The Effect of UV Light and Weather on Plastics and Elastomers

The Effect of UV Light and Weather on Plastics and Elastomers
اسم المؤلف
Laurence W. McKeen
التاريخ
22 أبريل 2023
المشاهدات
358
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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The Effect of Uv Light and Weather on Plastics and Elastomers
Third edition
Laurence W. McKeen
Table of Contents

  1. Introduction to Plastics and Polymers Compositions
  2. Introduction to the Weathering of Plastics
  3. Introduction to Plastic Properties
  4. Styrenic Plastics
  5. Polyesters
  6. Polyimides
  7. Polyamides Nylons
  8. Polyolefins
  9. Polyvinyls and Acrylics
  10. Fluoropolymers
  11. High-Temperature/High-Performance Polymers
  12. Elastomers and Rubbers
  13. Sustainable Polymers
    Index
    Note: Page numbers followed by “f” denote figures; “t” tables.
    A
    ABS. See Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)
    Accelerated indoor fluorescent light exposure, 73t
    Accelerated outdoor tests, 31e32
    EMMA, 31e32, 32f
    EMMAqua, 32
    ultra-accelerated exposure testing, 32, 32f
    Acetal copolymer, chemical structure of, 282f
    Acetal homopolymer, chemical structure of, 282f
    Acetal polymers, 291
    Acid scavenger, 26
    Acrylic resins, 231
    Acrylics, 217. See also Polyvinyls
    Acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers (NBR), 346e352, 351f
    applications and uses, 352
    manufacturers and trade names, 352
    types of, 346e352
    Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), 71f, 72f
    manufacturers and trade names, 72
    physical properties of, 73t, 74f, 74t
    property changes in, 73t
    stabilization, 71
    weathering properties, 71
    Acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate (ASA), 105
    Alternating copolymer, 2
    American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 45
    Amide-imide polymers, 148t
    Amino acids, chemical structures of, 164f
    Amorphous, 10
    Amorphous nylon, 165, 166f
    Amorphous polyamide, 165e166, 165f
    applications and uses, 166
    manufacturers and trade names, 166
    Artificial accelerated tests, 32e40
    carbon arc fade-meter, 39
    fluorescent/QUV, 33e38
    light sources, 32, 34t
    SEPAP, 39e40
    xenon arc, 33, 35f
    ASA. See Acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate (ASA)
    Atmospheric pollutants, chemical effects of
    nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 19
    ozone, 18
    photodegradation and photo oxidation, 19
    sulfur dioxide (SO2), 18
    B
    BASF Ultrason, 279
    4,4’-Bisphenol A Dianhydride (BPADA)
    monomer, 146, 152f
    photodegradation reactions of, 153f
    Block copolymer, 2e3
    Butyl rubber, 314e318, 318f, 319f, 320f
    applications and uses, 318
    manufacturers and trade names, 315e316
    C
    Carbon arc, 33, 36f
    Carbon black, 15
    Cellophane, 372e375, 377f
    applications and uses, 375
    manufacturers and trademarks, 375
    weathering, 372
    Cellulose acetate, 376e377, 377f, 378f
    applications and uses, 377
    manufacturers and trade names, 377
    Cellulose acetate butyrate, 377e378, 378f
    applications and uses, 378
    manufacturers and trade names, 378
    Chlorobutyl rubber, 320e322, 320f, 322f, 323f
    applications and uses, 322
    manufacturers and trade names, 321
    Coefficient of friction (COF), 13
    Conventional aging, 29e31
    Copolymerization, 292
    Copolymers, 2e3. See also Polyoxymethylene (POM)
    Crystalline, 10
    Crystallinity, 49
    D
    Daylight filters, 33
    Degree of polymerization, 9
    Degree of unsaturation (DoU), 4e5
    Diacids, chemical structures of, 164f
    Diamines, chemical structures of, 164f
    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), 65
    Dipole moment, 3
    DMTA. See Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA)
    Drop dart impact test, 57e58
    DuPont elastomer neoprene, 321
    DuPont Kapton, elongation of, 156f
    DuPont Minlon, 178t, 179t
    exposure of, 178t
    DuPont Tedlar, 252
    Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), 67, 67f
    E
    ECTFE. See Ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE)
    Elastomers, 299
    fluoroelastomers, 337e346, 345f, 345t
    olefinic thermoplastic elastomers, 301e304
    thermoplastic copolyester elastomers, 313e314, 313f
    TPU, 299e301, 300f, 301t
    Elmendorf tear strength, 61, 61f
    383EMMA. See Equatorial mount with mirrors for acceleration (EMMA)
    EMMAqua. See Equatorial mount with mirrors for acceleration plus
    water (EMMAqua)
    Epichlorohydrin rubber, 325e337, 342f, 343f
    applications and uses, 337
    manufacturers and trade names, 337
    EPS. See Expanded polystyrene (EPS)
    Equatorial mount with mirrors for acceleration (EMMA),
    31e32, 32f
    Equatorial mount with mirrors for acceleration plus water
    (EMMAqua), 32
    ETFE. See Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer (ETFE)
    Ethyl cellulose, 378, 380f
    applications and uses, 378
    manufacturers and trade names, 378
    Ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE), 262e266, 266f
    applications and uses, 263e266
    manufacturers and trade names, 263
    Ethylene-propylene rubbers, 324e325, 324t, 325t,
    340f, 341f, 342f
    applications and uses, 325
    basic kinds of, 324
    manufacturers and trade names, 325
    Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer (ETFE), 258e262. See also
    Polyethylene tetrafluoroethylene
    manufacturers and trade names, 262
    mechanical properties of, 259e262, 263f
    Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, 357e361, 360f
    applications and uses, 361
    manufacturers and trade names, 361
    stabilization, 361
    weathering, 361
    Ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), 217e218, 217f, 218t
    defined, 217
    desirable properties, 217e218
    manufacturers and trade names, 218
    EVAL, 218
    EVOH. See Ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH)
    Expanded polystyrene (EPS), 72e74
    F
    Falling dart impact strength, 60, 60f
    Fade-meter, 39
    FEP. See Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP)
    Ferro Corporation LPP30, 211f
    Fiber-reinforced grades, 11e12
    Flexural properties, 54
    Fluorescent/QUV, 33e38
    Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), 246, 246f
    applications and uses, 246
    manufacturers and trade names, 246
    Fluoroelastomers, 337e346, 345f, 345t
    applications, 346
    manufacturers and trade names, 346
    types of, 337e345
    Fluoropolymers
    ECTFE, 262e266, 266f
    ETFE, 258e262
    FEP, 246, 246f
    PCTFE, 252e256, 257f, 258f
    PFA, 247e250, 250f, 250t
    PTFE, 243e245, 244f, 246f
    PVDF, 256e258, 258f
    PVF, 250e252, 252f
    Free-Falling Dart Method, 57e58, 58f
    G
    Gardner impact strength, 60, 60f
    General purpose polystyrene (GPPS), 87t, 88f, 93
    Generalized polyamide reaction, 163, 164f
    Glass transition temperature
    estimating, mechanical methods of, 66e67
    estimating, thermal methods of, 67e69
    thermal mechanical analysis, 67
    Gloss measurement, 45
    Graft copolymer, 2e3
    Grilamid TR55, 165, 165f, 177f, 178f
    Weather-Ometer exposure of, 166, 166f
    H
    HALS. See Hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS)
    Haze measurement, 45e46
    Heat distortion temperature (HDT), 63
    High-density polyethylene (HDPE), 193, 195
    High-gloss Tedlar, 252
    High-impact polystyrene (HIPS), 3, 74, 93e95
    High molecular weight (HMW), 272
    High-performance polyamide. See polyphthalamide
    High-speed puncture test, 54e57, 58f
    High-temperature/high-performance polymers
    PAEK, 271e272, 271f
    parylene, 279e283
    PES, 276e279, 280t, 281f, 282f
    polyoxymethylene copolymer, 282f, 284e295
    POM, 282f, 283e285
    PPO, 291f, 292f, 293t, 295e296
    PPS, 272e274, 273f, 275t
    PPSU, 275e276, 279f
    PSU, 274e275, 276f
    Hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS), 22e23, 163
    Hiosynergist inorganic screener, 24
    Homopolymer, 245. See also Polyoxymethylene (POM)
    I
    Indoor and interior exposures, 28e29
    Ionomers, 233e238, 237f
    defined, 233
    ethylene acrylic acid copolymer, 237f
    manufacturers and trade names, 238
    UV protection in, 236e238
    weathering properties, 234
    Isomers, 5e7
    geometric isomers, 6, 6f
    stereoisomers, 6e7
    structural isomers, 5e6, 6f
    L
    LCPs. See Liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs)
    Light sources, artificial accelerated tests, 32, 34t
    Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), 193, 195
    Liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs), 107e108
    applications and uses, 108
    manufacturers and trade names, 108
    weathering properties, 108
    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE), 193, 195
    M
    Mechanical testing, 47e62
    flexural properties, 54
    gardner and falling dart impact strength, 60
    izod impact strength and charpy impact strength, 58e59
    384 INDEXplastics materials, rigidity of, 48e49
    puncture and impact, 54e58
    shear properties, 49e51
    tear properties, 60e62
    tensile properties, 47e48
    Medium-density polyethylene, 193
    Melt flow index, 63
    Mercury vapor, 32e33
    Metal halide lamps, 33, 35f
    Molecule affects, polarity of, 4
    Monomers, chemical structures of, 121f, 155, 155f
    Multiphase polymer blends, 11
    N
    Natural rubber, 346, 348f
    applications and uses, 346
    NBR. See Acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers (NBR)
    Nitrocellulose, 375e376, 377f
    applications and uses, 376
    manufacturers and trade names, 376
    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 19
    Nylon 6. See Polyamide 6
    Nylon 11. See Polyamide 11
    Nylon 12. See Polyamide 12
    Nylon 66. See Polyamide 66
    O
    Olefinic thermoplastic elastomers, 301e304
    applications and uses, 304
    manufacturers and trade names, 304
    Optical brighteners, 163
    Outdoor testing, 29
    Outdoor weathering
    antioxidants effects on, 209t
    glass-reinforced polypropylene, 209t
    in Puerto Rico of Polypropylene, 210t
    time vs. yellowness index, 75f
    Ozone testing, 40
    P
    PAEK. See Polyaryletherketone (PAEK)
    Parylene, 279e283
    Parylene polymers, 279e283, 282f
    manufacturers and trade names, 283
    results, 283
    weathering resistance, 282e283
    PBT. See Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT)
    PCTFE. See Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE)
    PES. See Polyethersulfone (PES)
    PEN. See Polyethylene naphthalate (PEN)
    Perfluoro alkoxy (PFA), 247e250, 250f, 250t
    applications and uses, 250
    manufacturers and trade names, 250
    PET. See Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)
    PFA. See Perfluoro alkoxy (PFA)
    Phase-separated mixtures, 11
    Phenolic antioxidants, 23, 163
    Phosphites, 24
    Phosphonites, 24
    Photodegradation, radicals, reactions of, 19, 20t
    PLA. See Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)
    Plastics
    compositions
    antiblock additives, 14
    antistatic additives, 16
    catalysts, 14
    combustion modifiers, 12
    coupling agents, 15
    dyes and mica, 15
    fillers/reinforcement and composites, 11e12
    fire/flame retardants and smoke suppressants, 12
    impact modifiers and tougheners, 14
    optical brighteners, 15
    pigments and extenders, 15
    plasticizers, 15
    release agents, 13
    slip additives/internal lubricants, 13e14
    thermal stabilizers, 15e16
    UV/radiation stabilizers, 14
    defined, 1
    Plastics materials, weathering on, 17
    atmospheric pollutants, chemical effects of, 18e19
    physical processes of, 17
    testing, 28e40
    UV stabilization, mechanisms of, 19e21
    Plastic properties
    appearance of
    color, 43e45
    gloss measurement, 45
    haze measurement, 45e46
    yellowness index, 46e47
    mechanical testing, 47e62
    flexural properties, 54
    gardner and falling dart impact strength, 60, 60f
    izod impact strength and charpy impact strength,
    58e59, 59f, 60f
    plastics materials, rigidity of, 48e49
    puncture and impact, 54e58
    shear properties, 49e51
    tear properties, 60e62
    tensile properties, 47e48
    thermal property testing of, 62e69
    glass transition temperature, 65e69
    heat deflection temperature, 63
    melt flow index, 63
    melting point, 65
    vicat softening temperature, 63
    Plastics Web, 1
    PMMA. See Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)
    Polar bond, 3
    Polyacrylics, 220e233, 231f
    applications and uses, 231
    manufacturers and trade names, 233
    PMMA, 220e231
    stabilization, 233
    weathering, 232
    Polyamide 6, 169e170, 169f
    manufacturers and trade names, 170
    weathering properties, 170
    Polyamide 11, 170e176, 176f
    manufacturers and trade names, 176
    weathering resistance, 176
    Polyamide 12, 167f, 176e177, 177f, 178f
    manufacturers and trade names, 177
    weathering resistance, 177
    Polyamide 66, 177e178, 178f
    characteristics of, 177e178
    manufacturers and trade names, 178
    weathering properties, 178
    Polyamide copolymers. See Amorphous polyamide
    Polyamide-imide, 145e146, 145f, 146f
    INDEX 385applications and uses, 146
    manufacturers and trade names, 146
    weathering properties, 145
    Polyamides nylons
    amorphous polyamide, 165e166, 165f
    polyamide 6, 169e170, 169f
    polyamide 11, 170e176, 176f
    polyamide 12, 167f, 176e177, 177f, 178f
    polyamide 66, 177e178, 178f
    polyarylamide, 178e181, 184f
    polyphthalamide/high-performance polyamide, 188f, 190
    stabilization, 163
    weathering properties, 163
    Polyarylamide, 178e181, 184f
    applications and uses, 181
    manufacturers and trade names, 181
    Polyaryletherketone (PAEK), 271e272, 271f
    commercial plastics, 271
    manufacturers and trade names, 272
    weathering properties, 272
    Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 108e112, 110f
    applications and uses, 110
    manufacturers and trade names, 110
    stabilization, 110
    weathering properties, 108
    Polycaprolactone, 378e380, 380f
    applications and uses, 380
    manufacturers and trade names, 380
    Polycarbonate, 112e134, 121f
    manufacturers and trade names, 131
    optical brightener, 131
    phenolic antioxidant, 131
    phosphite, 131
    photo-Fries rearrangement in, 121f
    polycarbonate blends, 131e134
    stabilization, 131
    weathering properties, 121
    Polycarbonate blends
    stabilization, 134
    weathering properties, 131
    Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE), 252e256, 257f, 258f
    manufacturers and trade names, 256
    Polydispersity (PDI), 8e9
    Polyesters
    chemical structure of, 107f
    crystalline polymer, 109f
    LCPs, 107e108, 109f
    PBT, 108e112, 110f
    PEN, 141f, 142
    PET, 131f, 134e142
    photolysis of, 108f
    polycarbonate, 112e134, 121f
    Polyetherimide, 146, 150f, 151f, 152f
    applications and uses, 146
    manufacturers and trade names, 146
    stabilization, 146
    weathering properties, 146
    Polyethersulfone (PES), 276e279, 280t, 281f, 282f
    manufacturers and trade names, 279
    weathering properties, 277
    Polyethylene, 193e207, 194f
    Polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), 141f, 142
    applications and uses, 142
    manufacturers and trade names, 142
    weathering, 142
    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 131f, 134e142
    applications and uses, 141
    chemical structure of, 131f
    stabilization, 141
    weathering properties, 134e141
    Polyethylene tetrafluoroethylene, 258
    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), 372, 372f
    Polyimides, 155e156, 155f
    applications and uses, 156
    chemical structure of, 155f
    manufacturers and trade names, 156
    photochemical oxidation of, 155f
    polyamide-imide, 145e146
    polyetherimide, 146, 150f, 151f, 152f
    weathering properties, 156
    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), 380, 380f
    applications and uses, 380
    manufacturers and trade names, 380
    Polymer
    classifications
    crystalline vs amorphous, 10
    molecular weight, 8e9
    thermosets vs thermoplastics, 9e10
    inter- and intramolecular attractions in, 7e8
    chain entanglement, 8
    hydrogen bonding, 7
    van der waals forces, 8
    polarities, qualitative ranking of, 4f
    Polymer degradation cycle, 19e20, 20f
    Polymerization
    addition, 1e2, 2f
    condensation, 2, 2f
    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), 220e231
    Poly-4-methyl-1-pentene
    manufacturers and trade names, 214
    weathering properties, 214
    Polyolefins
    HDPE, 195
    LDPE, 195
    LLDPE, 195
    monomers, chemical structures of, 193f
    poly-4-methyl-1-pentene, 208e214
    polyethylene, 193e207, 194f
    polypropylene, 207e208
    stabilization, 194
    UHMWPE, 195e207
    weathering, 194
    Polyoxymethylene (POM), 282f, 283e285
    Polyoxymethylene copolymer, 282f, 284e295
    applications and uses, 295
    manufacturers and trade names, 295
    properties of, 292
    stabilization, 293
    weathering, 292
    Polyphenylene oxide (PPO), 67, 291f, 292f, 293t, 295e296
    Noryl resins, 296
    stabilization, 296
    weathering, 295
    Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), 272e274, 273f, 275t
    manufacturers and trade names, 274
    stabilization, 273
    weathering, 273
    Polyphenylsulfone (PPSU), 275e276, 279f
    applications and uses, 276
    manufacturers and trade names, 276
    properties of, 275e276
    Polyphthalamide (PPA), 188f, 190
    386 INDEXapplications and uses, 190
    characteristics of, 190
    manufacturers and trade names, 190
    Polypropylene, 207e208
    homopolymers, 207
    impact copolymers, 208
    random copolymers, 207
    stabilization, 208
    weathering, 208
    Polystyrene
    manufacturers and trade names, 86
    stabilization, 86
    structure of, 86f
    weathering properties, 86
    Polysulfide rubber, 361e364, 363f
    Polysulfone (PSU), 276f
    manufacturers and trade names, 274
    weathering, 274
    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 13, 243e245, 244f, 246f
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 217e220, 219f, 220f
    applications and uses, 219e220
    dehydrochlorination of, 219f
    manufacturing and trade names, 219
    radical generation in, 220f
    stabilization, 219e220
    weathering, 219
    Polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), 250e252, 252f
    general description, 250
    weathering properties, 250
    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 256e258, 258f
    key attributes of, 258
    manufacturers and trade names, 258
    weathering properties, 258
    Polyvinyls
    EVOH, 217e218, 217f, 218t
    ionomers, 233e238, 237f
    polyacrylics, 220e233, 231f
    polyvinyl chloride, 218e220, 219f, 220f
    POM. See Polyoxymethylene (POM)
    PPO. See Polyphenylene oxide (PPO)
    PPS. See Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS)
    PPSU. See Polyphenylsulfone (PPSU)
    PSU. See Polysulfone (PSU)
    PTFE. See Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
    Punch-type shear tool, 51
    Puncture properties, 54e58
    drop dart impact test, 57e58
    high-speed puncture test, 54e57, 58f
    PVC. See Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
    PVDF. See Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)
    PVF. See Polyvinyl fluoride (PVF)
    R
    Random copolymer, 2e3
    Rubbers, 299
    butyl rubber, 314e318, 318f, 319f, 320f
    chlorobutyl rubber, 320e322, 320f, 322f, 323f
    epichlorohydrin rubber, 325e337, 342f, 343f
    ethylene-propylene rubbers, 324e325, 324t, 325t,
    340f, 341f, 342f
    ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, 357e361, 360f
    natural rubber, 346, 348f
    NBR, 346e352, 351f
    polysulfide rubber, 361e364, 363f
    SBR, 352e357, 357f
    S
    Sabic Innovative Polymers Ultem, 154f, 155, 155f
    Salt solution, 31, 31f
    Semicrystalline polyamides, properties of, 176e177
    SEPAP, 39e40
    Shear modulus, 49
    Shear properties, 49e51
    Solar, and artificial light exposure, 33, 35t
    Spray, conventional aging with, 31
    Standard elastomer tests, 47, 50t
    Standard electrical tests, 47, 51t
    Standard hardness tests, 47, 50t
    Standard impact tests, 47, 50t
    Standard mechanical tests, 47, 49t
    Standard thermal tests, 47, 51t
    Statistical copolymer. See Random copolymer
    Stress, vs. strain behaviors, 54f
    Styrene acrylonitrile (SAN) copolymer, 93f, 103e105
    applications and uses, 104
    manufacturers and trade names, 104
    stabilization, 105
    weathering properties, 104e105
    Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), 352e357, 357f
    applications and uses, 352
    manufacturers and trade names, 352
    Styrenic plastics
    ABS copolymer, 71e72
    acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate, 105
    polystyrene, 72e103
    SAN copolymer, 103e105
    Styrosun, 93e94
    Sustainable polymers
    cellulose-based materials, 372e378, 375f, 376f
    Cellophane, 372e375, 377f
    cellulose acetate, 376e377, 377f, 378f
    cellulose acetate butyrate, 377e378, 378f
    ethyl cellulose, 378, 380f
    nitrocellulose, 375e376, 377f
    PLA, 380, 380f
    polycaprolactone, 378e380, 380f
    Syndiotactic polystyrene (SPS), 95e103
    T
    Tear properties
    Elmendorf tear strength, 61, 61f
    toughness, 62
    trouser tear resistance, 61
    Tedlar, 252
    Teflon, 245
    Tensile properties, 47e48
    Testing
    accelerated outdoor tests, 31e32
    artificial accelerated tests, 32e40
    conventional aging, 29e31
    indoor and interior exposures, 28e29
    outdoor testing, 29
    ozone testing, 40
    spray, conventional aging with, 31
    Thermal mechanical analysis (TMA), 67, 68f
    Thermal property testing
    heat deflection temperature, 63
    melt flow index, 63
    vicat softening temperature, 63
    Thermoplastic copolyester elastomers, 313e314, 313f
    manufacturers and trade names, 314
    INDEX 387weathering properties, 314
    Thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers (TPU), 299e301, 300f, 301t
    aliphatic, 300
    aromatics, 300
    characteristic features, 300
    polycaprolactone, 300
    polyester, 299
    polyether, 300
    UV radiation resistance, 301
    Thermoplastics, 9e10
    Thermosets, 9e10
    Ticona Celanex, 111t
    Ticona Vectra
    artificial weathering for, 110t
    chemical structure of, 109f
    xenon arc accelerated weathering for, 110t
    TIPU. See Thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers (TPU)
    Titanium dioxide, 15, 219
    Tortuous path effect, 12
    Tristimulus coefficients, 46, 46t
    U
    Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), 193
    Ultra low-density polyethylene, 193
    Ultraviolet (UV)
    light, 1
    absorber, 22, 163
    Ultraviolet (UV) stabilization
    acid scavenger, 26
    hindered amine stabilizers, 22e23
    inorganic screeners, 24
    mechanisms of, 19e21
    absorption/reflection and refraction, 20e21
    phenolic antioxidants, 23
    phosphites and phosphonites, 24
    quencher, 28
    synergistic mixtures of, 28
    thiosynergists, 26
    UV absorbers, 22
    Ultraviolet (UV) stabilizers, 21e28. See also Ultraviolet (UV)
    stabilization
    Unsaturation, 4e5
    V
    Very low-density polyethylene, 193
    Vicat softening temperature, 63
    W
    Weather-Ometer, 146, 149f
    X
    Xenon arc, 33, 35f, 146, 153f
    Y
    Yellowness index, 46e47, 89f, 146, 154f

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