Fundamentals of Fire Protection for the Safety Professional

Fundamentals of Fire Protection for the Safety Professional
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Lon H. Ferguson, Christopher A. Janicak
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28 يناير 2024
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Fundamentals of Fire Protection for the Safety Professional
Lon H. Ferguson, Christopher A. Janicak
Government Institutes
Contents
List of Figures and Tables xi
1 Introduction to Industrial Fire Protection 1
Fire Prevention versus Fire Protection 2
Importance of Fire Safety 4
Historical Major Fire Losses in the United States 4
Trends in Fires in the United States 5
Economic Impact of Industrial Fires in the United States 5
Deaths and Injuries Due to Industrial Fires 6
OSHA and Fire Safety 12
Sources of Information 14
Summary 26
Chapter Questions 27
References 27
2 Chemistry and Physics of Fire 29
Fire Tetrahedron 29
Combustion 31
Unique Combustion Phenomena 34
Heat versus Temperature 36
Heat Transfer 37
Sources of Heat 40
Physics of Combustion 41
Fire Hazards of Materials 42
Hazardous Materials 44
Sources of Information on Hazardous Materials 47
iiiiv C O N T E N T S
Chapter Questions 51
References 52
3 Common and Special Hazards 55
Electricity as an Ignition Source 55
Hazardous Locations and the National Electrical Code 57
Defining Hazardous Locations 61
Safe Design of Electrical Equipment 62
National Testing Laboratories 64
Flammable Liquids and Combustible Liquids 65
Upper and Lower Explosive Limits 67
Flammable- and Combustible-Liquid Storage 67
Containers and Portable Tanks 67
Transferring Flammable and Combustible Liquids 68
Storage Cabinets 69
Inside Storage Rooms 70
Storage Tanks 73
Outside Aboveground Tanks 73
Underground Tanks 77
Tank-Vehicle and Tank-Car Loading and Unloading 78
Workplace Practices 79
Hydrogen 80
Liquefied-Hydrogen Systems 82
Acetylene 85
Oxygen 87
Liquefied-Petroleum Gas 88
Tank-Car and Truck-Loading or Unloading 90
Chapter Questions 91
References 91
4 Mechanical and Chemical Explosions 93
Anatomy of an Explosion 93
Explosives and Blasting Agents 94
Labels and Placards 95
Explosives-Handling and -Storage Procedures 97
Transporting Explosives 98
Use of Explosives and Blasting Agents 100
Oxidizing Agents 101C O N T E N T S v
Ammonium Nitrate 102
Boiling-Liquid Expanding-Vapor Explosions 104
Dust Explosions 106
Cylinder Failures 107
Boilers and Unfired Pressure Vessels 107
Boiler Maintenance 110
Chapter Questions 111
References 112
5 Building Construction 113
Basic Terminology 113
Structural Elements 114
Characteristics of Building Materials 116
Fire-Resistance Ratings 120
Major Types of Building Construction 122
Fire-Protection Features 125
Protection of Openings in Fire Walls 128
Impact of Ventilation on Building Fires and Smoke
Movement 129
Interior Finish 130
Building Contents 131
Fire Loading 131
Occupancy and Commodity Classifications 132
Unique Risks for Fire in High-Rise Buildings 135
Building Codes 136
Major Provisions of Building Codes 136
Model Building Codes 137
Chapter Questions 138
References 138
6 Life Safety in Buildings 141
Loss of Life in Buildings 141
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire 141
Imperial Food Products Plant Fire 142
People’s Behaviors and Actions in a Fire 142
Origin and Development of NFPA 101 143
Building Occupancies and Life Safety 144
Building Codes and Life Safety 146vi C O N T E N T S
NFPA Requirements for Life Safety in Industrial
Occupancies 146
Emergency-Action Plans 153
Fire-Prevention Plans 154
Chapter Questions 156
References 156
7 Hazardous Processes 159
Processes Involving Flammable and Combustible Liquids 160
Electrostatic Spray Operations 160
Spray Booths 162
Sources of Ignition 162
Ventilation 163
Flammable and Combustible Liquids: Storage and
Handling 164
Fire Protection 165
Operations and Maintenance 166
Drying, Curing, and Fusion Apparatuses 166
Aerated-Powder Coating Operations 168
Electrostatic Fluidized Beds 168
Dip Tanks and Coating Operations 169
Design and Construction of Dipping and Coating
Equipment and Systems 172
Electrical and Other Sources of Ignition 173
Ventilation 174
Storage, Handling, and Distribution of Flammable and
Combustible Liquids 175
Liquid Piping Systems 175
Fire Protection 176
Operations and Maintenance 177
Inspection and Testing 178
Training 179
Chapter Questions 179
References 179
8 Alarm and Detection Systems 181
NFPA 72 Classifications for Fire Alarm Systems 182
Power Supplies for Alarm Systems 182C O N T E N T S vii
Initiating Devices 183
Basic Considerations for Installation 184
Selection of Initiating Devices 184
Heat-Sensing Fire Detectors 185
Location of Heat-Sensing Fire Detectors: Spot versus Line
Devices 185
Smoke-Sensing Fire Detectors 186
Location and Spacing of Smoke Detectors 187
Radiant-Energy-Sensing Fire Detectors 188
Location and Spacing of Radiant-Energy-Sensing Fire
Detectors 189
Sprinkler-Water-Flow Alarm-Initiating Devices 189
Signal Annunciation 190
Notification Devices 191
Audible and Visible Criteria of Notification Devices 191
Reporting Systems 193
Public Fire Alarm Systems 193
Central-Station Fire Alarm Systems 193
Proprietary Supervising-Station Systems 194
Remote-Supervising-Station Fire Alarm Systems 195
Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Fire Alarm
Systems 196
Chapter Questions 197
References 199
9 Fire Extinguishment 201
Classifications of Fires 201
Extinguishing Agents 202
Water 202
Water Use on Special Hazards 204
Carbon Dioxide 204
Halogenated Agents 205
Dry Chemicals 206
Foam Extinguishing Agents 208
Combustible Metal Extinguishing Agents 208
Portable Fire Extinguishers 209
Labeling 209viii C O N T E N T S
Fire Extinguisher Rating Systems 210
Fire Extinguisher Use in the Workplace 212
Fire Extinguisher Distribution and Mounting 212
Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing 213
Training 214
Water-Based Sprinkler Systems 214
Impact of Sprinkler Systems on Fires 215
Wet-Pipe Systems 215
Water Supply and Distribution 216
Piping 217
Outside Stem and Yoke Valves 218
Water-Flow Alarms 219
Dry-Pipe Systems 220
Cross-Mains and Branch Lines 220
Sprinkler Heads 222
Fire Department Connections 223
Sprinkler-System Inspections 223
Fire Hydrants 225
Standpipe and Hose Systems 225
Chapter Questions 228
References 230
10 Fire-Program Management 231
Introduction 231
Hazard Identification 232
Quantification of Risk 232
Fire-Protection and -Prevention Strategies 234
Measurement of the Effectiveness of Fire Strategies 235
Emergency-Response Plans 236
Federal Regulations Related to Emergency Response 236
FEMA 237
OSHA 237
EPA 243
NFPA 1600: Recommended Practice for Emergency
Management 247
Planning an Emergency-Response Strategy 248
Developing the Written Emergency-Response Plan 252C O N T E N T S ix
Emergency Medical Care 253
Training 255
Personal Protective Equipment 256
Media Control 257
Recovery after an Emergency 258
Investigation of Emergency Incidents 260
Maintenance of Fire-Protection Systems 261
Fire Inspections 262
Hot-Work-Permit Programs 267
Chapter Questions 269
References 270
Appendix A: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Integrated
Contingency Plan 275
Solutions to Chapter Questions 287
Glossary: Fire Safety Terminology 307
Index 319
Index
AAI. See Alliance of American Insurers
AAOHN. See American Association of
Occupational Health Nurses
aboveground tanks, 73–75
acetylene, 85–87
ACGIH. See American Conference of
Governmental Industrial Hygienists
aerated-powder coating operations,
168
AIHA. See American Industrial
Hygiene Association
alarm and detection systems, 181; initiating devices, 183; installation,
184; power supplies, 182, 183; selection, 184, 185
alarm systems, 152; initiation, 153
Alliance of American Insurers (AAI),
23
American Association of Occupational
Health Nurses (AAOHN), 23
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH),
23
American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), 24
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI), 24
American Petroleum Institute (API),
21, 73
319
American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM), 25
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 73
American Society of Safety Engineers
(ASSE), 25
American Welding Society (AWS), 21
ammonium nitrate, 102; storage,
102–4
ANSI. See American National Standards Institute
API. See American Petroleum Institute
arcing, 40, 57
ASME. See American Society of
Mechanical Engineers
ASTM. See American Society for Testing and Materials
AWS. See American Welding Society
back draft, 35
baffles, 127
beam, 114
blasting agents, 94–95; use of, 100
BLEVE. See boiling liquid expanding
vapor explosion
BLS. See Bureau of Labor Statistics
BOCA. See Building Official’s and
Code Administrator’s (BOCA)
Code320 I N D E X
boilers, 107, 109–10; inspection, 110;
maintenance, 110–11
boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), 34, 104–6
brick construction, 120
British Thermal Unit (BTU), 36
building codes, 136
building construction, 113, 122–23;
Type I, 123–24; Type II, 123–24;
Type III, 123–24; Type IV, 123–24;
Type IV, 124–25; Type V, 123–25
building contents, 131, 152
Building Official’s and Code Administrator’s (BOCA) Code, 146
building services, 153
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 9–11
calorie, 36
carbon dioxide, 33, 204–5
carbon monoxide, 33, 35
carboxyhemoglobin, 33
central station fire alarms, 193–94
CGA. See Compressed Gas Association
chemical chain reaction, 30–31
chemical explosions, 93
chemical heat, 40
Chemical Process Safety Management,
240–41
Chemical Transportation Emergency
Center, 50
coefficient of thermal conductivity, 38
combustible liquid storage, 67, 164–65
combustible liquids, 65–67, 79, 160;
transferring, 68
combustible metal extinguishing
agents, 208–9
combustion, 31; physics of, 41; products of, 33; rate of, 32
commodity classification, 132–33;
Class I, 134; Class II, 134; Class III,
134; Class IV, 134
communication systems, 152
Compressed Gas Association (CGA),
22
conduction, 37
connectors, 116
containers, 67–69
containment, 35
continuous beam, 115
convection, 38; heat transfer coefficient, 39
convergence clusters, 143
corrosion protection, 77
Crescent City, Illinois, 4, 105–6
cylinder failures, 107
dead load, 114
deaths and injuries, 6, 13, 141
deflagration, 35
detection systems, 152
detonation, 35
diking, 76
dip tanks, 169–71
dipping and coating equipment,
172–79; design, 172; fire protection,
176–77; inspection and testing, 178;
liquid level control, 172–73; operation and maintenance, 177–78;
overflow protection, 172; sources of
ignition, 173–74; temperature control, 173; training, 179; ventilation,
174–75
DOT. See U.S. Department of Transportation
drainage, 76
drum, 55-gallon, 68
drying apparatus, 166–67
dry-pipe systems, 220I N D E X 321
dumping, 35
dust explosions, 106–7
dustproof, 63–64
dust-tight, 63–64
electrical fire sources, 57
electrical heat, 40
electricity, 55–56
electromagnetic waves, 39
electrostatic fluidized beds, 168–69
electrostatic spray operations, 160–62
emergency incidents, investigation,
260–61
emergency lighting, 150
emergency medical care, 253–55
Emergency Planning and Community
Right to Know, 243–45
emergency response, 248–53; planning,
248–51; training, 255–56; written
plan, 252–53
emergency response plans, 236; federal
regulations, 236–37
emergency-action plans, 153–54
emissivity, 39
employee emergency plans, 237
energy source, 30
EPA. See U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
equipment, intrinsically safe, 62–63
exit signs, 150–51
exits, 148, 150
explosion, 34, 93
explosion proof, 63
explosives, 94, 97; Division 1.1, 94, 96;
Division 1.2, 94, 96; Division 1.3,
94, 96; Division 1.4, 94, 96; Division
1.5, 94; Division 1.6, 94; transporting, 98–100; use of, 100
extinguishing agents, 202; dry chemical, 206–8; foam, 208; water, 202–4
extra-hazard occupancy, 133
Factory Mutual Global (FM Global),
19, 73
fatalities, 11
Federal Emergency Management
Agency (FEMA), 237
FEMA. See Federal Emergency Management Agency
fire alarm systems, 196–97; inspections, 196–97; maintenance,
196–97; testing, 196–97
fire brigades, 241–43
fire dampers, 127
fire department connections, 223
fire detection systems, 3
fire extinguishers, 210–14; distribution
and mounting, 212–13; maintenance, inspection, and testing,
213–14; rating systems, 210–12;
training, 214; use in the workplace,
212
fire extinguishment, 201
fire extinguishment systems, 3
fire hydrants, 225
fire inspections, 262–63
fire load, 114
fire loading, 131–32
fire prevention: defined, 2; plans, 154–
55, 237–39
fire program management, 231; personal protective equipment, 256
fire protection: defined, 2; engineers, 3;
opportunities, 3, 4; strategies, 3; systems, maintenance of, 261–62
fire protection and prevention strategies, 234–35; measurement of effectiveness, 235–36
Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous
Materials, 47
fire resistance, 114; ratings, 120
fire safety program, 4322 I N D E X
fire spread, 126–27
fire stops, 127
fire suppression, 3
fire tetrahedron, 29
fire triangle, 29
fire wall, 115–16, 128
fires: causes, 8; deaths by, 1, 5, 6, 7, 9;
Class A, 31–32, 202, 211; Class B,
31–32, 202, 211; Class C, 31–32,
202, 211; Class D, 31–32, 202, 211;
Class K, 31–32, 202, 211; economic
impact of, 5, 6; indirect losses due
to, 6; in industrial and manufacturing properties by area of origin, 13;
nonresidential, 6; people’s behavior
in, 142; structure, 9, 13
fixed beam, 115
flame spread, 114
flame supervisory unit, 110
flammable liquid storage, 67, 164–65
flammable liquids, 65–67, 160; Class I,
69, 72, 75, 78, 173; Class II, 66, 68,
72, 78, 173; Class III, 66, 68, 72, 78,
173; Class IA liquids, 66, 68; Class
IB liquids, 66, 68; Class IC liquids,
66, 68; Class IIIA, 66; Class IIIB, 67;
handling, 175; storage, 175; transferring, 68
flash point, 65–66
flashover, 35
flow coating operation, 171
FM Global. See Factory Mutual Global
fuel, 31
gases, 41
general industry standards, 12
girder, 115
ground failures, 57
gypsum, 120
halogenated agents, 205–6
hazard identification, 2
Hazard Index Markings, 47
hazardous locations, 58, 61–62; Class I,
58, 63; Class II, 59, 63–64; Class III,
61; Class I, Division 1, 58, 72; Class
I, Division 2, 59, 72; Class II, Division 1, 60; Class II, Division 2, 60;
Group A, 59; Group B, 59; Group C,
59; Group D, 59; Group E, 61;
Group F, 61; Group G, 61
hazardous materials, 44; classification,
44–47; table, 49
hazardous processes, 159
Hazardous Waste Operations and
Emergency Response
(HAZWOPER), 239–40
HAZWOPER. See Hazardous Waste
Operations and Emergency
Response
heat, 36; of combustion, 33, 36; of conduction, 38; of decomposition, 40;
of solution, 40
heat detectors, color coding, 186
heat sources, 40
heat transfer, 37
heat-sensing fire detectors, 185; locating, 185
high-rise buildings, 135
historical major fires, 4
hot work, 170; permits, 267–69
housekeeping, 80
hydrogen, 80–81; storage, 81–82
hydrogen cyanide, 34
ignition: sources, 30, 55, 69, 79; temperature, 30
ignition timer, trial for, 110
Imperial Foods Products, 5, 142I N D E X 323
industrial occupancies, 146–47;
defined, 5; fire inspection forms,
264–66
industrial structure fires, 8
inside storage rooms, 70–73
interior finishes, 130, 152; classes of,
130–31
International Code Council, 137
job responsibilities, 4
joule, 36
Kelvin, 36
labels, 95
leak protection, 77
LEL. See lower explosive limit
LFL. See lower flammable limit
life safety, 141, 143
light-hazard occupancy, 133
lightning, 41
line detectors, 185
liquefied hydrogen, 82–85
liquefied petroleum gas, 88–90; tank
car loading or unloading, 90–91;
truck loading or unloading, 90–91
liquid piping systems, 175–76
liquids, 41
load-bearing wall, 115
Los Angeles, California, 5
lower explosive limit (LEL), 67, 72
lower flammable limit (LFL), 67
low-water cutoff, 110
magazine, 97–98; Class I, 97; Class II,
97
maintenance practices, 79
manufacturing structure fires, 8
masonry construction, 120
means of egress, 147–48; illumination,
150
mechanical explosions, 93
mechanical heat, 41
media control, 257
model building codes, 137
NAFED. See National Association Fire
Equipment Dealers
National Association Fire Equipment
Dealers (NAFED), 20
National Board Inspection Code, 109
National Electrical Code (NEC), 56–57
National Electrical Safety Code, 56
National Fire Academy (NFA), 20
National Fire Protection Association
(NFPA), 3, 5, 25, 29, 56
National Fire Sprinkler Association
(NFSA), 20
National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health (NIOSH), 19
National Response Team (NRT), 247
National Safety Council (NSC), 12, 18
National Testing Laboratories, 64, 65
NEC. See National Electrical Code
NFA. See National Fire Academy
NFPA. See National Fire Protection
Association
NFPA 25: Standard for the Inspection,
Testing, and Maintenance of WaterBased Fire Protection Systems, 223
NFPA 72: Classifications for Fire Alarm
Systems, 182
NFPA 101: Life Safety Code, 143–46
NFPA 704, 47
NFPA 1600: Recommended Practice
for Emergency Management,
247–48
NFSA. See National Fire Sprinkler
Association
NIOSH. See National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health324 I N D E X
noncombustible material, 114
nonfatal injuries and illnesses, 10, 14
non-load-bearing wall, 115
North American Emergency Response
Guide Book, 44, 48
notification devices, 191; criteria,
191–93
NRT. See National Response Team
NSC. See National Safety Council
nuclear heat, 41
occupancy classification, 132–33,
144–45
occupant notification, 153
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA), 2, 12, 14–
17, 64–65, 67, 72, 95, 100, 143, 155,
237–41
operational-impact analysis, 259
ordinary-hazard occupancy, 133
OSHA. See Occupational Safety and
Health Administration
outside stem and yoke (OS&Y) valves,
218–19
oxidation, 31–32
oxidizers, 30; Class 1, 101; Class 2, 101;
Class 3, 101; Class 4, 101
oxidizing agents, 101–2
oxygen, 87–88
panic behavior, 143
parapets, 128
Pennsylvania Right-to-Know Law, 44
performance codes, 136
Phillips Petroleum Company, 4,
159–60
placards, 50, 95
plastics, 43
polymers, 43
portable fire extinguishers, 209; labeling, 209–10
portable tanks, 67
propagating reactions, 94
property damage, 13
property loss, 6–7, 9
proprietary supervising-station systems, 194–95
public fire alarm systems, 193
quantification of risk, 232–34
quenching, 35
radiant heat transfer, 39
radiant-energy-sensing fire detectors,
188–89; locating, 189
rafter, 115
RCRA. See Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act
reentry behavior, 143
reinforced concrete, 120
remote-supervising-station fire alarm
systems, 195–96
reporting systems, 193
Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act (RCRA), 245–47
rupture disk, 110
safety can, 69
safety factor, 114
safety relief valves, 110
safety science, 1
SFPE. See Society of Fire Protection
Engineers
short circuit, 57
signal annunciation, 190–91
smoke, 33
smoke management, 129
smoke-sensing detectors, 186; locating,
187–88I N D E X 325
Society of Fire Protection Engineers
(SFPE), 22
solids, 41
sparking, 40, 57
specific heat, 36
specification codes, 136
spontaneous heating, 40
spot detectors, 185
spray booths, 162–66; fire protection,
165–66; maintenance, 166; operation, 166; sources of ignition,
162–63; ventilation, 162–63
sprinkler heads, 222; ratings, 222–23
sprinkler systems, 152; inspections,
223–24; water-based, 214–15; wet
pipe, 215–16
sprinkler-water-flow alarms, 189–90
standard time-temperature curve, 120,
122
standpipe and hose systems, 225, 227;
Class I system, 227; Class II system,
227; Class III system, 227, 228
static electrical charge, 40
steel construction, 116–18
Steiner Tunnel Test, 130
storage cabinets, 69–71
storage tanks, 73
structural elements, 114
strut, 115
surface tension, 203
tank cars, 78
tank vehicles, 78–79
temperature, 36
temperature limit control, 110
Texas City, Texas, 5
textiles, 43
TNT. See trinitrotoluene
Triangle Shirtwaist Company, 4–5,
141–42
trinitrotoluene (TNT), 95
truss, 116
UBC. See Uniform Building Code
UEL. See upper explosive limit
UFL. See upper flammable limit
underground tanks, 77–78
Underwriters Laboratories (UL), 22
unfired pressure vessels, 107
Uniform Building Code (UBC), 137
uniform reactions, 94
upper explosive limit (UEL), 67
upper flammable limit (UFL), 67
U.S. Department of Transportation
(DOT), 44, 48, 68, 94–96
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA), 237, 239, 241, 244, 247; Integrated Contingency Plan, 275–86
U.S. Fire Administration (USFA), 18,
131
USFA. See U.S. Fire Administration
ventilation, 72, 129–30
venting, 35, 75–78, 81
wall openings, 128–29
water, as an extinguishing agent,
202–4; special hazards, 204
water-based sprinkler systems, 214–15;
impact on fires, 215
water-flow alarms, 219–20
West Pharmaceutical Services, 5
wet pipe sprinkler systems, 215–16;
cross-mains and branch lines, 220;
inspector’s test, 21; piping, 217–18;
water supply and distribution,
216–17
wood, 42
wood construction, 118–19

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