considerations, 110
    food packaging regulatory compliance
    in European Union, 112e113
    in United States, 111e112
    health-care packaging, 113
    Relative humidity (RH), 69, 265,
    effect on oxygen permeability, 69, 265,
    271f, 284e287
    EVOH, 88f
    End-use effects, 619e621
    Relaxation, 141e144, 141f. See also
    Stress relaxation
    factor, 503
    Reptation theory, 201
    Resins, 272
    adhesion, 70
    aesthetics, 70
    barrier, 69e70
    in flexible packaging, 72, 72te73t
    additives, 94e104
    biobased polymers, 91e94
    EVOH, 87e88
    PCTFE, 89
    polyamides, 86
    polyester, 89e91
    polyethylene, 78e84
    polymer chemistry, 72e78
    polyolefins, 85e86
    polypropylene, 84e85
    polystyrene, 91, 91f
    polyvinyl chloride, 91, 91f
    PVDC, 88e89
    PVOH, 87
    tie resins and adhesives, 89
    function, 69
    material specifications, 108e110
    sealing, 70, 248e253, 249te250t
    structural integrity, 69
    typical properties, 70e71, 71t
    Respiration, 260
    Retail packaging, 54
    blister packaging, 55
    clamshell packaging, 54e55
    comparison of types, 56, 57t
    skin packaging, 55e56, 56f
    “Retort shock”, 287
    Retort sterilization, 287e290, 617, 628,
    Retortable pouches, 707
    Retrogradation, 94
    Reverse printing, 16
    Reverse-side transfer, 370e371
    RH. See Relative humidity (RH)
    Rheology, 109, 123e124, 671
    constitutive equations, 141e144, 141f
    creep, 141e144, 141f
    elongational viscosity behavior, 123f
    extensional flow, 122f
    factors influencing polymer rheology,
    in flexible packaging, 123e131
    measurements, 131e137
    modes of strain, 121
    normal force, 124f
    polymer blends, 171e172
    relaxation, 141e144, 141f
    shear flow, 121f
    stress, 122
    units for stress and viscosity, 122t
    of materials, 123t
    shear rate curve, vs., 123f
    Rheotens test, 137, 403
    RI. See Refractive indices (RI)
    Riboflavin, 260
    Rigid packaging, 4
    Rigid particle dispersion, 169e171
    . See Alkoxy radicals (RO$)
    . See Peroxy radicals (ROO$)
    ROOH. See Hydroperoxide (ROOH)
    Room temperature (RT), 446
    Rosin resins, 103
    Rotary abrasion test, 317
    rPP. See random copolymer
    polypropylene (rPP or coPP)
    RT. See Room temperature (RT)
    Rubber modifier, 103
    Rutile titanium dioxide, 278
    Salty snack packaging, 700
    SaVE tool. See Sealant Value Estimator
    tool (SaVE tool)
    Saxton mixing section, 154f
    724 INDEXScalping, 261, 630e633
    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM),
    337e338, 368e369, 608e609
    Scattering, 486
    light, 453
    odor, 633e634
    oxygen, 293e294
    rate, 294
    Scratch resistance, 316e317, 327,
    Screw design, 534
    Scrubbing additives, 466e467
    Seal. See also Heat seal; Heat sealing;
    Peel strength
    bar design, 62, 192
    initiation temperature, 248
    strength, 248
    packages, 182e183, 183f, 184t
    types of failures, 242
    Sealant, 70, 667
    composition, 237
    layer, 181
    polymers, 700
    resin, 194e195
    abrasion resistance, 252
    adhesion to aluminum foil, 251
    adhesion to PE, 251
    breadth of hot tack temperature
    window, 251
    clarity and transparency, 252
    DSC curve for PE, 195f
    DSC peak melting temperature, 196t
    grease and oil resistance, 251, 251f
    melt strength, 252
    moisture vapor transmission rate, 252
    oxygen barrier, 252
    peak hot tack strength, 248
    puncture resistance, 253
    seal initiation temperature, 248
    seal strength, 248
    seal through contamination, 251
    selection, 248, 249te250t
    stiffness, 252f, 253
    tear strength, 252
    selection, 242, 674, 675t
    type, 505, 505t, 507f
    Sealant Value Estimator tool (SaVE tool),
    643t, 644f, 678, 679f
    Sealing, 70. See also Heat sealing
    seal through contamination, 251
    time, 183
    variables, 242e244
    Secant modulus, 312
    Second Newtonian plateau, 124
    Secondary bonds, 77
    Secondary forces, 77
    Self-adhesion, 198, 198f
    Self-healing effect, 402
    SEM. See Scanning electron microscopy
    Semicrystalline polymers, 74, 410, 426f
    Sensitivity analysis, 579
    Sequential orientation, 419
    Sharkskin, 125e128
    extrudate distortion, 470e472
    LLDPE, 129f
    Shear flow, 121f
    Shear force, 121
    Shear stress, 121, 489, 489f, 493f, 609
    in adaptor, 533e534
    in die, 533e534
    in extruder, 533e534
    multilayer flow model, 491t, 493t
    stress profile in channel, 490f
    Shear thinning behavior, 122
    Shear viscosity, 483e484, 483f,
    488e489, 489f
    Shipping Bags, 708
    Shrink, 411e429
    affecting factors
    oriented multilayer films, 420e429
    polymer characteristics, 415e416
    processing factors, 416e420
    film, 412, 424e426, 425t
    force, 413e415
    labels, 424e426, 425t
    tension, 414, 426f
    Silicone oil, 453
    Simultaneous orientation, 419
    Single droplet breakup mechanisms, 166f
    Single screw extruder, 25f, 26t, 152
    melting in, 27f
    metering section, 27f
    Skin packaging, 55e56, 56f
    Slip additives or agents, 99, 100t, 438,
    440e441. See also migrating
    additives; nonmigrating additives
    equilibrium surface concentration, 446f
    effect of increasing film thickness, 446f
    migration, 442e446, 444f
    model calculation, 445f
    Slip concentrations, 452
    Slip velocity, 467
    Slip-stick flow, 467, 471
    Slow puncture, 315
    Slurry loop process, 80
    Snack food packaging, 700, 705t
    Snack nuts packaging, 705t
    Snap-back forming, 409
    Soft annealing, aluminum foil, 364
    Softwood pulp, 106
    Solid phase pressure forming (SPPF), 406
    Solid state stretching, 419. See also
    Solidification, 567e569
    Solubility parameter, 157e158, 159t, 160
    Solution casting, 87
    Solution viscosity, 132e133
    Solventless adhesives, 42
    Spencer impact test, 316
    Spherulites, 74, 102
    SPPF. See Solid phase pressure forming
    Squeeze flow, 219e220, 221f
    experimental results, 222e224, 222t,
    insights and limitations, 226e230,
    model development, 220e222, 222t
    model results, 224e226,
    Stabilizers, 94e98
    Staining, 658
    Stand-up pouch filling, 670
    Standard temperature and pressure (STP),
    Standard screw design, 26e27
    Static COF, 436
    Statistical-based models, 502
    Stearyl erucamide, 439
    Stephan’s equation, 221
    Sterilization methods, 287, 617,
    621e623, 698. See also
    Stiff materials, 69
    Stiffness, 252f, 253, 309, 313
    bend under own weight, 313
    cantilever tests, 313
    engineering principles for multilayer
    films, 318e345
    factor, 313
    flex fatigue, 317
    geometry of test frame, 313
    and LCA model, 674e678, 676t, 677f
    measurement, 311e318
    shipping tests for package durability,
    tensile modulus, 310
    three-point flex, 313e314
    typical values, 318
    Storage modulus, 136, 619f
    Storage temperature, 449
    STP. See Standard temperature and
    pressure (STP)
    Strain, 121, 138, 311
    hardening, 122, 402
    rate, 402
    INDEX 725Strain (Continued)
    ratio, 311e312
    strain-hardening parameter, 313
    Strength, 309. See also Peel strength
    engineering principles for multilayer
    films, 318e345
    flex fatigue, 317
    measurement, 311e318
    shipping flexible package, 310f
    shipping tests for package durability,
    tear strength, 314
    typical values, 318
    Stress, 121, 554e559, 587
    factor, 309
    relaxation, 141e142, 141fe142f, 555t,
    stress-induced crystallization, 503
    Stressestrain, 32e33
    behavior, 130
    history in blown film, 515
    coextrusion blown film, 519e525
    monolayer blown film, 516e519,
    cling pallet wrap, 708t
    films, 426e428
    rate, 417e418
    ratio, 417
    wrap, 707e708
    Stretching, 412
    temperature, 416e417, 417f
    Structural integrity, 69
    Styrene (St), 159
    Subprimal meat packaging, 699t
    Substrate(s), 272, 371e373
    adhesion, 70, 195
    air gap, 540e566
    effect of coating thickness on peel
    strength, 573e594
    die, 539e540
    extruder, 539e540
    in extrusion coating, 539
    nip, 566e573
    aesthetics, 70
    barrier, 69e70
    chemistry, 237
    in flexible packaging, 104
    aluminum foil, 104e105
    cellophane, 106
    metallized film, 105e106
    oriented polyester, 105
    oriented polypropylene, 104
    paper and paperboard, 106e108
    in flexible packaging, 72t
    function, 69
    material specifications, 108e110
    regulatory considerations, 110
    food packaging regulatory
    compliance in European Union,
    food packaging regulatory
    compliance in United States,
    health-care packaging, 113
    sealing, 70
    structural integrity, 69
    typical properties, 70e71, 71t
    unwind and preparation, 40e41
    Suppliers, 108
    Surface energy. See Surface tension
    Surface resistivity, 102
    Surface tension, 361. See also
    Thermodynamics; Wetting
    factors affecting
    density, 362
    surface crystallinity, 362, 362t
    temperature, 362
    guidelines for adhesion, 363e364
    measurement, 361
    contact angle. See contact angle
    Dyne test, 361
    pendant drop, 361e362
    Zisman plot, 361
    relationship to interfacial tension,
    typical values
    polymer melts, 362t
    polymer solids, 361t
    Syndiotactic polymer, 78
    Synergistic effects, 455, 456f
    6T. See Terephthalic acid (6T)
    T-peel test, 183f
    Tackifiers, 103
    Tacticity, 84
    Take-up ratio (TUR). See Draw down
    ratio (DDR)
    Takeoff ratio, 417
    TD. See Transverse direction (TD)
    Tear resistance, 335e336
    directional tear technology,
    multilayer films, 342
    polyethylene films, 336e340
    Tear resistance, 310
    Tear strength, 252, 314. See also Peel
    Teflon, 184
    TEM. See Transmission electron
    microscopy (TEM)
    Temperature, 69, 138e139, 138f, 183,
    191e192, 284, 357e359,
    598e603, 601f, 617e619
    viscosity changes, 139t
    Temperature rise elution fractionation
    (TREF), 664
    Tensile modulus, 310e312, 404
    Tensile strength, 312
    Tensile tester, 311, 314
    Tenter frame process, 44f, 45, 415
    Terephthalic acid (6T), 86
    Terminal relaxation time, 213
    Terpene resins, 103
    Theoretical/fundamental models,
    Thermal diffusivity, 566
    Thermal expansion coefficient, 502
    Thermal lamination, 12
    Thermal properties, 203
    Thermal stability, 465e467
    Thermalemechanical analysis (TMA),
    Thermodynamics, 157e160, 159f
    adhesion, 361e365. See also Wetting
    cohesive energy density, 157f
    critical solubility parameter for
    miscibility of polymer blends, 158t
    driving force for additive migration,
    interfacial tension, 361
    surface tension, 361
    effect of surface crystallinity, 362t
    effect of temperature, 362
    guideline for adhesion, 363e364
    polymer melts, 362t
    solid polymer films, 361t
    Thermoforming, 58, 130, 401
    factors affecting, 405e410
    material properties and testing, 402e405
    measurement, 31, 401
    testing, 401e402
    Thermoplastic silicones, 441
    Thermoplasticolefin (TPO), 427
    Three-point flex test for bending stiffness,
    Threshold of regulation (TOR), 111
    Threshold temperature, 470
    TIAG. See Time in air gap (TIAG)
    Tie layer technology, 351
    coextrusion, 378e396
    choosing, 392e396
    factors affecting performance,
    resin technology, 378e380
    extrusion coating and lamination,
    726 INDEXchoosing, 375e378
    effect of substrate chemistry,
    examples from literature, 374e375
    polymer chemistry, 373e374
    Tie resin(s), 89, 351. See Tie resin
    coextrudable adhesives or tie resins,
    extrusion coating and lamination,
    functionality, 384e386
    matrix, 380e384
    technology, 371
    Time in air gap (TIAG), 37e38, 540,
    541t, 602
    nonporous substrates, 583e584
    porous substrates, 577e578
    Time of flight secondary ion mass
    spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS), 247
    Tin foil, 4
    Titanium dioxide (TiO2), 13, 16, 69, 98,
    150, 278, 468
    TMA. See Thermalemechanical analysis
    TNSD. See Total normal stress difference
    TOF-SIMS. See Time of flight secondary
    ion mass spectroscopy (TOFSIMS)
    Top web, 54
    TOR. See Threshold of regulation (TOR)
    Total normal stress difference (TNSD),
    Tougheners, 103
    TPO. See Thermoplasticolefin (TPO)
    TR. See Transmission rate (TR)
    Transmission, 658
    Transmission electron microscopy
    (TEM), 156f, 240
    Transmission rate (TR), 265
    Transverse direction (TD), 323, 334, 412,
    518, 550e553
    Trash bags, 709t, 708
    Tray sealer, 54
    TREF. See Temperature rise elution
    fractionation (TREF)
    Troubleshooting sealing, 242
    analytical techniques, 247
    causes, 242e247, 243te244t
    checklist, 247e248
    types of seal failures, 242
    Trouser tear method, 314
    True strain. See Logarithmic strain
    True stress, 312
    Tubular die, 29e30
    TUR. See Take-up ratio (TUR)
    Twin-screw extruder modular elements,
    Two drum winders, 31
    U.S. Food and Drug Administration
    (FDA), 111
    U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention (USP),
    UK REFLEX, 648
    Ultimate seal strength, 188. See also Peel
    Ultrasonic sealing (US), 61, 239e242,
    Uncoated film, 106
    Unit operations
    filling, 58e59
    gas flush packaging, 59e60
    heat sealing, 60e61
    modified atmosphere packaging, 59e60
    packaging equipment, 56
    registration, 57e58
    thermoforming, 58. See also
    United Nations Food and Agriculture
    Organization, 8
    Unwind and surface preparation, 42
    US. See Ultrasonic sealing (US)
    USP. See U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention
    UV stabilization, 95e98
    VA. See Vinyl acetate (VA)
    Vacuum forming, 409
    Vacuum packaging, 260
    Value chain
    flexible packaging, 11f
    needs along, 13
    consumer needs, 13
    converter needs, 14e15
    end-user needs, 13e14, 15t
    packaging trends in, 18e19
    Van der Waals forces, 77, 199, 367
    Vegetable oils, 277
    Venting seal bar design, 670
    Vertical form fill seal machine (VFFS
    machine), 51, 52f, 697, 708
    Vertical shift factors, 606, 607f
    Very low density polyethylene (VLDPE),
    81, 275e276, 700
    VFFS machine. See Vertical form fill seal
    machine (VFFS machine)
    Vinyl acetate (VA), 159
    Vinyl free radical polymerization, 75
    Vinyl phenol (VPh), 159
    Vinylidene dichloride.
    See Polyvinylidene chloride
    Viscoelastic/viscoelasticity, 357e359
    constitutive models, 410
    fluids, 122e123
    polymers, 468
    Viscosity, 109, 121, 125, 225
    mismatches, 486, 492e493
    ratio, 161, 167f, 491e492, 491f, 532
    Visking Company, 7
    Vitamin B2, 260
    VLDPE. See Very low density
    polyethylene (VLDPE)
    Voigt model, 143
    Volumetric systems, 59
    VPh. See Vinyl phenol (VPh)
    Waste-to-chemicals process, 648
    Waste-to-fuel process, 648
    quench system, 29
    resistance paper, 108
    ring, 525e526
    Water vapor transmission rates (WVTR),
    Water-quench blown film, 447. See also
    Coextrusion blown film;
    Monolayer blown film
    air-quench blown film vs., 525e530,
    526te527t, 528f, 531t
    Water-soluble films, 87
    Waterproof packaging, 7
    Wave instability, 486
    WAXS. See Wide angle X-ray scattering
    Weissenberg effect, 123
    Weissenberg number (Wi number), 609
    Wetting, 42, 200, 363
    adhesion, 361
    practical guidelines, 363e365
    surface tension (energy) of inks,
    surface tension of polymer melts,
    surface tension of solid polymer films,
    WHO. See World Health Organization
    Wi number. See Weissenberg number
    (Wi number)
    INDEX 727Wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS),
    321e322, 526e528, 555, 557
    WilliamseLandeleFerry model (WLF
    model), 411
    Winders, 31f
    Windup, 31e35
    WLF model. See Williamse
    LandeleFerry model
    (WLF model)
    Wood pulp, 4
    World Health Organization
    (WHO), 113
    X-ray diffraction, 413
    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
    (XPS). See Electron spectroscopy
    for chemical analysis (ESCA)
    Yield strength, 312
    Yield stress, 312, 402
    Young’s equation, 361
    Young’s modulus. See Tensile modulus
    Zero shear viscosity, 123e124
    ZieglereNatta catalysts, 76, 79e81
    ZieglereNatta LLDPE (ZN-LLDPE
    films), 79, 81, 441e442, 454, 456
    Zig-zap instability, 128e129, 486, 486f
    Zipper(s), 238
    technology, 238
    Zisman plot, 361. See also Surface
    ZN-LLDPE films. See ZieglereNatta
    LLDPE (ZN-LLDPE films)

كلمة سر فك الضغط :
The Unzip Password :


يجب عليك التسجيل في الموقع لكي تتمكن من التحميل
تسجيل | تسجيل الدخول


اترك تعليقاً