رسالة ماجستير بعنوان Plastic railway sleepers – Creating a finite element model for hybrid plastic railway sleepers

رسالة ماجستير بعنوان Plastic railway sleepers – Creating a finite element model for hybrid plastic railway sleepers
اسم المؤلف
A. H. Griemink
التاريخ
30 يوليو 2022
المشاهدات
536
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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رسالة ماجستير بعنوان
Plastic railway sleepers – Creating a finite element model for hybrid plastic railway sleepers
A. H. Griemink
in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Science
in Structural Engineering
at the Delft University of Technology,
to be defended publicly on 22 April 2021
CONTENTS
Preface iii
Abstract v
List of abbreviations ix
List of symbols xi
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 2
1.2 Problem definition 2
1.3 Research goal and research questions . 3
1.4 Methodology . 3
2 Context 7
2.1 Plastic sleepers 7
2.1.1 Producer 7
2.1.2 Considered sleeper types 8
2.2 Sleeper acceptation in general 8
2.3 Material properties 10
2.3.1 Used materials . 10
2.3.2 Used material models . 14
2.4 Conclusion 15
3 Analytic Calculations 17
3.1 Loading conditions 17
3.1.1 Maximum static loading 17
3.1.2 Quasi static loading 18
3.2 Characteristic length . 18
3.2.1 Load distribution . 19
3.3 Interface stresses . 20
3.4 Beam on elastic foundation 21
3.5 Expected shear stresses 23
3.6 Conclusion 23
4 Finite element model design 25
4.1 Used terminology . 25
4.2 Model composition 26
4.2.1 Determination of analysis and element type 26
4.3 Sleeper 27
4.3.1 Sleeper cross section 27
4.3.2 Circular reinforcement model . 28
4.3.3 Octagonal reinforcement model 29
4.3.4 Base plate, rail pad and rail . 31
4.3.5 Analysis settings 34
4.4 Multiple sleeper model 34
4.5 Code base . 35
4.5.1 Features 35
4.5.2 Limitations . 36
4.6 Summary . 36
viiviii CONTENTS
5 Finite element results 39
5.1 3-point bending results 39
5.2 Multi-sleeper results . 42
5.3 General results and material limits 42
5.3.1 201 sleeper . 42
5.3.2 202 sleeper . 43
5.3.3 Changing foundation stiffness . 43
5.4 Comparison with BOEF calculation 48
5.5 Conclusion 49
6 Conclusions and recommendations 51
Appendices
A KLP sleepers 57
B BOEF calculations 61
C Rail profile 65
D Finite element model accuracy 67
E Bad foundation, influence of parameters 71
F Gauge widening 75
Bibliography 83LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
APDL Ansys Parametric Design Language
BOEF Beam On Elastic Foundation
DAF Dynamic Amplification Factor
FEA Finite Element Analysis
FEM Finite Element Model
FFU Fibre-reinforced Foamed Urethane
GUI Graphical User Interface
HDPE High Density PolyEthylene
KLP Kunstof Lankhorst Product
PE PolyEthylene
ProRail Name of the Dutch infrastructure manager
RIVM RijksInstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu, Dutch national institute for public health and the
environment
RST Rolling STock
TSI Technical Specifications for Interoperability
UIC Union Internationale des Chemins de fer, international Union of Railways
ixLIST OF SYMBOLS
A (-) Bad foundation modelling parameter: centre size multiplier
C (-) Foundation modulus (N/mm3). Or Bad foundation modelling parameter centre magnitude
multiplier
·(x) (-) Eta-curve. Deflection curve of a Winkler foundation.
G (N/mm2) Shear modulus
γ (rad) Conicity
Izz (mm4) Second moment of area for bending around the y-axis
kd (m) foundation stiffness per sleeper
‚ (m) Wavelength
Lc (m) Characteristic length
Q (kN/m) Vertical wheel load
QDAF (kN/m) Dynamic amplificated vertical wheel load
r (m) Radius
s (m) spoorwijdte
σsb (N/mm2) Sleeper-ballast interface stress
¿ (N/mm2) Shear stress
V (km/h) Speed of the track vehicles.
Y (kN) Lateral wheel load
E (N/mm2) Young’s modulus

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