Radiation Safety Fundamentals Workbook

Radiation Safety Fundamentals Workbook
اسم المؤلف
University of California, Santa Cruz
التاريخ
30 يناير 2024
المشاهدات
181
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Radiation Safety Fundamentals Workbook
University of California, Santa Cruz
Environmental Health & Safety
Acknowledgements
University of California, Davis
University of California, Riverside
University of California, San Diego
University of California, San Francisco
California Institute of Technology
DOE Radiation Worker Study Guide
DOE Radiation Control Technician Study Guide
Radiation Safety Fundamentals Workbook
Table of Contents
1 Introduction . 1
2 Objectives 2
2.1 Radiation Safety Fundamentals . 2
2.2 On-the-Job Training 3
2.3 Specialized Training . 3
2.4 Annual Refresher Training 3
3 Ionizing Radiation . 4
3.1 Atomic structure 4
3.2 Atomic Number 5
3.3 Radioactivity . 5
3.4 Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation 6
4 Units of Measurement 8
4.1 Activity . 8
4.2 Exposure . 8
4.3 Absorbed Dose 9
4.4 Quality Factor . 9
4.5 Dose Equivalent 9
5 Radioactive Decay 12
5.1 The Nature of Radioactivity 12
5.2 Alpha Particles 12
5.3 Beta Particles 13
5.4 Gamma Rays / X-rays . 15
5.5 Neutron Particles . 16
5.6 Radioactive Half-life . 18
6 Sources of Radiation 20
6.1 Natural Sources . 20
6.2 Human-made Sources . 21
6.3 Comparison of Radiation Doses 21
7 Biological Effects 23
7.1 Effects of Radiation on Cells 23
7.2 Acute and Chronic Radiation Dose . 25
7.3 DNA Effects 27
7.4 Prenatal Radiation Exposure . 27
7.5 Dose Response Curves 28
8 Occupational Radiation Exposure Risks . 31
8.1 Risk from Exposures to Ionizing Radiation 31
8.2 Comparison of Occupational Radiation Exposure Risk and Other Risks . 32
8.3 Benefit versus Risk . 33
9 Dose Limits . 34
9.1 Dose Philosophy . 34
9.2 Radiation Worker Dose Limits . 34
9.3 Declared Pregnant Worker (Embryo/Fetus) Dose Limits . 35
9.4 General Public Dose Limits 36
10 As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) . 38
10.1 Why ALARA? 38
10.2 Responsibilities for the ALARA Program 38
10.3 Personnel Responsibilities for the ALARA Program 39
10.4 Principles of Radiation Protections . 40
11 Internal Radiation Protection 41
11.1 Contamination Control 41
11.2 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) . 43
11.3 Food and Drink Policy 43
12 External Radiation Protection . 45
12.1 Time 45
12.2 Distance 4612.3 Shielding . 46
13 Radiation Use Permits 49
13.1 Radiation Safety Office . 49
13.2 Radiation Use Authorizations (RUAs) 49
13.3 Your Responsibilities 50
14 Radiological Identification System 52
14.1 Radioactive Materials Use Area 52
14.2 Radiation Area 53
15 Radiation Survey Meters 55
15.1 Geiger-Mueller Detector . 55
15.2 NaI Scintillation Detector . 55
15.3 Ion Chamber 56
15.4 Calibration . 56
15.5 Efficiency 56
16 Dosimetry .57
16.1 Types of Dosimetry Used on Campus . 57
16.2 Precautions on Use of Dosimetry 57
16.3 Internal Monitoring . 58
16.4 Dosimetry Records 58
16.5 State Notification 59
17 Emergency Procedures 60
17.1 Personnel Contamination and Exposure 60
17.2 Large Radioactive Spills (> 0.1 mCi 125I, >1 mCi of other radionuclides) 61
17.3 Small Radioactive Spills (≤ 0.1 mCi 125I, ≤1 mCi of other radionuclides) 61
18 Summary 63

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