Plastic Films in Food Packaging – Materials, Technology, and Applications

Plastic Films in Food Packaging – Materials, Technology, and Applications
اسم المؤلف
Sina Ebnesajjad
التاريخ
9 يوليو 2023
المشاهدات
228
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
Loading...

Plastic Films in Food Packaging – Materials, Technology, and Applications
Edited by
Sina Ebnesajjad
President, Fluoroconsultants Group, LLC
Contents
Preface .xiii
1 Introduction to Use of Plastics in Food Packaging 1
1.1 Background . 1
1.2 Polyolefins . 1
1.2.1 Polyethylene 2
1.2.2 Polypropylene . 4
1.2.3 Specialty Polyolefins 4
1.3 Polyester 5
1.3.1 Specialty Polyesters 5
1.4 Polystyrene 7
1.5 Polyvinyl Chloride 7
1.6 Polyvinylidene Chloride . 8
1.7 Polyamide 8
1.7.1 Nylon 6 . 8
1.7.2 Nylon 12 . 9
1.7.3 Nylon 66 . 10
1.7.4 Nylon 66/610 10
1.7.5 Nylon 6/12 10
1.7.6 Polyamide 6/69 (Nylon 6/69) . 11
1.7.7 Amorphous Polyamides 11
1.8 EthyleneVinyl Alcohol Copolymer . 11
1.9 Renewable Resource and Biodegradable Polymers . 12
1.9.1 Ethyl Cellulose 14
1.9.2 Polycaprolactone . 14
1.9.3 Polylactic Acid 14
1.9.4 Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate 15
1.10 Summary . 15
References 15
2 Polypropylene Films 17
2.1 Unoriented Film 17
2.2 Cast Film . 17
2.3 Biaxially Oriented Film 18
References 20
3 PE-Based Multilayer Film Structures . 21
3.1 Introduction . 21
3.2 Polymer Selection . 24
3.3 Mechanical Properties . 26
3.4 Barrier Properties 27
3.5 Polymer Sealability . 31
3.6 Adhesive Polymers . 33
3.7 Applications for Flexible Packaging Film Structures 35
v3.7.1 Medical Packaging 36
3.7.2 Food Packaging . 38
3.8 Summary . 49
References 50
4 Biaxially Oriented Films for Packaging Applications . 53
4.1 Introduction . 53
4.2 Orienting Technologies . 53
4.3 Oriented Film Types—Applications . 56
4.3.1 BOPP Films 56
4.3.2 BOPET Films 62
4.3.3 BOPA Films 64
4.3.4 Biaxially Oriented Polystyrene Films 66
4.3.5 Other Biaxially Oriented Films 66
4.3.6 Film Oriented in Transverse Direction 68
4.4 Trends for Oriented Films 69
References 69
5 Development of High-Barrier Film for Food Packaging . 71
5.1 Introduction . 71
5.2 Background . 72
5.3 Improvement of Barrier Properties of Films 74
5.4 Review of Permeation . 77
5.5 Multilayer Flexible Packaging Structures 78
5.6 Measurement of Barrier Properties of Films 86
5.6.1 Oxygen Test Methods . 86
5.6.2 Water Vapor Test Methods 89
5.6.3 Carbon Dioxide Test Methods . 90
References 91
6 Applications of Polypropylene Films . 93
6.1 Automotive Applications 93
6.1.1 Exterior Automotive Applications . 93
6.1.2 Interior Automotive Applications . 96
6.1.3 Under-the-Hood Automotive Applications 98
6.2 Medical Applications 98
6.3 Appliances . 100
6.3.1 Small Appliances 100
6.3.2 Large Appliances 102
6.4 Textiles and Nonwovens . 104
6.4.1 Floor Coverings and Home Furnishings 104
6.4.2 Automotive . 104
6.4.3 Apparel 104
6.4.4 Industrial Applications and Geotextiles . 106
6.4.5 Nonwovens 106
6.5 Packaging 106
6.5.1 Plastics Versus Other Packaging Materials 106
6.5.2 Use of Polypropylene in Packaging . 108
6.5.3 High-Crystallinity and High-Melt-Strength Grades . 109
6.5.4 Clarified Polypropylene 109
vi CONTENTS6.5.5 Metallocene Polypropylene 109
6.5.6 Rigid Packaging 110
6.5.7 Film . 112
6.5.8 Barrier Packaging . 114
6.6 Consumer Products . 114
6.7 Building and Construction 117
References 118
7 Emerging Technologies in Food Packaging: Overview . 121
7.1 Introduction . 121
7.2 Innovations in Food Processing and Packaging . 122
7.3 Food Packaging Technologies 122
7.3.1 Extra Active Functions of Packaging Systems 122
7.3.2 Modified Atmosphere Packaging . 123
7.3.3 Edible Films and Coatings . 123
7.4 New Food Processing Technologies . 124
7.5 Future Trends in Food Packaging . 124
References 125
8 Introduction to Active Food Packaging Technologies . 127
8.1 Introduction . 127
8.2 Drivers for Choice of Active Packaging 128
8.2.1 Economic Advantage 128
8.2.2 Process Engineering Limitations 129
8.2.3 Time-Dependent Processes . 129
8.2.4 Secondary Effects . 130
8.2.5 Environmental Impacts . 130
8.2.6 Enhanced Convenience . 130
8.3 Forms of Active Packaging 131
8.3.1 Localized Effects 131
8.3.2 Whole-Package Activity . 131
8.3.3 Edible Coatings . 132
8.4 History of Active Packaging . 132
8.4.1 Active Packaging for Processed Foods and Beverages . 132
8.5 Impact on Packaging Materials and Processes . 135
8.5.1 Material Properties 135
8.5.2 Process Adaptation . 135
8.6 Active Packaging and the Distribution Chain 136
8.7 Regulatory Environment . 136
References 137
9 Oxygen-Scavenging Packaging 139
9.1 Introduction . 139
9.2 Reviews . 139
9.3 History . 139
9.3.1 Package Inserts . 140
9.3.2 Packaging Materials as Oxygen Scavengers 141
9.4 Application to Food and Beverage Packaging . 145
9.5 Future Opportunities . 147
References 148
CONTENTS vii10 Antimicrobial Packaging Systems . 151
10.1 Introduction . 151
10.2 Food Safety . 151
10.2.1 Spoilage of Food Products 151
10.2.2 Food-Borne Illness 151
10.2.3 Malicious Tampering and Bioterrorism . 152
10.3 Antimicrobial Packaging . 152
10.4 Antimicrobial Agents 153
10.4.1 Chemical Antimicrobial Agents . 153
10.4.2 Natural Antimicrobial Agents . 155
10.4.3 Probiotics . 155
10.5 System Design . 156
10.5.1 Antimicrobial Mechanisms . 156
10.5.2 Microbiocidal 156
10.5.3 Microbiostatic 163
10.5.4 Functioning Modes and Volatility 163
10.5.5 Nonvolatile Migration . 164
10.5.6 Volatile Migration . 164
10.5.7 Nonmigration and Absorption 165
10.5.8 Shapes and Compositions of Systems 165
10.6 Commercialization 166
10.6.1 Technical Factors 166
10.6.2 Regulatory, Marketing, and Political Factors . 173
References 174
11 Damage Reduction to Food Products During Transportation and Handling . 181
11.1 Introduction . 181
11.2 Functions of Packaging . 181
11.2.1 Containment 181
11.2.2 Protection . 182
11.2.3 Communication . 183
11.2.4 Utility . 183
11.3 Food Product Categories . 184
11.3.1 Meats . 184
11.3.2 Seafood 185
11.3.3 Vegetables and Fruits 186
11.3.4 Processed Versus Nonprocessed . 187
11.4 Food Product Distribution Environment . 187
11.4.1 Harvesting . 187
11.4.2 Packing 188
11.4.3 Shipping . 188
11.4.4 Storage and Shelf Life 188
11.5 Major Causes of Food Spoilage/Damage in Supply Chain . 189
11.5.1 Microbiological Spoilage 189
11.5.2 Biochemical . 189
11.5.3 Chemical 189
11.5.4 Macrobiological Spoilage . 189
11.5.5 Physical . 189
11.6 Packaging Materials 189
11.6.1 Paper 190
11.6.2 Plastic 191
viii CONTENTS11.6.3 Metal 192
11.6.4 Glass 192
11.7 “Smart” Packaging 193
11.7.1 Active Packaging 193
11.7.2 Modified Atmosphere Packaging . 193
11.7.3 Controlled Atmosphere Packaging . 194
11.7.4 Intelligent Packaging . 194
11.8 Trends in Protective Food Packaging of 2000 and Beyond 194
11.8.1 Food Packaging Trends . 194
11.8.2 Damage Reduction Trends 196
References 197
12 Food Packaging Machinery 199
12.1 Introduction . 199
12.1.1 Containment 199
12.1.2 Protection . 199
12.1.3 Communication . 199
12.1.4 Utility . 199
12.2 Filling Machines 201
12.3 Volumetric Fillers . 201
12.3.1 Piston Fillers 201
12.3.2 Diaphragm Fillers 202
12.3.3 Timed Flow Fillers 202
12.3.4 Auger Fillers 202
12.4 Weight Filling . 203
12.4.1 Net Weight Fillers . 204
12.4.2 Gross Weight Fillers . 204
12.5 In-Line or Rotary Fillers . 204
12.5.1 In-Line Fillers 204
12.5.2 Rotary Fillers . 205
12.6 Cap Application Machines 205
12.6.1 Chucks and Clutches . 207
12.6.2 Chuck-Type Press-On Cappers . 207
12.6.3 Roller-Type Press-On Cappers . 207
12.7 Induction Cap Sealing . 207
12.8 Flexible Packaging 209
12.9 Form-Fill-Seal Equipment 209
12.9.1 Vffs Equipment . 209
12.9.2 Hffs Equipment . 210
12.9.3 Tffs Equipment 210
12.10 Canning Machinery 211
12.11 Carton Filling and Closing Machinery . 212
12.11.1 Carton Filling 212
12.12 Metal Detectors 213
12.12.1 Typical Metal Detectors . 214
13 Compostable Polymer Properties and Packaging Applications 217
13.1 Introduction . 217
13.2 Biodegradable Polymers from Renewable Resources 218
13.2.1 Poly(lactic acid) 218
13.2.2 Polyhydroxyalkanoates . 220
CONTENTS ix13.2.3 Thermoplastic Starch 225
13.2.4 Other Compostable Polymers from Renewable Resources 227
13.3 Biodegradable Polymers from Petrochemical Sources 232
13.3.1 Aliphatic Polyesters and Copolyesters . 232
13.3.2 Aromatic Polyesters and Copolyesters . 233
13.3.3 Poly(caprolactone) 236
13.3.4 Poly(esteramide)s 236
13.3.5 Poly(vinyl alcohol) 238
13.4 Blends . 239
13.5 Summary 242
13.5.1 Major Markets of Compostable Polymer Materials . 243
References 243
14 Waste Management for Polymers in Food Packaging Industries 249
14.1 Biodegradable Synthetic Copolymers and Composites . 249
14.1.1 Novel Biodegradable Copolyamides Based on Diacids, Diamines,
and α-Amino Acids 249
14.1.2 Novel Biodegradable Copolyesteramides from ε-Caprolactone
and Various PA Salts 250
14.1.3 Novel Star-Shaped Copolylactides . 251
14.1.4 Biodegradable Composite Materials . 251
14.1.5 NaturalSynthetic Polymer Blends 252
14.1.6 Partially Degradable Blends . 252
14.2 ChitosanPoly(Vinyl Alcohol) Blends 253
14.3 Landfill 254
14.4 Incineration 255
14.5 Pyrolysis 255
14.6 Reuse and Recovery 256
14.7 Composting 257
14.8 Recycling . 259
14.8.1 Plastic Recycling . 261
14.8.2 Sorting . 271
14.8.3 Preparation for Recycling . 282
14.8.4 Mechanical Recycling . 282
14.8.5 Feedstock Recycling . 284
14.8.6 Chemical Recycling 288
14.8.7 Radiation Technology . 289
14.9 The Issue of Contamination on Recycling . 290
14.9.1 Environmental Impacts of Waste Management Processes . 293
References 294
Relevant Websites 310
15 Polymer Blending for Packaging Applications . 311
15.1 Introduction . 311
15.2 Why Blend? . 311
15.3 Blending Processes 312
15.3.1 Pellet Premixing 313
15.3.2 Melt Blending 314
15.4 Physics of Blending 317
15.5 Thermodynamics . 317
x CONTENTS15.6 Morphology Development in Immiscible Blends 321
15.7 Morphology Development in Blown Film . 333
15.7.1 Viscosity Ratio 333
15.7.2 Interfacial Tension 333
15.7.3 Minor Phase Concentration in Blend . 333
15.7.4 Polymer Elasticity (Non-Newtonian Behavior) . 333
15.7.5 Extruder RPM . 334
15.7.6 Extruder Temperature . 334
15.7.7 Shear Stress in Extruder, Adapter, and Die . 334
15.7.8 Screw Design 334
15.7.9 Draw Ratio 334
15.7.10 Frost Line Height and Process Time 335
15.8 Dispersion of Rigid Particles and Nanocomposites . 335
15.9 Rheology of Polymer Blends 337
15.10 Conclusion . 338
References 339
16 A Survey of Regulatory Aspects of Food Packaging . 345
16.1 Introduction . 345
16.1.1 Bisphenol A . 345
16.2 Determining the Regulatory Status of Components of a Food Contact Material
in the United States . 346
16.2.1 Food Contact Formulation (FCF) Compliance Notification 348
16.3 Regulatory Report: FDA’s FCS Notification Program 348
16.3.1 Definitions, History, and Scope 348
16.3.2 The Notification Process . 349
16.3.3 Increasing the Odds of Success 350
16.3.4 FCS Formulations . 351
16.4 Preservation of Foods by Irradiation 351
16.4.1 FDA Regulations for Treatment of Foods with Radiation 352
16.4.2 Title 21 CFR 179. Subpart B: Radiation and Radiation Sources 353
16.4.3 Title 21 CFR 179. Subpart C: Packaging Materials for Irradiated Foods . 357
16.5 Regulatory Aspects of Recycled Plastics—US FDA View . 359
16.5.1 Introduction . 359
16.5.2 Use of Recycled Plastics in Food Packaging: Chemistry Considerations . 360
16.5.3 Surrogate Contaminant Testing 364
16.5.4 Plastic Containers from Nonfood-Contact Applications as Feedstock 366
16.5.5 The Use of an Effective Barrier . 368
16.5.6 Elimination of Data Recommendations for 3 Recycling Processes
for PET and PEN 369
16.6 EU Legislation on Food Contact Plastics . 369
16.6.1 EU Regulation No. 10/2011 on Plastic Materials Intended to Come
into Contact with Food . 369
16.6.2 Consolidating Paragraphs 369
16.6.3 Chapter I: General Provisions . 376
16.6.4 Chapter II: Compositional Requirements . 378
16.6.5 Chapter III: Specific Provisions for Certain Materials and Articles . 380
16.6.6 Chapter IV: Declaration of Compliance and Documentation 381
16.6.7 Chapter V: Compliance 381
16.6.8 Chapter VI: Final Provisions 382
CONTENTS xi16.7 European Union Legislation for Recycled Plastics 383
16.8 Questions and Answers on Recycled Plastics in Food Contact Materials 383
Acknowledgment . 384
Appendix: Model of the Sorption of Surrogate Contaminants into Plastic 384
References 386
Further Reading 388
Index . 389
Index
A
Acrylic, 43
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS),
279
Active food packaging technologies,
72, 122123, 127, 193
and distribution chain, 136
drivers for choice of, 128131
economic advantage, 128129
enhanced convenience, 130131
environmental impacts, 130
process engineering limitations,
129
secondary effects, 130
time-dependent processes,
129130
forms of, 131132
edible coatings, 132
localized effects, 131
whole-package activity, 131132
history of, 132135
for processed foods and
beverages, 132135
impact on packaging materials and
processes, 135136
material properties, 135
process adaptation, 135136
levels of, 132
regulatory environment, 136137
seminal technology adaptations in,
133t
Agelesss, 140
Agelesst Z50, 147
Air tabling, 279280
Albertsons, 194
Aliphatic polyesters and copolyesters,
232233, 249251
applications, 233
processing, 233
properties, 232
Aluminum foil, 2t
Aluminum in packaging, 192
Aluminum scrap, recycling, 263f, 265f
American Society of Testing and
Materials, 197
α-Amino acids
novel biodegradable copolyamides
synthesis based on, 249250
Amorphous polyamides, 11, 11f, 356
Amosorbt 3000, 144
Antifog coatings, 134
Antimicrobial packaging systems, 123,
152153
agents, 153156, 154t
chemical, 153155
natural, 155
probiotics, 155156
commercialization, 166173, 167t
regulatory, marketing, and
political factors, 172173
technical factors, 166172
designing, 156165, 157t
antimicrobial mechanisms, 156
functioning modes and volatility,
163164
microbiocidal, 156163
microbiostatic, 163
nonmigration and absorption, 165
nonvolatile migration, 164
shapes and compositions, 165,
166f
volatile migration, 164165
potential applications of, 169t
Apparel packaging, polypropylene
applications
in, 115f
Aromatic polyesters and copolyesters,
233235
applications, 235
processing, 234235
properties, 233234
Ascorbic acid-based sachet systems,
141
Aseptic technology, 210
Aspergillus fumigatus, 257259
ASTM Standards, 4
ASTM D3985, 86, 87t
ASTM D6701, 87t, 89
ASTM E 398, 87t, 8990
ASTM F1249, 87t, 89
ASTM F1307, 86, 87t
ASTM F1927, 8689, 87t
ASTM F2476, 87t, 90
Audi A4, polypropylene application in,
96
Auger fillers, 202203, 203f
Automatic seamers, 212
Automobiles, polypropylene
applications in, 9398
exterior applications, 9396
interior applications, 9698
under-the-hood applications, 98
B
Bacteriocins
as antimicrobial agents, 155, 157t
potential applications of, 169t
Bag-in-box, 46, 47t
Bakery packaging, 39, 45t
Barrier films, 71
applications, 7273
barrier properties, measurement of,
87t
multilayer flexible packaging
structures, 7886
orientation, 71
permeation, review of, 7778
properties, improvement of, 7477
properties, measurement of, 8691
carbon dioxide test methods,
9091
oxygen test methods, 8689
water vapor test methods, 8990
Barrier packaging, polypropylene
applications in, 114
Barrier property of plastic, 7778
BASF process, 287288
Biaxial orientation technologies, 55f
double- or triple-bubble technology,
5355
sequential process, 5355
simultaneous orientation, 5355
Biaxially oriented polyamide (BOPA)
films, 6466
application, examples of, 66f
typical applications of, 65f
typical packaging lamination
structures with, 65f, 66f
Biaxially oriented polyethylene
(BOPE) films, 6667
oriented film types, applications,
5669
biaxially oriented polyamide
(BOPA) films, 6466
biaxially oriented polyethylene
terephthalate (BOPET) films,
2t, 6264, 64f
biaxially oriented polypropylene
(BOPP) films, 23, 5662,
7677, 113
389Biaxially oriented polyethylene
(BOPE) films (Continued)
biaxially oriented polystyrene
(BOPS) films, 66, 67f
film oriented in transverse
direction, 6869
orienting technologies, 5356
trends for, 69
Biaxially oriented polypropylene
(BOPP) films
applications, examples of, 58f
cross section of, 63f
film properties of, 57t
five-layer film applications for, 59f
five-layer low-SIT structure, 60f
five-layer metallized UHB, 60f
overview of, 58f
production capacity for, 57f
structures of, 59f
versus cast PP (CPP), 54f
Bicor AOH, 43
Biochemical, 189
Biodegradable composite materials,
251252
Biodegradable polymers
from petrochemical sources,
232239
aliphatic polyesters and
copolyesters, 232233
aromatic polyesters and
copolyesters, 233235
poly(caprolactone), 235236
poly(esteramide)s, 236238
poly(vinyl alcohol), 238239
from renewable resources, 218231
cellulose, 227228
chitosan, 228229
poly(lactic acid), 218220
polyhydroxyalkanoates, 220225
proteins, 229231
thermoplastic starch, 225227
Biodegradable synthetic copolymers
and composites, 249253
biodegradable composite materials,
251252
naturalsynthetic polymer blends, 252
novel biodegradable copolyamides
based on diacids, diamines, and
α-amino acids, 249250
novel biodegradable
copolyesteramides from
ε-caprolactone and PA salts,
250251
novel star-shaped copolylactides, 251
partially degradable blends,
252253
Bioplast, 239240
Bioterrorism, 152
Blast furnace gas, 288
Blending of polymers, see Polymer
blending,
for packaging applications
Blending, 76
Blown film
extrusion, 22
morphology development in,
377379, 378f
draw ratio, 378379
extruder RPM, 378
extruder temperature, 378
frost line height and process time,
379
interfacial tension, 377
minor phase concentration in
blend, 377
polymer elasticity, 377378
screw design, 378
shear stress in extruder, adapter,
and die, 378
viscosity ratio, 377
Blown process, 5355
BMW 3 series, polypropylene
application in, 97
Bremer Stahlwerke, 288
Brick-Pack”/“drink box” technology,
210
Building and construction industries,
polypropylene applications in,
117, 118f
C
Canning machinery, 211212, 211f
Can-spin seamer, 211212
Cap application machines, 205207,
206f
chucks and clutches, 207
chuck-type press-on cappers, 207
roller-type press-on cappers, 207
ε-Caprolactone, novel biodegradable
copolyesteramides
from, 250251
Carbon deposition by plasma
technique, 7576
Carbon dioxide
in packaging, 72
release, 133
scavenging systems, 122123, 133
test methods, 9091
ASTM F2476, 90
DIN-53380 Part 4, 91
Carnaud Metal Box Company, 144
Carton filling and closing machinery,
212213
carton filling, 212213
metal detectors, 213215
typical metal detectors, 214215
Case-ready red meat, 184185
Cast films, 22
Cast polypropylenes (CPP)
versus BOPP films, 54f
Cellophanet, 13
Cellulose, 227228
applications, 227228
processing, 227
properties, 227
Cellulosics, 2t
Center for Food Safety and Applied
Nutrition’s
(CFSAN), 314
Cereal box liners, 39, 44t
Chain-growth polymerization, 1
Cheese packaging, 3943, 45t
Chelating agents, potential applications
of, 169t
Chemical antimicrobial agents,
153155
Chemical changes, and food spoilage,
189
Chemical immobilization, 164
Chemical plastic recycling, 288289
Chemical reprocessing, 328
Chevron Chemical Company, 144
Chitosan, 155, 228229
applications, 229
processing, 229
properties, 228229
Chitosan/PCL blend, 254
Chitosanpoly(vinyl alcohol) blends,
253254
Chucks and clutches, 206f, 207
Chuck-type press-on cappers, 207
Clarified polypropylene, 109
Clarified resins, 109
Closure liners, 131
Co-combustion, 255
Coefficient of friction (COF), 355
Coextrusion, 21, 7879, 81
adhesive technology, 3334, 34f
layer instability, 81
Cohesive energy density, 363
Cohesive failure mechanism, 33
Commercial antimicrobial packaging
systems, 166173, 167t
regulatory, marketing, and political
factors, 172173
technical factors, 166172
compatibility of process
conditions and material
characteristics, 166168
controlled release technology,
170172
extra advantages, 172
packaging materials, physical
properties of, 168169
Communication function of packaging,
183
Compatibilizers, 283, 367, 374f, 381
390 INDEXCompostable polymer properties and
packaging
applications, 217
blends, 239242
applications, 240242
markets of, 243
petrochemical sources,
biodegradable polymers from,
232239
aliphatic polyesters and
copolyesters, 232233
aromatic polyesters and
copolyesters, 233235
poly(caprolactone), 235236
poly(esteramide)s, 236238
poly(vinyl alcohol), 238239
renewable resources, biodegradable
polymers
from, 218231
cellulose, 227228
chitosan, 228229
poly(lactic acid), 218220
polyhydroxyalkanoates, 220225
proteins, 229231
thermoplastic starch, 225227
Composting, 257259, 269f
Consumer products, polypropylene
applications in, 114117
Containment function, of packaging,
181182
Contaminated recycled materials, food
packaging in, 290294
Controlled atmosphere packaging
(CAP), 194
Convenience packaging, 183, 184f
Conversion factors, 50t
Copolyamides, molar mass of,
249250
Copolyesteramides, synthesis of,
250251
Copolyesters, 232233
applications, 233
processing, 233
properties, 232
Co-rotating twin-screw extruders,
360361
Corrugated common footprints (CCFs),
186, 187f
Corrugated materials, 191
Cryo-comminution, of plastic waste,
280
Cyclic olefin copolymer (COCs), 5, 5f
D
Damage reduction of food products
during transportation, 181
food product categories
meats, 184185
processed versus nonprocessed, 187
seafood, 185186
vegetables and fruits, 186187
food product distribution
environment, 187188
harvesting, 187
packing, 188
shipping, 188
storage and shelf life, 188
food spoilage/damage in supply
chain, causes of, 189
biochemical, 189
chemical, 189
macrobiological spoilage, 189
microbiological spoilage, 189
physical, 189
functions of packaging, 181184
communication, 183
containment, 181182
protection, 182183
utility, 183184
packaging materials, 189193
glass, 192193
metal, 192
paper, 190191
plastic, 191192
protective food packaging, trends in,
194197
damage reduction trends,
196197
food packaging trends, 194196
smart packaging, 193194
active packaging, 193
controlled atmosphere packaging
(CAP), 194
intelligent packaging, 194
modified atmosphere packaging
(MAP), 193194
Damage reduction trends, 196197
Delamination peelseal mechanism, 33
Depolymerization, 286
Diacids, novel copolyamides synthesis
from, 249250
Diamines, novel copolyamides
synthesis from, 249250
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition
on polymers, 7576
Diaphragm fillers, 202, 202f
Diethylene glycol (DEG), removal of,
288289
Diethylenetriamine (DETA), 7576
DIN-53380 Part 3, 87t, 89
DIN-53380 Part 4, 87t, 91
1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran, 143
Distribution chain, active packaging
and, 136
Dolphino, polypropylene application in,
100
Draw ratio, 378379
Draw-down ratio (DDR), 379
Drop-off centers, for recycling,
269270
Dry coatings, 164
Duales System Deutschland, 271276,
284
E
Edible coating system, 132, 164165
Edible films and coatings, 123124
Edible oil packaging, 46, 47t
Emerging technologies, in food
packaging, 121
edible films and coatings, 123124
extra active functions of packaging
systems, 122123
modified atmosphere packaging, 123
new food processing technologies,
124
Encapsulation, 86
Energy life cycle assessment, 294
Energy recovery techniques, life cycle
analysis for, 291f
Environmentally friendly packaging
systems, 125
Enzymes
as antimicrobial agents, 155, 157t
potential applications of, 169t
Epoxy-amine coating, 7576
Estimated daily intake (EDI), 316317
Ethanol, potential applications of, 169t
Ethyl cellulose, 14, 14f
Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), 22
Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH), 2t,
1112, 12f, 22, 114
Ethylenediamine (EDA), 7576
Ethylenepropylene rubber (EPR),
363364
Europe
composting in, 257259
flexible packaging in, 3943
food processing in, 187
glass container recycling rates in,
274t
meat packaging in, 184185
paper-based products, 190
plastic recycling in, 259290, 262f
contamination during, 293
recycling process in, 261, 275f
regulatory environment in packaging
technologies, 137
vegetable and fruits packaging, 186
European Federation of Corrugated
Board Manufactures (FEFCO),
186
European Food Safety Authority’s
(EFSA), 312
European Union (EU) legislation on
food contact plastics, 335349
EU Regulation No. 10/2011 on
Plastic Materials Intended
to Come into Contact with
Food, 335
INDEX 391European Union (EU) legislation on
food contact plastics
(Continued)
Chapter I: General Provisions,
342344
Chapter II: Compositional
Requirements, 344346
Chapter III: Specific Provisions
for Certain Materials
and Articles, 346347
Chapter IV: Declaration of
Compliance and
Documentation, 347
Chapter V: Compliance, 347348
Chapter VI: Final Provisions,
348349
Consolidating Paragraphs,
335342
European Union legislation for
recycled plastics, 349
Expanded polypropylene (EPP) foam,
9495
automotive applications for, 95f
Expanded polystyrene (EPS), 289
ExxonMobil, 43
F
Failure modes of polyethylene (PE),
252253
Fair Packaging and Labeling Act, 183
FDA’s FCS Notification Program,
314318
definitions, 314
formulations, 317318
history, 314315
notification process, 315316
confidentiality, 316
threshold of regulation, 316
scope, 315
Feedstock recycling, 284288, 291f
Fermco Laboratories, 140
Fibre Box Association (FBA), 186
Fickian and non-Fickian permeation
behaviors, 78f
Filling machines, 201
Film oriented in transverse direction,
6869
Film stiffness, 27
Flame treatment, 280282
Flavors, removal of, 133134
Flexible materials, 73
Flexible packaging
applications
film structures, 3549
performance requirements for, 26
polymers used for, 25t
requirements
for economics, 54f
for health/environment, 54f
for promotion, 54f
for protection, 54f
Floor coverings, polypropylene
applications in, 104
Floral packaging, polypropylene
applications in, 115f
Food additive, definition of, 314
Food and Drug Administration
Modernization Act
(FDAMA), 314315
Food contact formulation (FCF)
compliance
notification, 314
Food processing and packaging,
innovations in, 122
Food product categories
meats, 184185
processed versus nonprocessed, 187
seafood, 185186
vegetables and fruits, 186187
corrugated common footprints,
186
returnable plastic containers, 187
Food product distribution environment,
187188
harvesting, 187
packing, 188
shipping, 188
storage and shelf life, 188
Food quality loss, mechanisms of, 128t
Food safety, 151152
food-borne illness, 151152
malicious tampering and
bioterrorism, 152
spoilage of food products, 151
Food spoilage/damage in supply chain,
causes of, 189
biochemical, 189
chemical, 189
macrobiological spoilage, 189
microbiological spoilage, 189
physical, 189
Food treatment
pulsed light for, 323
ultraviolet radiation for, 323
Food-borne illness, 151152
Foods irradiation
FDA regulations for, 318319
general provisions for, 320321
preservation of, 318325
Form-fill-seal (ffs) equipment,
209211
horizontal form-fill-seal (hffs)
equipment, 210
thermo form-fill-seal (tffs)
equipment, 210211
vertical form-fill-seal (vffs)
equipment, 209210
Fourier transform midinfrared
spectroscopy (MIR), 276
Four-layer inner seal, 208, 208f
Fresh meat, active packaging for,
134135
FreshCardt, 140
Fresh-cut produce, 4546
FreshMaxt, 140
Frozen food, 4345, 46f, 46t
Functions of packaging, 181184
communication, 183
containment, 181182
protection, 182183
utility, 183184
Fungicides, 154155, 169t
Future trends, in food packaging,
124125
G
Gases as antimicrobial agents, 153, 155
Gasification techniques, 286287
Geotextiles, polypropylene applications
in, 106
Glass laser sorting system, 259f
Glass matreinforced (GMT)
polypropylene, 93
Glass recycling process, 260f
Glasses, 192193
Global flexible packaging, 2t
Good and Girifalco Equation, 366
Grocery bags, 49t
Grocery sacks (merchandize bags), 48,
49t
Gross weight fillers, 204, 205f
H
Harvesting, 187
HazMat packaging, 183
Headspace scavenging, 145
Head-spin seamer, 211212
Heavy gauge films, 36
Heavy-duty bags (shipping bags),
4748, 48t
Herb and spice extracts
as antimicrobial agents, 155
Heterophasic copolymer, 4
High oxygen barrier films, 74t, 76t
High-barrier packaging materials, 124
High-clarity shrink film (oriented),
4849, 49t
High-density polyethylene (HDPE), 3,
191192, 223224, 253, 356
application and uses of, 3
melting points of, 3f
Home furnishings, polypropylene
applications in, 104
Homogeneous plastic structures,
143145
Homophasic copolymer, 4
Homopolymers, 4
applications and uses of, 4
Horizontal form-fill-seal (hffs)
equipment, 210
392 INDEXapplications, 3132
operation of, 210f
Housewares, polypropylene
applications in,
114115, 116f
Hydrocyclone, 277
I
Immiscible blends, 361, 381
morphology development in,
365376
Impact copolymers, 4
applications and uses of, 4
Induction cap sealing, 207209, 208f
In-line fillers, 204205, 204f
In-line mixers, 357
Innovations in food processing and
packaging, 122
Inorganic compounds as antimicrobial
agents, 155
Intelligent packaging systems, 72, 123,
152, 194
Intellipacks, 134
Interfacial instability, 8186
Interfacial peelseal mechanism, 33
In-vessel composting, 257259
Ionizing radiation, for food treatment,
321322
IR spectroscopy, 271276
Iron, in package inserts, 142143
Irradiated foods, packaging materials
for, 323325
ISO14663-2, 87t
ISO15106-2, 87t, 90
J
Japan
oxidation of metals, 140
plastic recycling in, 262
polypropylene films application
in interior automotive
applications, 97
in small appliances, 100102
Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS), 89
JIS K 7126, 87t, 89
JIS K-7129, 87t
Juice box, 195f
K
Kitchen appliances, polypropylene
applications in, 100
Kohleol-Anlage Bottrop, hydrogenation
in, 286
L
Landfill, 254255
Laser impulse thermography, 276
Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,
276
LDPE/starch blends, 253
Life-cycle assessment (LCA), 293294
Linear low-density polyethylene
(LLDPE), 3, 3f, 22, 356,
364365
Liquid Crystalline Polymers, 6
LISIMs technology, 56
Low-density polyethylene (LDPE), 3,
3f, 2324, 192, 220, 252253,
289290, 356
M
Machine direction orienter (MDO),
5355
Machinery, in food packaging, 199
canning machinery, 211212
cap application machines, 205207
chucks and clutches, 207
chuck-type press-on cappers, 207
roller-type press-on cappers, 207
carton filling and closing machinery,
212213
carton filling, 212213
metal detectors, 213215
typical metal detectors, 214215
filling machines, 201
form-fill-seal equipment, 209211
hffs equipment, 210
tffs equipment, 210211
vffs equipment, 209210
functions of packaging
communication, 199
containment, 199
protection, 199
utility, 199201
induction cap sealing, 207209
in-line fillers, 204205
rotary fillers, 205
volumetric fillers, 201203
auger fillers, 202203
diaphragm fillers, 202
piston fillers, 201202
timed flow fillers, 202
weight filling, 203204
gross weight fillers, 204
net weight fillers, 204
Macrobiological spoilage, 189
Macro-separation, 271
Malicious tampering, 152
Mass spectroscopy, 276
Masterbatches, 355356
Mater-Bi, 239240
Meats, packaging, 184185
Mechanical damage, 189
Mechanical recycling, 282284, 291f
Medical packaging, 3638, 37t
Medium-density polyethylene (MDPE),
3
application and uses of, 3
melting points of, 3f
Melt blending, 358361
Melt-miscible blends, 361
Metal detectors, 213215, 214f
Metallocene polypropylene, 109110
Metals, 192
oxidation of, 140
recycling, 259, 261f
Methanolysis as a recycling process,
293
1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), 134
4-Methylpentene-1-based polyolefin
(PMP), 5, 5f
Microbial food quality, 151
Microbiocidal antimicrobial system,
156163
Microbiological spoilage, 189
Microbiostatic agents, 163
Micro-separation, 271
Miele washing machine, polypropylene
application in, 102
Milk pouches, 43, 45t
Minimum inhibitory concentration
(MIC)
Miscible blends, 361, 381
Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company,
141
Mixing, distributive and dispersive,
358, 358f
Modified atmosphere packaging
(MAP), 114, 123, 193194
Moisture permeability coefficients, 30t
Moisture transmission rate, 28, 28t
Moisture vapor transmission rate
(MVTR), 34
Moisture-scavenging systems,
122123
Most cost-effective barrier polymer,
calculation of, 30t
MRF, 282
Multilayer films, 71
stiffness, 27
Multilayer flexible packaging, 21,
7886, 82f
Multisorb Technologies, 140
Municipal solid waste (MSW), 255
composting, 257259
plastic recycling, 262
MXD-6 polyamide, 144
N N
-aminoethylpiperazine (AEP), 7576
Naringin, 129, 133134
Natural antimicrobial agents, 155, 157t
Naturalsynthetic polymer blends, 252
Net weight fillers, 204, 204f
New food processing technologies, 124
NIR spectroscopy, 271276
Nonmigration and absorption, 165
Nonvolatile antimicrobials, 164
Nonwovens
polypropylene in, 106
INDEX 393Nonwovens (Continued)
textiles and, 104106
Novel copolyamides, 249250
Novel star-shaped copolylactides, 251
Novolen cast film
properties of, 19t
Nutrition Label and Education Act, 183
Nylon 12, 9, 9f
Nylon 6, 89, 9f
Nylon 6/12, 10, 10f
Nylon 66, 10, 10f
Nylon 66/610, 10, 10f
O
Odor removal, 133134
On-the-go food packages, convenience
for, 196
Opel Astra, polypropylene in, 9596,
98
Opel Corsa, polypropylene in, 97, 97f
Opel Omega, polypropylene in, 96
Optical recycling, 276277
Oral reference dose (RfD), 312
Organic acids
as antimicrobial agents, 153154,
154t, 157t
potential applications of, 169t
Oriented films, 23, 6768, 71
trends for, 69
Oriented polypropylene (OPP) films,
18
properties of, 18t
Orienting technologies, 5356
OS 1000t, 144
Oxbart, 144
Oxidase enzymes, 140
Oxidation of metals, 140
Oxidation reactions, 140141
Oxyban, 140
Oxygen barrier property, 74
Oxygen permeability coefficients for
various polymers, 29t
Oxygen scavenging, 72, 122123,
132133
potential applications of, 169t
Oxygen test methods, 8689
ASTM D3985 OTR, 86
ASTM F1307, 86
ASTM F1927 Standard, 8689
DIN-53380 Part 3, 89
ISO14663-2, 89
JIS K 7126, 89
Oxygen transmission rate (OTR), 86
Oxygen-barrier enhancement, 131
Oxygen-scavenging packaging,
122123, 134135, 139
application to food and beverage
packaging, 145147
prevention of mold growth, 146
future opportunities, 147148
history, 139145
homogeneous plastic structures,
143145
oxidation of metals, 140
oxidation reactions, 140141
packaging materials as oxygen
scavengers, 141145
reviews, 139
P
Package, definition of, 121, 181
Packaging materials, 72, 124,
163165, 168, 170171
antimicrobial functions of, 152153
glass, 192193
metal, 192
as oxygen scavengers, 141145,
141t
paper, 190191
plastic, 191192
and processes, 135136
Pactiv Inc., 184185
Palladized alumina, 142
Paper, 2t, 190191
Partially degradable blends, 252253
Payback centers, for recycling, 270
PE-based multilayer film structures
adhesive polymers, 3335
barrier properties, 2731
flexible packaging film structures,
3549
food packaging, 3849
medical packaging, 3638
mechanical properties, 2627
polymer sealability, 3133
polymer selection, 2426
Pellet premixing, 357358, 357f
Permeability coefficient, 71, 77
Permeation, 2728, 7778
Person equivalents (PE), 293
PET-based approach, 130
Petrochemical sources, biodegradable
polymers from, 232239
aliphatic polyesters and copolyesters,
232233
aromatic polyesters and copolyesters,
233235
poly(caprolactone), 235236
poly(esteramide)s, 236238
poly(vinyl alcohol), 238239
Physical reprocessing, 327328
Physical vapor deposition (PVD), 75
Pictorial markings, 183
Pin mixing, 359360
Piston fillers, 201202, 201f
Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor
deposition (PECVD), 75
Plastic bottles replacing glass bottles,
195
Plastic container, 257
Plastics, 191192
Plastics packaging, 196
Plastic recycling, 261271, 273t
combination of systems, 270271
drop-off centers, 269270
materials collection, 269
payback centers, 270
Plastics versus other packaging
materials, 106108
Plastics with blended sulfites, 142
Poly vinylidene chloride (PVDC), 75
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB)),
220221
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-
hydroxyhexanoate)
(P(HB-co-HHx)), 221
properties of, 223t
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-
hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), 13
Poly(bis-carboxyphenoxypropane)
(pCCP), 13
Poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT),
233
Poly(caprolactone), 235236
applications, 235236
processing, 235
properties, 235
Poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA), 218
Poly(esteramide)s, 236238
applications, 238
processing, 238
properties, 236238
Poly(ethylene adipate) (PEA), 232
Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), 220
Poly(lactic acid), 218220
applications, 220
processing, 220
properties, 218220
Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA), 218, 251
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA),
279
recycling of, 284
Poly(sebacic anhydride) (pSA), 13
Poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT),
233
Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), 238239,
253254
applications, 239
processing, 238239
properties, 238
Poly(β-methyl-δ-valerolactone), 249
Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), 249, 251
Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, 15
Polyalkenes, thermal decomposition of,
256
Polyamide (PA), 811, 9f, 53, 114
amorphous polyamides, 11
Nylon 6, 89
Nylon 12, 9
Nylon 6/12, 10
394 INDEXNylon 66, 10
Nylon 66/610, 10
Polyamide 6/69 (Nylon 6/69), 11
salts novel biodegradable
copolyesteramides from,
250251
Polyamide, nylon, 2t
Polyanhydride, chemical structure of, 13f
Polybutene-1 (PB-1), 4
Polybutylene Terephthalate, 6
chemical structure of, 6f
Polycaprolactone (PCL), 1314, 14f
Polycarbonate, 6, 311312
chemical structure of, 7f
Polycyclohexylene-dimethylene
terephthalate (PCT), 7
chemical structure of, 7f
Polyester, 57
chemical structures of, 5f
specialty polyesters, 57
liquid crystalline polymers, 6
polybutylene terephthalate, 6
polycarbonate, 6
polycyclohexylene-dimethylene
terephthalate, 7
polyethylene napthalate (PEN),
56
Polyethylene napthalate (PEN), 56
structure of, 6f
Polyethylene oxide (PEO), 23
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 53,
144, 191, 279280, 290,
see also Polyester
bottle recycling, 261262
Polyethylene
terephthalatepolyethylene
mixtures, separation of, 279
Polyethylenes (PE), 13, 2t, 23, 191
chemical structure of, 23, 2f
types of, 3f
Polyglycolic acid (PGA), 1314
chemical structures of, 14f
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), 13,
220225
applications, 223225
processing, 223
properties, 220223
structures of, 15f
Polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate
(PHBV), 222223
Polylactate, 223224
Polylactic acid, 1214
applications and uses of, 14
conversion of lactic acid to, 15f
Polylactide, 6768, 249
film applications, 68f
product features for, 67f
Polymer blending, for packaging
applications, 239242, 355
blown film, morphology
development in, 377379
draw ratio, 378379
extruder RPM, 378
extruder temperature, 378
frost line height and process time,
379
interfacial tension, 377
minor phase concentration in
blend, 377
polymer elasticity, 377378
screw design, 378
shear stress in extruder, adapter,
and die, 378
viscosity ratio, 377
immiscible blends, morphology
development in, 365376
physics of, 361
processes, 356361
melt blending, 358361
pellet premixing, 357358
reasons for, 355356
rheology of, 381382
rigid particles and nanocomposites,
dispersion of, 379381
solidmelt transition for, 376
thermodynamics, 361365
Polymer films, 22
Polymer mixtures separation,
dissolution/precipitation
method for, 278f
Polymer thermal and sealing properties,
32t
Polymeric blends, 283
Polymers as antimicrobial agents, 157t
Polyolefin plastomer (POP), 22
Polyolefin/polyolefins, 15, 280
chemical structure of, 2f
and newspaper fiber composites
preparation
and characterization, 268f
Polyoxymethylene/polylactide, 361
Polypropylene films, 1, 17, 93, 192,
220221, 280
applications and uses of, 4
ASTM Standards to, 4
automotive applications, 9398
exterior, 9396
interior, 9698
under-the-hood, 98
biaxially oriented film, 1820
building and construction, 117
cast film, 1718
chemical structure of, 2f
consumer products, 114117
homopolymers, 4
impact copolymers, 4
in large appliances, 102104, 105f
in nonwovens, 106
in small appliances, 100102, 103f
in textiles, 104106, 108f
apparel, 104106
automotive, 104
floor coverings and home
furnishings, 104
geotextiles, 106
industrial applications, 106
medical applications, 98100, 101f
packaging, 106114
barrier packaging, 114
clarified polypropylene, 109
film, 112114
high-crystallinity and high-meltstrength grades, 109
metallocene polypropylene,
109110
plastics versus other packaging
materials, 106108
polypropylene in, 108109
rigid packaging, 110112
random copolymers, 4
unoriented film, 17
Polypropylenes (PP), 2t
Polystyrene, 7, 53, 192
chemical structure of, 7f
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 2t, 78, 23,
192
hydrophobic recovery of,
280282
replacing, 293
Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC), 8, 22,
114
application and uses of, 8
structure of, 8f
Poultry/fish packaging, 39
Pre-consumer scrap, 327
Preservation of foods, by irradiation,
318325
Title 21 CFR 179. Subpart B:
Radiation and Radiation
Sources, 319323
Section 179.21: Sources of
Radiation Used for Inspection
of Food, for Inspection of
Packaged Food, and for
Controlling Food Processing,
319320
Section 179.25: General
Provisions for Food Irradiation,
320321
Section 179.26: Ionizing Radiation
for the Treatment of Food,
321322
Section 179.30: Radio-Frequency
Radiation for the Heating of
Food, Including Microwave
Frequencies, 323
Section 179.39: Ultraviolet
Radiation for the Processing
and Treatment of Food, 323
INDEX 395Preservation of foods, by irradiation
(Continued)
Section 179.41: Pulsed Light for
the Treatment
of Food, 323
Title 21 CFR 179. Subpart C:
Packaging Materials for
Irradiated Foods, 323325
Section 179.45: Packaging
Materials for Use during the
Irradiation of Prepackaged
Foods, 323325
treatment of foods with radiation,
FDA regulations for, 318319
Primal and subprimal meat packaging,
38t
Primal meat packaging (shrink), 38
Primary package, 182
Primary recycling, 327
Probiotics, 155156
potential applications of, 169t
Process water usage and wastewater
discharge, from board paper
mill, 267f
Processed meat packaging, 3839
Processed versus nonprocessed foods
packaging, 187
Produce, active packaging for, 134
Production/packaging systems, steps in,
200t
Proper packaging, 183
Protection functions of packaging,
182183
Protective food packaging, trends in,
194197
damage reduction trends, 196197
food packaging trends, 194196
Proteins, 229231
applications, 231
processing, 231
properties, 229231
Pulsed light for treatment of food, 323
Pyrolysis, 255256
Q
Quality of foods, defining, 151
Quaternary package, 182
R
Radiation technology, in waste
management, 289290
polyethylene and polyamide,
289290
Radio-frequency identification (RFID),
194
Raman spectroscopy, 276
Random copolymers, 4
applications and uses of, 4
Recycled plastics, European Union
legislation for, 349
Recycled plastics, regulatory aspects
of, 325335
chemistry considerations, 326330
background, 326327
exposure to chemical
contaminants, 328330
recycling processes, 327328
plastic containers from nonfoodcontact applications
as feedstock, 332334
effective barrier, use of, 334335
recycling processes for PET and
PEN, 335
surrogate contaminant testing,
330332
choice of surrogates, 330331
contamination of the plastic, 331
Recycling, 259290
aluminum scrap, recycling, 263f,
265f
chemical plastic, 288289
chemical, 288289
drop-off centers for, 269270
feedstock, 284288
glass recycling process, 260f
issue of contamination on, 290294
mechanical, 282284
metals, 259, 261f
methanolysis as recycling process,
293
optical, 276277
payback centers for, 270
plastic recycling, 261271, 273t
combination of systems, 270271
drop-off centers, 269270
materials collection, 269
payback centers, 270
of poly(methyl methacrylate)
(PMMA), 284
of polyethylene terephthalate (PET),
261262
preparation for, 282
primary, 327
radiation technology, 289290
secondary, 327328
sorting, 271282
tertiary, 327328
Reduction reactions, 288
Refillable containers, 256257
Refrigeration, microbiocidal effects in,
156163
Regranulate, 282283
Regulatory aspects, of food packaging,
311
bisphenol A, 311312
in United States, 312314
Renewable resources
biodegradable polymers synthesis
from, 1215, 218231
cellulose, 227228
chitosan, 228229
ethyl cellulose, 14
poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, 15
polycaprolactone, 14
polyhydroxyalkanoates, 220225
polylactic acid, 14, 218220
proteins, 229231
thermoplastic starch, 225227
Retortable pouches, 46
Returnable plastic containers (RPC),
187, 187f
Reuse and recovery, 256257, 292f
Reverse tuck carton, 213f
Rigid materials, 73
Rigid packaging, polypropylene in,
110112, 113f
Roller-type press-on cappers, 207, 208f
Rotary fillers, 205, 205f
Ryobi lawn mower, polypropylene
applications in, 116117, 117f
S
Sabic Noryls, 361
Safety, in food packaging, 125
Salty snack packaging, 39
Sam’s Club, 186
Sanitizers, potential applications of,
169t
Saxton mixing, 359360
Scott’s company, 140
Seafood, packaging, 185186
Sealed Air Corporation, 144, 184185
Seamers, 212
Secondary package, 182
Secondary recycling, 327328
Selars RB laminar technology, 361
Semiautomatic seamers, 212
Semirigid materials, 73
Sensortronic drying hood,
polypropylene in the
Wella M36, 100
Sequential-biaxial stretching line, 55f
Seven-layer transparent barrier film,
61f
Shear stress in extruder, adapter, and
die, 378
Shipping, 188
Shrink film applications, 68f
Silicon oxide coating, 75
Silicone oxygen-scavenging films, 135
Silver ion as antimicrobial agent, 155
Single droplet breakup mechanisms, in
shear flow, 373f
Single-screw extruder, 358, 359f
Single-serve packages, 184f
Smart packaging, 193194
active packaging, 193
controlled atmosphere packaging
(CAP), 194
intelligent packaging, 194
396 INDEXmodified atmosphere packaging
(MAP), 193194
Snack food packaging, 39, 44t
polypropylene in, 115f
Snack nuts packaging, 44t
Solubility parameters, 363, 364t, 365
Solubility-based processes (SDP),
277279
Specialty polyesters, 57
Specialty polyolefins, 45
4-methylpentene-1-based polyolefin
(PMP), 5
cyclic olefin copolymer, 5
polybutene-1 (PB-1), 4
Spices, potential applications of, 169t
Spoilage of food products, 151
Stand-up pouch, 195196, 195f
Star-shaped copolylactides, 251
Storage and shelf life, 188
Stretch wrap, 4647, 48t
Styreneethylenebutadienestyrene
(SEBS), 367
Super-tough polyamide, 361
Surfline DE41, polypropylene in, 100
Surrogate contaminants into plastic,
sorption model, 350352
Synthetic paper, 6162
thickness range for, 63t
Synthetic polymers/starch blends, 252
T
Tamper-evident packaging, 152
TAPPI T-557, 87t, 90
Tension thickening, 378
Tertiary package, 182
Tertiary recycling, 327328
Tesco, 194
Textiles, polypropylene in, 104106
apparel, 104106
automotive, 104
floor coverings and home
furnishings, 104
geotextiles, 106
industrial applications, 106
Thermo form-fill-seal (tffs) equipment,
210211
operation of, 211f
Thermoplastic starch, 225227
applications, 226227
processing, 226
properties, 225226
Three-layer inner seal, 208, 208f
Three-piece cans, 211
Ticona Vectra A950 LCP, chemical
structure of, 6f
Timed flow fillers, 202, 203f
Tin-free steel, 192
Tinplate, 192
Titanium oxide (TiO2), as antimicrobial
agent, 155
Toppan Printing Company, 141
Toyo Seikan Ltd, 142
“Tramp metal”, 213
Transducer, 72
Transportation, damage reduction of
food products during,
see Damage reduction of food
products during transportation
Transverse direction orienter (TDO),
5355
Transverse-oriented films, 5355
Trash bags, 14, 48, 49t
Trends
for biaxially oriented polyethylene
(BOPE) films, 69
damage reduction, 196197
in food packaging, 194196
future trends, 124125
for oriented films, 69
in protective food packaging,
194197
damage reduction trends,
196197
food packaging trends, 194196
Triboelectric separation, 279280
Twin-screw extruder, 358, 360361
Two-piece cans, 211
Typical metal detectors, 214215
U
Ultra low-density polyethylene
(ULDPE), 2
application and uses of, 3
Ultraviolet radiation, for food
processing and treatment, 323
United States, 142, 181
composting in, 257259
flexible packaging in, 3943
Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) regulations in, 34
food processing in, 187
meat packaging in, 184185
paper-based products, 190
plastic containers from nonfoodcontact applications as
feedstock, 332334
effective barrier, use of, 334335
recycling processes for PET and
PEN, 335
plastic recycling in, 261262, 262f
contamination during, 293
recycled plastics, regulatory aspects
of, 325335
recycled plastics in food packaging,
326330
background, 326327
exposure to chemical
contaminants, 328330
recycling processes, 327328
recycling process in, 261, 275f
regulatory environment in packaging
technologies, 137
regulatory issues, 311
surrogate contaminant testing,
330332
choice of surrogates, 330331
contamination of the plastic, 331
US Center for Disease Control
(CDC), 318
US Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA), 312
US FDA view, 326330
US Federal Food, Drug and
Cosmetic Act, 121
vegetable and fruits packaging, 186
Utility, of package systems, 183184
V
Vegetables and fruits, 186187
corrugated common footprints
(CCFs), 186
returnable plastic containers (RPC),
187
Vertical form-fill-seal (vffs) equipment,
209210
machines, 3132
operation of, 209f
Very low-density polyethylene
(VLDPE), 3
melting points of, 3f
Vibration damage, for products, 189
Vitamin C, oxidation of, 146
Volatile antimicrobial agents, 164165
Volatile essential oils, potential
applications of, 169t
Volumetric fillers, 201203
auger fillers, 202203
diaphragm fillers, 202
piston fillers, 201202
timed flow fillers, 202
Volvo trucks, polypropylene in, 97
W
WalMart, 186, 194
Washing machine, polypropylene in,
102
Waste combustion, 255
Waste incineration, 255
Waste management for polymers, in
food packaging
industries, 249
biodegradable synthetic copolymers
and composites, 249253
biodegradable composite
materials, 251252
naturalsynthetic polymer blends,
252
novel biodegradable copolyamides
based on diacids, diamines, and
α-amino acids, 249250
INDEX 397Waste management for polymers, in
food packaging
industries (Continued)
novel star-shaped copolylactides,
251
partially degradable blends,
252253
ε-caprolactone and PA salts, novel
biodegradable
copolyesteramides from,
250251
chitosanpoly(vinyl alcohol) blends,
253254
composting, 257259
environmental impacts, 293294
incineration, 255
landfill, 254255
pyrolysis, 255256
recycling, 259290
chemical, 288289
feedstock, 284288
issue of contamination on,
290294
mechanical, 282284
plastic, 261271
preparation for, 282
radiation technology, 289290
sorting, 271282
reuse and recovery, 256257
Water vapor test methods, 8990
ASTM D6701, 89
ASTM E 398, 8990
ASTM F1249, 89
ISO15106-2, 90
JIS K-7129, 90
TAPPI T-557, 90
Water vapor transmission rate
(WVTR), 74, 75t, 8990
Weight filling, 203204
gross weight fillers, 204
net weight fillers, 204
Wet coating systems, 164
Whirlpool washing machine,
polypropylene in, 102
Whole-package activity, 131132
Window-based composting, 257259
Windrows, 257259
Wooden pallets, 197
Z
Zero emission technologies, 294

كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.net
The Unzip Password : books-world.net

تحميل

يجب عليك التسجيل في الموقع لكي تتمكن من التحميل
تسجيل | تسجيل الدخول

التعليقات

اترك تعليقاً