Management – A Practical Introduction – NINTH EDITION

Management – A Practical Introduction – NINTH EDITION
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غير معروف
التاريخ
5 أبريل 2024
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Management – A Practical Introduction – NINTH EDITION
Angelo Kinicki
Arizona State University
Kent State University
Brian K. Williams
Walkthrough Preface of 9e xv
PART 1
Introduction
1 The Exceptional Manager: What You Do, How You
Do It 2
2 Management Theory: Essential Background for the
Successful Manager 42
PART 2
The Environment of Management
3 The Manager’s Changing Work Environment and
Ethical Responsibilities: Doing the Right Thing 76
4 Global Management: Managing across Borders 116
PART 3
Planning
5 Planning: The Foundation of Successful
Management 156
6 Strategic Management: How Exceptional Managers
Realize a Grand Design 188
Learning Module 1: Entrepreneurship 220
7 Individual and Group Decision Making: How
Managers Make Things Happen 238
PART 4
Organizing
8 Organizational Culture, Structure, and Design:
Building Blocks of the Organization 280
9 Human Resource Management: Getting the Right
People for Managerial Success 322
10 Organizational Change and Innovation: Lifelong
Challenges for the Exceptional Manager 374
PART 5
Leading
11 Managing Individual Differences and Behavior:
Supervising People as People 408
12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior
Performance in the Workplace 456
13 Groups and Teams: Increasing Cooperation,
Reducing Conflict 502
14 Power, Influence, and Leadership: From Becoming a
Manager to Becoming a Leader 534
15 Interpersonal and Organizational Communication:
Mastering the Exchange of Information 580
PART 6
Controlling
16 Control Systems and Quality Management:
Techniques for Enhancing Organizational
Effectiveness 630
Learning Module 2: The Project Planner’s Toolkit:
Flowcharts, Gantt Charts, and Break-Even Analysis 681
brief contents
Chapter Notes CN-1
Name Index IND-1
Organization Index IND-5
Glossary/Subject Index IND-11
contents
Walkthrough Preface of 9e xv
PART 1
Introduction
CHAPTER ONE
The Exceptional Manager: What You Do,
How You Do It 2
1.1 Management: What It Is, What Its Benefits
Are 4
The Rise of the Die Maker’s Daughter 4
Key to Career Growth: “Doing Things I’ve Never
Done Before” 4
The Art of Management Defined 5
Why Organizations Value Managers: The Multiplier
Effect 6
The Financial Rewards of Being an Exceptional
Manager 6
What Are the Rewards of Studying and Practicing
Management? 7
1.2 What Managers Do: The Four Principal
Functions 9
Planning: Discussed in Part 3 of This Book 9
Organizing: Discussed in Part 4 of This Book 9
Leading: Discussed in Part 5 of This Book 10
Controlling: Discussed in Part 6 of This Book 10
1.3 Pyramid Power: Levels and Areas of
Management 11
The Traditional Management Pyramid: Levels and
Areas 11
Three Levels of Management 11
Areas of Management: Functional Managers versus
General Managers 13
Managers for Three Types of Organizations:
For-Profit, Nonprofit, Mutual-Benefit 14
Different Organizations, Different Management? 14
1.4 Roles Managers Must Play Successfully 15
The Manager’s Roles: Mintzberg’s Useful
Findings 15
Three Types of Managerial Roles: Interpersonal,
Informational, and Decisional 17
1.5 The Skills Exceptional Managers Need 19

  1. Technical Skills—The Ability to Perform a Specific
    Job 19
  2. Conceptual Skills—The Ability to Think
    Analytically 19
  3. Human Skills—“Soft Skills,” the Ability to Interact
    Well with People 20
    The Most Valued Traits in Managers 21
    1.6 Seven Challenges to Being an Exceptional
    Manager 22
    CHALLENGE #1: Managing for Competitive
    Advantage—Staying Ahead of Rivals 23
    CHALLENGE #2: Managing for Information
    Technology—Dealing with the “New Normal” 24
    CHALLENGE #3: Managing for Diversity—The Future
    Won’t Resemble the Past 26
    CHALLENGE #4: Managing for Globalization—The
    Expanding Management Universe 26
    CHALLENGE #5: Managing for Ethical Standards 27
    CHALLENGE #6: Managing for Sustainability—The
    Business of Green 28
    CHALLENGE #7: Managing for Happiness and
    Meaningfulness 28
    How Strong Is Your Motivation to Be a Manager? The
    First Self-Assessment 29
    1.7 Building Your Career Readiness 30
    A Model of Career Readiness 30
    Developing Career Readiness 35
    Let Us Help 36
    1.8 Career Corner: Managing Your Career
    Readiness 37
    Key Terms Used in This Chapter 38
    Key Points 38
    Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 39
    Management in Action 39
    Legal/Ethical Challenge 41
    CHAPTER TWO
    Management Theory: Essential
    Background for the Successful
    Manager 42
    2.1 Evolving Viewpoints: How We Got to Today’s
    Management Outlook 44
    Creating Modern Management: The Handbook of
    Peter Drucker 44
    Six Practical Reasons for Studying This
    Chapter 44
    Two Overarching Perspectives about Management:
    Historical and Contemporary 46
    2.2 Classical Viewpoint: Scientific and
    Administrative Management 47
    Scientific Management: Pioneered by Taylor and the
    Gilbreths 47
    xxxAdministrative Management: Pioneered by Spaulding,
    Fayol, and Weber 49
    The Problem with the Classical Viewpoint:
    Too Mechanistic 50
    2.3 Behavioral Viewpoint: Behaviorism, Human
    Relations, and Behavioral Science 51
    Early Behaviorism: Pioneered by Munsterberg, Follett,
    and Mayo 51
    The Human Relations Movement: Pioneered by Maslow
    and McGregor 52
    The Behavioral Science Approach 54
    2.4 Quantitative Viewpoints: Management Science
    and Operations Management 56
    Management Science: Using Mathematics to Solve
    Management Problems 56
    Operations Management: Being More Effective 57
    2.5 Systems Viewpoint 58
    The Systems Viewpoint 59
    The Four Parts of a System 59
    2.6 Contingency Viewpoint 61
    Gary Hamel: Management Ideas Are Not Fixed, They’re
    a Process 61
    Evidence-Based Management: Facing Hard Facts,
    Rejecting Nonsense 62
    2.7 Quality-Management Viewpoint 63
    Quality Control and Quality Assurance 63
    Total Quality Management: Creating an Organization
    Dedicated to Continuous Improvement 63
    Six Sigma and ISO 9000
    2.8 The Learning Organization in an Era of
    Accelerated Change 66
    The Learning Organization: Handling Knowledge and
    Modifying Behavior 66
    How to Build a Learning Organization: Three Roles
    Managers Play 67
    2.9 Career Corner: Managing Your Career
    Readiness 69
    Key Terms Used in This Chapter 71
    Key Points 71
    Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 72
    Management in Action 73
    Legal/Ethical Challenge 74
    PART 2
    The Environment of
    Management
    CHAPTER THREE
    The Manager’s Changing Work Environment
    and Ethical Responsibilities: Doing the Right
    Thing 76
    3.1 The Triple Bottom Line: People, Planet, and
    Profit 78
    The Millennials’ Search for Meaning 78
    3.2 The Community of Stakeholders Inside the
    Organization 79
    Internal and External Stakeholders 79
    Internal Stakeholders 79
    3.3 The Community of Stakeholders Outside the
    Organization 82
    The Task Environment 82
    The General Environment 87
    3.4 The Ethical Responsibilities Required of You as a
    Manager 92
    Defining Ethics and Values 93
    Four Approaches to Resolving Ethical Dilemmas 95
    White-Collar Crime, SarbOx, and Ethical Training 95
    How Organizations Can Promote Ethics 97
    3.5 The Social Responsibilities Required of You as a
    Manager 100
    Corporate Social Responsibility: The Top of the
    Pyramid 100
    Is Social Responsibility Worthwhile? Opposing and
    Supporting Viewpoints 100
    One Type of Social Responsibility: Climate Change,
    Sustainability, and Natural Capital 103
    Another Type of Social Responsibility: Undertaking
    Philanthropy, “Not Dying Rich” 104
    Does Being Good Pay Off? 104
    3.6 Corporate Governance 106
    Ethics and Corporate Governance 106
    The Need for Trust 106
    3.7 Career Corner: Managing Your Career
    Readiness 108
    Focus on the Greater Good and on Being More Ethical 108
    Become an Ethical Consumer 109
    Key Terms Used in This Chapter 110
    Key Points 110
    Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 112
    Management in Action 112
    Legal/Ethical Challenge 114
    CHAPTER FOUR
    Global Management: Managing across
    Borders 116
    4.1 Globalization: The Collapse of Time and
    Distance 118
    Competition and Globalization: Who Will Be No. 1
    Tomorrow? 118
    The Rise of the “Global Village” and Electronic
    Commerce 119
    One Big World Market: The Global Economy 120
    Contents xxxiCross-Border Business: The Rise of Both Megamergers
    and Minifirms Worldwide 121
    4.2 You and International Management 122
    Why Learn about International Management? 123
    The Successful International Manager: Geocentric,
    Not Ethnocentric or Polycentric 124
    4.3 Why and How Companies Expand
    Internationally 126
    Why Companies Expand Internationally 126
    How Companies Expand Internationally 127
    4.4 The World of Free Trade: Regional Economic
    Cooperation and Competition 131
    Barriers to International Trade 131
    Organizations Promoting International Trade 133
    Major Trading Blocs: NAFTA and the EU 134
    Most Favored Nation Trading Status 136
    Exchange Rates 136
    4.5 The Value of Understanding Cultural
    Differences 139
    The Importance of National Culture 140
    Cultural Dimensions: The Hofstede and GLOBE Project
    Models 140
    Other Cultural Variations: Language, Interpersonal
    Space, Communication, Time Orientation, Religion, and
    Law and Political Stability 144
    U.S. Managers on Foreign Assignments: Why Do They
    Fail? 148
    4.6 Career Corner: Managing Your Career
    Readiness 149
  4. Listen and Observe 149
  5. Become Aware of the Context 150
  6. Choose Something Basic 150
    Key Terms Used in This Chapter 151
    Key Points 151
    Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 153
    Management in Action 153
    Legal/Ethical Challenge 154
    PART 3
    Planning
    CHAPTER FIVE
    Planning: The Foundation of Successful
    Management 156
    5.1 Planning and Strategy 158
    Planning, Strategy, and Strategic Management 158
    Why Planning and Strategic Management Are
    Important 159
    5.2 Fundamentals of Planning 162
    Mission, Vision, and Values Statements 163
    Three Types of Planning for Three Levels of
    Management: Strategic, Tactical,
    and Operational 166
    5.3 Goals and Plans 169
    Long-Term and Short-Term Goals 169
    The Operating Plan and Action Plan 169
    Types of Plans: Standing Plans and Single-Use
    Plans 171
    5.4 Promoting Consistencies in Goals: SMART
    Goals, Management by Objectives, and Goal
    Cascading 172
    SMART Goals 172
    Management by Objectives: The Four-Step Process for
    Motivating Employees 173
    Cascading Goals: Making Lower-Level Goals Align with
    Top Goals 176
    The Importance of Deadlines 177
    5.5 The Planning/Control Cycle 178
    5.6 Career Corner: Managing Your Career
    Readiness 180
    Becoming More Proactive 181
    Keeping an Open Mind and Suspending
    Judgment 181
    Key Terms Used in This Chapter 182
    Key Points 182
    Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 183
    Management in Action 184
    Legal/Ethical Challenge 185
    CHAPTER SIX
    Strategic Management: How Exceptional
    Managers Realize a Grand Design 188
    6.1 Strategic Positioning and Levels of
    Strategy 190
    Strategic Positioning and Its Principles 190
    Levels of Strategy 191
    Does Strategic Management Work for Small as Well as
    Large Firms? 192
    6.2 The Strategic-Management Process 193
    The Five Steps of the Strategic-Management
    Process 193
    6.3 Assessing the Current Reality 196
    SWOT Analysis 196
    Using VRIO to Assess Competitive Potential: Value,
    Rarity, Imitability, and Organization 199
    Forecasting: Predicting the Future 200
    Benchmarking: Comparing with the Best 202
    6.4. Establishing Corporate-Level Strategy 203
    Three Overall Types of Corporate Strategy 203
    The BCG Matrix 204
    Diversification Strategy 205
    xxxii Contents6.5 Establishing Business-Level Strategy 206
    Porter’s Five Competitive Forces 206
    Porter’s Four Competitive Strategies 207
    6.6 Executing and Controlling Strategy 209
    Executing the Strategy 209
    Maintaining Strategic Control 209
    Execution: Getting Things Done 209
    The Three Core Processes of Business: People,
    Strategy, and Operations 210
    How Execution Helps Implement and Control
    Strategy 211
    6.7 Career Corner: Managing Your Career
    Readiness 213
    Why Is Strategic Thinking Important to New
    Graduates? 213
    Key Terms Used in This Chapter 215
    Key Points 215
    Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 217
    Management in Action 217
    Legal/Ethical Challenge 219
    LEARNING MODULE 1: Entrepreneurship 220
    LM1.1 Entrepreneurship: Its Foundations and
    Importance 221
    Entrepreneurship: It’s Not the Same as
    Self-Employment 222
    Characteristics of Entrepreneurs 224
    Entrepreneurship Matters across the Globe 226
    LM1.2 Starting a Business 229
    Businesses Start with an Idea 229
    Writing the Business Plan 230
    Choosing a Legal Structure 232
    Obtaining Financing 233
    Creating the “Right” Organizational Culture and
    Design 234
    Key Terms Used in This Learning Module 237
    Key Points 237
    CHAPTER SEVEN
    Individual and Group Decision Making: How
    Managers Make Things Happen 238
    7.1 Two Kinds of Decision Making: Rational and
    Nonrational 240
    Decision Making in the Real World 241
    Rational Decision Making: Managers Should Make
    Logical and Optimal Decisions 242
    Stage 1: Identify the Problem or Opportunity—
    Determining the Actual versus the Desirable 242
    Stage 2: Think Up Alternative Solutions—Both the
    Obvious and the Creative 242
    Stage 3: Evaluate Alternatives and Select a
    Solution—Ethics, Feasibility, and Effectiveness 242
    Stage 4: Implement and Evaluate the Solution
    Chosen 243
    What’s Wrong with the Rational Model? 244
    Nonrational Decision Making: Managers Find It Difficult
    to Make Optimal Decisions 244
    7.2 Making Ethical Decisions 247
    The Dismal Record of Business Ethics 247
    Road Map to Ethical Decision Making: A Decision
    Tree 248
    7.3 Evidence-Based Decision Making and
    Analytics 250
    Evidence-Based Decision Making 251
    In Praise of Analytics 252
    “Big Data”: What It Is, How It’s Used 254
    7.4 Four General Decision-Making Styles 257
    Value Orientation and Tolerance for Ambiguity 257
  7. The Directive Style: Action-Oriented Decision Makers
    Who Focus on Facts 258
  8. The Analytical Style: Careful Decision Makers Who
    Like Lots of Information and Alternative Choices 258
  9. The Conceptual Style: Decision Makers Who
    Rely on Intuition and Have a Long-Term
    Perspective 258
  10. The Behavioral Style: The Most People-Oriented
    Decision Makers 258
    Which Style Do You Have? 259
    7.5 Decision-Making Biases and the Use of Artificial
    Intelligence 260
    Nine Common Decision-Making Biases: Rules of Thumb,
    or “Heuristics” 260
    The Decision-Making Potential of Artificial
    Intelligence 262
    Pros and Cons of Artificial Intelligence 263
    7.6 Group Decision Making: How to Work with
    Others 265
    Advantages and Disadvantages of Group Decision
    Making 265
    Groupthink 266
    Characteristics of Group Decision Making 267
    Group Problem-Solving Techniques: Reaching for
    Consensus 269
    More Group Problem-Solving Techniques 269
    7.7 Career Corner: Managing Your Career
    Readiness 272
    Improving Your Critical Thinking and
    Problem-Solving Skills 272
    Reflect on Past Decisions 272
    Key Terms Used in This Chapter 274
    Key Points 274
    Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 276
    Management in Action 276
    Legal/Ethical Challenge 278
    Contents xxxiiiPART 4
    Organizing
    CHAPTER EIGHT
    Organizational Culture, Structure, and
    Design: Building Blocks of the
    Organization 280
    8.1 Aligning Strategy, Culture, and Structure 282
    How an Organization’s Culture and Structure Are Used
    to Implement Strategy 282
    8.2 What Kind of Organizational Culture Will You Be
    Operating In? 286
    The Three Levels of Organizational Culture 286
    Four Types of Organizational Culture: Clan, Adhocracy,
    Market, and Hierarchy 287
    How Employees Learn Culture: Symbols, Stories,
    Heroes, Rites and Rituals, and Organizational
    Socialization 290
    The Importance of Culture 291
    What Does It Mean to “Fit”? Anticipating a Job
    Interview 292
    8.3 The Process of Culture Change 293
  11. Formal Statements 293
  12. Slogans and Sayings 293
  13. Rites and Rituals 293
  14. Stories, Legends, and Myths 294
  15. Leader Reactions to Crises 294
  16. Role Modeling, Training, and Coaching 294
  17. Physical Design 294
  18. Rewards, Titles, Promotions, and Bonuses 295
  19. Organizational Goals and Performance Criteria 295
  20. Measurable and Controllable Activities 295
  21. Organizational Structure 296
  22. Organizational Systems and Procedures 296
    Don’t Forget about Person–Organization Fit 297
    8.4 Organizational Structure 298
    The Organization: Three Types 298
    The Organization Chart 298
    8.5 The Major Elements of an Organization 300
    Common Elements of Organizations: Four Proposed by
    Edgar Schein 300
    Common Elements of Organizations: Three More That
    Most Authorities Agree On 301
    8.6 Basic Types of Organizational Structures 304
  23. Traditional Designs: Simple, Functional, Divisional,
    and Matrix Structures 304
  24. The Horizontal Design: Eliminating Functional Barriers
    to Solve Problems 307
  25. Designs That Open Boundaries between Organizations:
    Hollow, Modular, and Virtual Structures 309
    8.7 Contingency Design: Factors in Creating
    the Best Structure 311
    Three Factors to Be Considered in Designing an
    Organization’s Structure 311
  26. The Environment: Mechanistic versus Organic
    Organizations—the Burns and Stalker Model 311
  27. The Environment: Differentiation versus Integration—
    the Lawrence and Lorsch Model 313
  28. Linking Strategy, Culture, and Structure 313
    8.8 Career Corner: Managing Your Career
    Readiness 314
    Understanding the Business and Where You “Fit” In 314
    Becoming More Adaptable 315
    Key Terms Used in This Chapter 316
    Key Points 316
    Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 318
    Management in Action 318
    Legal/Ethical Challenge 320
    CHAPTER NINE
    Human Resource Management: Getting the
    Right People for Managerial Success 322
    9.1 Strategic Human Resource Management 324
    Human Resource Management: Managing an
    Organization’s Most Important Resource 324
    Planning the Human Resources Needed 326
    9.2 Recruitment and Selection: Putting the Right
    People into the Right Jobs 329
    Recruitment: How to Attract Qualified Applicants 329
    Selection: How to Choose the Best Person for the
    Job 333
    9.3 Managing an Effective Workforce: Compensation
    and Benefits 339
    Wages or Salaries 339
    Incentives 339
    Benefits 339
    9.4 Orientation and Learning and Development 340
    Orientation: Helping Newcomers Learn the Ropes 340
    Learning and Development: Helping People Perform
    Better 341
    9.5 Performance Appraisal 344
    Performance Management in Human Resources 344
    Performance Appraisals: Are They Worthwhile? 345
    Two Kinds of Performance Appraisal: Objective and
    Subjective 346
    Who Should Make Performance Appraisals? 347
    Effective Performance Feedback 348
    9.6 Managing Promotions, Transfers, Disciplining,
    and Dismissals 350
    Promotion: Moving Upward 350
    Transfer: Moving Sideways 351
    xxxiv ContentsDisciplining and Demotion: The Threat of Moving
    Downward 351
    Dismissal: Moving Out of the Organization 351
    9.7 The Legal Requirements of Human Resource
    Management 354
  29. Labor Relations 354
  30. Compensation and Benefits 354
  31. Health and Safety 354
  32. Equal Employment Opportunity 356
    Workplace Discrimination, Affirmative Action, Sexual
    Harassment, and Bullying 356
    9.8 Labor–Management Issues 361
    How Workers Organize 361
    How Unions and Management Negotiate a Contract 362
    The Issues Unions and Management Negotiate
    About 362
    Settling Labor–Management Disputes 364
    9.10 Career Corner: Managing Your Career
    Readiness 366
    Becoming a Better Receiver 366
    Key Terms Used in This Chapter 368
    Key Points 368
    Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 371
    Management in Action 371
    Legal/Ethical Challenge 373
    CHAPTER TEN
    Organizational Change and Innovation:
    Lifelong Challenges for the Exceptional
    Manager 374
    10.1 The Nature of Change in Organizations 376
    Fundamental Change: What Will You Be Called
    On to Deal With? 376
    Two Types of Change: Reactive and Proactive 378
    The Forces for Change Outside and Inside the
    Organization 380
    10.2 Types and Models of Change 383
    Three Kinds of Change: From Least Threatening
    to Most Threatening 383
    Lewin’s Change Model: Unfreezing, Changing, and
    Refreezing 384
    A Systems Approach to Change 385
    10.3 Organizational Development: What It Is,
    What It Can Do 389
    What Can OD Be Used For? 389
    How OD Works 390
    The Effectiveness of OD 391
    10.4 Organizational Innovation 392
    Approaches to Innovation 392
    An Innovation System: The Supporting Forces for
    Innovation 394
    10.5 The Threat of Change: Managing Employee
    Fear and Resistance 399
    The Causes of Resistance to Change 399
    Ten Reasons Employees Resist Change 400
    10.6 Career Corner: Managing Your Career
    Readiness 402
    Applying Self-Affirmation Theory 402
    Practicing Self-Compassion 403
    Key Terms Used in This Chapter 404
    Key Points 404
    Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 405
    Management in Action 405
    Legal/Ethical Challenge 407
    PART 5
    Leading
    CHAPTER ELEVEN
    Managing Individual Differences and
    Behavior: Supervising People as People 408
    11.1 Personality and Individual Behavior 410
    The Big Five Personality Dimensions 410
    Core Self-Evaluations 411
    Emotional Intelligence: Understanding Your Emotions
    and the Emotions of Others 414
    11.2 Values, Attitudes, and Behavior 416
    Organizational Behavior: Trying to Explain and Predict
    Workplace Behavior 416
    Values: What Are Your Consistent Beliefs and Feelings
    about All Things? 416
    Attitudes: What Are Your Consistent Beliefs and Feelings
    about Specific Things? 416
    Behavior: How Values and Attitudes Affect People’s
    Actions and Judgments 419
    11.3 Perception and Individual Behavior 420
    The Four Steps in the Perceptual Process 420
    Five Distortions in Perception 420
    The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy, or Pygmalion Effect 424
    11.4 Work-Related Attitudes and Behaviors Managers
    Need to Deal With 426
  33. Employee Engagement: How Connected Are You to
    Your Work? 426
  34. Job Satisfaction: How Much Do You Like or Dislike
    Your Job? 428
  35. Organizational Commitment: How Much Do You
    Identify with Your Organization? 428
    Important Workplace Behaviors 429
    11.5 The New Diversified Workforce 431
    How to Think about Diversity: Which Differences Are
    Important? 431
    Contents xxxvTrends in Workforce Diversity 433
    Barriers to Diversity 437
    11.6 Understanding Stress and Individual
    Behavior 441
    The Toll of Workplace Stress 441
    How Does Stress Work? 442
    The Sources of Job-Related Stress 442
    Reducing Stressors in the Organization 445
    11.7 Career Corner: Managing Your Career
    Readiness 448
    Fostering a Positive Approach 448
    Self-Managing Your Emotions 449
    Key Terms Used in This Chapter 450
    Key Points 450
    Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 452
    Management in Action 452
    Legal/Ethical Challenge 454
    CHAPTER TWELVE
    Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior
    Performance in the Workplace 456
    12.1 Motivating for Performance 458
    Motivation: What It Is, Why It’s Important 458
    The Four Major Perspectives on Motivation:
    An Overview 460
    12.2 Content Perspectives on Employee
    Motivation 461
    Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory: Five Levels 461
    McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory: Achievement,
    Affiliation, and Power 463
    Deci and Ryan’s Self-Determination Theory:
    Competence, Autonomy, and Relatedness 464
    Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory: From Dissatisfying
    Factors to Satisfying Factors 466
    12.3 Process Perspectives on Employee
    Motivation 469
    Equity/Justice Theory: How Fairly Do You Think You’re
    Being Treated in Relation to Others? 469
    Expectancy Theory: How Much Do You Want and How
    Likely Are You to Get It? 473
    Goal-Setting Theory: Objectives Should Be Specific and
    Challenging but Achievable 475
    12.4 Job Design Perspectives on Motivation 478
    Fitting People to Jobs 478
    Fitting Jobs to People 478
    The Job Characteristics Model: Five Job Attributes for
    Better Work Outcomes 479
    12.5 Reinforcement Perspectives on Motivation 483
    The Four Types of Reinforcement: Positive, Negative,
    Extinction, and Punishment 483
    Using Reinforcement to Motivate Employees 484
    12.6 Using Compensation, Nonmonetary Incentives,
    and Other Rewards to Motivate: In Search of the
    Positive Work Environment 487
    Is Money the Best Motivator? 487
    Motivation and Compensation 487
    Nonmonetary Ways of Motivating Employees 489
    12.7 Career Corner: Managing Your Career
    Readiness 494
  36. Identify Your “Wildly Important” Long-Term Goal 494
  37. Break Your Wildly Important Goal into
    Short-Term Goals 495
  38. Create a “To-Do” List for Accomplishing Your
    Short-Term Goals 495
  39. Prioritize the Tasks 495
  40. Create a Time Schedule 495
  41. Work the Plan, Reward Yourself, and
    Adjust as Needed 495
    Key Terms Used in This Chapter 496
    Key Points 496
    Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 498
    Management in Action 498
    Legal/Ethical Challenge 500
    CHAPTER THIRTEEN
    Groups and Teams: Increasing Cooperation,
    Reducing Conflict 502
    13.1 Groups versus Teams 504
    Groups and Teams: How Do They Differ? 505
    Formal versus Informal Groups 506
    Types of Teams 507
    13.2 Stages of Group and Team Development 510
    Tuckman’s Five-Stage Model 510
    Punctuated Equilibrium 512
    13.3 Building Effective Teams 513
  42. Collaboration—the Foundation of Teamwork 513
  43. Trust: “We Need to Have Reciprocal Faith in Each
    Other” 514
  44. Performance Goals and Feedback 515
  45. Motivation through Mutual Accountability and
    Interdependence 516
  46. Team Composition 516
  47. Roles: How Team Members Are Expected to
    Behave 517
  48. Norms: Unwritten Rules for Team Members 518
  49. Effective Team Processes 520
    Putting It All Together 520
    13.4 Managing Conflict 521
    The Nature of Conflict: Disagreement Is Normal 521
    Can Too Little or Too Much Conflict Affect
    Performance? 522
    Three Kinds of Conflict: Personality, Intergroup, and
    Cross-Cultural 523
    xxxvi ContentsHow to Stimulate Constructive Conflict 524
    Five Basic Behaviors to Help You Better Handle
    Conflict 526
    Dealing with Disagreements: Five Conflict-Handling
    Styles 526
    13.5 Career Corner: Managing Your Career
    Readiness 528
    Become a More Effective Team Member 528
    Become a More Effective Collaborator 529
    Key Terms Used in This Chapter 530
    Key Points 530
    Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 531
    Management in Action 531
    Legal/Ethical Challenge 533
    CHAPTER FOURTEEN
    Power, Influence, and Leadership: From
    Becoming a Manager to Becoming a
    Leader 534
    14.1 The Nature of Leadership: The Role of Power
    and Influence 536
    What Is the Difference between Leading and
    Managing? 536
    Managerial Leadership: Can You Be Both a Manager and
    a Leader? 537
    Coping with Complexity versus Coping with Change:
    The Thoughts of John Kotter 538
    Five Sources of Power 538
    Common Influence Tactics 540
    Match Tactics to Influence Outcomes 542
    An Integrated Model of Leadership 542
    14.2 Trait Approaches: Do Leaders Have Distinctive
    Traits and Personal Characteristics? 544
    Positive Task-Oriented Traits and Positive/Negative
    Interpersonal Attributes 544
    What Do We Know about Gender and Leadership? 545
    Are Knowledge and Skills Important? 548
    So What Do We Know about Leadership Traits? 548
    14.3 Behavioral Approaches: Do Leaders Show
    Distinctive Patterns of Behavior? 550
    Task-Oriented Leader Behaviors: Initiating-Structure
    Leadership and Transactional Leadership 550
    Relationship-Oriented Leader Behavior: Consideration,
    Empowerment, Ethical Leadership, and Servant
    Leadership 551
    Passive Leadership: The Lack of Leadership Skills 555
    So What Do We Know about the Behavioral
    Approaches? 556
    14.4 Situational Approaches: Does Leadership Vary
    with the Situation? 557
  50. The Contingency Leadership Model: Fiedler’s
    Approach 557
  51. The Path–Goal Leadership Model: House’s
    Approach 559
    So What Do We Know about the Situational
    Approaches? 561
    14.5 The Uses of Transformational Leadership 563
    Transformational Leaders 563
    The Best Leaders Are Both Transactional and
    Transformational 563
    Four Key Behaviors of Transformational
    Leaders 564
    So What Do We Know about Transformational
    Leadership? 567
    14.6 Three Additional Perspectives 568
    Leader–Member Exchange Leadership: Having
    Different Relationships with Different
    Subordinates 568
    The Power of Humility 569
    Followers: What Do They Want, How Can They
    Help? 570
    14.7 Career Corner: Managing Your Career
    Readiness 572
    Becoming More Self-Aware 572
    Key Terms Used in This Chapter 574
    Key Points 574
    Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 576
    Management in Action 576
    Legal/Ethical Challenge 578
    CHAPTER FIFTEEN
    Interpersonal and Organizational
    Communication: Mastering the Exchange of
    Information 580
    15.1 The Communication Process: What It Is, How It
    Works 582
    Communication Defined: The Transfer of Information
    and Understanding 582
    How the Communication Process Works 583
    Selecting the Right Medium for Effective
    Communication 586
    15.2 How Managers Fit into the Communication
    Process 588
    Formal Communication Channels: Up, Down, Sideways,
    and Outward 588
    Informal Communication Channels 589
    15.3 Barriers to Communication 592
  52. Physical Barriers: Sound, Time, Space 592
  53. Personal Barriers: Individual Attributes That Hinder
    Communication 593
  54. Cross-Cultural Barriers 595
  55. Nonverbal Communication: How Unwritten and
    Unspoken Messages May Mislead 596
  56. Gender Differences 598
    Contents xxxvii15.4 Social Media and Management 600
    Social Media Has Changed the Fabric of Our Lives 600
    Social Media and Managerial and Organizational
    Effectiveness 601
    Downsides of Social Media 608
    Managerial Implications of Texting 611
    Managerial Considerations in Creating Social Media
    Policies 612
    15.5 Improving Communication Effectiveness 615
    Nondefensive Communication 615
    Using Empathy 617
    Being an Effective Listener 618
    Being an Effective Writer 619
    Being an Effective Speaker 620
    15.6 Career Corner: Managing Your Career
    Readiness 623
    Improve Your Face-to-Face Networking Skills 623
    Key Terms Used in This Chapter 625
    Key Points 625
    Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 626
    Management in Action 627
    Legal/Ethical Challenge 628
    PART 6
    Controlling
    CHAPTER SIXTEEN
    Control Systems and Quality Management:
    Techniques for Enhancing Organizational
    Effectiveness 630
    16.1 Control: When Managers Monitor
    Performance 632
    Why Is Control Needed? 632
    Steps in the Control Process 635
    Types of Controls 639
    16.2 Levels and Areas of Control 641
    Levels of Control: Strategic, Tactical, and
    Operational 641
    Six Areas of Control 641
    Controlling the Supply Chain 643
    Control in Service Firms 644
    16.3 The Balanced Scorecard and Strategy
    Maps 645
    The Balanced Scorecard: A Dashboard-like View of the
    Organization 645
    Strategy Mapping: Visual Representation of the Path to
    Organizational Effectiveness 648
    16.4 Some Financial Tools for Control 650
    Budgets: Formal Financial Projections 650
    Financial Statements: Summarizing the Organization’s
    Financial Status 651
    Audits: External versus Internal 652
    16.5 Total Quality Management 654
    Deming Management: The Contributions of W. Edwards
    Deming to Improved Quality 655
    Core TQM Principles: Deliver Customer Value and Strive
    for Continuous Improvement 655
    Applying TQM to Services 659
    Some TQM Tools, Techniques, and
    Standards 661
    Takeaways from TQM Research 663
    16.6 Managing Control Effectively 664
    The Keys to Successful Control Systems 664
    Barriers to Control Success 665
    16.7 Managing for Productivity 667
    What Is Productivity? 667
    Why Is Increasing Productivity Important? 668
    What Processes Can I Use to Increase Productivity? 669
    Managing Individual Productivity 670
    16.8 Career Corner: Managing Your Career
    Readiness 671
  57. Make Every Day Count 672
  58. Stay Informed and Network 672
  59. Promote Yourself 672
  60. Roll with Change and Disruption 673
  61. Small Things Matter during Interviews 673
    Epilogue: The Keys to Your Managerial Success 674
    Key Terms Used in This Chapter 676
    Key Points 676
    Understanding the Chapter: What Do I Know? 678
    Management in Action 678
    Legal/Ethical Challenge 680
    LEARNING MODULE 2: The Project Planner’s
    Toolkit: Flowcharts, Gantt Charts, and
    Break-Even Analysis 681
    Tool #1: Flowcharts—for Showing Event Sequences and
    Alternate Decision Scenarios 681
    Tool #2: Gantt Charts—Visual Time Schedules for Work
    Tasks 683
    Tool #3: Break-Even Analysis—How Many Items Must
    You Sell to Turn a Profit? 684
    CHAPTER NOTES CN-1
    NAME INDEX IND-1
    ORGANIZATION INDEX IND-5
    GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX IND-11
    A
    Adams, J. Stacey, 469–472
    Ailes, Roger, 439
    Albrecht, Karl, 378
    Allen, Nick, 199
    Allen, Paul, 262
    Allmendinger, A. J., 516
    Almeida, José, 288–289
    Altchek, Chris, 284
    Ammann, Dan, 381
    Andrews, Marcus, 482
    Asher, Penny, 342
    Atkins, Betsy, 107
    Autor, David, 378
    Avolio, Bruce, 563
    B
    Bader, Chrys, 561
    Bado, Bill, 319
    Bagley, Constance, 248–249
    Balachandra, Lakshmi, 234
    Ballmer, Steve, 570
    Baltazar, Ivana, 475
    Baptiste, Dena, 335, 335
    Barhydt, Ethan, 227
    Barnard, Chester I., 298
    Barra, Mary, 4, 4, 16, 19, 19–21, 381, 398
    Barra, Tony, 19
    Barry, Bryan, 209
    Bass, Bernard, 536, 563
    Bastian, Ed, 6
    Batali, Mario, 27
    Becker, Nate, 227
    Bell, Genevieve, 223
    Bell, Jessica, 373
    Bell, Madeline, 258
    Benioff, Marc, 102, 102, 290, 554
    Berger, Helena, 436
    Berner, Mary, 293, 293
    Bernstein, Elizabeth, 162
    Beyoncé, 476
    Bezos, Jeff, 4–5, 13, 85, 119, 230, 245, 258
    Bianchi, Kerry, 329
    Blakely, Sara, 549
    Blanchard, Ken, 529
    Blankenship, Tim, 522, 522
    Blumenthal, Richard, 381
    Bock, Laszlo, 492, 570
    Bohr, Niels, 376
    Booker, Cory, 541
    Bossidy, Larry, 169, 209–212
    Bowerman, Bill, 294
    Bowman, Bob, 40
    Bowman, Stan, 253
    Brandon, David, 377
    Branson, Richard, 223, 377, 377, 419, 618
    Brin, Sergey, 222, 304
    Brown, Ron, 577
    Brown, Sherrod, 320
    Bruneau, Megan, 403
    Buffett, Warren, 104, 247
    Burke, Katie, 482
    Burkus, David, 473
    Burns, Tom, 312
    Bush, Lauren, 553, 553–554
    Byford, Andy, 277
    Byttow, David, 561
    C
    Cabou, Sarah, 331, 331
    Calista, Dan, 445
    Camp, Garret, 230
    Canfield, Jack, 535
    Carlson, Gretchen, 439
    Carnegie, Andrew, 104, 221
    Carnegie, Dale, 621
    Carroll, Archie B., 100, 101
    Carter, Christine, 403
    Carter, Jimmy, 565
    Castile, Philandro, 600
    Castle, Kevin, 595
    Catmull, Ed, 271, 395
    Chait, Eli, 391
    Charan, Ram, 169, 209–212
    Chen, Jane, 674
    Chesky, Brian, 22
    Chideya, Faral, 332
    Chirot, Daniel, 45
    Cho, Emily, 521
    Cho Yang-ho, 521
    Christensen, Clayton, 44,
    165, 377
    Christie, Agatha, 375
    Cipirano, Pam, 372
    Clapton, Eric, 184
    Clark, Richard, 333
    Clinton, Hillary, 594, 628
    Colberg, Alan, 549
    Coldplay, 184
    Collins, James, 372
    Collins, Michael, 120
    Collison, John, 230
    Collison, Patrick, 230
    Colvin, Geoffrey, 190
    Comey, James, 594
    Conley, Chip, 462
    Cook, Tim, 11, 536
    Copeland, Misty, 606, 606
    Corbat, Michael, 490
    Crohurst, Nebel, 294
    Crow, Ashley, 396, 396
    Crow, Sheryl, 184
    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, 22
    Cullen, Margaret, 617
    Cuniffe, Kirby, 601
    Curry, Stephen, 253
    D
    Daft, Richard, 586
    Daily, Gretchen, 103
    Dansereau, Fred, 568
    Dao, David, 82–83
    Davenport, Coral, 103
    Davenport, Thomas H., 254
    David, Alison, 595
    Davidson, Kate, 30
    Davis, John, 343
    Dawkins, Ceejay, 189
    De Blasio, Bill, 277
    De Bono, Edward, 214
    Deci, Edward, 464–465
    DeFrino, Mike, 554
    de la Vega, Ralph, 549
    Deming, W. Edwards, 63, 65,
    345, 655, 665
    Dempsey, Martin, 114
    Dennis, Richelieu, 396
    Diallo, Amadou, 422
    Dikison, Mike, 7
    Dillon, Mary, 536
    Dimitroff, Thomas, 253
    Disney, Walt, 221
    Doughtie, Lynne, 4
    Doyle, Arthur Conan, 375
    Drew, Bryce, 675
    Drucker, Peter, 11, 44, 44, 128,
    164, 173, 376, 504
    Duckworth, Tammy, 541
    Dunning, David, 573
    DuPuy, Bob, 40
    Dyer, Dave, 659
    Dyson, James, 445
    E
    Eagle, Katrina, 578
    Easterbrook, Steve, 499
    Edelman, Simon, 98–99
    Edison, Thomas, 476
    Edmonson, Cole, 372
    Einstein, Albert, 245
    Ekman, Paul, 617
    Ells, Steve, 405, 406
    Emmons, Robert, 491
    Escobar, Pablo, 627
    Etkin, Maude, 628
    Etzioni, Oren, 262
    Evans, Fred J., 97
    Evdikimova, Daria, 227
    F
    Fairbanks, JJ, 210, 210
    Farnham, Alan, 242
    Farr-Kaye, Missy, 34–35, 35
    Favali, Ron, 532
    Fayol, Henri, 50
    Fedorov, Vlad, 340
    Feit, Debbie, 459
    Feldman, Daniel, 290
    Ferucci, David A., 515
    Festinger, Leon, 418
    Fiedler, Fred, 557, 558, 559
    Fields, Mark, 210
    Fisher, Craig, 602, 603
    Fitzgerald, Patrick, 633
    Flannery, John, 218
    Follett, Mary Parker, 51–52
    Foo Fighters, 184
    Ford, Henry, 222
    Ford, Henry, II, 208
    Foulk, Trevor, 430
    Franken, Al, 27
    Frankl, Victor, 493
    Franklin, Benjamin, 221
    Fredrickson, Barbara, 108
    French, John, 282, 282–283
    Friedman, Milton, 101
    Friedman, Nick, 287
    Friedman, Thomas, 28
    G
    Gantt, Henry L., 683
    Garenswartz, Lee, 432
    Gates, Bill, 104, 221, 247,
    263, 570, 594
    Gates, Melinda, 247
    Gatto, Jim, 113
    Gebbia, Joe, 22
    Gemignani, Tony, 489
    Giascogne, Joel, 472, 473
    Gilbreth, Frank, 47, 49, 49
    Gilbreth, Lillian, 47, 49, 49
    Gladwell, Malcolm, 281
    Glener, David, 371
    Gohman, Keri, 505
    Goizueta, Robert, 127
    Goldberg, Jason, 251
    Goleman, Daniel, 414
    Goodall, Molly, 203
    Goodnight, Jim, 79
    Gordon, Chloe, 628
    Gordon, Robert, 88IND2 Name Index
    NAME INDEX
    Gore, Al, 28
    Gottstein, Jenny, 504, 514
    Graen, George, 568
    Grandi, Filippo, 548
    Greenleaf, Robert, 554
    Grossman, Robert, 67
    Guo, Alice, 444, 444–445
    H
    Hackman, J. Richard, 479
    Hadid, Bella, 627
    Haley, Tom, 10, 10
    Half, Robert, 417
    Hall, Edward T., 140, 145
    Hallowell, Edward, 594
    Hamel, Gary, 61–62, 161
    Hanlon, Michael, 88
    Hansen, Jordin, 125, 125
    Harper, Brian, 379–380
    Hastings, Reed, 590
    Hawking, Stephen, 264, 675
    Heath, Shannon, 342
    Hedge, Alan, 492
    Heimericks, Belinda, 372
    Hendrix, Jimi, 184
    Hennessy, John, 564
    Hersch, Joni, 453
    Hertz, Noreena, 261
    Herzberg, Frederick, 466–468, 467–468
    Hewson, Marillyn, 4
    Hill, Grant, 114
    Hinman, Jacqueline, 28
    Hinricks, Karoli, 117
    Hodge, Tishuana, 332
    Hofstead, Geert, 140–141
    Hojat, Mohammadreza, 618
    Holmes, Elizabeth, 585, 585–586
    Hopkins, Donald, 565
    House, Robert, 141, 559, 559–561
    Hsieh, Tony, 45
    Hudy, Mike, 410
    Hugh, Ben, 245
    Hurd, Mark, 565
    Hurley, Robert, 106
    I
    Idei, Nobuyuki, 401
    Iger, Bob, 40
    Immelt, Jeffrey, 217–218, 397
    Ivanhoe, Jon, 485, 485
    J
    Jackson, Ronny, 577–578
    Jacobsen, Eric, 165
    James, LeBron, 528
    Janis, Irwin, 266, 267
    Ja Rule, 627
    Jenner, Kendall, 627
    Jerkan, Della, 464, 465, 465
    Jobs, Steve, 221, 222, 224, 245, 541, 565,
    594
    Johnson, Amanda, 235, 235–236
    Johnson, Kevin, 578
    Jones, Zamira, 593–594
    Jordan, Kim, 290
    Jordan, Michael, 477
    Juran, Joseph M., 63
    K
    Kahneman, Daniel, 241, 261
    Kalanick, Travis, 153, 230
    Kamprad, Invar, 290
    Kangur, Karl, 515
    Kanne, Leo, 365
    Kantor, Rosabeth Moss, 120
    Kaplan, Ethan, 184
    Kaplan, Robert, 645, 648
    Karan, Donna, 477
    Kardashian West, Kim, 159
    Kasriel, Stephane, 532
    Kato, Maria, 195, 195
    Katz, Robert, 19
    Katz, Sofra, 4
    Katzenbach, Jon R., 505
    Kavanaugh, Brett, 383
    Keller, Gary, 343
    Kelley, David, 397
    Kelly, Gary, 171, 467
    Kennedy, Anthony, 435
    Kennedy, Kathleen, 11
    Kenrick, Douglas, 462
    Kerber, Angelique, 253
    Kerpen, Dave, 618, 674
    Khan, Hani, 433
    Khosrowshahi, Dara, 514
    Kim, Joon, 113, 114
    King, Martin Luther, Jr., 564, 565
    King, Stephen, 477
    Kinicki, Angelo, 139, 144–145,
    149–150, 220–221, 229,
    232, 388, 520, 584, 648
    Kinicki, Joyce, 220–221, 229
    Kirn, Walter, 350
    Kohlberg, Laurence, 97
    Kokoszka, Dianna, 343
    Kotter, John, 538
    Kovacevich, Richard, 318, 319
    Kozinski, Alex, 27
    Kruger, Justin, 573
    Kullman, Ellen, 266
    L
    Lacob, Joe, 253
    Lagarde, Christine, 27
    Lamb, Shane, 342
    Lampert, Edward, 73, 74
    Lao-Tzu, 541
    Latham, Gary, 475–477
    Lau, Jason, 595
    Lauer, Matt, 27
    Lawrence, Amanda, 169–170, 170
    Lawrence, Paul R., 313
    Lee, Eugene, 385, 385
    Leibsohn, Tracy, 609, 609
    Lengel, Robert, 586
    Leung, Joseph, 475
    Levine, James, 27
    Levy, Dan, 519
    Lewin, Kurt, 384, 384–385
    Lewis, Michael, 253
    Lightner, Candy, 564
    Linville, Charlie, 412
    Locke, Edwin, 475–477
    Lombardi, Vince, 528
    Lopez, Paola, 475
    Lord, Katie, 87, 87–88
    Lorsch, Jay W., 313
    Louis C. K., 27
    Loveman, Gary, 252
    Lura, David, 333
    M
    Ma, Jack, 119
    Machiavelli, Niccolò, 545
    Mackey, John, 472, 566
    Maimane, Mmusi, 294
    Malone, Michael, 254
    Maltby, Lewis, 93, 680
    Manfred, Rob, 40
    Manjoo, Farhad, 200
    Margulies, Josh, 566, 566
    Martz, Gayle, 13
    Maslow, Abraham, 52, 461, 461–462
    Mayer, Marissa, 532
    Mayo, Elton, 52, 52
    Mazliah, Mandy, 189
    McChrystal, Stanley, 5
    McClelland, David, 463, 463–464
    McCord, Patty, 295
    McDonald, Bob, 576, 577
    McDonald, Paul, 122
    McDormand, Frances, 653
    McFarland, Billy, 627–628
    McGraw, Tim, 184
    McGregor, Douglas, 53
    McGuffey, Spencer, 20
    McKinnon, Gary, 610
    McKnight, William, 395
    McLuhan, Marshall, 119
    McNamara, Mike, 644
    McNamara, Robert, 56
    Medvetz, Tim, 412
    Al Mehairbi, Ayesha, 655–656, 656
    Merkel, Angela, 135, 548, 548
    Merlo, Larry, 287
    Michel, Aaron, 34
    Miliband, David, 551
    Miller, Herman, 507, 659
    Miller, Peter, 283
    Mintzberg, Henry, 15–17
    Mirmelstein, Ian, 320
    Missal, Michael, 577, 578
    Molinaro, Vince, 396
    Mong Koo, Chung, 657
    Monkelien, Cameron, 53, 53
    Montgomery, Scott, 45
    Mooney, Andy, 184, 185
    Morin, Brit, 595
    Morrison, Denise, 13
    Moscoso, Dora, 326
    Mostrom, Donna, 582–583, 583
    Mueller, Mattias, 585
    Mulally, Alan, 539, 541
    Munsterberg, Hugo, 51
    Murray, Robert E., 98, 99
    Musk, Elon, 171, 179, 221–224, 222,
    245–246, 258, 264, 474, 535,
    678–679
    Mycoski, Blake, 100, 544
    N
    Nadella, Satya, 12, 223, 570, 573
    Nagata, Osamu, 197
    Nanus, Burt, 564
    Neff, Kristen, 403
    Negroponte, Nicholas, 121
    Neilson, Ian, 294
    Nelson, Rashon, 578
    Nemeroff, Wayne, 491
    Newman, Will, 634, 634
    Niccol, Brian, 406
    Nickel, Kimberly, 636
    Nooyi, Indra, 395, 564
    Norton, David, 645, 648
    Novakovic, Phebe, 544
    O
    Obama, Barack, 132, 433, 576, 590
    Obama, Michelle, 433
    Oldham, Greg, 479Name Index IND3
    NAME INDEX
    O’Neill, Chris, 192
    O’Reilly, Bill, 107
    Osborn, A. F., 269
    P
    Page, Larry, 222, 224, 304
    Parker, Mark, 11, 541
    Parson, Bob, 645
    Patel, Shirali, 480
    Pauling, Linus, 229
    Pelen, François, 232
    Pelosi, Nancy, 590
    Perry, Rick, 98, 99
    Peters, Lulu Hunt, 423
    Peters, Tom, 44, 312
    Pfeffer, Jeffrey, 62, 251–252
    Pichai, Sundar, 17
    Pickens, T. Boone, 104
    Pilarski, Jan, 229
    Pitino, Rick, 113
    Pitt, Brad, 253
    Plato, 270
    Porath, Christine, 430
    Porcini, Mauro, 395
    Portalatin, Julio, 24
    Porter, Michael, 190, 190, 191, 206–208
    Pouts, Patrice, 232
    Q
    Quillen, Anita-Maria, 177
    Quincey, James, 239
    Quinn, Dan, 253
    R
    Rao, Anand, 263
    Rao, Tulsi, 513–514, 514
    Ratajkowski, Emily, 627
    Raynor, Michael, 44
    Reardon, Kathleen Kelly, 286
    Reich, Robert, 332
    Reilly, Ed, 15
    Reynolds, Diamond, 600
    Rice, Condoleezza, 114
    Richard, Tim, 475
    Richler, Noah, 547
    Rihanna, 158–159
    Rippentrop, Ashley, 64, 64
    Robinson, Cameo, 453
    Robinson, David, 114
    Robinson, Donte, 578
    Rockwell, Sam, 653
    Roe, Phil, 590
    Rogers, Carl, 594
    Rolling Stones, 184
    Rome, Carey, 515
    Rometty, Virginia “Ginni,” 4, 11,
    258, 258, 531
    Roosevelt, Theodore, 477
    Rose, Charlie, 27
    Rosenfeld, Irene, 4
    Rowe, Anita, 432
    Rowling, J. K., 221
    Rubin, Andy, 227
    Rutledge, Thomas, 7, 7
    Ryan, Paul, 577
    Ryan, Richard, 464–465
    S
    Saban, Nick, 551
    Salzmann, Ben, 288
    Samuelson, Paul, 102
    Sandberg, Sheryl, 81, 546, 552
    Sanders, Bernie, 594
    Sapiro, Aaron, 591
    Schein, Edgar, 283, 300
    Schilling, Curt, 628–629
    Schmidt, Eric, 304
    Schnitzer, Raphael, 232
    Schott, Greg, 283
    Schrodt, Steven, 318
    Schroeter, Martin, 531–532
    Schulte, Josephine, 167, 167–168
    Schultz, Howard, 240, 241, 564
    Schwab, Klaus, 381
    Schwartz, Barry, 8
    Scully, John, 565
    Segal, Bryan, 607
    Self, Bill, 113
    Selig, Bud, 39, 40
    Seligman, Martin, 491
    Selye, Hans, 442
    Senge, Peter, 66
    Sewell, Terri, 453–454
    Sharma, Anshu, 200
    Sharp, Isadore, 660
    Shaw, George Bernard, 424, 595
    Shewart, Walter, 63
    Shineski, Eric, 576
    Shkreli, Martin, 96, 96, 545
    Shulkin, David, 576–577
    Silverman, Josh, 312
    Simon, Herbert, 244
    Simons, Russell, 27
    Singh, Yuvraj, 83–84, 84
    Skinner, B. F., 483
    Slaughter, Anne Marie, 428
    Sloan, Timothy, 319, 320
    Smisek, Jeff, 536
    Smith, Brenton, 439, 439
    Smith, Claye, 268–269, 269
    Smith, Douglas K., 505
    Smith, Fred, 222
    Smith, James, 361
    Smith, Will, 528
    Solomon, Susan L., 13, 13–14
    Spacey, Kevin, 27
    Spahn, Jens, 548
    Spaulding, Charles Clinton, 49
    Spiegel, Evan, 173
    Spreitzer, Gretchen, 389, 430
    Stalker, G. M., 312
    Starr, Stephen, 627
    Steele, Adam, 515
    Steib, Mike, 513
    Steiner, René, 30
    Stewart, Martha, 549
    Stogdill, Ralph, 544
    Stringer, Howard, 401
    Stringer, Scott, 500
    Stumpf, John, 319
    Sullivan, John, 329, 330
    Surowiecki, James, 266
    Sutton, Robert, 62, 251–252
    Sutton, Sara, 532
    Sweeney, William, Jr., 114
    Swift, Taylor, 185, 540
    Syse, Henrik, 106
    T
    Tachibana, Akito, 198
    Tannen, Deborah, 599
    Taylor, Frederick W., 47–48, 48, 655
    Tenbrunsel, Ann E., 28
    Thaler, Richard H., 60
    Thiry, Kent, 588
    Thompson, Klay, 253, 253
    Thompson, Renee, 372
    Thomson, Sherry, 325–326
    Thorndike, Edward L., 483
    Thornton, John, 393
    Tidmarsh, Chris, 229–230
    Tinsley, Lina, 181
    Titus, Mark, 113
    Tobin, Justin, 674
    Toyoda, Akio, 193
    Trebeck, Alex, 515
    Trudeau, Justin, 547–548, 548
    Trzaska, Steven, 407
    Tulgan, Bruce, 150
    Turnbull, Alex, 192
    Tynan, Kevin, 679
    U
    Ulukaya, Handi, 104
    U2, 184
    V
    Vaccaro, Sonny, 112
    Valdez, Arthur, 373
    Vaughn, Stevie Ray, 184
    Ventrone, Melissa, 611
    von Furstenberg, Diane, 674
    Vroom, Victor, 473–475
    W
    Wahlberg, Mark, 265
    Walker, Brian, 507
    Walker, Shantel, 499
    Walsh, Marty, 256
    Walters, Casey, 296, 296–297
    Warren, Elizabeth, 256
    Waterman, Robert, 312
    Waters, Maxine, 454
    Watson, Thomas J., 200
    Weber, Max, 50
    Wei, Cheng, 153, 154
    Weihenmayer, Erik, 425, 425
    Weiniger, Judy, 337
    Weinstein, Harvey, 27, 27, 247
    Welch, Jack, 217, 218, 281, 324, 641
    Welch, Suzy, 281
    West, Gil, 6
    Weyeneth, Taylor, 333
    Whitman, Meg, 4, 551, 565
    Wicks, Judy, 78
    Wilczek, Ashley, 264
    Williams, Danielle, 248, 248
    Willis, Bruce, 265
    Wilson, Brett, 282, 283
    Winfrey, Oprah, 86, 221, 222, 224
    Winterkorn, Martin, 585, 585
    Wise, Terrence, 499
    Wolfers, Justin, 60
    Wood, Lowell, 229, 229
    Wozniak, Stephen, 224, 264
    Wright, Mary, 569, 569
    Y
    Yang, Wenjing, 141–142, 142
    Yerlan, Lisa, 285
    Z
    Zuckerberg, Mark, 81, 104, 158,
    521, 590
    Zwilling, Martin, 594ORGANIZATION INDEX
    Organization Index IND5
    A
    ABB Consulting, 659
    Abbott Laboratories, 353
    Abercrombie & Fitch, 433
    Accenture, 263, 324, 346, 348, 489
    Ace Hardware, 658
    Acer, 207
    Acuity Insurance, 288
    Adam Opel AG, 130
    Adelphia, 95, 106
    Adidas, 112, 113, 642
    Adobe Systems, 324, 346
    The Adolphus, 84
    Advocate Health Care, 121
    Aerospace Industrial Development, 310
    Aetna, 121, 205, 653
    Aflac, 488
    AIG, 287
    Airbnb, 22–23
    Airbus, 659
    Akron-Canton Regional Foodbank, 65
    Alcoa, 393
    Aldi Nord, 123
    Alibaba, 119
    Allen Institute, 262
    Allied Signal, 169, 209, 662
    Alphabet Inc., 123, 200, 263, 304, 437
    Alstom, 217, 218
    Amazon
    acquisitions by, 121, 205, 308, 389
    Big Data used by, 62
    brand recognition, 189
    competition for, 73, 83, 160
    continuous improvement at, 658
    corporate-level strategy of, 191
    decision making at, 245
    delivery system, 384
    drone delivery by, 644
    hierarchy culture of, 289
    history of, 4–5, 119, 230
    innovation at, 384, 395
    in Internet economy, 200
    inventory control by, 642
    leadership of, 13
    minimum wage at, 462
    monitoring of workers by, 295, 680
    noncompete agreements and, 373
    overseas operations, 127
    ranking for employment attractiveness, 30
    retail partnerships with, 74
    tax breaks for, 85
    American Airlines, 391
    American Apparel, 124
    American Express, 16, 67, 351, 504, 662
    American Federation of Teachers, 84, 362
    American Institute of Architects, 6
    American Management Association
    (AMA), 15, 21
    American Medical Association, 371
    American Psychological Association, 457
    American Red Cross, 202
    Amersham, 217
    Andreesen Horowitz, 81
    Anheuser-Busch InBev, 121, 121, 123, 396
    Aon Hewitt, 426, 468
    Apollo Global Management, 123
    Apple Inc.
    brand recognition, 189
    celebrity influence on, 540
    Chinese ban of, 382
    diversity and, 453
    driverless cars and, 381
    headquarters, 227
    history of, 305
    innovation by, 161, 393, 395
    in Internet economy, 200
    leadership of, 11
    learning culture at, 67
    mindfulness training at, 16
    as multinational corporation, 123
    open office settings at, 55
    overseas operations, 123, 127
    ranking for employment attractiveness, 30
    response to customer complaints, 230
    retail boutiques for, 194
    stretch goals and, 476
    supply chain, 126
    Aqua America Inc., 615
    Arizona State University, 34–35, 35, 235,
    462, 578, 608, 644
    AstraZeneca, 186
    AT&T, 67, 119, 376, 390, 439, 490
    Atlanta Falcons, 253
    Aurora Health Care, 121
    Autodesk, 490
    Autoliv, 191
    Automattic Inc., 310
    AutoNation Inc., 338
    B
    Bain & Company, 202
    BamTech, 40
    Bank of America, 82, 134, 453, 607
    Barclays, 330
    Barrick Gold Corp., 393
    Baxter International, 288–289
    BDT Capital Partners, 81
    Bell Telephone Labs, 63
    Ben & Jerry’s Ice Cream, 78, 123
    Bentley, 130
    Berkshire Hathaway, 123, 304
    Bessemer Trust, 190
    Best Buy, 194, 613–614
    Better World Books, 78
    B.F. Goodrich, 391
    Bic, 207
    Bidvest, 644
    Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, 81, 104
    Blessing White, 427
    Blinds.com, 491
    Blizzard Entertainment, 165–166
    Bloomberg Philanthropies, 255
    BlueCrew, 330
    BNSF Railway Company, 549
    Bob Evans Farms, 645
    Boeing Co., 83, 310, 476, 504, 659
    Bombardier, 310, 310
    Borders, 160
    Boring Co., 222
    Bosch, 397
    Boston Consulting Group, 204–205, 324,
    489, 490
    Box, 78
    Box House Hotel, 22
    BP, 123, 261, 379
    Bridge Worldwide, 665
    Bristol Tennessee Essential Services
    (BTES), 654
    Brit + Co., 595
    Buffer Technology, 472–473
    Büler North America, 30
    Bumble Bee, 298
    Burger King, 73, 123, 130, 499
    Butterfly Petals, 236
    C
    Cabela, 379
    Cabify, 154
    Campbell Soup, 13
    Canon, 407
    Capital One, 254, 294–295
    CareerBuilder, 602, 608
    Cargill, 147, 482
    Caribou Coffee Company, 205
    Carl’s Jr., 499
    Carmike Cinemas, 190
    Case Western University, 342
    Catalyst, 81
    CA Technologies, 602
    Caterpillar, 128
    Catholic Health Initiatives, 121
    Centers for Disease Control and
    Prevention (CDC), 441
    Changan Ford, 130
    Charter Communications, 7, 82
    Cheesecake Factory, 488
    Chevron, 123
    Chicago Blackhawks, 253
    Chick-fil-A, 130, 289
    China Investment Company (CIC), 127
    Chipotle Mexican Grill, 405–406, 499
    Church of Latter Day Saints, 123
    Cigna, 346
    Cisco Systems, 123, 200, 444, 504, 517
    Citibank, 73
    Citigroup, 134, 490, 549, 653
    citizenM, 22
    Citrix, 373
    Civilian American and European Surface
    Anthropometry Resource Project
    (Caesar), 454
    Cleveland Clinic, 285
    Coca-Cola Company, 50, 89, 103, 127,
    164–165, 167, 189
    Cold Stone Creamery, 130
    Comcast, 82
    Compaq, 222
    Compose, 330
    ConAgra, 161
    Conference Board, 468
    Confinity, 222
    Container Store, 467, 490
    Continental Lite, 191
    Coopers & Lybrand, 333
    Copilot Labs, 391
    Corning, 395
    Costco Wholesale, 121, 211
    Crédit Mobilier, 96
    Credit Suisse Research Institute, 435
    Cumulus Media Inc., 293
    CVS, 121, 201, 205, 287, 395
    CyberCoders, 342
    D
    Daimler, 445, 658
    Dale Carnegie Training, 130
    Dasani, 207
    DaVita Medical Group, 121, 251,
    588, 590
    DDG, 674
    DeepMap, 227
    Deliv Inc., 254
    Dell, 121, 204–205
    Deloitte, 30, 78, 189, 346, 444
    Deloitte & Touche, 437
    Delta Airlines, 5–6, 62, 278
    Department of Commerce, 132
    Department of Defense, 56
    Department of Education, 114–115
    Department of Energy, 98–99
    Department of State, 148
    Department of Transportation, 484, 685
    Department of Veterans Affairs, 576–578
    Deutsche Bank, 217ORGANIZATION INDEX
    IND6 Organization Index
    FatWallet, 665
    Federal Aviation Agency (FAA), 86, 454
    Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 30,
    112–114, 594
    Federal Reserve Bank, 306
    Fédération Internationale de Football
    Association (FIFA), 154–155
    FedEx, 56, 57, 201–202, 488, 633
    FEED, 553, 553–554
    Fender Musical Instruments Corporation,
    184–185
    Fenty Beauty, 158–159
    Fenway Sports Management, 40
    Fiat Chrysler, 177, 381
    Fidelity Investments, 487
    Food and Drug Administration (FDA),
    585, 634
    Ford Motor Co.
    culture of blame at, 539
    customer divisions, 305–306
    driverless cars developed by, 198, 381
    execution strategy by, 210
    focused differentiation by, 208
    joint ventures involving, 130
    matrix structure of, 307
    mindfulness training at, 16
    as multinational corporation, 123
    overseas operations, 127
    psychometric testing by, 549
    statistical techniques used by, 56
    Forever 21, 171
    Forrester Research, 24
    Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts, 660
    Foxconn, 382
    Fox News, 107
    Fyre Fest, 627–628
    G
    Gallup, 421, 427, 471, 490, 493
    Gap Inc., 346, 392, 465
    GE Digital, 330
    Geely, 130
    Genentech, 324, 488, 490
    General Electric (GE), 123, 124, 127,
    217–218, 304, 310, 391, 397, 398,
    504, 662
    General Mills, 16–17
    General Motors
    competition for, 198
    decentralized authority and, 303
    innovation by, 398
    investments by, 381
    joint ventures involving, 130
    leadership of, 4, 11, 16, 19–21
    as multinational corporation, 123
    recalls by, 379
    stockholders of, 80
    Georgia Power, 6
    Gildan Activewear, 124
    GitHub, 602
    Gizmodo, 382
    Glassdoor, 70, 328, 330, 608
    gloStream, 313
    GMinc, 13
    GoDaddy, 645
    The Go Game, 504
    Golden State Warriors, 253, 253
    Goldman Sachs, 16, 30, 97, 134
    Goodwill Industries, 478
    Google
    antitrust lawsuit against, 91
    artificial intelligence and, 264
    brand recognition, 189
    corporate wellness programs at,
    446–447
    Development Dimensions International
    (DDI), 546
    DHL, 644
    Dicks Sporting Goods, 379
    Didi Chuxing, 153–154
    Dignity Health, 121
    Discogs.com, 255
    Discover, 73
    DISH Network, 82
    Diversified Engineering & Plastics
    (DER), 177
    Dove, 596
    Dow Chemical, 103
    DraftKings, 227
    Dribble, 602
    Drug Enforcement Administration
    (DEA), 262
    Dunkin Donuts, 206
    Du Pont, 129, 662
    E
    eBay, 119, 222
    Edward Jones, 324, 345, 488
    Egnyte, 373
    Eileen Fisher, 382
    Eli Lilly, 186
    Embrace Innovations, 674
    EMC, 121
    EndoStim, 310
    Engagement Labs, 607
    Enron, 95, 106
    Enterprise Rent-A-Car, 327
    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),
    27, 92, 585
    Equal Employment Opportunity
    Commission, 336, 337, 356, 433,
    439, 453
    Equifax, 107, 256, 610
    Ernst & Young, 30, 155
    ESPN, 113, 628–629
    Essential, 227
    Estée Lauder, 342, 351
    EthicalSystems.org, 28
    Ethics Resource Center, 93
    Etsy, 194, 203, 312
    European Food Safety Authority, 634
    European Union (EU), 91, 118, 134–135
    Evernote, 192
    Excellence Health Inc., 338
    Exel Logistics, 662
    Expedia, 514
    ExxonMobil, 123, 549
    F
    Fabulus, 251
    Facebook
    board of directors at, 81
    conflict at, 521
    customer views of, 82
    cyberbullying on, 360
    diversity and, 453
    in Internet economy, 200
    live streaming feature, 600
    manager’s behavior and, 382
    media richness of, 587
    misuse of users’ personal data by, 611
    onboarding at, 340
    profits and, 324
    recruitment on, 328, 330, 601, 602
    strategy for, 158
    team building at, 504
    transfer of employees at, 351
    workplace design, 492
    Fair Labor Association (FLA), 642
    discrimination claims against, 437
    diversity and, 453
    driverless cars developed by, 89, 198,
    381
    employee benefits at, 324, 468
    evidence-based decisions by, 251
    functional management at, 13
    gratitude and, 492
    informal learning at, 506
    informational roles at, 17
    in Internet economy, 200
    learning from failure, 66
    organizational structure of, 304
    ranking for employment attractiveness, 30
    rules for being a better manager,
    250, 250
    soft skills valued by, 21
    stretch goals and, 476
    team building at, 504, 513
    on team voice, 520
    Google News, 160
    GoPro, 606
    Green Bridge Growers, 229
    Grey Group, 492
    Groove HQ, 192
    Groupe Point Vision, 232
    GrubHub Seamless, 161
    Guidant Corp., 504
    H
    Haier, 124
    H&M, 634
    Harley-Davidson, 303
    Harrah’s, 252
    Hawker de Havilland, 310
    The Hay-Adams, 84
    Hay Group, 457
    HD Supply Holdings Inc., 107
    Health Canada, 634
    Heart to Heart, 202
    Heineken, 128, 398
    Hertz, 130
    Hewitt Associates, 427
    Hewlett-Packard (HP), 4, 68, 286–287,
    305, 549
    Hi5, 601
    Hilton, 22, 84, 130, 332, 490
    Hitachi, 126
    Hoku Materials, 85
    Hollister, 433
    Home Depot, 207
    Home Mortgage Alliance, 539
    Honda, 128
    Honeywell International, 169,
    209, 391
    Hope Lab, 375
    Hotel Rex, 462
    Houston Astros, 253
    HP Labs, 255
    Hubspot, 482
    Hunks Hauling Junk, 287
    Hyatt, 22, 84, 324
    Hyundai Motor Co., 657–659
    I
    IBM
    annual performance reviews, 640
    artificial intelligence and, 342
    career planning at, 447
    diversity and, 437
    employee benefits at, 248
    family leave policies, 439
    history of, 531
    Institute for Business Value, 472ORGANIZATION INDEX
    Organization Index IND7
    leadership of, 4, 11, 200
    organizational development and, 389
    patents received by, 407
    personality trait analysis by, 336
    Smarter Workforce Institute, 472, 532
    social media policy at, 613
    teams at, 531–532
    IDEO, 396, 397
    iFlipd, 192
    IKEA, 127, 207, 290
    Indeed.com, 602
    Indiana Automotive, 103
    Instagram, 395, 606
    Institute for the Future, 122–123
    Intel Corporation, 16, 57, 121, 123, 200,
    223, 453, 614, 662
    Inter-American Development Bank, 326
    Internal Revenue Service (IRS), 98, 232,
    233, 306
    International Centre for Settlement of
    Investment Disputes, 147
    International Monetary Fund (IMF), 27,
    118, 133, 133
    International Organization for
    Standardization (ISO), 65, 663
    International Red Cross, 123
    ITT, 40, 391
    J
    JAB Holdings, 205
    Jaguar, 130
    Jazz Forest Products, 333
    Jellybooks, 255
    JetBlue, 255
    Jet.com, 121, 227
    Jiffy Lube, 190
    Jimmy John’s, 499
    Jim’s Formal Wear, 477
    Jobbatical, 117
    Jobvite, 487
    John Deere, 645
    Johnny Rockets, 26
    Johnson & Johnson, 346
    Joie de Vivre (JDV), 462
    JPMorgan Case, 30, 97,
    549, 607
    Juniper Networks, 395–396
    Justice Department, 262
    K
    Kaiser Permanente, 372
    Kaplan, 490
    KASO Plastics, 83
    Kauffman Firm, 233
    Kayak, 286
    Keller Williams Realty, 343
    Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), 644
    Kessler Foundation, 436
    Keurig Green Mountain, 205
    Kia Motors, 658, 659
    Kickstarter, 86, 605
    Kimley-Horn, 324
    Kimpton Hotels & Restaurants, 324,
    490, 554
    KKW Beauty, 159
    KLM Royal Dutch Airline, 607
    Kmart, 73, 303
    Kohl’s, 83
    Kontakte, 601
    Korean Air, 521
    KPMG, 4
    Krispy Kreme Doughnuts, 205
    Kronos, 474
    Kylie Cosmetics, 159
    L
    La Boulange, 241
    Lamborghini, 130
    Land Rover, 130
    LEDI Technology, 154
    Lee Spring, 421
    Lego AS, 311
    Lenovo, 531
    Likeable Local, 618, 674
    LinkedIn, 16, 121, 328, 329–330,
    334, 417, 587, 601
    Liquid Comics, 377
    LiveNation, 84
    L.L. Bean, 171
    LobbyFriend, 23
    Lockheed Martin, 4, 637
    L’Oreal, 159, 407
    Lowe’s, 642
    Lucasfilm, 11
    Lucid Software, 491
    Lush Ltd., 208
    LVMH, 158, 159
    Lyft, 20, 199–200, 332, 381
    M
    Macy’s, 83, 193–195, 194, 252, 382
    Major League Baseball (MLB),
    39–40, 253
    Maktoob, 601
    Management Innovation Lab, 61
    Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School,
    379
    Marriott International, 84, 252, 312
    MARS, 181, 459
    Marvel Studios, 395
    Mascoma Savings Bank, 464
    Massage Envy, 130
    MassMutual, 339
    Mattel, 160
    Maverik, 208
    McDonald’s, 50, 82, 206, 303, 439,
    459, 499, 614, 662
    McGraw-Hill Education, 123, 192
    McKennson, 123
    McKinsey & Co., 25, 505
    McKinsey Global Institute, 296
    Mediabistro, 602
    Men’s Wearhouse, 504
    Mercer Consulting, 24
    Messier-Dowty, 310
    MetLife, 453
    Metropolitan Transportation Authority
    (MTA), 276–277
    Mic, 284
    Michelin, 61
    Microsoft
    artificial intelligence and, 262
    brand power of, 189
    check in system at, 346
    competitive advantage for, 200–201
    founder of, 104
    in-house researchers at, 223
    investment in employees at, 324
    learning and development at, 342
    mergers involving, 121
    overseas operations, 123
    recruitment by, 252
    MidwayUSA, 654
    Midwood Ambulance, 595
    Mint, 650
    Mitsubishi, 284, 310
    MLB Advanced Media (MLBAM), 39–40
    MobileEye, 121
    Moes, 406
    Mondelez International, 4
    Monsanto, 96
    Monster.com, 328, 602
    Morgan Stanley, 134
    Mothers Against Drunk Driving, 87
    Motorola, 662
    MuleSoft, 283
    Mylan, 82
    N
    NASA, 636, 637
    National Basketball Association (NBA),
    112, 113, 253, 395
    National Collegiate Athletic Association
    (NCAA), 112–114
    National Education Association, 84
    National Football League (NFL), 253
    National Highway Traffic Safety
    Administration (NHTSA), 633
    National Labor Relations Board (NLRB),
    354, 362, 365
    National Marrow Donor Program
    (NMDP), 647
    National Organization for Women, 87
    National Rifle Association, 87
    National Workrights Institute, 93
    Nature Conservancy, 103
    NEC, 126
    Netflix, 81, 109, 126, 205, 295, 395
    Neuralink, 222
    Neutrogena, 191
    New Belgium Brewery, 290, 382
    New Brunswick Power, 325
    The Newspaper Guild, 84
    New York City Transit Authority
    (NYCTA), 277
    New York Stem Cell Foundation
    (NYSCF), 13–14
    New York University (NYU), 291
    New York Yankees, 253
    Nieman Marcus, 488
    Nike, 11, 16, 30, 112, 113, 294
    Nomadic VR, 227
    Nordstrom, 351, 488, 519, 660
    Norton, 610
    Novartis, 604
    O
    Oakland Athletics, 253
    Occupational Safety and Health
    Administration, 98
    Olympic Regional Development
    Authority, 277
    Open AI, 222
    Optinose, 283
    Oracle, 4, 123, 200
    Orkut, 601
    Oscar, 227
    Outback Steakhouse, 459
    OXO, 293–294
    P
    Pacific Gas & Electric, 477
    Pacific Investment Management
    Company (Pimco), 453
    Palantir Technologies, 81
    Panera Bread, 205, 406
    Papa John’s, 499
    Patagonia, 382, 395
    PathSource, 34
    PayPal, 222, 222
    Peet’s Coffee & Tea, 205
    Pegatron, 382ORGANIZATION INDEX
    IND8 Organization Index
    Treehouse, 43
    TubeMogul, 282, 283
    Turing Pharmaceuticals, 96, 545
    21st Century Fox, 205
    Twitter, 255, 328, 360, 587, 602
    Tyco, 95, 106
    U
    Uber
    business model, 20
    competition for, 153–154, 160
    competitive advantage for, 161,
    199, 200
    driverless cars developed by, 381, 633
    drivers guild, 365
    extrinsic rewards and, 459
    market culture at, 289
    partnerships with, 73
    profit for drivers, 332
    scandal at, 247
    technology and, 230
    Udacity, 227
    Ultimate Software Group Inc., 324, 415,
    439–440
    UnderArmour, 73, 112, 113, 128, 606
    Unilever, 78, 123, 140
    Uniqlo, 634
    United Airlines, 82–83, 278, 295, 685
    United Auto Workers, 84, 362
    UnitedHealth Group, 121, 490
    United Nations, 103–104, 148, 553
    United Technologies, 205
    University College London, 120
    University of Michigan, 398
    UPS, 56, 201, 254, 327, 327, 633,
    638–639
    Uptake, 227
    U.S. Bank, 219
    U.S. Grant, 84
    V
    Vanguard Group, 191
    Vauxhall Motor Cars Ltd., 130
    Venmo, 650
    Verizon, 610
    Virgin Group Ltd., 223, 377, 377, 618
    Visto, 329
    Vitamin Water, 607
    Vodori, 481–482
    VoiceOps, 227
    Volkswagen
    collaboration at, 604
    emissions scandal, 27, 92, 284, 476, 585
    as multinational corporation, 123
    organizational demands at, 445
    promotion of sales, 606
    research and development spending by,
    198
    subsidiaries of, 130
    transfer of employees at, 351
    Volvo, 130, 191
    Vox Media, 227
    Vynamic, 445, 603
    W
    Wagamama, 659
    Walgreens, 202
    Walmart
    acquisitions by, 121
    competition for, 83
    cost-leadership strategy of, 207
    customer views of, 82
    Seven & i Holdings, 124
    Seventh Generation, 382
    Shanghai Automotive Industry Group,
    130
    Sherpa’s Pet Trading Co., 13
    Shuddle, 199, 200
    Siemens, 378, 506
    SinoPec Group, 123
    Slack, 595
    Smithfield, 365
    Snapchat, 173
    Society for Human Resource
    Management, 98, 329, 428, 429
    SolarCity, 222, 222
    Sonic Drive-In, 130
    Sony Corp., 126, 401
    Southwest Airlines, 170, 170–171,
    191, 202, 467, 492, 639, 685
    SpaceX, 171, 222, 222, 224, 224, 395
    Spirit Airlines, 82
    Spotify, 62, 395, 482
    Sprint, 351
    Square, 395
    Starbucks Coffee, 161, 205–207, 240,
    240–241, 382, 439, 472, 499, 524,
    578–579
    StarKist, 298
    Starwood, 84
    State Grid, 123
    Stitch Fix, 395
    Stora Enso, 388, 388
    Strategic Management Society, 190
    Stripe Inc., 230, 233
    StubHub, 84
    Studio 904, 659
    Subaru, 103
    SunTrust Banks Inc., 653
    Sustainability Accounting Standards
    Board, 664
    T
    Taco Bell, 406, 499
    Takata, 632, 633
    TalentNet, 602
    Target, 16, 255, 373, 610, 644
    Tata, 130
    Taxify, 161
    TDIndustries, 570
    Teamsters Union, 84, 362
    Teavana, 241
    Technossus, 595
    Tencent, 395
    Terrible Herbst, 207–208
    Tesco, 596
    Tesla, 89, 179, 179, 198, 222, 222–223,
    381, 474, 678–679
    Texaco, 128
    Texas Instruments, 391
    Theranos Inc., 585
    3M, 476, 662
    TIAA, 444
    TicketMaster, 84
    Time Warner, 207
    Timex, 203, 207
    Tolko Industries Ltd., 647
    TOMS Shoes, 100, 249, 544, 606
    Tornier, 175, 477
    Toronto-Dominion Bank (TD), 607
    Toyota Motor Corp., 123, 177, 193,
    197–198, 198, 379, 381, 656
    Toys R Us, 377, 475
    Trader Joe’s, 123, 161, 660
    Transamerica Center for Retirement
    Studies, 421
    People for the Ethical Treatment
    of Animals (PETA), 87
    PepsiCo, 89, 120, 393, 395, 398,
    437, 564, 634
    Periscope, 600
    PetroChina, 123
    Pew Research Center, 256, 421, 431, 434,
    439, 489, 547
    Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, 185–186, 232, 346
    Phillips 66, 123
    Pier 1, 83
    Pinterest, 328
    Pixar, 67, 224, 271
    Pizza Hut, 50
    Pizza Rock, 489
    Platforms, 200
    PNC, 219
    Pod, 22
    Poland Spring, 207
    Polyvore, 293
    Pony Express, 119
    Porsche, 445
    PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), 262,
    263, 339, 434, 445, 490, 653
    Procter & Gamble, 346, 388,
    391, 549
    Progressive Corporation, 488
    Prudential Financial, 391
    Publix Super Markets, 80, 81, 488
    Q
    Qdoba, 406
    QQ, 601
    Qualcomm, 126
    QuickBooks, 650, 680
    R
    Ralph Lauren, 661
    Red Box, 208
    Reformation, 382
    REI, 43, 490
    Reimer, Alex, 628
    Restaurant Brands International, 123
    The Rittenhouse, 84
    Ritz-Carlton, 207, 658
    River Island, 294
    Robert Half Management Resources, 122
    Rockwell Collins, 205, 310
    Rolls-Royce, 378
    Rotten Robbie, 208
    Royal Dutch Shell, 123, 379
    RTP Company, 83
    S
    SABMiller, 121, 121
    St. Jude’s Research Hospital, 29, 493
    Salary.com, 94
    Salesforce.com, 29, 102, 200, 290,
    324, 465, 493, 554
    Samoa Air, 454
    Samsung, 126, 407
    SAS Institute, 79, 209, 251, 342
    Scripps Health, 326
    Sears, 73–74, 82, 83, 252
    Seasteading Institute, 393
    Secret, 561
    Securities and Exchange Commission
    (SEC), 74, 96, 98, 222, 586, 653
    Sephora, 159
    Service Employees International Union,
    84, 362
    7-Eleven, 124ORGANIZATION INDEX
    Organization Index IND9
    X
    X.co, 222
    Xero, 505
    Xerox Corp., 68
    Y
    Yahoo!, 13, 200, 348
    Yelp, 342
    Yotel, 22
    YouTube, 328, 437, 471
    Z
    Zappos, 45–46, 295,
    296, 320
    Zara, 634
    Zenefits, 284
    Zingerman’s, 430
    Zip2, 222
    Werner Paddles, 83
    Western Electric, 52
    Westinghouse, 504
    Westinghouse Canada, 391
    WhatsApp, 81
    Whirlpool, 127
    White Dog Café, 78
    Whole Foods Market, 121, 191,
    205, 289, 308–309, 389,
    472, 488, 513, 566
    W.L. Gore & Associates, 46, 80, 488
    Woo, 330
    Workday, 324
    World Bank, 133, 133, 136, 138
    WorldCom, 95, 106
    World Economic Forum, 118, 381
    World Health Organization (WHO),
    123
    World Trade Organization (WTO), 86,
    133, 133
    Wyndham, 22
    family leave policies, 439
    innovation by, 161, 395
    low-price approach of, 512
    as multinational corporation, 123
    reactive change by, 379
    revenue growth, 73
    social media policy at, 614
    stockholders of, 79
    training techniques at, 67
    values promoted by, 293
    Walt Disney Company, 30, 40, 205,
    271, 492
    Warby Parker, 249, 382
    Warner Bros., 305
    Washington Post, 395, 614
    Waymo, 633
    The Weather Channel, 62
    Wegmans Food Markets, 324, 325
    Wells Fargo, 77, 82, 219, 233, 318–320,
    453, 607
    Wendy’s, 596GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    Glossary/Subject Index IND11
    A
    ABC Flow Chart software, 681
    Ability tests, 336
    Absenteeism, 429
    Abusive supervision Subordinates’
    perceptions of the extent to which supervisors engage in the sustained display of
    hostile verbal and nonverbal behaviors,
    excluding physical contact, 93
    Accommodating, conflict and, 527
    Accountability Describes expectation
    that managers must report and justify
    work results to the managers above them,
    11, 301
    Achievement, need for, 225, 463
    Acquired needs theory Theory that
    states that there are three needs—
    achievement, affiliation, and power—that
    are the major motives determining people’s
    behavior in the workplace, 463, 463–464
    Acquisitions and mergers, 121, 389
    Action plans Course of action needed
    to achieve a stated goal, 157, 169, 175,
    477
    Active listening The process of actively decoding and interpreting verbal
    messages, 367, 529, 618–619
    ADA. See Americans with Disabilities
    Act
    Adaptive change Reintroduction of a
    familiar practice, 383
    ADEA. See Age Discrimination in
    Employment Act
    Adhocracy culture Type of organizational culture that has an external focus
    and values flexibility, 288, 288–289, 291,
    292, 312
    Adjourning One of five stages of forming a team; the stage in which members of
    an organization prepare for disbandment,
    511
    Administrative management Management concerned with managing the total organization, 47, 48, 49–50
    Adverse impact Effect an organization has when it uses an employment
    practice or procedure that results in unfavorable outcomes to a protected class
    (such as Hispanics) over another group of
    people (such as non-Hispanic whites), 356
    Affective component of an attitude
    The feelings or emotions one has about a
    situation, 417
    Affiliation needs, 463, 464
    Affirmative action The focus on
    achieving equality of opportunity, 357
    Age, in workforce, 433–434
    Age Discrimination in Employment
    Act (ADEA), 355
    Agency shop, 363
    Age stereotypes, 421
    Agreeableness, 225, 410
    AI. See Artificial intelligence
    Alcoholism/alcohol use, 430, 441
    Alcohol tests, 338
    Ambiguity
    role, 443
    tolerance for, 225, 257, 257
    Americans with Disabilities Act
    (ADA) Act that prohibits discrimination
    against people with disabilities, 278, 337,
    355, 436, 500
    Analytical decision-making style,
    258
    Analytics (business analytics) Term
    used for sophisticated forms of business
    data analysis, such as portfolio analysis
    or time-series forecast, 252–254
    Anchoring and adjustment
    bias The tendency to make decisions
    based on an initial figure, 261
    Angel investors Wealthy individuals
    or retired executives who invest in small
    firms, 234
    Antecedents of communication, 615,
    616
    APEC. See Asia-Pacific Economic
    Cooperation
    Arbitration The process in which a
    neutral third party, an arbitrator, listens to
    both parties in a dispute and makes a decision that the parties have agreed will be
    binding on them, 364–365
    Artificial intelligence (AI) The discipline concerned with creating computer
    systems that simulate human reasoning
    and sensation, 25
    decision-making potential of,
    262–263
    emotion analysis with, 415
    example of, 264
    in learning and development, 342
    pros and cons of, 263–264
    recruitment and, 338
    ASEAN. See Association of Southeast
    Asian Nations
    Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
    (APEC), 135
    Assertiveness, 141, 142, 143
    Assessment center Company
    department where management
    candidates participate in activities for a
    few days while being assessed by
    evaluators, 337
    Assisted intelligence, 263
    Association of Southeast Asian
    Nations (ASEAN), 135
    Attainable goals, 172, 172
    Attire, 323
    Attitude Learned predisposition
    toward a given object, 34, 417
    behavior and, 419, 426
    in career readiness, 32–33, 34
    career readiness and, 448–449
    collision between reality and,
    417–418
    components of, 417
    work-related, 426–430
    Attractiveness, 422–423, 423
    Audits Formal verifications of an
    organization’s financial and operational
    systems, 652–653
    Augmented intelligence, 263
    Authenticity, 542
    Authority The right to perform or
    command; also, the rights inherent in a
    managerial position to make decisions,
    give orders, and utilize resources, 301, 539
    centralized, 303
    decentralized, 303
    Authorization cards, 361
    Automated experience, 245
    Autonomous intelligence, 263
    Autonomy, 225, 464–465, 480
    Availability bias Tendency of managers to use information readily available
    from memory to make judgments; they
    tend to give more weight to recent events,
    260
    Avoiding conflict, 527GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    IND12 Glossary/Subject Index
    B
    Baby boomers, 421, 433, 610
    Background information, 333–334
    Balanced scorecard Gives top managers a fast but comprehensive view of the organization via four indicators: (1) customer
    satisfaction, (2) internal processes (3) the
    organization’s innovation and improvement
    activities, and (4) financial measures,
    645–648, 646
    Balance sheet A summary of an organization’s overall financial worth—assets
    and liabilities—at a specific point in time,
    651
    Baldrige Award, 654
    Bank loans, 233–234
    Bargaining power of buyers and
    suppliers, 206
    BARS. See Behaviorally anchored rating
    scale
    Base pay Consists of the basic wage or
    salary paid employees in exchange for doing
    their jobs, 339
    Basic assumptions, 287
    BCG matrix A management strategy
    by which companies evaluate their
    strategic business units on the basis of (1)
    their business growth rates and (2) their
    share of the market, 204, 204–205
    B corporation Also know as a benefit
    corporation, in which the company is legally
    required to adhere to socially beneficial
    practices, such as helping consumers, employees, or the environment, 381–382
    Behavior Actions and judgments, 419
    effect of attitudes and values on, 419
    individual attitudes and, 416–419, 426
    learning organizations and, 67
    perception and, 420–425
    personality and, 410–415
    stress and, 441–447
    values and, 416, 419
    workplace diversity and, 431–439
    work-related attitudes and, 426–430
    Behavioral appraisals, 347
    Behavioral complexity, 537
    Behavioral component of an attitude
    Also known as intentional component, this
    refers to how one intends or expects to behave toward a situation, 417
    Behavioral decision-making style, 258
    Behavioral-description interview
    Type of structured interview in which the interviewer explores what applicants have
    done in the past, 335
    Behavioral leadership approaches
    Attempts to determine the distinctive styles
    used by effective leaders, 550, 550–556
    Behaviorally anchored rating scale
    (BARS) Employee gradations in performance rated according to scales of specific
    behaviors, 347
    Behavioral objectives, 175
    Behavioral science approach Relies
    on scientific research for developing
    theories about human behavior that can
    be used to provide practical tools for
    managers, 48, 54–55
    Behavioral viewpoint Emphasizes
    the importance of understanding human
    behavior and of motivating employees
    toward achievement, 48, 51–55
    Behavior modification, 483
    Benchmarking A way to measure
    something against a standard, the benchmark, 202, 202, 669–670
    Benefits Additional nonmonetary
    forms of compensation, 339, 354, 355
    Best practices A set of guidelines, ethics
    or ideas that represent the most efficient or
    prudent course of action, 670
    Bias
    availability, 260
    commitment, 262
    confirmation, 261
    in decision making, 239
    framing, 261–262
    fundamental attribution bias, 424
    hindsight, 261
    implicit, 422
    information, 239
    negativity, 366
    overconfidence, 261
    representative, 260
    self-serving bias, 424
    sunk-cost, 261
    Big Data Stores of data so vast that
    conventional database management
    systems cannot handle them, 25, 62,
    254–256
    Big Data analytics The process of
    examining large amounts of data of a variety of types to uncover hidden patterns,
    unknown correlations, and other useful
    information, 254–256
    Big Five personality dimensions They are (1) extroversion, (2)
    agreeableness, (3) conscientiousness, (4)
    emotional stability, and (5) openness to
    experience, 225, 410
    Biometric Information Privacy Act, 611
    Bite-size learning, 342
    Board of directors, 79, 81, 106
    Body language, 409, 581, 597
    Bonuses Cash awards given to
    employees who achieve specific
    performance objectives, 295, 488
    Boundaryless organization A fluid,
    highly adaptive organization whose
    members, linked by information technology,
    come together to collaborate on common
    tasks; the collaborators may include competitors, suppliers, and customers, 309–310
    Bounded rationality One type of nonrational decision making; the ability of decision makers to be rational is limited by
    numerous constraints, 244
    Boycotts, 87
    Brainstorming Technique used to help
    groups generate multiple ideas and alternatives for solving problems; individuals in a
    group meet and review a problem to be solved,
    then silently generate ideas, which are collected and later analyzed, 269–270, 270
    Brainwriting, 270
    Brand recognition, 189, 605–606
    Brazil, emerging economy of, 138, 138
    Break-even analysis A way of identifying how much revenue is needed to cover
    the total costs of developing and selling a
    product, 684–686, 685
    Brexit (British exit from EU), 91, 134,
    134, 382
    Bribes, 147–148
    BRICS countries, 138, 138
    Budgets A formal financial projection,
    157, 650–651
    Buffers Administrative changes that
    managers can make to reduce the stressors that lead to employee burnout, 445
    Bullying Repeated mistreatment of one
    or more persons by one or more perpetrators. It’s abusive, physical, psychological,
    verbal, or nonverbal behavior that is
    threatening, humiliating, or intimidating,
    359–360, 359–360, 372GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    Glossary/Subject Index IND13
    Bureaucracy, 50
    Bureaucratic control The use of
    rules, regulations, and formal authority to
    guide performance, 643, 643
    Burnout State of emotional, mental,
    and even physical exhaustion, 442
    Business analytics, 252–254
    Business ethics, 247–248
    Business-level strategy Focuses on
    individual business units or product/service
    lines, 191, 191–192
    Business model Outline of need the
    firm will fill, the operations of the business,
    its components and functions, as well as the
    expected revenues and expenses, 158
    Business plan A document that outlines a proposed firm’s goals, the strategy
    for achieving them, and the standards for
    measuring success, 158–159, 230–231
    Business skills, 549
    Buyers, bargaining power of, 206
    Buzzwords, 585
    C
    CAFTA-DR. See Central America Free
    Trade Agreement
    Canada
    individualism in, 140
    in NAFTA, 134
    tipping customs in, 139
    Career counseling, 447
    Career readiness Represents the extent
    to which you possess the knowledge, skills,
    and attributes desired by employers, 30
    critical thinking/problem solving and,
    180, 272
    cross-cultural awareness and, 117,
    149–150
    development of, 35–36
    emotional regulation and, 449
    levels of, 30, 31
    management of, 37, 37, 69–70,
    671–673
    model of, 30–35, 32–33
    networking skills and, 180, 623–624
    open mind and suspension of judgment
    in, 181
    openness to change and, 402–403
    personal adaptability and, 149, 315
    planning for, 157
    positive approach and, 448–449
    proactive learning orientation and,
    180, 181, 315
    professionalism and work ethic in, 108
    receiving feedback, 366–367
    self-awareness and, 149, 572–573
    strategic thinking and, 213–214
    task-based/functional knowledge and,
    180, 214
    understanding the business and, 180,
    214, 314–315
    Cascading goals Objectives are structured in a unified hierarchy, becoming
    more specific at lower levels of the organization, 176–177
    CA-SuperProject, 683
    Causal attribution The activity of inferring causes for observed behavior, 424
    C corporations, 232
    Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR), 135
    Centralized authority Organizational
    structure in which important decisions are
    made by upper managers—power is concentrated at the top, 303
    Chain of command, 300–301
    Change. See Organizational change
    Change agent A person inside or outside the organization who can be a catalyst
    in helping deal with old problems in new
    ways, 389, 400
    Changing stage of organizational
    change, 384, 384
    Charisma Form of interpersonal attraction that inspires acceptance and
    support, 564
    Charismatic leadership Once
    assumed to be an individual inspirational
    and motivational characteristic of
    particular leaders, now considered part of
    transformational leadership, 564
    Cheating, 27–28, 93
    China
    collectivism in, 140
    emerging economy of, 138, 138
    foreign investments by, 127
    import quotas issued by, 132
    lower labor costs in, 127, 128
    tariff dispute with, 131
    tipping customs in, 139
    Civil Rights Act (1991), 355
    Civil Rights Act, Title VII (1964), 355,
    356, 358, 439
    Clan culture Type of organizational
    culture that has an internal focus and values flexibility rather than stability and
    control, 288, 288, 291
    Classical model of decision making.
    See Rational model of decision making
    Classical viewpoint Emphasized
    finding ways to manage work more efficiently, assumed that people are rational.
    It had two branches—scientific and administrative, 47–50, 48
    Clawbacks Rescinding the tax breaks
    when firms don’t deliver promised jobs, 85
    Climate change Refers to major
    changes in temperature, precipitation,
    wind patterns, and similar matters occurring over several decades, 103–104, 669
    Closed shop, 363
    Closed system A system that has little interaction with its environment, 60
    Cloud computing The storing of software and data on gigantic collections of
    computers located away from a company’s
    principal site, 25, 376
    Coalition tactics, 541
    COBRA. See Consolidated Omnibus
    Budget Reconciliation Act
    Code of ethics A formal, written set
    of ethical standards that guide an organization’s actions, 97–98
    Coercive power One of five sources
    of a leader’s power that results from the
    authority to punish subordinates, 539
    Cognitive abilities, 549
    Cognitive component of an attitude The beliefs and knowledge one
    has about a situation, 417
    Cognitive dissonance Psychological
    discomfort a person experiences between
    his or her cognitive attitude and incomparable behavior, 418–419, 469
    Cognitive empathy, 617
    Cognitive reframing, 418–419
    COLA. See Cost-of-living adjustment
    clause
    Collaboration Act of sharing information and coordinating efforts to achieve a
    collective outcome, 513–514, 527, 529
    Collaborative computing Using
    state-of-the-art computer software and hardware, to help people work better together, 25
    Collective bargaining Negotiations between management and employees regarding disputes over compensation, benefits,
    working conditions, and job security, 354GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    IND14 Glossary/Subject Index
    Collectivism, 140, 141, 142
    College graduates, underemployed,
    437
    Commissions, 488
    Commitment bias, 262
    Common purpose A goal that unifies
    employees or members and gives everyone
    an understanding of the organization’s
    reason for being, 300
    Commonweal organizations, 14
    Communication barriers
    cross-cultural, 595–596
    gender, 598, 598–599
    nonverbal, 596–597, 597
    overview, 592, 592
    personal, 593–595
    physical, 592–593, 593
    Communication The transfer of
    information and understanding from one
    person to another, 582. See also Social
    media
    barriers to, 592, 592–599
    conflict due to failures in, 524
    cultural differences in, 144–145,
    595–596
    empathy in, 581
    formal channels of, 588–589, 589
    gender differences in, 598, 598–599
    in human resource management, 339
    improving effectiveness of,
    615–622
    informal channels of, 589–591
    medium for, 586, 586–587
    in meetings, 591
    nonverbal, 581, 596–597, 597
    process of, 583, 583–585
    social media and, 600–614
    verbal vs. written, 15
    Communities, as stakeholders, 85
    Compassionate empathy, 617
    Compensation Payment comprising
    three parts: wages or salaries, incentives,
    and benefits, 339
    of chief executives, 7
    issues related to, 354, 355, 363–364
    in nursing profession, 371
    types of, 339
    Competence needs, 464
    Competing values framework (CVF),
    287–289, 288
    Competition
    conflict and, 524
    international, 118, 118
    organizational change and, 377
    Competitive advantage The ability
    of an organization to produce goods or
    services more effectively than competitors
    do, thereby outperforming them, 23–24
    cultural differences and, 143–144
    in Internet economy, 200
    strategic management and, 161
    struggle for, 22–23
    sustainable, 196
    Competitors People or organizations
    that compete for customers or resources,
    83, 207
    Complexity, coping with, 538
    Complexity theory The study of how
    order and pattern arise from very complicated, apparently chaotic systems, 60
    Compromising, conflict and, 527
    Conceptual decision-making style,
    258
    Conceptual skills Skills that consist
    of the ability to think analytically, to visualize an organization as a whole and
    understand how the parts work together,
    19–20, 549
    Concurrent control Entails collecting performance information in real
    time, 639
    Concurrent engineering, 309
    Confirmation bias Biased way of
    thinking in which people seek information
    that supports their point of view and discount data that does not, 261
    Conflict Process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed
    or negatively affected by another party,
    521
    constructive, 524–526
    functional vs. dysfunctional, 521
    intergroup, 523–524
    interpersonal, 522
    management of, 389, 522
    methods to handle, 526–527, 527
    multicultural, 524
    nature of, 521
    performance and, 522–523, 523
    personality, 523
    programmed, 525–526
    resistance to change and, 401
    role, 443
    team conflict, 503
    Conglomerate, 304
    Conscientiousness, 225, 410
    Consensus General agreement; group
    solidarity, 269
    Consideration A leadership behavior
    that is concerned with group members’
    needs and desires and that is directed at
    creating mutual respect or trust, 551–552
    Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) (1985), 355
    Consultation, 541
    Contemporary perspective In contrast to the historical perspective, the business approach that includes the systems,
    contingency, and quality-management
    viewpoints, 46, 46, 58
    Content perspectives Also known as
    need-based perspectives; theories that emphasize the needs that motivate people, 461
    Deci and Ryan’s self-determination
    theory, 464–465
    Herzberg’s two-factor theory,
    466–468, 467–468
    Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, 52, 461,
    461–462
    McClelland’s acquired needs theory,
    463, 463–464
    Context The situational or environmental characteristics that influence our
    behavior, 150
    Contingency approach to organization design Approach that says organizations are more effective when they are
    structured to fit the demands of the situation and when the structure is aligned
    with the strategies and internal actions of
    the organization, 311–313
    Contingency factors, 481
    Contingency leadership model A
    model that determines if a leader’s style is
    (1) task-oriented or (2) relationshiporiented and if that style is effective for the
    situation at hand, 557–559, 558
    Contingency planning Also known as
    scenario planning and scenario analysis;
    the creation of alternative hypothetical but
    equally likely future conditions, 201–202
    Contingency viewpoint The belief
    that a manager’s approach should vary
    according to—that is, be contingent on—the
    individual and the environmental situation,
    58, 61–62
    Continuous improvement Ongoing,
    small, incremental improvements in all
    parts of an organization, 285, 658–659
    Contract negotiation, 362
    Control charts A visual statistical tool
    used for quality-control purposes, 636–638,
    637GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    Glossary/Subject Index IND15
    Control/control systems. See also Total quality management (TQM)
    areas of, 641–643
    balanced scorecard and, 645–648, 646
    barriers to, 665–666
    effective management of, 664–666
    financial tools for, 650–653, 652
    keys to success, 664–665
    levels of, 641
    need for, 632–635, 633, 635
    productivity and, 633, 667, 667–670,
    669
    strategy map and, 648, 649
    types of, 639–640
    Controlling Monitoring performance,
    comparing it with goals, and taking corrective action as needed, 10, 632, 632
    Control process steps The four steps
    in the process of controlling: (1) establish
    standards; (2) measure performance; (3)
    compare performance to standards; and
    (4) take corrective action, if necessary,
    635, 635–639
    Control standard The first step in the
    control process; the performance standard
    (or just standard) is the desired performance level for a given goal, 635–636
    Coordinated effort The coordination
    of individual efforts into a group or
    organizationwide effort, 300
    Core influence tactics, 542
    Core self-evaluation (CSE) Represents a broad personality trait comprising
    four positive individual traits: (1) selfefficacy, (2) self-esteem, (3) locus of control, and (4) emotional stability, 411–413
    Core values statement, 69–70,
    165–166
    Corporate culture Set of shared
    taken-for-granted implicit assumptions
    that a group holds and that determines
    how it perceives, thinks about, and reacts
    to its various environments, 69–70, 283–
  62. See also Organizational culture
    Corporate governance The system
    of governing a company so that the interests of corporate owners and other stakeholders are protected, 106–107
    Corporate-level strategy Focuses on
    the organization as a whole, 191, 191
    Corporate loitering policy, 578–579
    Corporate social responsibility
    (CSR) The notion that corporations are
    expected to go above and beyond following
    the law and making a profit, to take actions that will benefit the interests of society as well as of the organization, 100
    climate change and, 103–104
    effects of, 104, 105
    philanthropy and, 104
    pyramid of, 100, 101
    viewpoints on, 100–102
    Corporate wellness programs,
    446–447, 500–501
    Corporation An entity that is separate
    from its owners, meaning it has its own
    legal rights, independent of its owners—it
    can sue, be sued, own and sell property,
    and sell the rights of ownership in the
    form of stocks, 232–233
    Corruption, 147–148
    Cost-focus strategy One of Porter’s
    four competitive strategies; keeping the
    costs, and hence prices, of a product or
    service below those of competitors and to
    target a narrow market, 207–208
    Cost-leadership strategy One of
    Porter’s four competitive strategies; keeping the costs, and hence prices, of a product or service below those of competitors
    and to target a wide market, 207
    Cost-of-living adjustment (COLA)
    clause Clause in a union contract that
    ties future wage increases to increases in
    the cost of living, 364
    Counterproductive work behaviors
    (CWB) Types of behavior that harm employees and the organization as a whole, 430
    Counterthrusters, 388
    Countertrading Bartering goods for
    goods, 129
    Creativity, 226, 375, 398
    Credibility, 594
    Crime, white-collar, 95–97
    Crises, responses to organizational,
    294
    Critical thinking, 180, 272
    Cross-cultural awareness The ability to operate in different cultural settings,
    117, 122–123, 149–150
    Cross-cultural issues
    communication, 595–596
    relationship building, 524
    Cross-functional teams A team that is
    staffed with specialists pursuing a common
    objective, 507
    Crowdfunding Raising money for a
    project or venture by obtaining many small
    amounts of money from many people (“the
    crowd”), 86, 605
    Crowd investing Allows a group of
    people—the crowd—to invest in an entrepreneur or business online, 234
    Crowdsourcing The practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content
    by soliciting contributions from a large
    group of people and especially from the
    online community, such as Facebook and
    Twitter users, 396, 605
    CSR. See Corporate social responsibility
    Cultural area, control of, 643
    Cultural differences. See also Diversity
    communication and, 144–145, 595–596
    competitive advantage and, 143–144
    conflict and, 524
    GLOBE project and, 141–143,
    142–143
    interpersonal space and, 144, 145
    language and, 144
    law and political stability and,
    146–148
    meetings and, 146
    national culture and, 140
    overview of, 139–140
    religion and, 146, 147
    stereotypes and, 420–422
    time orientation and, 145
    tipping customs and, 139
    in workforce, 435
    Culture The shared set of beliefs, values, knowledge, and patterns of behavior
    common to a group of people, 140, 595.
    See also Organizational culture
    business travel and, 117
    communication issues and, 595–596
    dimensions of, 141–143, 142–143
    high-context, 140
    importance of, 291, 291–292
    of innovation, 395
    low-context, 140
    transmission of, 290–291
    Current reality assessment Assessment to look at where the organization
    stands and see what is working and what
    could be different so as to maximize efficiency and effectiveness in achieving the
    organization’s mission, 193–194
    Curse of knowledge, 241
    Customer divisions Divisional structures in which activities are grouped
    around common customers or clients,
    305–306, 306GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    IND16 Glossary/Subject Index
    Customer satisfaction, 646–647
    Customers Those who pay to use an
    organization’s goods or services, 82
    balanced scorecard and, 646–647
    collaboration with, 398
    complaints by, 230
    foreign, 123
    organizational change and, 381–382
    performance appraisals by, 347
    responsiveness to, 23
    social responsibility effect on, 105
    as stakeholders, 82
    CVF. See Competing values framework
    CWB. See Counterproductive work
    behaviors
    Cyberbullying, 360
    Cybercrime, 256, 610
    Cyberloafing Is using the Internet at
    work for personal use, 608, 608
    D
    Databases Computerized collections
    of interrelated files, 25
    Data centers, 255
    Data-mining techniques, 254
    Deadlines, 177
    Decentralized authority Organizational structure in which important
    decisions are made by middle-level and
    supervisory-level managers—power is
    delegated throughout the organization,
    303
    Decentralized control An approach
    to organizational control that is characterized by informal and organic structural
    arrangements, the opposite of bureaucratic
    control, 643
    Decision A choice made from among
    available alternatives, 240
    Decisional roles Managers use information to make decisions to solve problems or take advantage of opportunities.
    The four decision-making roles are entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator, 17, 18
    Decision-making styles Styles that
    reflect the combination of how an individual perceives and responds to information,
    257, 257–259
    know your own, 259
    types of, 258
    value orientation and tolerance for
    ambiguity and, 257, 257
    Decision making The process of identifying and choosing alternative courses of
    action, 240
    analytics and, 252–254
    barriers to, 260
    bias in, 239, 260–262
    Big Data and, 254–256
    decentralization of, 635
    ethical, 242, 247–249, 249
    evidence-based, 250–252, 251
    group, 265–271
    knowledge and, 241
    methodology for, 273
    nonrational model of, 244–246
    rational model of, 242, 242–244, 244
    strategies for, 239
    systems of, 241
    Decision tree Graph of decisions and
    their possible consequences, used to create
    a plan to reach a goal, 248–249, 249
    Decoding barriers, 592
    Decoding Interpreting and trying to
    make sense of a message, 584
    Defensive communication Form of
    communication that is either aggressive,
    attacking, angry, passive, or withdrawing,
    615, 616
    Defensiveness Occurs when people
    perceive they are being attacked or threatened, 367
    Defensive strategy Also called retrenchment strategy, one of three grand
    strategies, this strategy involves reduction
    in the organization’s efforts, 203–204, 204
    Delegation The process of assigning
    managerial authority and responsibility to
    managers and employees lower in the hierarchy, 302
    Deming management Ideas proposed by W. Edwards Deming for making
    organizations more responsive, more democratic, and less wasteful, 655
    Demographic forces Influences on
    an organization arising from changes in
    the characteristics of a population, such as
    age gender, or ethnic origin, 90, 380, 381
    Demographics, 90
    Demotion, 351
    Departmental goals, 176
    Detached listening style, 619
    Development process, 341, 341–343,
    490
    Devil’s advocacy Taking the side of
    an unpopular point of view for the sake of
    argument, 270, 271, 525–526
    Diagnosis Analyzing the underlying
    causes, 242, 390
    Dialectic method Role-playing two
    sides of a proposal to test whether it is
    workable, 270, 525
    Diet & Health: With Key to the Calories
    (Peters), 423
    Differential rate system, 48
    Differentiation The tendency of the
    parts of an organization to disperse and
    fragment, 313
    Differentiation strategy One of Porter’s four competitive strategies; offering
    products or services that are of unique and
    superior value compared with those of competitors but to target a wide market, 207
    Digital communication. See Social
    media
    Directive decision-making style, 258
    Discipline, employee, 351
    Discrimination. See Workplace discrimination
    Dismissal, employee, 351–353, 352
    Disparate treatment Results when
    employees from protected groups (such as
    disabled individuals) are intentionally
    treated differently, 356
    Disruptive innovation Process by
    which a product or service takes root initially in simple applications at the bottom
    of a market and then relentlessly moves
    up market, eventually displacing established competitors, 23, 377
    Distributive justice Reflects the perceived fairness of how resources and rewards are distributed or allocated, 471
    Distributors People or organizations
    that help another organization sell its
    goods and services to customers, 84
    Diversification Strategy by which a
    company operates several businesses in
    order to spread the risk, 205
    Diversity All the ways people are unlike
    and alike—the differences and similarities
    in age, gender, race, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, capabilities, and socioeconomic background, 431. See also Cultural
    differences
    barriers to, 437–439
    in financial services industry, 452–454
    layers of, 432–433
    managing for, 26
    stereotypes and, 420–422
    trends in workforce diversity, 433–437GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    Glossary/Subject Index IND17
    Diversity climate Is a subcomponent
    of an organization’s overall climate and is
    defined as the employees’ aggregate “perceptions about the organization’s diversityrelated formal structure characteristics
    and informal values,” 438
    Diversity wheel, 432, 432
    Divisional goals, 176
    Divisional structure The third type of
    organizational structure, whereby people
    with diverse occupational specialties are put
    together in formal groups according to
    products and/or services, customers and/or
    clients, or geographic regions, 305–306, 306
    Division of labor Also known as work
    specialization; arrangement of having
    discrete parts of a task done by different
    people. The work is divided into particular
    tasks assigned to particular workers, 300
    Dominating, conflict and, 527
    Downsizing, 351
    Downward communication Communication that flows from a higher level
    to a lower level, 588, 589
    Dress code, 323
    Driverless cars, 89, 198, 381
    Drug tests, 338, 338
    Drug use, 430, 441, 533
    Dumping The practice of a foreign company’s exporting products abroad at a lower
    price than the price in the home market—or
    even below the costs of production—in order
    to drive down the price of a competing
    domestic product, 132
    Dunning-Kruger effect A cognitive
    bias whereby people who are incompetent
    at something are unable to recognize their
    own incompetence. And not only do they
    fail to recognize their incompetence,
    they’re also likely to feel confident that
    they actually are competent, 573, 631
    Dysfunctional conflict Conflict that
    hinders the organization’s performance or
    threatens its interests, 521
    E
    EAPs. See Employee assistance programs
    E-business Using the Internet to facilitate every aspect of running a business, 24
    E-commerce Electronic commerce—
    the buying and selling of goods or services
    over computer networks, 24, 119
    Economic community. See Trading bloc
    Economic forces General economic conditions and trends—unemployment, inflation,
    interest rates, economic growth—that may
    affect an organization’s performance, 88
    Economy, global, 120–121
    EEO Commission. See Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
    Effectiveness To achieve results, to
    make the right decisions, and to successfully carry them out so that they achieve
    the organization’s goals, 5–6
    Efficiency To use resources—people,
    money raw materials, and the like—wisely
    and cost effectively, 5
    effectiveness vs., 5–6
    importance of, 24
    social responsibility and, 103
    Ego, 594
    E-learning, 342
    Electronic brainstorming Technique
    in which members of a group come together
    over a computer network to generate ideas
    and alternatives, 270
    E-mail, 611, 612
    Embargoes A complete ban on the
    import or export of certain products, 132
    Emotional empathy, 617
    Emotional intelligence The ability to
    cope, to empathize with others, and to be
    self-motivated, 414, 414–415
    Emotional regulation, 449
    Emotional stability Is the extent to
    which people feel secure and unworried and
    how likely they are to experience negative
    emotions under pressure, 225, 410, 413
    Empathy Represents the ability to recognize and understand another person’s
    feelings and thoughts, 415, 526, 581, 617,
    617–618
    Employee assistance programs
    (EAPs) Host of programs aimed at
    helping employees to cope with stress,
    burnout, substance abuse, health-related
    problems, family and marital issues, and
    any general problems that negatively influence job performance, 446
    Employee engagement A mental
    state in which a person performing a work
    activity is fully immersed in the activity,
    feeling full of energy and enthusiasm for
    the work, 426, 426–427
    Employee Polygraph Protection Act
    (1988), 334
    Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), 355
    Employees. See also Human resource
    (HR) management
    demotion of, 351
    discipline for, 351
    dismissal of, 351–353, 352
    firing of, 351–352, 352
    foreign, 123
    GPS tracking of, 680
    health and safety of, 354
    insubordination of, 74
    layoff of, 351
    legislation and regulations protecting,
    355
    noncompete agreements and, 373
    as owners, 80
    perceptions, 471
    performance feedback for, 345–349,
    349
    predicting future needs for, 328
    promotion of, 295, 350
    resistance to change in, 399,
    399–401
    social responsibility effect on, 105
    as stakeholders, 79, 81
    transfer of, 351
    voice of, 472
    Employment interviews, 69–70, 273,
    323, 334–336
    Employment tests Tests legally considered to consist of any procedure used
    in the employment selection process,
    336–338
    Empowering leadership A form of
    leadership that represents the extent to
    which a leader creates perceptions of
    psychological empowerment in others,
    552–554
    Empowerment
    leadership and, 552–554
    quality and, 657
    of teams, 308
    Enacted values Values and norms
    actually exhibited in the organization,
    287
    Encoding barriers, 592
    Encoding Translating a message into
    understandable symbols or language,
    584
    Enterprise resource planning
    (ERP) Software information systems for
    integrating virtually all aspects of a business, 669GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    IND18 Glossary/Subject Index
    Entrepreneur Someone who sees a new
    opportunity for a product or service and
    launches a business to try to realize it, 222
    characteristics of, 224–226, 225
    examples of, 221–222, 235–236
    types of, 222–223
    Entrepreneurship The process of taking risks to try to create a new enterprise,
    222–224
    global importance of, 226–228
    innovation and, 226, 227
    job creation and, 227
    self-employment vs., 223–224
    standard of living and, 228
    Epiphany, 245, 246
    The Episodic Career (Chideya), 332
    Equal employment opportunity, 355,
    356
    Equal Employment Opportunity
    (EEO) Commission U.S. panel whose
    job it is to enforce anti-discrimination and
    other employment related laws, 336, 337,
    356, 433, 439, 453
    Equality, 526
    Equal Pay Act (1963), 355
    Equity theory In the area of employee
    motivation, the focus on how employees
    perceive how fairly they think they are
    being treated compared with others,
    469–472, 470
    ERISA. See Employee Retirement
    Income Security Act
    ERP. See Enterprise resource planning
    Escalation of commitment
    bias When decision makers increase
    their commitment to a project despite negative information about it, 262
    Espoused values Explicitly stated
    values and norms preferred by an organization, 286–287
    Esteem needs, 461, 461
    Ethical behavior Behavior that is accepted as “right” as opposed to “wrong”
    according to those standards, 93, 98
    Ethical climate A term that refers to
    employees’ perceptions about the extent to
    which work environments support ethical
    behavior, 77, 97
    Ethical dilemma A situation in which
    you have to decide whether to pursue a
    course of action that may benefit you or
    your organization but that is unethical or
    even illegal, 92, 95
    Ethical leadership Is directed by
    respect for ethical beliefs and values for
    the dignity and rights of others, 553
    Ethical/legal issues
    abusive behavior, 93
    airline accommodation for overweight
    individuals, 454
    approaches to, 95
    cheating, 27–28, 93–94
    corporate loitering policy, 578–579
    emotional support animals, 278–279
    employee firing, 407
    employee theft, 93
    GPS tracking of employees, 680
    in human resource management,
    354–360, 355, 358
    insubordinate employees, 74
    lying on resume, 333
    for managers, 27–28
    marijuana use, 533
    misusing company time, 93
    noncompete agreements, legality of, 373
    pharmaceutical profits, 185–186
    postponement of presentations, 41
    Qatar hosting 2022 World Cup,
    154–155
    selling bank accounts to students, 219
    socializing outside work hours, 320
    social media posts, 628–629
    student loan forgiveness, 114–115
    violating corporate Internet policies, 94
    white-collar crime and, 95–97
    workplace wellness programs, 500–501
    Ethics Standards of right and wrong
    that influence behavior, 93
    in business, 247–248
    codes of, 97–98
    in consumer behavior, 109
    corporate governance and, 106
    in decision making, 242, 247–249, 249
    leadership and, 567, 567
    methods to promote, 97–99
    moral development and, 96–97
    overview of, 93–94
    social responsibilities and, 100–105
    strategies for being more ethical,
    108–109
    values and, 94
    Ethics officers Individuals trained in
    matters of ethics in the workplace, particularly about resolving ethical dilemmas, 248
    Ethnocentric managers Managers
    who believe that their native country, culture, language, and behavior are superior
    to all others, 124–125
    Ethnocentrism The belief that one’s
    native country, culture, language, abilities,
    and/or behavior are superior to those of
    another culture, 437, 595
    European Union (EU) Union of 28
    trading partners in Europe, 135
    Brexit (British exit from EU), 91, 134,
    134, 382
    economic integration of, 91
    imports by, 118
    Evaluation
    of organizational development, 390
    in rational model of decision making,
    243
    Everybody’s Business: The Unlikely Story
    of How Big Business Can Fix the World
    (Miller & Parker), 78
    Evidence-based decision making,
    250–252, 251
    Evidence-based management
    Translation of principles based on best evidence into organizational practice, bringing
    rationality to the decision-making process,
    62, 250, 250–256, 645
    Exchange, 541
    Exchange rates The rate at which the
    currency of one area or country can be
    exchanged for the currency of another’s,
    136–137, 137
    Execution: The Discipline of Getting Things
    Done (Bossidy and Charan), 209
    Execution Using questioning, analysis,
    and follow-through in order to mesh strategy
    with reality, align people with goals, and
    achieve the results promised, 209, 209–212
    Exit interview Is a formal conversation
    between a manager and a departing employee to find out why he or she is leaving
    and to learn about potential problems in
    the organization, 353
    Expatriates People living or working
    in a foreign country, 148, 524
    Expectancy The belief that a particular level of effort will lead to a particular
    level of performance, 474
    Expectancy theory Theory that suggests that people are motivated by two
    things: (1) how much they want something
    and (2) how likely they think they are to
    get it, 473–475, 474
    Expertise, 245, 604–605
    Expert power One of five sources of a
    leader’s power, resulting from specialized
    information or expertise, 539
    Exporting Producing goods domestically and selling them outside the country,
    129, 129GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    Glossary/Subject Index IND19
    Expropriation A government’s seizure of
    a domestic or foreign company’s assets, 147
    External audits Formal verification by
    outside experts of an organization’s financial accounts and statements, 653
    External communication Communication between people inside and outside
    an organization, 589
    External dimensions of diversity Human differences that include an element of
    choice; they consist of the personal characteristics that people acquire, discard, or
    modify throughout their lives, 433
    External locus of control, 226, 413
    External recruiting Attracting job applicants from outside the organization,
    329–330, 330
    External stakeholders People or
    groups in the organization’s external environment that are affected by it, 80, 82
    in general environment, 87–91
    in task environment, 82–87
    Extinction The weakening of behavior
    by ignoring it or making sure it is not reinforced, 483, 484
    Extrinsic reward The payoff, such as
    money, that a person receives from others
    for performing a particular task, 459
    Extroversion, 225, 410
    Eye contact, 596
    F
    Face-to-face interactions, 128, 509,
    590–591
    Facial expressions, 596–597
    Failure and mistakes, 395, 401
    Fair Labor Standards Act Legislation
    passed in 1938 that established minimum
    living standards for workers engaged in
    interstate commerce, including provision of
    a federal minimum wage, 354
    Fair Minimum Wage Act (2007), 355
    Fairness, 95, 350
    Family demands, 438–439,
    443–444, 444
    Family & Medical Leave Act (1993), 355
    Feedback Information about the reaction of the environment to the outputs that
    affect the inputs, 59, 59, 584
    in communication process, 583, 584
    control function of, 634
    in goal-setting theory, 477
    job design and, 480
    organizational change and, 387
    in organizational development, 390
    receiving, 366–367
    on teams, 515–516
    Feedback barriers, 592
    Feedback control Amounts to collecting performance information after a task
    or project is done, 639–640
    Feedforward control Focuses on preventing future problems, 639
    Femininity vs. masculinity, 141
    Fertility rates, 90
    Financial area, control of, 643
    Financial capital
    access to, 127
    innovation and, 398
    Financial institutions, as stakeholders,
    86
    Financial literacy, 653
    Financial management, tools for,
    650–653, 652
    Financial statements Summary of
    some aspect of an organization’s financial
    status, 651–652, 652
    Firings, employee, 351–352, 352
    First impressions, 281, 409
    First-line managers One of four managerial levels; they make short-term operating decisions, directing the daily tasks of
    nonmanagerial personnel, 12–13, 167, 168
    Fit, 191, 314–315, 517. See also Person–
    organization (PO) fit
    Fixed budgets Allocation of resources
    on the basis of a single estimate of costs, 651
    Flat organization Organizational
    structure with few or no levels of middle
    management between top managers and
    those reporting to them, 46, 300
    Flexible budgets, 651
    Flexible workplace, 490
    Flex-time, 490
    Flourishing Represents the extent to
    which our lives contain PERMA resulting
    in “goodness…growth, and resilience,” 491
    Flowcharts A useful graphical tool for
    representing the sequence of events required to complete a project and for laying
    out “what-if” scenarios, 681–682, 682
    Focused-differentiation strategy One
    of Porter’s four competitive strategies; offering
    products or services that are of unique and
    superior value compared to those of competitors and to target a narrow market, 208, 208
    Followers, 570–571
    FOMO Fear of missing out or of being
    out of touch with something happening in
    your social network, 608–609, 624
    Forced ranking performance review
    systems Performance review systems
    whereby all employees within a business
    unit are ranked against one another, and
    grades are distributed along some sort of
    bell curve, like students being graded in a
    college course, 348
    Force-field analysis A technique to
    determine which forces could facilitate a
    proposed change and which forces could
    act against it, 387–388
    Forcing, conflict and, 527
    Forecast A vision or projection of the
    future, 200–202
    Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
    (1978) Act that makes it illegal for
    employees of U.S. companies to make “questionable” or “dubious” contributions to political decision makers in foreign nations, 148
    Formal communication channels Communications that follow the
    chain of command and are recognized as
    official, 588–589, 589
    Formal group A group, headed by a
    leader, that is established to do something
    productive for the organization, 506
    Formal statements, 293
    Forming The first of the five stages of
    forming a team, in which people get oriented and get acquainted, 510
    For-profit organizations, 14, 298
    Four management functions The
    management process that “gets things
    done”: planning, organizing, leading, and
    controlling, 9
    Framing bias The tendency of decision makers to be influenced by the way a
    situation or problem is presented to them,
    261–262
    Franchising A form of licensing in
    which a company allows a foreign company to pay it a fee and a share of the
    profit in return for using the first company’s brand name and a package of materials and services, 129–130GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    IND20 Glossary/Subject Index
    Free trade The movement of goods
    and services among nations without political or economic obstruction, 131
    Fringe benefits. See Benefits
    Full-range leadership Approach that
    suggests that leadership behavior varies
    along a full range of leadership styles,
    from take-no-responsibility (laissez-faire)
    “leadership” at one extreme through transactional leadership, to transformational
    leadership at the other extreme, 563
    Functional conflict Conflict that benefits the main purposes of the organization and serves its interests, 521
    Functional knowledge, 180, 214
    Functional-level strategy Applies to
    the key functional departments or units
    within the business units, 191, 192
    Functional manager Manager who is
    responsible for just one organizational
    activity, 13
    Functional structure The second type
    of organizational structure, whereby people
    with similar occupational specialties are
    put together in formal groups, 305, 305
    Fundamental attribution bias Tendency whereby people attribute another
    person’s behavior to his or her personal
    characteristics rather than to situational
    factors, 424
    Future orientation, 141, 143
    G
    Gainsharing The distribution of savings or “gains” to groups of employees
    who reduce costs and increase measurable
    productivity, 488
    Gantt charts A kind of time schedule—
    a specialized bar chart that shows the relationship between the kind of work tasks
    planned and their scheduled completion
    dates, 683, 683–684
    GDP. See Gross domestic product
    Gender
    communication differences and, 598,
    598–599
    pay inequality and, 356, 371, 434
    traits and, 545–547
    in workforce, 434–435
    Gender egalitarianism, 141, 142
    General and Industrial Management
    (Fayol), 50
    General environment Also called
    macroenvironment; in contrast to the task
    environment, it includes six forces: economic, technological, sociocultural, demographic, political-legal, and international,
    87–91
    Generalized self-efficacy Individuals’ perception of their ability to perform
    across a variety of different situations,
    225, 411–412
    General manager Manager who is responsible for several organizational activities, 13–14
    General partnership, 232
    Generational differences, communication and, 594–595
    Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act, 500
    Gen X, 595
    Gen Y. See Millennials
    Gen Z. See Millennials
    Geocentric managers Managers who
    accept that there are differences and similarities between home and foreign personnel and practices and that they should use
    whatever techniques are most effective, 125
    Geographic divisions Divisional
    structures in which activities are grouped
    around defined regional locations, 306
    Gestures, 597
    Gig economy, 332, 661
    Givebacks Negotiation tactic in which
    the union agrees to give up previous wage
    or benefit gains in return for something
    else, 364
    Glass ceiling The metaphor for an invisible barrier preventing women and minorities from being promoted to top
    executive jobs, 435
    Global economy The increasing
    tendency of the economies of the world to
    interact with one another as one market
    instead of many national markets, 120–
    121
    Globalization The trend of the world
    economy toward becoming a more interdependent system, 118
    competition and, 118, 118
    cultural awareness and, 117, 122–123,
    149–150
    managing for, 26–27
    productivity and, 669
    Global management
    attitudes and, 124–125
    benefits of learning about, 123–124
    BRICS countries, 138, 138
    cross-cultural awareness and, 117,
    122–123, 149–150
    cultural differences and, 139–148
    electronic commerce, 119
    exchange rates and, 136–137, 137
    expansion methods and, 126–130, 127
    expatriates and, 148
    global competition, 118, 118
    global economy, 120–121
    international markets, growing, 126–130
    megamergers and, 121
    minifirms and, 121
    most favored nation trading status
    and, 136
    organizations promoting trade and,
    133, 133
    trade issues and, 131–138
    trading blocs and, 134–136, 135
    travel issues and, 117
    Global mind-set Your belief in your
    ability to influence dissimilar others in a
    global context, 549
    Global outsourcing Also called offshoring; use of suppliers outside the
    United States to provide labor, goods, or
    services, 128–129
    Global village The “shrinking” of time
    and space as air travel and the electronic
    media have made it easier for the people
    around the globe to communicate with
    one another, 119
    Global warming One aspect of climate change, refers to the rise in global
    average temperature near the Earth’s surface, caused mostly by increasing concentrations in the atmosphere of greenhouse
    gases, such as carbon emissions from fossil fuels, 103–104
    GLOBE project A massive and ongoing cross-cultural investigation of nine cultural dimensions involved in leadership
    and organizational processes, 141–143,
    142–143
    Goal displacement The primary goal
    is subsumed to a secondary goal, 266
    Goals Also known as objective; a specific
    commitment to achieve a measurable result
    within a stated period of time, 169, 477
    cascading, 176–177
    identifying, 624
    long-term, 169, 170, 494
    organizational, 295
    setting, 157, 177, 475–477, 631GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    Glossary/Subject Index IND21
    short-term, 169, 170–171, 495
    SMART, 157, 172–173, 177, 494
    strategies for achievement, 495
    types of, 169–173
    Goal-setting theory Employeemotivation approach that employees can
    be motivated by goals that are specific
    and challenging but achievable, 475–477
    Government regulators Regulatory
    agencies that establish ground rules under
    which organizations may operate, 86
    Grand strategies, 194, 203–205, 217
    Grapevine The unofficial communication system of the informal organization,
    590
    Gratitude, 491–492
    Great Recession (2007-2009), 78, 88
    Greenfield venture A foreign subsidiary that the owning organization has
    built from scratch, 130
    Grievance Complaint by an employee
    that management has violated the terms
    of the labor-management agreement, 364
    Gross domestic product (GDP), 668,
    668
    Group cohesiveness A “we feeling”
    that binds group members together, 511
    Group decision making. See also
    Decision making
    advantages of, 265
    characteristics of, 267–268
    consensus and, 269
    disadvantages of, 265–266
    guidelines for, 268
    problem-solving techniques for,
    269–271
    Group Two or more freely interacting
    individuals who share collective norms,
    share collective goals, and have a common identity, 505. See also Teams
    demands of, 444–445
    formal vs. informal, 506
    managing conflict in, 521–527
    size of, 267
    stages of development for, 510,
    510–512
    teams vs, 505
    Groupthink A cohesive group’s blind
    unwillingness to consider alternatives.
    This occurs when group members strive
    for agreement among themselves for the
    sake of unanimity and avoid accurately
    assessing the decision situation, 265–267,
    266, 524
    Groupthink (Janis), 266
    Group training, 340
    Growth strategy One of three grand
    strategies, this strategy involves expansion—
    as in sales revenues, market share, number
    of employees, or number of customers or
    (for nonprofits) clients served, 203, 204
    H
    Hacking, 256
    Halo effect An effect in which we form
    a positive impression of an individual
    based on a single trait, 422–423
    Happiness, managing for, 28–29
    Hawthorne effect Employees work
    harder if they receive added attention, if
    they think managers care about their welfare and if supervisors pay special attention to them, 52
    Hawthorne studies, 52
    Health Insurance Portability &
    Accountability Act (HIPAA) (1996),
    355, 500
    Hero A person whose accomplishments
    embody the values of the organization, 290
    Heuristics Strategies that simplify the
    process of making decisions, 260
    Hierarchy culture Type of organizational culture that has an internal focus
    and values stability and control over flexibility, 288, 289, 291
    Hierarchy of authority Also known
    as chain of command; a control mechanism for making sure the right people do
    the right things at the right time, 300–301
    Hierarchy of needs theory Psychological structure proposed by Maslow whereby
    people are motivated by five levels of needs:
    (1) physiological, (2) safety, (3) love, (4)
    esteem, and (5) self-actualization, 461
    background of, 52
    explanation of, 461, 461–462
    High-context culture Culture in
    which people rely heavily on situational
    cues for meaning when communicating
    with others, 140
    High-control situations, 558, 558
    High-end products, 129
    High-school dropouts, 437
    High-touch jobs, 12
    Hindsight bias The tendency of people to view events as being more predictable than they really are, 261
    HIPAA. See Health Insurance Portability & Accountability Act
    Hiring decisions
    ethics screening and, 97
    social media and, 323, 601–603
    soft skills and, 336
    Historical perspective In contrast to
    the contemporary perspective, the view of
    management that includes the classical,
    behavioral, and quantitative viewpoints,
    46, 46, 47, 48
    Hofstede model of four cultural
    dimensions Identifies four dimensions
    along which national cultures can be
    placed: (1) individualism/collectivism, (2)
    power distance, (3) uncertainty avoidance,
    and (4) masculinity/femininity, 140–141
    Holistic hunch, 245
    Holistic wellness program Program
    that focuses on self-responsibility, nutritional awareness, relaxation techniques,
    physical fitness, and environmental awareness, 446
    Hollow structure Often called network structure; structure in which the organization has a central core of key
    functions and outsources other functions
    to vendors who can do them cheaper or
    faster, 309, 309–310
    Holocracy, 45–46, 296
    Horizontal communication Communication that flows within and between work
    units; its main purpose is coordination, 589
    Horizontal design Arrangement in
    which teams or workgroups, either temporary or permanent, are used to improve
    collaboration and work on shared tasks
    by breaking down internal boundaries,
    307–309, 308
    Horizontal loading, 479
    Horizontal specialization, 299
    Horn-and-halo effect, 422
    Hostile environment, 358, 439
    Hot, Flat, and Crowded (Friedman), 28
    HR management. See Human
    resources management
    Human capital Economic or productive
    potential of employee knowledge, experience, and actions, 325–326, 371, 398, 490GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    IND22 Glossary/Subject Index
    Humane orientation, 141, 143
    Human relations movement The
    movement that proposed that better
    human relations could increase worker
    productivity, 48, 52–53
    Human resource (HR) management The activities managers perform
    to plan for, attract, develop, and retain a
    workforce, 324–326
    compensation and benefits and, 339
    controls used in, 642
    employee selection and, 333–338
    innovation and, 398
    labor-management issues for,
    361–365, 363
    legal issues for, 354–360, 355, 358
    organizational change and, 382
    orientation, training, and development and, 340–343
    performance appraisal and, 344,
    344–349, 349
    planning and, 326–328
    promotions, transfers, discipline, and
    dismissals, 350–353
    recruitment and, 329–332, 330, 338
    strategic planning and, 325, 325
    Human resource inventory A report
    listing an organization’s employees by
    name, education, training, languages, and
    other important information, 328
    Human skills Skills that consist of the
    ability to work well in cooperation with
    other people to get things done, 10, 20–21
    Humility, 569–570
    Hurricane Harvey (2017), 201, 201–202
    Hygiene factors Factors associated
    with job dissatisfaction—such as salary,
    working conditions, interpersonal relationships, and company policy—all of which
    affect the job context or environment in
    which people work, 467
    I
    Identity theft A violation of privacy in
    which thieves hijack your name and identity and use your good credit rating to get
    cash or buy things, 611
    iGrafx software, 681
    Imitability (in VRIO framework), 199, 199
    Immigration Reform & Control Act
    (1986), 355
    Implementation
    in evidence-based decision making,
    251–252
    in rational model of decision making,
    243
    Implicit bias Is the attitudes or beliefs
    that affect our understanding, actions, and
    decisions in an unconscious manner, 422
    Importing Buying goods outside the
    country and reselling them domestically, 128
    Import quotas A trade barrier in the
    form of a limit on the numbers of a product that can be imported, 131–132, 132
    Improvement orientation, 658–659
    Incentives, 60, 339
    Income statement Summary of an
    organization’s financial results—revenues
    and expenses—over a specified period of
    time, 651–652, 652
    An Inconvenient Truth (Gore), 28
    Incremental budgeting Allocating
    increased or decreased funds to a department by using the last budget period as a
    reference point; only incremental changes in
    the budget request are reviewed, 650–651
    India
    beverage market in, 120
    emerging economy of, 138, 138
    middle class growth in, 127
    offshoring to, 128
    start-ups in, 68
    Individual approach One of four
    approaches to solving ethical dilemmas;
    ethical behavior is guided by what will
    result in the individual’s best long-term
    interests, which ultimately are in everyone’s self-interest, 95
    Individual goals, 176
    Individualism, 140
    Individual productivity, 670
    Industrial engineering, 47, 49
    Industrial psychology, 51
    Influence tactics Are conscious efforts
    to affect and change behaviors in others,
    540–541, 540–542
    Informal communication channels Communication that develops outside the formal structure and does not
    follow the chain of command, 589–591
    Informal group A group formed by
    people seeking friendship that has no officially appointed leader, although a leader
    may emerge from the membership, 506
    Informal learning, 506
    Informational area, control of,
    642–643
    Informational roles Managers as
    monitors, disseminators, and spokespersons, 17, 18
    Information bias, 239
    Information oversimplification, 587
    Information processing, 593–594
    Information technology. See also
    Technology
    managing for, 24–25
    productivity and, 669
    Information technology application
    skills The extent to which you can effectively use information technology and learn
    new applications on an ongoing basis, 24–25
    Ingratiation, 541, 542
    In-group collectivism, 141, 142
    In-group exchange, 568
    Initiating-structure leadership A
    leadership behavior that organizes and defines—that is, “initiates the structure for”—
    what employees should be doing to
    maximize output, 551
    Innovation Introduction of something
    new or better, as in goods or services, 24,
  63. See also Organizational change
    balanced scorecard and, 647–648
    controls to increase, 634
    crowdsourcing and, 605
    culture and, 395
    culture of, 375
    disruptive, 23, 377
    entrepreneurship and, 226, 227
    focus of, 393–394
    human capital and, 398
    impact of failure on, 395
    most innovative companies, 395
    resources and, 398
    strategic planning and, 161
    structure and processes for, 395–398
    types of, 392, 392–393
    Innovation strategy Grows market
    share or profits by innovating improvements in products or services, 203
    Innovation system A coherent set of
    interdependent processes and structures
    that dictates how the company searches
    for novel problems and solutions, synthesizes ideas into a business concept and
    product designs, and selects which projects
    get funded, 394, 394–398
    Innovative change The introduction
    of a practice that is new to the organization, 383, 384
    The Innovator’s Dilemma (Christensen),
    377GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    Glossary/Subject Index IND23
    Inputs The people, money, information,
    equipment, and materials required to produce an organization’s goods or services,
    59, 59, 386
    In Search of Excellence (Peters), 44
    Insider trading The illegal trading of
    a company’s stock by people using confidential company, 96, 247
    Inspirational appeals, 541
    Instability, international, 146–147
    Institutional collectivism, 141, 142
    Institutional power, 463
    Instrumentality The expectation that
    successful performance of the task will
    lead to the outcome desired, 474
    Integrated product development, 309
    Integrating, conflict and, 527
    Integration The tendency of the parts
    of an organization to draw together to
    achieve a common purpose, 313
    Integrity tests, 337
    Intelligence, emotional, 414, 414–415
    Interactional justice Relates to the
    “quality of the interpersonal treatment
    people receive when procedures are implemented,” 471
    Intergroup conflict, 523–524
    Internal audits A verification of an organization’s financial accounts and statements by the organization’s own
    professional staff, 653
    Internal business perspective, 647
    Internal dimensions of diversity
    Differences that exert a powerful,
    sustained effect throughout every stage
    of people’s lives, 432–433
    Internal locus of control, 226, 413
    Internal recruiting Hiring from the
    inside, or making people already employed by the organization aware of job
    openings, 329, 330
    Internal stakeholders Employees,
    owners, and the board of directors, if any,
    79–81, 80
    International forces Changes in the
    economic, political, legal, and technological global system that may affect an organization, 91
    International management. See
    Global management
    Internet of Things (IoT), 89
    Interpersonal conflict, 522
    Interpersonal roles Of the three types
    of managerial roles, the roles in which
    managers interact with people inside and
    outside their work units. The three interpersonal roles include figurehead, leader,
    and liaison activities, 17, 18
    Interpersonal skills, 549
    Interpersonal space, 144, 145
    Intervention Interference in an attempt
    to correct a problem, 390
    Interviews, employment, 69–70,
    273, 323, 334–336
    Intrapreneur Someone who works
    inside an existing organization who sees
    an opportunity for a product or service
    and mobilizes the organization’s resources
    to try to realize it, 222–223
    Intrinsic reward The satisfaction, such
    as a feeling of accomplishment, a person
    receives from performing a task, 459
    Intuition Making a choice without the
    use of conscious thought or logical inference, 245–246
    Involved listening style, 618–619
    IoT. See Internet of Things
    ISO 9000 series Quality-control procedures companies must install—from purchasing to manufacturing to inventory to
    shipping—that can be audited by independent quality-control experts, or “registrars,” 65, 663
    ISO 14000 series Set of qualitycontrol procedure that extends the concept
    of the ISO 9000 series, identifying standards for environmental performance, 663
    It’s All Politics (Reardon), 286
    J
    Jargon Terminology specific to a particular profession or group, 585
    Job analysis The determination of the
    basic elements of a job, 327
    Job characteristics model The job
    design model that consists of five core job
    characteristics that affect three critical
    psychological states of an employee that
    in turn affect work outcomes—the employee’s motivation, performance, and satisfaction, 479, 479–482
    Job description A summary of what
    the holder of the job does and how and
    why he or she does it, 327
    Job design The division of an organization’s work among its employees and
    the application of motivational theories to
    jobs to increase satisfaction and performance, 478
    fitting jobs to people, 478–479
    fitting people to jobs, 478
    job characteristics model, 479,
    479–482
    Job diagnostic survey, 481
    Job enlargement Increasing the
    number of tasks in a job to increase variety and motivation, 478–479
    Job enrichment Building into a job
    such motivating factors as responsibility,
    achievement, recognition, stimulating
    work, and advancement, 479
    Job performance. See Performance
    Job posting, 329
    Jobs, effect of outsourcing on,
    128–129
    Job satisfaction The extent to which
    one feels positive or negative about various aspects of one’s work, 382, 428
    Job security, 401
    Job specification Description of the
    minimum qualifications a person must
    have to perform the job successfully, 327
    Jointly set objectives, 174, 174–175
    Joint venture Also known as a strategic alliance; a U.S firm may form a joint
    venture with a foreign company to share
    the risks and rewards of starting a new enterprise together in a foreign country, 130
    Judgement, communication and, 594
    Justice approach One of four
    approaches to solving ethical dilemmas;
    ethical behavior is guided by respect for
    impartial standards of fairness and equity,
    95
    Justice theory, 469, 471–473
    K
    Kaizen Is a Japanese philosophy of
    small continuous improvement that seeks
    to involve everyone at every level of the organization in the process of identifying opportunities and implementing and testing
    solutions, 658–659GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    IND24 Glossary/Subject Index
    Knowledge
    access to, 89
    in career readiness, 31, 32, 69
    as competitive advantage, 378
    decision making and, 241
    learning organizations and, 66–67
    sharing, 506
    task-based/functional, 180, 214
    Knowledge management Implementation of systems and practices to increase
    the sharing of knowledge and information
    throughout an organization, 25
    Knowledge worker Someone whose
    occupation is principally concerned with
    generating or interpreting information, as
    opposed to manual labor, 11, 326
    L
    Labor abuses, 148
    Labor costs, multinationals and, 127
    Labor-management issues
    arbitration and, 364–365
    compensation and, 363–364
    contract negotiation and, 362
    grievance procedures and, 364–365
    mediation and, 364
    union formation and, 361–362
    union security and workplace types
    and, 362, 363
    Labor unions Organizations of employees formed to protect and advance their
    members’ interests by bargaining with
    management over job-related issues, 361
    collective bargaining by, 362
    compensation issues and, 363–364
    disputes between management and,
    364–365
    functions of, 361
    modern, 361
    as stakeholders, 84–85
    Laissez-faire leadership A form of
    leadership characterized by a general failure to take responsibility for leading, 556
    Language differences, 144
    Lateral thinking, 214
    Law of effect Behavior with favorable
    consequences tends to be repeated, while
    behavior with unfavorable consequences
    tends to disappear, 483
    Layoffs, 351
    Leader–member exchange (LMX)
    model of leadership Model of leadership that emphasizes that leaders have different sorts of relationships with different
    subordinates, 568–569
    Leader-member relations, 557, 558
    Leadership The ability to influence
    employees to voluntarily pursue organizational goals, 536
    behavioral approaches to, 550, 550–556
    characteristics of, 536, 537
    empowering, 552–553
    ethical, 553
    followers and, 570–571
    full-range, 563
    global, 538, 547–548
    humility and, 569–570
    influence and, 540–541, 540–542
    integrated model of, 542–543, 543
    leader–member exchange, 568–569
    management vs., 536–538
    passive, 555–556, 556
    power sources for, 538–539
    relationship-oriented, 551–556
    servant, 554–555, 555
    situational approaches to, 557–562
    skills needed for, 548, 549
    strategies for competency development, 535
    task-oriented, 550–551
    trait approaches to, 544–549
    transformational, 563–567, 567
    Leadership coaching Enhancing a
    person’s abilities and skills to lead and to
    help the organization meet its operational
    objectives, 536
    Leading Motivating, directing, and otherwise influencing people to work hard to
    achieve the organization’s goals, 10, 410,
    632, 632
    Lean medium, 587
    Lean Six Sigma Quality-control
    approach that focuses on problem solving
    and performance improvement—speed with
    excellence—of a well-defined project, 65, 662
    Learned helplessness The debilitating lack of faith in your ability to control
    your environment, 411
    Learning, 341, 341–343, 490, 506,
    647–648
    Learning goal orientation Sees goals
    as a way of developing competence through
    the acquisition of new skills, 476, 477
    Learning objectives, 175
    Learning organization An organization that actively creates, acquires, and
    transfers knowledge within itself and is
    able to modify its behavior to reflect new
    knowledge, 66–68, 67
    Legal issues. See Ethical/legal issues
    Legends, 294
    Legitimate power One of five sources
    of a leader’s power that results from formal positions with the organization, 539
    Legitimating tactics, 541
    LGBTQ A widely recognized acronym to
    represent lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning or queer, 89, 435–436
    Licensing Company X allows a foreign
    company to pay it a fee to make or distribute X’s product or service, 129
    Limited liability company (LLC) A
    hybrid structure that combines elements
    of sole proprietor, partnership, and corporation, 233
    Limited partnership, 232
    Line managers Managers who have
    the authority to make decisions and usually have people reporting to them, 303
    Linguistic style A person’s characteristic speaking patterns—pacing, pausing, directness, word choice, and use of
    questions, jokes, stories, apologies, and
    similar devices, 599
    Listening skills, 367, 529, 581, 590,
    594, 618–619
    LLC. See Limited liability company
    LMX model. See Leader–member
    exchange model of leadership
    Local communities, as stakeholders, 85
    Locus of control Measure of how
    much people believe they control their fate
    through their own efforts, 226, 413
    Loitering policy, 578–579
    Long-term goals Tend to span 1 to 5
    years and focus on achieving the strategies identified in a company’s strategic
    plan, 169, 170, 494
    Love needs, 461, 461
    Low-context culture Culture in which
    shared meanings are primarily derived
    from written and spoken words, 140
    Low-control situations, 558, 558–559
    Lying, 333
    M
    Machiavellianism A cynical view of
    human nature and condoning opportunistic and unethical ways of manipulating
    people, putting results over principles, 545GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    Glossary/Subject Index IND25
    Macroenvironment In contrast to the
    task environment, it includes six forces:
    economic, technological, sociocultural, demographic, political-legal, and international, 87–91
    Maintenance role Relationship-related
    role consisting of behavior that fosters
    constructive relationships among team
    members, 518, 518
    Management The pursuit of organizational goals efficiently and effectively by
    integrating the work of people through
    planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the organization’s resources, 4, 5
    areas of, 12, 13–14
    evidence-based, 62, 250, 250–256, 645
    keys to success, 674–675
    leadership vs., 536–538
    levels of, 11–13, 12
    organization types and, 14
    origins of modern management, 44
    perspectives of, 46, 46
    for productivity, 667, 667–670, 669
    rewards of practicing, 8
    rewards of studying, 7–8
    Management by exception Control
    principle that states that managers should
    be informed of a situation only if data show
    a significant deviation from standards, 638
    Management by objectives (MBO)
    Four-step process in which (1) managers
    and employees jointly set objectives for the
    employee, (2) managers develop action
    plans, (3) managers and employees periodically review the employee’s performance,
    and (4) the manager makes a performance appraisal and rewards the employee
    according to results, 173–176, 175
    cascading objectives in, 176–177
    deadlines and, 177
    elements of, 174–176
    types of objectives in, 175
    Management process, 9, 9
    Management science Sometimes
    called operations research; branch of
    quantitative management; focuses on using mathematics to aid in problem solving
    and decision making, 48, 56–57
    Management theory
    administrative management, 47, 48,
    49–50
    behavioral science viewpoint, 54–55
    behavioral viewpoint, 51–55
    classical viewpoint, 47–50, 48
    contingency viewpoint, 58, 61–62
    evidence-based, 62
    human relations movement, 52–53
    learning organization, 66–68, 67
    management science, 56–57
    operations management, 57
    perspectives on, 46, 46
    quality-management viewpoint, 58,
    63–65
    quantitative viewpoints, 48, 56–57
    reasons to study, 44–45
    scientific management, 47–49, 48
    systems viewpoint, 58, 59–60
    Managerial change, 405–406
    Managerial leadership The process
    of influencing others to understand and
    agree about what needs to be done and
    the process of facilitating individual and
    collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives, 537–538
    Managers
    challenges facing, 22–29
    communication channels and, 588–591
    expatriate, 148
    functions of, 9–10
    international, 124–125
    leaders vs., 536–538
    line, 303
    multiplier effect and, 6
    organizational change and behavior
    of, 382
    rewards for, 6–7
    roles of, 15–17, 18, 67–68
    skill requirements for, 19–21
    stress created by, 444–445
    thoughtfulness of, 493
    valued traits for, 21
    Man’s Search for Meaning (Frankl), 493
    Maquiladoras Manufacturing plants
    allowed to operate in Mexico with special
    privileges in return for employing Mexican
    citizens, 127
    Marijuana, 89, 90, 338, 533
    Market culture Type of organizational
    culture that has a strong external focus and
    values stability and control, 288, 289, 291
    Markets
    access to new markets, 126–127
    change in, 381–382
    Marriage rates, 90
    Masculinity vs. femininity, 141
    Matrix structure Fourth type of
    organizational structure, which combines
    functional and divisional chains of
    command in a grid so that there are two
    command structures—vertical and horizontal, 306–307, 307
    MBO. See Management by objectives
    Meaningfulness The sense of “belonging to and serving something that you believe is bigger than the self,” 28–29, 78, 493
    Means-end chain A hierarchy of
    goals; in the chain of management (operational, tactical, strategic), the accomplishment of low-level goals are the means
    leading to the accomplishment of highlevel goals or ends, 169
    Measurable goals, 172
    Mechanistic organization Organization in which authority is centralized,
    tasks and rules are clearly specified, and
    employees are closely supervised, 312, 312
    Media richness Indication of how well
    a particular medium conveys information
    and promotes learning, 586, 586–587
    Mediation The process in which a neutral third party, a mediator, listens to both
    sides in a dispute, makes suggestions, and
    encourages them to agree on a solution, 364
    Meditation, 16, 17, 403
    Medium The pathway by which a message travels, 584
    Medium barriers, 592
    Meetings, 146, 591
    Megamergers, 121
    Men. See Gender
    Mentor An experienced person who
    provides guidance to someone new in the
    work world, 8, 36, 631
    Mercosur, 135
    Mergers and acquisitions, 121, 389
    Message, 583, 583, 619
    Mexico
    collectivism in, 140
    imports from, 128
    maquiladoras in, 127
    masculinity in, 141
    in NAFTA, 134
    reduction of immigration from, 431
    Microaggressions Acts of unconscious
    bias; include a number of seemingly tiny but
    repeated actions, like interrupting others,
    mispronouncing or mistaking someone’s
    name, and avoiding eye contact, 608–609
    Microlearning Also called bite-size
    learning, which segments learning into
    bite-size content, enabling a student to
    master one piece of learning before advancing to anything else, 342GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    IND26 Glossary/Subject Index
    Microsoft Project, 683
    Microsoft Word, 681
    Middle managers One of four managerial levels; they implement the policies
    and plans of the top managers above them
    and supervise and coordinate the activities
    of the first-line managers below them, 12,
    167, 168, 176
    Millennials
    on business ownership, 158
    communication with, 595
    happiness at work, 417
    job market and, 332
    learning opportunities desired by, 66,
    490
    lodging sector marketing toward, 22
    management of, 78
    market preferences of, 382
    overseas employment for, 122
    password use by, 610
    racially diverse, 431
    search for meaning, 78
    technological adoption by, 376
    on work–life balance, 487, 489
    on workplace benefits, 342
    Mindfulness The awareness that
    emerges through paying attention on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally to the unfolding of experience
    moment by moment, 16–17, 367, 403,
    535, 617, 624
    Mindlessness Is a state of reduced attention expressed in behavior that is rigid,
    or thoughtless, 594
    Mind-set, global, 549
    Minifirms, 121
    Minority dissent Dissent that occurs
    when a minority in a group publicly opposes the beliefs, attitudes, ideas, procedures, or policies assumed by the majority
    of the group, 268
    Mission An organization’s purpose or
    reason for being, 164
    learning prior to job interview, 69
    strategic management and, 162–164
    Mission statements Statement that
    expresses the purpose of the organization,
    162–163, 163, 164, 193
    Mistakes and failure, 395, 401
    Modeling, predictive, 254
    Modular structure Seventh type of organizational structure, in which a firm assembles product chunks, or modules,
    provided by outside contractors, 310
    Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair
    Game (Lewis), 253
    Monochronic time The standard kind
    of time orientation in U.S. business; a
    preference for doing one thing at a time,
    145
    Moral development, ethics and,
    96–97
    Moral-rights approach One of four
    approaches to solving ethical dilemmas;
    ethical behavior is guided by respect for the
    fundamental rights of human beings, 95
    Most favored nation This trading
    status describes a condition in which a
    country grants other countries favorable
    trading treatment such as the reduction of
    import duties, 136
    Motion studies, 48
    Motivating factors Factors associated
    with job satisfaction—such as achievement, recognition, responsibility, and
    advancement—all of which affect the job
    content or the rewards of work performance, 467
    Motivating potential score (MPS), 481
    Motivation Psychological processes
    that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior, 458–459, 458–460
    to be manager, 29
    compensation and rewards as,
    459–460, 487–493
    content perspectives on, 461–468
    fast-food industry, 498–500
    importance of, 460
    inspirational, 564–565
    intrinsic, 464
    job design perspectives on, 478–482
    for job performance, 458–460
    management by objectives and, 173–176
    managing for, 457
    model of, 458, 458–459
    nonmonetary methods for, 489–493
    process perspectives of, 469–477
    reinforcement perspectives on, 483–486
    on teams, 516
    MPS. See Motivating potential score
    Multicultural conflict, 524
    Multicultural leadership, 549
    Multinational corporation A business firm with operations in several countries, 123
    expansion and, 126–130, 127
    Multinational organization A nonprofit organization with operations in several countries, 123
    Multiplier effect, 6
    Multitasking, 15, 16
    Mutual-benefit organizations, 14,
    298
    Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, 337
    Myths, 294
    N
    NAFTA. See North American Free
    Trade Agreement
    Narcissism A self-centered perspective,
    feelings of superiority, and a drive for personal power and glory, 358, 545, 594
    National Labor Relations Act, 365
    National Labor Relations Board
    (NLRB) Legislated in 1935, U.S. commission that enforces procedures whereby
    employees may vote to have a union and
    for collective bargaining, 354, 362, 365
    Natural capital The value of natural
    resources, such as topsoil, air, water, and
    genetic diversity, which humans depend
    on, 103–104
    Need-based perspectives. See Content perspectives
    Needs Physiological or psychological
    deficiencies that arouse behavior, 461
    Negative reinforcement Process of
    strengthening a behavior by withdrawing
    something negative, 483, 484
    Negativity bias, 366
    Negotiated labor–management
    contracts, 362
    Networking, 180, 189, 281, 623–624
    Network structure, 309
    New entrants, threats to, 206
    Niche products, 376
    NLRB. See National Labor Relations
    Board
    Noise Any disturbance that interferes
    with the transmission of a message, 54,
    583, 584
    Noncompete agreements, legality
    of, 373
    Nondefensive communication
    Communication that is assertive, direct,
    and powerful, 615–616, 616
    Nondiscrimination, 350GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    Glossary/Subject Index IND27
    Nondisparagement agreement Is
    a contract between two parties that prohibits one party from criticizing the other; it
    is often used in severance agreements to
    prohibit former employees from criticizing
    their former employers, 353
    Nonmanagerial employees Those
    who either work alone on tasks or with
    others on a variety of teams, 13
    Nonprofit organizations, 14, 123, 298
    Nonrational models of decision
    making Models of decision-making
    style that explain how managers make decisions; they assume that decision making
    is nearly always uncertain and risky, making it difficult for managers to make optimum decisions, 244–246
    Nonverbal communication Messages in a form other than the written or
    the spoken word, 581, 596–597, 597
    Norming One of five stages of forming
    a team; stage three, in which conflicts are
    resolved, close relationships develop, and
    unity and harmony emerge, 510–511
    Norms General guidelines or rules of
    behavior that most group or team members follow, 518–519
    North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) A trading bloc consisting of the United States, Canada, and
    Mexico, 134–135, 198
    Nudges, 60
    O
    OB. See Organizational behavior
    Objective Also known as goal; a specific commitment to achieve a measurable
    result within a stated period of time, 169
    jointly set, 174, 174–175
    types of, 175
    Objective appraisals Also called results appraisals; performance evaluations
    that are based on facts and that are often
    numerical, 346
    Obliging, conflict and, 527
    Observable artifacts, 286
    Occupational Safety and Health Act
    (OSHA), 354, 355
    OD. See Organizational development
    Office design, organizational culture
    and, 294–295
    Offshoring Also called global outsourcing; use of suppliers outside the United
    States to provide labor, goods, or services,
    128
    Off-the-job training, 342, 343
    Onboarding Programs that help employees to integrate and transition to new
    jobs by making them familiar with corporate policies, procedures, culture, and politics by clarifying work-role expectations
    and responsibilities, 340, 429
    On-the-job training, 36, 342
    Open mind, 181, 529, 631
    Openness to change, 402–403
    Openness to experience, 225, 410,
    526
    Open offices, 54–55, 55
    Open shop, 363
    Open system System that continually
    interacts with its environment, 60
    Operant conditioning, 483
    Operating plan Typically designed for
    a 1-year period, this plan defines how a
    manager will conduct his or her business
    based on the action plan; the operating
    plan identifies clear targets such as revenues, cash flow, and market share, 169
    Operational control Monitoring performance to ensure that operational
    plans—day-to-day goals—are being implemented and taking corrective action as
    needed, 641
    Operational goals Goals that are set
    by and for first-line managers and are concerned with short-term matters associated
    with realizing tactical goals, 169, 170–171
    Operational planning Determining
    how to accomplish specific tasks with
    available resources within the next 1-week
    to 1-year period; done by first-line managers, 162, 167–168, 168
    Operations management A branch
    of quantitative management; focuses on
    managing the production and delivery of
    an organization’s products or services
    more effectively, 48, 57
    Operations research (OR), 56
    Opportunities Situations that present
    possibilities for exceeding existing goals,
    242
    controls to detect, 634
    Organic organizations Organization
    in which authority is decentralized, there
    are fewer rules and procedures, and networks of employees are encouraged to cooperate and respond quickly to unexpected
    tasks, 312, 312
    Organization (in VRIO framework),
    199, 199
    Organization A group of people who
    work together to achieve some specific purpose. A system of consciously coordinated
    activities or forces of two or more people,
    5, 298
    boundaryless, 309–310
    common elements of, 300–303
    formal and informal aspects of, 416, 416
    for-profit, 298
    learning, 66–68, 67
    multinational, 123
    mutual-benefit, 298
    nonprofit, 298
    people-focused, 43
    promotion of ethics within, 97–99
    responsibilities of, 78, 100–105
    revitalization of, 389
    strategic management and size of, 192
    types of, 14
    virtual, 310
    Organizational behavior (OB) Behavior that is dedicated to better
    understanding and managing people at
    work, 416
    Organizational change. See also Innovation
    adapting to, 632–633
    conflict and, 524
    coping with, 538
    external forces of, 380, 381–382
    internal forces of, 380, 382
    managerial change and, 405–406
    mechanisms of, 293–296
    nature of, 376–382
    proactive, 378, 379–380, 399
    reactive, 378, 379, 399
    resistance to, 399, 399–401
    systems approach to, 385–388, 386
    technology and, 380, 381
    as threat, 383–384, 399–401
    Organizational citizenship behaviors
    Employee behaviors that are not directly
    part of employees’ job descriptions—that
    exceed their work-role requirements—such
    as constructive statements about the department, 429
    Organizational commitment Behavior that reflects the extent to which an employee identifies with an organization and
    is committed to its goals, 428GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    IND28 Glossary/Subject Index
    Organizational culture Sometimes
    called corporate culture; system of shared
    beliefs and values that develops within an
    organization and guides the behavior of
    its members, 283–284
    change in, 293–296, 524
    drivers of, 284
    fitting into, 281, 292
    flow of, 283
    importance of, 234–235, 291,
    291–292
    learning prior to job interview, 69–70
    levels of, 286–287
    organizational structure and,
    285, 304
    strategy implementation and,
    282–285
    stress and, 445
    transmission of, 290–291
    types of, 287–289, 288
    Organizational design Creating the
    optimal structures of accountability and
    responsibility that an organization uses to
    execute its strategies, 304
    boundaryless, 309–310
    contingency approach to, 311–313
    horizontal, 307–309, 308
    importance of, 234–235
    traditional, 304–307, 304–307
    Organizational development
    (OD) Set of techniques for implementing planned change to make people and
    organizations more effective, 389
    applications of, 389
    effectiveness of, 391
    example of, 391
    process of, 390, 390–391
    Organizational dimensions of diversity, 433
    Organizational objectives, 176
    Organizational opportunities Environmental factors that the organization
    may exploit for competitive advantage, 197
    Organizational socialization The
    process by which people learn the values,
    norms, and required behaviors that permit
    them to participate as members of an organization, 290–291
    Organizational strengths The skills
    and capabilities that give the organization
    special competencies and competitive advantages in executing strategies in pursuit
    of its mission, 197
    Organizational structure A formal
    system of task and reporting relationships
    that coordinates and motivates an organization’s members so that they can work together to achieve the organization’s goals,
    285, 296
    contingency design of, 311–313
    factors in design of, 311
    hollow, 309, 309–310
    horizontal design of, 307–309, 308
    for innovation, 395–398
    modular, 310
    organizational culture and, 285, 304
    organization chart and, 298–299,
    299
    organization types and, 298
    traditional design of, 304–307,
    304–307
    virtual, 310
    Organizational threats Environmental factors that hinder an organization’s
    achieving a competitive advantage, 197
    Organizational weaknesses The
    drawbacks that hinder an organization in
    executing strategies in pursuit of its mission, 197
    Organization chart Box-and-lines illustration of the formal relationships of
    positions of authority and the organization’s official positions or work specializations, 298–299, 299
    Organizing Arranging tasks, people,
    and other resources to accomplish the
    work, 9–10, 632, 632
    Orientation Process of helping a newcomer fit smoothly into the job and the
    organization, 340–341
    OSHA. See Occupational Safety and
    Health Act
    Out-group exchange, 568
    Outputs The products, services, profits,
    losses, employee satisfaction or discontent,
    and the like that are produced by the
    organization, 59, 59, 387
    Outsourcing Using suppliers outside
    the company to provide goods and services,
    128, 661
    effects of, 128–129
    quality improvement and, 661
    Overconfidence bias Bias in which
    people’s subjective confidence in their decision making is greater than their objective
    accuracy, 261
    Overdelivering, 281
    Overloading, 587
    Owners All those who can claim the
    organization as their legal property, 79–80
    P
    Paraphrasing Form of communication
    that occurs when people restate in their words
    the crux of what they heard or read, 584
    Parochialism A narrow view in which
    people see things solely through their own
    perspective, 124
    Partnership A relationship between
    two or more persons who join to carry on
    a trade or business, 80, 232
    Passive leadership A form of leadership behavior characterized by a lack of
    leadership skills, 542, 543, 555–556, 556
    Passive listening style, 619
    Patents Licenses with which the government authorizes a person or company
    to exclude others from making using or
    selling an invention for a time, 227, 407
    Path-goal leadership model Approach that holds that the effective leader
    makes available to followers desirable rewards in the workplace and increases
    their motivation by clarifying the paths, or
    behavior, that will help them achieve those
    goals and providing them with support,
    559–560, 559–561
    Patient Protection & Affordable Care
    Act (2010), 354, 355, 436
    Pay for knowledge Situation in
    which employees’ pay is tied to the number of job-relevant skills they have or academic degrees they earn, 488
    Pay for performance Situation in
    which an employee’s pay is based on the
    results he or she achieves, 488
    PDAs. See Personal digital assistants
    PDCA cycle A Plan-Do-Check-Act
    cycle using observed data for continuous
    improvement of operations, 655, 657
    Peak: How Great Companies Get Their
    Mojo from Maslow (Conley), 462
    Peer pressure, 401
    Peer-to-peer networks, 506
    People-focused organizations, 43
    People orientation, 656–657
    Perception Awareness; interpreting
    and understanding one’s environment, 420
    casual attribution and, 424
    distortions in, 420–424
    four steps in process of, 420, 420
    halo effect and, 422–423
    recency effect and, 424
    self-fulfilling prophecy and, 424–425GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    Glossary/Subject Index IND29
    Performance
    controls to monitor, 632–640
    effect of conflict on, 522–523, 523
    evaluation of, 175–176, 429
    job satisfaction and, 428
    standards of, 636–638
    Performance appraisal Assessment
    of an employee’s performance and the provision of feedback, 345
    management by objectives and, 176
    methods for, 346–349
    objective, 346
    subjective, 346–347
    Performance goal orientation A
    way of demonstrating and validating a
    competence we already have by seeking
    the approval of others, 476–477
    Performance management The
    continuous cycle of improving job performance through goal setting, feedback and
    coaching, and rewards and positive reinforcement, 344, 344–345
    Performance measures, 636
    Performance objectives, 175
    Performance orientation, 141, 143
    Performance tests, 336–337
    Performing The fourth of five stages of
    forming a team, in which members concentrate on solving problems and completing the assigned task, 511, 511
    Personal adaptability, 149, 315
    Personal appeals, 541
    Personal barriers to communication,
    593–595
    Personal brand, 189
    Personal digital assistants (PDAs),
    384
    Personality conflict Interpersonal opposition based on personal dislike, disagreement, or differing styles, 523
    Personality tests, 337, 410, 549
    Personality The stable psychological
    traits and behavioral attributes that give a
    person his or her identity, 410, 432
    core self-evaluations and, 411–413
    dimensions of, 410
    emotional intelligence and, 414,
    414–415
    organizational change and, 401
    tests of, 337, 410, 549
    Personalized power Power directed
    at helping oneself, 539
    Personal power, 463
    Person–organization (PO) fit The
    extent to which your personality and values match the climate and culture of an
    organization, 292, 297, 320
    Persuasion, leadership and, 540, 541
    Philanthropy Making charitable donations to benefit humankind, 104
    Phubbing, 608–609, 624
    Physical area, control of, 641–642
    Physical barriers to communication,
    592–593, 593
    Physical contact jobs, 128
    Physiological needs, 461, 461
    Piece rate Pay based on how much
    output an employee produces, 488
    Plan A document that outlines how
    goals are going to be met, 158
    Planning Setting goals and deciding
    how to achieve them; also, coping with uncertainty by formulating future courses of
    action to achieve specified results, 9, 10,
  64. See also Decision making; Strategic
    management; Strategic planning
    control and, 632, 632
    fundamentals of, 162, 162–168
    importance of, 159–161
    mission statements and, 164
    operational, 167–168, 168
    tactical, 167, 168
    values statements and, 165–166
    vision statements and, 164–165
    Planning/control cycle A cycle that
    has two planning steps (1 and 2) and two
    control steps (3 and 4), as follows: (1)
    Make the plan. (2) Carry out the plan.
    (3) Control the direction by comparing results with the plan (4) Control the direction by taking corrective action in two
    ways—namely (a) by correcting deviations
    in the plan being carried out, or (b) by improving future plans, 178, 178–179
    Planning programming budgeting
    system, 650
    Planning tools
    break-even analysis as, 684–686, 685
    flowcharts as, 681–682, 682
    Gantt charts as, 683, 683–684
    PO fit. See Person-organization fit
    Policy A standing plan that outlines the
    general response to a designated problem
    or situation, 171
    Political–legal forces Changes in the
    way politics shape laws and laws shape
    the opportunities for and threats to an organization, 90–91
    Political stability, 146–148
    Politics, 382
    Polycentric managers Managers
    who take the view that native managers in
    the foreign offices best understand native
    personnel and practices, and so the home
    office should leave them alone, 125
    Polychronic time The standard kind
    of time orientation in Mediterranean,
    Latin American, and Arab cultures; a preference for doing more than one thing at a
    time, 145
    Ponzi scheme, 247
    Porter’s four competitive strategies Also called four generic strategies;
    (1) cost leadership, (2) differentiation, (3)
    cost-focus, and (4) focused-differentiation.
    The first two strategies focus on wide markets, the last two on narrow markets,
    207–208
    Porter’s model for industry analysis Model proposes that business-level
    strategies originate in five primary competitive forces in the firm’s environment:
    (1) threats of new entrants, (2) bargaining power of suppliers, (3) bargaining
    power of buyers, (4) threats of substitute
    products or services, and (5) rivalry
    among competitors, 206–207
    Position power, 557, 558
    Positiveness, 375, 448–449, 526, 623
    Positive reinforcement The use of
    positive consequences to strengthen a particular behavior, 483–485, 484
    Power The ability to marshal human,
    informational, and other resources to get
    something done, 538
    need for, 463, 464
    position, 557, 558
    sources of, 538–539
    Power distance, 140–142, 142
    The Practice of Management (Drucker),
    44
    Predictive modeling Data-mining technique used to predict future behavior and
    anticipate the consequences of change, 254
    Prejudices, 437
    Pressure, 541GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    IND30 Glossary/Subject Index
    Primavera SureTrak Project Manager, 683
    Privacy The right of people not to reveal information about themselves, 256,
    610, 611
    Privacy Act (1974), 355
    Private investors, 80
    Proactive change Planned change;
    making carefully thought-out changes in
    anticipation of possible or expected problems or opportunities; opposite of reactive
    change, 378, 379–380, 399
    Proactive learning orientation
    The desire to learn and improve your
    knowledge, soft skills, and other characteristics in pursuit of personal development,
    35–36, 175, 180–181, 315, 375, 535
    Proactive personality, 226
    Problems Difficulties that inhibit the
    achievement of goals, 242
    Problem solving, 180, 272, 375, 527
    Procedural justice The perceived fairness of the process and procedures used to
    make allocation decisions, 471
    Procedure Also known as standard
    operating procedure; a standing plan that
    outlines the response to particular problems or circumstances, 171
    Process A series of actions or steps
    followed to bring about a desired
    result, 37
    Process innovation A change in the
    way a product or service is conceived,
    manufactured, or disseminated, 393
    Process perspectives Theories of
    employee motivation concerned with the
    thought processes by which people decide
    how to act: expectancy theory, equity theory, and goal-setting theory, 469
    equity/justice theory, 469–473, 470
    expectancy theory, 473–475, 474
    goal-setting theory, 475–477
    Product divisions Divisional structures
    in which activities are grouped around
    similar products or services, 305, 306
    Product innovation A change in the
    appearance or the performance of a product or a service or the creation of a new
    one, 393
    Productivity
    benchmarking and, 669–670
    best practices and, 670
    control systems and, 633
    explanation of, 667–668
    importance of, 668–669
    individual, 670
    social media use and, 603–605, 604
    Professionalism, 108
    Profit, social responsibility and, 105
    Profit sharing The distribution to employees of a percentage of the company’s
    profits, 488
    Program A single-use plan encompassing a range of projects or activities, 171
    Programmed conflict Conflict designed to elicit different opinions without
    inciting people’s personal feelings, 525–
    526
    Project A single-use plan of less scope
    and complexity than a program, 171
    Project management software
    Programs for planning and scheduling the
    people, costs, and resources to complete a
    project on time, 25
    Project post mortem A review of recent decisions in order to identify possible
    future improvements, 270–271
    Project teams, 507
    Promotion, employee, 295, 350
    Protective tariffs, 131
    Psychological empowerment Employees’ belief that they have control over
    their work, 552
    Psychological safety Reflects the extent to which people feel free to express
    their ideas and beliefs without fear of negative consequences, 438
    Psychopathy A lack of concern for
    others, impulsive behavior, and a dearth
    of remorse when the psychopath’s actions
    harm others, 545
    Punctuated equilibrium Establishes
    periods of stable functioning until an
    event causes a dramatic change in norms,
    roles, and/or objectives resulting in the establishment and maintenance of new
    norms of functioning, returning to equilibrium, 512, 512
    Punishment The process of weakening
    behavior by presenting something negative
    or withdrawing something positive, 484,
    484–486, 486
    Pygmalion effect, 424–425
    Q
    Quality The total ability of a product
    or service to meet customer needs, 63
    Deming management and, 655
    importance of, 24
    Quality assurance A means of ensuring quality that focuses on the performance of workers, urging employees to
    strive for “zero defects,” 58, 63, 654
    Quality control A means of ensuring
    quality whereby errors are minimized by
    managing each stage of production, 58,
    63, 654
    Quality-management viewpoint Perspective that focuses on quality control, quality assurance, and total
    quality management, 58, 63–65. See also
    Total quality management (TQM)
    Quantitative management The
    application to management of quantitative
    techniques, such as statistics and computer
    simulations. Two branches of quantitative
    management are management science
    and operations management, 48, 56
    Quantitative viewpoint, 48, 56–57
    Quid pro quo harassment, 358
    Quotas
    avoidance of, 127
    import, 131–132, 132
    R
    Race/ethnicity stereotypes,
    421–422, 578
    Racial diversity, 435. See also Cultural
    differences
    Radically innovative change Introduces a practice that is new to the industry, 384
    Rarity (in VRIO framework), 199, 199
    Rational model of decision making Also called the classical model; the
    style of decision making that explains how
    managers should make decisions; it assumes that managers will make logical
    decisions that will be the optimum in furthering the organization’s best interests,
    242
    assumptions of, 244
    problems related to, 244, 244
    stages in, 242, 242–243
    Rational persuasion, 541GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    Glossary/Subject Index IND31
    Reactive change Change made in response to problems or opportunities as
    they arise; compare Proactive change, 378,
    379, 399
    Readiness for change The beliefs,
    attitudes, and intentions of the organization’s staff regarding the extent of the
    changes needed and how willing and able
    they are to implement them, 386–387
    Realistic job preview (RJP) A picture of both positive and negative features
    of the job and organization given to a job
    candidate before he or she is hired, 332
    Receiver barriers, 592
    Receiver The person for whom a message is intended, 583, 583
    Recency effect The tendency of people to remember recent information better
    than earlier information, 424
    Recruiting The process of locating and
    attracting qualified applicants for jobs open
    in the organization, 329–332, 330, 338
    Reduced cycle time The reduction of
    steps in the work process, 661–662
    References, employee, 323, 334
    Referent power One of five sources of
    a leader’s power deriving from personal
    attraction, 539
    Reflection, 214, 272–273
    Refreezing stage of organizational
    change, 384, 385
    Refugees, 135
    Reinforcement Anything that causes
    a given behavior to be repeated or inhibited; the four types are positive, negative
    extinction, and punishment, 483
    to motivate employees, 484–486
    types of, 483–484, 484
    Reinforcement theory The belief
    that behavior reinforced by positive consequences tends to be repeated, whereas behavior reinforced by negative consequences
    tends not to be repeated, 483
    Related diversification When a company purchases a new business that is related to the company’s existing business
    portfolio, 205
    Relatedness needs, 464, 465
    Relationship-oriented leadership Form of leadership that is primarily concerned with the leader’s interactions
    with his or her people, 542, 543, 551–556
    Relationship-oriented role, 518
    Reliability Degree to which a test measures the same thing consistently, so that
    an individual’s score remains about the
    same over time, assuming the characteristics being measured also remain the
    same, 338
    Religious values, 146, 147
    Representative bias The tendency to
    generalize from a small sample or a single
    event, 260
    Reputation, social media and,
    607–608
    Resentment, 350
    Reshoring, 128
    Resilience The capacity to consistently
    bounce back from adversity and to sustain
    yourself when confronted with challenges,
    34–35, 157, 445–446
    Resistance to change An emotional/
    behavioral response to real or imagined
    threats to an established work routine,
    399, 399–401
    Responsibility The obligation one has
    to perform the assigned tasks, 302
    Results-oriented goals, 172–173
    Résumés, 333–334
    Retrenchment strategy. See Defensive
    strategy
    Revenue, social responsibility and, 105
    Revenue tariffs, 131
    Revised path–goal theory, 559–560,
    559–561
    Reward power One of five sources of
    a leader’s power that results from the
    authority to reward subordinates, 539
    Rewards
    extrinsic, 459
    intrinsic, 459
    management by objectives and, 176
    as motivation, 459–460
    nonreinforcing, 401
    transmission of organizational culture
    and, 295
    Rich medium, 587
    Right-to-work laws Statutes that prohibit employees from being required to
    join a union as a condition of employment, 362, 363
    Risk taking, 224–225
    Rites and rituals The activities and
    ceremonies, planned and unplanned, that
    celebrate important occasions and accomplishments in an organization’s life, 290,
    293–294
    Rivalry, 207
    RJP. See Realistic job preview
    Role ambiguity, 443
    Role conflict, 443
    Role modeling, 36, 294
    Role overload, 443
    Roles Sets of behaviors that people expect of occupants of a position, 443, 517–
    518, 517–518
    Rule Designates specific required action, 171
    Russia
    economic sanctions on, 133
    emerging economy of, 138, 138, 143
    S
    Sabbaticals, 490
    Safety needs, 461, 461
    Safety requirements, 354, 355
    Salaries, 339
    Sales, social media and, 605–606
    Sales commission The percentage of
    a company’s earnings as the result of a
    salesperson’s sales that is paid to that
    salesperson, 488
    Sanction The trade prohibition on certain types of products, services, or technology to another country for a specific
    reason, 133
    Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002 Often
    shortened to SarbOx or SOX, established
    requirements for proper financial record
    keeping for public companies and penalties for noncompliance, 96, 355
    Satisficing, 266
    Satisficing model One type of nonrational decision-making model; managers
    seek alternatives until they find one that
    is satisfactory, not optimal, 244
    Scenario analysis Also known as
    scenario planning and contingency
    planning; the creation of alternative
    hypothetical but equally likely future
    conditions, 201GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    IND32 Glossary/Subject Index
    Scientific management Management
    approach that emphasizes the scientific study
    of work methods to improve the productivity
    of individual workers, 47–49, 48, 478
    S corporations, 232–233
    The Secret Handshake (Reardon), 286
    Security A system of safeguards for
    protecting information technology against
    disasters, system failures, and unauthorized access that result in damage or loss,
    610, 610
    Selection process The screening of
    job applicants to hire the best candidate,
    333
    background information for, 333–334
    employment tests for, 336–338
    interviews for, 334–336
    Self-actualization needs, 461, 461
    Self-affirmations Positive statements
    that can help you focus on goals, get rid of
    negative, self-defeating beliefs and program your subconscious mind, 403
    Self-affirmation theory, 402–403
    Self-appraisals, 347
    Self-Assessments
    accepting responsibility for actions, 34
    acquired needs, 463
    adaptability, 400
    Big Five personality dimensions, 411
    career behaviors and future career
    identity, 165
    communication competence, 615
    conflict-management style, 527
    core skills for strategic planning, 208
    corporate responsibility attitudes, 105
    decision-making style, 259
    effectiveness of social networking at
    work, 604
    emotional intelligence, 415
    employment in learning organizations,
    68
    engagement in studies, 427
    entrepreneurial spirit, 226
    ethics perspective, 99
    extrinsic or intrinsic rewards, 459
    financial literacy, 653
    generalized self-efficacy, 412
    global manager potential, 148
    goal setting, quality of, 174
    groupthink, 267
    HR practices, quality of, 325
    influence tactics, 542
    innovation in organizational climate,
    395
    interpersonal conflict tendencies, 522
    intuition level, 246
    job satisfaction, 428
    leader–member exchange, 568
    leadership role, readiness to assume,
    537
    learning and innovation perspective of
    balanced scorecard, 648
    listening style, 619
    measuring perceived fair interpersonal
    treatment, 471
    motivation to lead, 29
    needs for self-determination, 466
    obstacles to strategic execution, 212
    older employees, attitudes toward, 434
    openness to change at work, 380
    organizational commitment to TQM,
    65
    organizational communication
    climate, 616
    organizational culture at employer, 289
    participation in group decision making, 268
    person–job fit, 331
    positive approach at work, 418
    power preferences, 540
    preferred type of organizational
    culture and structure, 297, 313
    proactive learning orientation, 175
    problem-solving potential, 243
    productive energy of team, 512
    readiness for change, 387
    resilience level, 446
    resistance to change, 401
    satisfaction with college or university
    experience, 661
    servant orientation, 555
    social media readiness, 614
    standing on GLOBE dimensions, 143
    strategic thinking, 195
    suitability of HR career, 343
    task- and relationship-oriented leader
    behavior, 552
    team effectiveness, 520
    teamwork, attitudes toward, 505
    Theory X vs. Theory Y orientation,
    54
    transformational leadership of boss,
    567
    unions, attitudes toward, 365
    Self-awareness, 35, 43, 149, 414,
    572–573
    Self-compassion Gentleness with
    yourself, 403
    Self-determination theory Theory
    that assumes that people are driven to try
    to grow and attain fulfillment, with their
    behavior and well-being influenced by
    three innate needs: competence, autonomy, and relatedness, 464–466
    Self-driving cars, 89, 198, 381
    Self-efficacy Belief in one’s personal
    ability to do a task, 225, 411–412, 412
    Self-employment A way of working
    for yourself as a freelancer or the owner of
    a business rather than for an employer,
    223–224
    Self-esteem Self-respect; the extent to
    which people like or dislike themselves,
    412–413, 413
    Self-fulfilling prophecy Also known
    as the Pygmalion effect; the phenomenon
    in which people’s expectations of themselves or others leads them to behave in
    ways that make those expectations come
    true, 424–425
    Self-managed teams Groups of
    workers who are given administrative oversight for their task domains, 507–508
    Self-motivation, 375, 457, 494
    Self-serving bias The attributional
    tendency to take more personal responsibility for success than for failure, 424
    Semantics, 585
    Sender The person wanting to share
    information, 583, 583
    Sender barriers, 592
    Servant-leadership Focuses on providing increased service to others—meeting
    the goals of both followers and the
    organization—rather than to yourself,
    554–555, 555
    Server farms, 255
    Services companies, 644, 659–661
    Sex-role stereotypes, 421
    Sexual harassment Unwanted
    sexual attention that creates an adverse
    work environment, 107, 107, 357–358,
    357–359
    Sexual orientation, 89, 435–436
    Shareholders, 381–382, 645
    Sharing economy, 22
    Short-term goals Tend to span 12
    month and are connected to strategic
    goals in a hierarchy known as a meansend chain, 169, 170–171, 495
    Simple structure The first type of
    organizational structure, whereby an organization has authority centralized in a single person, as well as a flat hierarchy, few
    rules, and low work specialization, 304,
    304–305GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    Glossary/Subject Index IND33
    Single-use plans Plans developed for
    activities that are not likely to be repeated
    in the future; such plans can be either programs or projects, 171
    Situational approach An approach to
    leadership where it is believed that effective leadership behavior depends on the
    situation at hand, 557–562
    Situational interview A structured interview in which the interviewer focuses on
    hypothetical situations, 335
    Six Sigma A rigorous statistical analysis process that reduces defects in manufacturing and service-related industries,
    65, 662
    Skill-based pay, 488
    Skills. See also Soft skills
    business, 549
    communication and, 593
    conceptual, 19–20, 549
    expanding, 490
    human, 10, 20–21
    information technology application,
    24–25
    interpersonal, 549
    listening, 367, 529, 581, 590, 594,
    618–619
    speaking, 620–622, 622
    technical, 19
    writing, 619–620, 620–621
    Skill variety, 480
    Slogans, 293
    Small businesses, 220, 222, 227,
    228
    SMART goals A goal that is Specific,
    Measurable, Attainable, Results oriented,
    and has Target dates, 157, 172–173, 177,
    494
    Social audit A systematic assessment
    of a company’s performance in implementing socially responsible programs,
    often based on predefined goals, 78
    Social capital Economic or productive
    potential of strong, trusting, and cooperative relationships, 326
    Socialized power Power directed at
    helping others, 539
    Social media Internet-based and mobile technologies used to generate interactive dialogue with members of a network,
    600
    age distribution of usage, 600, 601
    anti-female remarks on, 358
    brand recognition and, 605–606
    crowdsourcing and, 605
    downside of, 608–611
    hiring decisions and, 323, 601–603
    impact of, 600–601
    policy creation for, 612–614, 613
    productivity and, 603–605, 604
    reputation and, 607–608
    response mechanisms of, 346
    sales and, 605–606
    sharing knowledge on, 506
    Social media policy Describes the
    who, how, when, and for what purposes of
    social media use, and the consequences
    for noncompliance, 612–614, 613, 613
    Social media strategy, 189
    Social responsibility A manager’s
    duty to take actions that will benefit the
    interests of society as well as of the organization, 100
    climate change and, 103–104
    corporate, 100, 101
    effects of, 104, 105
    philanthropy and, 104
    viewpoints on, 100–102
    Sociocultural forces Influences and
    trends originating in a country’s, a society’s, or a culture’s human relationships
    and values that may affect an organization, 89–90
    Soft skills Ability to motivate, to inspire
    trust, and to communicate with others, 21
    in career readiness, 32–33, 34
    examples of, 336
    Sole proprietor Someone who owns
    an unincorporated business by himself or
    herself, 79, 232
    South Africa, emerging economy of,
    138, 138
    Span of control The number of people
    reporting directly to a given manager, 301
    Speaking skills, 620–622, 622
    Special-interest groups Groups
    whose members try to influence specific
    issues, 86–87
    Specificity of goals, 172, 477
    Stability strategy One of three grand
    strategies, this strategy involves little or no
    significant change, 203, 204
    Stack fallacy, 200
    Staff personnel Staff with advisory
    functions; they provide advice, recommendations, and research to line managers,
    303
    Stakeholders People whose interests are
    affected by an organization’s activities, 79
    external, 80, 82–91
    internal, 79–81, 80
    social media for connecting with, 604
    Standard of living The level of necessaries, comforts and luxuries that a person is accustomed to enjoy, 228
    Standing plans Plans developed for
    activities that occur repeatedly over a period of time; such plans consist of policies,
    procedures, or rules, 171
    Start-up Newly created company designed to grow fast, 227
    considerations for, 220–221
    culture and design for, 234–235
    economic development and, 227
    examples of, 227
    financing for, 233–234
    financing options for, 233–234
    ideas for, 229–230
    legal structure for, 232–233
    plans for, 230–231
    trends for, 220, 220
    wealth generation and, 227
    Static budgets, 651
    Statistical process control A
    statistical technique that uses periodic
    random samples from production runs to
    see if quality is being maintained within a
    standard range of acceptability, 662
    Stereotyping The tendency to attribute
    to an individual the characteristics one
    believes are typical of the group to which
    that individual belongs, 420–422, 437
    Stockholders, 80
    Stock options The right to buy a company’s stock at a future date for a discounted price, 339, 488
    Storming The second of five stages of
    forming a team in which individual personalities, roles, and conflicts within the
    group emerge, 510
    Story A narrative based on true events,
    which is repeated—and sometimes embellished upon—to emphasize a particular
    value, 290, 294
    Strategic allies The relationship of
    two organizations who join forces to
    achieve advantages neither can perform
    as well alone, 84
    Strategic control Monitoring performance to ensure that strategic plans are
    being implemented and taking corrective
    action as needed, 194–195, 211, 641GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    IND34 Glossary/Subject Index
    Strategic goals Goals that are set by
    and for top management and focus on objectives for the organization as a whole,
    169, 170, 176
    Strategic human resource planning The development of a systematic,
    comprehensive strategy for (1) understanding current employee needs and (2) predicting future employee needs, 326–328
    Strategic management A process
    that involves managers from all parts of
    the organization in the formulation and
    the implementation of strategies and strategic goals, 159–161, 160
    BCG matrix and, 204, 204–205
    benchmarking and, 202, 202
    forecasting and, 200–202
    grand strategies and, 194, 203–205, 217
    implementation and control in, 211
    importance of, 159–161
    levels of, 191, 191–192
    mission statement and, 162–163, 163,
    164
    organization size and, 192
    Porter’s five competitive forces and,
    206–207
    Porter’s four competitive strategies
    and, 207–208
    process of, 193, 193–195
    strategic positioning and, 190–191
    SWOT analysis and, 196–197, 196–198
    values statement and, 162–163, 163,
    165–166
    vision statement and, 162–163, 163,
    164–165
    VRIO analysis and, 199, 199–200
    Strategic-management process, 193,
    193–195
    Strategic planning Determines what the
    organization’s long-term goals should be for
    the next one to five years with the resources
    they expect to have available, 159–161, 160,
    162, 166, 166–168, 194, 211, 325, 325
    Strategic positioning Strategy that
    attempts to achieve sustainable competitive advantage by preserving what is distinctive about a company, 190–191
    Strategic thinking, 213–214
    Strategy A large-scale action plan that
    sets the direction for an organization, 159
    Strategy formulation The process of
    choosing among different strategies and
    altering them to best fit the organization’s
    needs, 194
    Strategy implementation The implementation of strategic plans, 194, 211
    Strategy map A visual representation
    of the four perspectives of the balanced
    scorecard that enables managers to communicate their goals so that everyone in
    the company can understand how their
    jobs are linked to the overall objectives of
    the organization, 648, 649
    Stressors Environmental characteristics that cause stress, 427
    Stress The tension people feel when
    they are facing or enduring extraordinary
    demands, constraints, or opportunities
    and are uncertain about their ability to
    handle them effectively, 441
    components of, 442
    consequences of, 442
    effects of, 441–442
    methods to reduce, 445–447
    sources of, 442–445
    symptoms of, 442
    Stretch goals Goals beyond what
    someone actually expects to achieve, 476
    Structural area, control of, 643
    Structured interviews Interviews in
    which the interviewer asks each applicant
    the same questions and then compares the
    responses to a standardized set of answers,
    334–335
    Student loans, 114–115
    Subjective appraisals Performance
    evaluations based on a manager’s perceptions of an employee’s traits or behaviors,
    346–347
    Substance abuse, 430, 441, 533
    Substitute products, 207
    Subsystems The collection of parts
    making up the whole system, 59
    Sunk-cost bias Way of thinking in
    which managers add up all the money already spent on a project and conclude it is
    too costly to simply abandon it; also called
    sunk-cost fallacy, 261
    Suppliers People or organizations that
    provide supplies—that is, raw materials,
    services, equipment, labor, or energy—to
    other organizations, 83
    bargaining power of, 206
    offshore, 378
    trends affecting, 83–84
    Supplies, availability of, 126
    Supply chain The sequence of suppliers that contribute to creating and delivering a product, from raw materials to
    production to final buyers, 201, 643–644
    Supportiveness, 526
    Suspending judgment, 181
    Sustainability Economic development
    that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future
    generations to meet their own needs, 28
    Sustainable competitive advantage Exists when other companies cannot duplicate the value delivered to
    customers, 196
    SWOT analysis Also known as a situational analysis, the search for the
    Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and
    Threats affecting the organization, 196–
    197, 196–198
    Symbol An object, act, quality, or event
    that conveys meaning to others, 290
    Synergy Situation in which the economic value of separate, related businesses under one ownership and
    management is greater together than the
    businesses are worth separately, 60
    System A set of interrelated parts that
    operate together to achieve a common purpose, 59, 59–60
    Systems approach to organizational
    change, 385–388, 386
    Systems viewpoint Perspective that
    regards the organization as a system of interrelated parts, 58, 59–60
    T
    Tactical control Monitoring performance to ensure that tactical plans—those
    at the divisional or departmental level—
    are being implemented and taking corrective action as needed, 641
    Tactical goals Goals that are set by
    and for middle managers and focus on the
    actions needed to achieve strategic goals,
    169
    Tactical planning Determining what
    contributions departments or similar work
    units can make with their given resources
    during the next 6 months to 2 years; done
    by middle management, 162, 167, 168
    Tactics, influence, 540–541, 540–542
    Taft-Hartley Act (1947), 354
    Target dates, for goals, 173
    Tariffs A trade barrier in the form of a
    customs duty, or tax, levied mainly on imports, 127, 131GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    Glossary/Subject Index IND35
    Task-based knowledge, 180, 214
    Task environment Eleven groups that
    present you with daily tasks to handle: customers, competitors, suppliers, distributors,
    strategic allies, employee organizations, local communities, financial institutions,
    government regulators, special-interest
    groups, and mass media, 82–87
    Task identity, 480
    Task-oriented leadership behaviors Form of leadership that ensures
    that people, equipment, and other resources are used in an efficient way to accomplish the mission of a group or
    organization, 542, 543, 550–551
    Task role Behavior that concentrates
    on getting the team’s task done, 517, 518
    Task significance, 480
    Task structure, 557, 558
    Team-based design. See Horizontal
    design
    Team charter Outlines how a team
    will manage teamwork activities, 520, 520
    Team composition Reflects the collection of jobs, personalities, values,
    knowledge, experience, and skills of team
    members, 516–517
    Team conflict, 503
    Team leaders, 10, 12
    Team member interdependence
    The extent to which team members rely
    on common task-related team inputs,
    such as resources, information, goals,
    and rewards, and the amount of interpersonal interactions needed to complete the
    work, 516
    Team processes Members’ interdependent acts that convert inputs to outcomes
    through cognitive, verbal, and behavioral
    activities directed toward organizing taskwork to achieve collective goals, 520
    Team reflexivity A process in which
    team members collectively reflect on the
    team’s objectives, strategies, and processes
    and adapt accordingly, 520
    Team A small group of people with
    complementary skills who are committed
    to a common purpose, performance goals,
    and approach to which they hold themselves mutually accountable, 505. See
    also Groups
    accountability of, 516
    benefits of, 504, 504
    composition of, 516–517
    cross-functional, 507
    effect of controls on, 635
    groups vs., 505
    high-performance, 519
    managing conflict in, 521–527
    motivation of, 516
    norms for, 518–519
    performance goals for, 515–516
    project, 507
    roles of individuals on, 517–518,
    517–518
    self-managed, 507–508
    stages of development for, 510,
    510–512
    strategies for being an effective team
    member, 528–529
    trust on, 514–515, 515
    types of, 507–509
    virtual, 508, 508–509
    work, 507
    Team voice The extent to which team
    members feel free to engage in the expression of constructive opinions, concerns, or
    ideas about work-related issues, 520
    Technical skills Skills that consist of
    the job-specific knowledge needed to perform well in a specialized field, 19
    Technological forces New developments in methods for transforming resources into goods or services, 88–89
    Technology Is not just computer technology; it is any machine or process that
    enables an organization to gain a competitive advantage in changing materials
    used to produce a finished product, 381
    Big Data, 25, 62, 254–256
    communication and, 600–614
    driverless cars, 89, 198, 381
    emotional intelligence and, 415
    Internet of Things, 89
    managing for, 24–25
    microlearning and, 342
    organizational change and, 380, 381
    3-D printing, 393, 393
    Telecommute To work from home or
    remote locations using a variety of information technologies, 25
    Telecommuting, 490
    Tests. See Employment tests; Personality tests
    Texting, 611–612
    Theory X, 43, 53
    Theory Y, 43, 53
    Thinking Fast and Slow (Kahneman),
    241
    Thoughtfulness, 493
    360-degree assessment A performance appraisal in which employees are
    appraised not only by their managerial superiors but also by peers, subordinates,
    and sometimes clients, 347–348
    3-D printing, 393, 393
    Thrusters, 388
    Time orientation, 145
    Tipping customs, 139
    Tolerance for ambiguity, 225, 257,
    257
    Top-management teams, 517
    Top managers Managers that determine what the organization’s long-term
    goals should be for the next 1-5 years with
    the resources they expect to have available, 11–12, 166, 168, 176
    Total quality management (TQM) A
    comprehensive approach—led by top management and supported throughout the
    organization—dedicated to continuous
    quality improvement, training, and customer satisfaction, 58, 63–64, 655
    applied to services, 659–661
    core principles of, 655–659
    Deming management, 655
    organizational commitment to, 65
    overview, 654
    research takeaways, 663
    tools and techniques for, 661–663
    Touch, 597
    Toxic Substances Control Act (1976),
    354
    Toxic workplace, 430
    TPP. See Trans-Pacific Partnership
    TQM. See Total quality management
    Trade, 131–133, 133
    Trade protectionism The use of government regulations to limit the import of
    goods and services, 131
    Trading bloc Also known as an economic community, it is a group of nations
    within a geographical region that have
    agreed to remove trade barriers with one
    another, 134–136, 135
    Training
    function of, 340–341
    in organizational values, 294
    technology-enhanced, 342
    types of, 342GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    IND36 Glossary/Subject Index
    Trait approaches to leadership Attempts to identify distinctive characteristics that account for the effectiveness of
    leaders, 544–549
    Traits
    appraisals of, 346
    “dark side,” 549
    function of, 544
    gender and, 545–547
    knowledge and skills, 548, 549
    leadership, 544–549
    positive, 544–545, 545
    Transactional leadership Leadership style that focuses on clarifying employees’ roles and task requirements and
    providing rewards and punishments contingent on performance, 551, 563–564
    Transfer, employee, 351
    Transformational leadership Leadership style that transforms employees to
    pursue organizational goals over selfinterests, 542, 543, 563–567, 567
    Transformational processes An organization’s capabilities in management,
    internal processes, and technology that
    are applied to converting inputs into outputs, 59, 59
    Transgender A term for people whose
    sense of their gender differs from what is
    expected based on the sex characteristics
    with which they are born, 435. See also
    LGBTQ
    Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) A
    trade agreement among 12 Pacific Rim
    countries, 135–136
    Travel, international, 117, 122, 136, 137
    Trend analysis A hypothetical extension of a past series of events into the future, 201
    Triple bottom line Representing
    people, planet, and profit (the 3 Ps)—
    measures an organization’s social, environmental, and financial performance, 78
    Trust Reciprocal faith in others’ intentions and behaviors, 514
    ethical behavior and, 106
    organizational change and, 400
    of teams, 514–515, 515
    Trustworthiness, 594
    Tuition reimbursement, 490
    TurboProject Professional, 683
    Turnover, 429
    Two core principles of TQM (1)
    People orientation—everyone involved with
    the organization should focus on delivering
    value to customers; and (2) improvement
    orientation—everyone should work on continuously improving the work processes,
    656–658
    Two-factor theory Theory that proposes that work satisfaction and dissatisfaction arise from two different work
    factors—work satisfaction from so-called
    motivating factors and work dissatisfaction
    from so-called hygiene factors, 466–468,
    467–468
    Two-tier wage contracts Contracts
    in which new employees are paid less or
    receive lesser benefits than veteran employees have, 364
    Type A behavior pattern Behavior
    describing people involved in a chronic,
    determined struggle to accomplish more in
    less time, 442–443
    U
    Uncertainty, adapting to, 632–633
    Uncertainty avoidance, 141, 142
    Underemployed Working at a job that
    requires less education than one has, 437
    Unfreezing stage of organizational
    change, 384, 384
    Unions. See Labor unions
    Union security clause Part of a labor-management agreement that states
    that employees who receive union benefits
    must join the union, or at least pay dues
    to it, 362
    Union shop, 363
    Unity of command Principle that
    stresses an employee should report to no
    more than one manager in order to avoid
    conflicting priorities and demands, 300–
    301
    Unrelated diversification Occurs
    when a company acquires another company in a completely unrelated businesses,
    205
    Unstructured interviews Interviews
    in which the interviewer asks probing
    questions to find out what the applicant is
    like, 334
    Upward communication Communication that flows from lower levels to
    higher levels, 588, 589
    Utilitarian approach One of four approaches to solving ethical dilemmas; ethical behavior is guided by what will result
    in the greatest good for the greatest number of people, 95
    V
    Vacations, 490
    Valence The value or the importance a
    worker assigns to a possible outcome or
    reward, 474
    Validity Extent to which a test measures what it purports to measure and extent to which it is free of bias, 338
    Value (in VRIO framework), 199, 199
    Value orientation, 257, 257
    Values Abstract ideals that guide one’s
    thinking and behavior across all situations;
    the relatively permanent and deeply held
    underlying beliefs and attitudes that help
    determine a person’s behavior, 94, 416
    behavior and, 416, 419
    enacted, 287
    espoused, 286–287
    expression in mission and vision, 162
    in strategic planning, 164–165
    Values statement Expresses what the
    company stands for, its core priorities, the
    values its employees embody, and what its
    products contribute to the world, 162–163,
    163, 165–166, 193
    Value system The pattern of values
    within an organization, 94
    Variable budgets Allowing the allocation of resources to vary in proportion with
    various levels of activity, 651
    Venezuela, expropriations in, 147
    Venture capital Is money provided by
    investors to start-up firms and small businesses with high risk but perceived longterm growth potential, in return for an
    ownership stake, 86, 234
    Venture capitalists (VCs) Those who
    exchange funds for an ownership share in
    the company, 234
    Vertical communication, 588, 589
    Vertical hierarchy of authority, 299
    Vertical integration Diversification
    strategy where a firm expands into businesses that provide the supplies it needs to
    make its products or that distribute and
    sells its products, 205GLOSSARY/SUBJECT INDEX
    Glossary/Subject Index IND37
    Vertical loading, 479
    Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act (2014), 576
    Videoconferencing Using video and
    audio links along with computers to let
    people in different locations see, hear, and
    talk with one another, 25
    Virtual reality, 342
    Virtual structure An organization
    whose members are geographically apart,
    usually working with e-mail, collaborative
    computing, and other computer connections, 310
    Virtual teams Teams that work together over time and distance via electronic media to combine effort and
    achieve common goals, 508, 508–509
    Vision A long-term goal describing
    “what” an organization wants to become;
    it is a clear sense of the future and the actions needed to get there, 162–164
    Vision statement Statement that expresses what the organization should become and where it wants to go strategically,
    69, 162–163, 163, 164–165, 193
    Visual noise, 54
    Voice Employees’ upward expression of
    challenging but constructive opinions, concerns, or ideas on work-related issues to
    their managers, 472
    VRIO Is a framework for analyzing a resource or capability to determine its competitive strategic potential by answering
    four questions about its Value, Rarity, Imitability, and Organization, 199, 199–200
    W
    Wage reopener clause, 364
    Wages, 363–364, 371
    Webcasts, 591
    Well-being The combined impact of
    five elements–positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and
    achievement (PERMA), 491
    Whistle-blower An employee who reports organizational misconduct to the
    public, 98–99
    White-collar crime, 95–97
    Wholly owned subsidiary A foreign
    subsidiary, or subordinate section of an
    organization, that is totally owned and
    controlled by an organization, 130
    Women. See Gender
    Word (Microsoft), 681
    Work ethic, 108
    Workforce
    age and, 433–434
    gender and, 434–435
    individuals with differing physical and
    mental abilities in, 436, 436
    race and ethnicity and, 435
    sexual orientation and, 435–436
    Work–life balance, 603, 603
    Work–life benefits Are employersponsored benefit programs or initiatives
    designed to help all employees balance
    work life with home life, 489
    Work–life conflict Occurs when the
    demands or pressures from work and family domains are mutually incompatible,
    443–444, 444
    Workplace
    behaviors in, 429–430
    bullying in, 359–360, 359–360, 372
    design of, 309–310, 492
    diversity in, 433–437
    flexible, 490
    hostile environment, 358, 439
    informal learning in, 506
    positive environment, 491–493
    sexual harassment in, 357–358,
    357–359
    stress in, 441–447
    varying educational levels in, 437
    Workplace cheating Unethical acts
    that are intended to create an unfair advantage or help attain benefits that an
    employee would not otherwise be entitled
    to receive, 93–94
    Workplace discrimination Type of
    discrimination that occurs when people
    are hired or promoted—or denied hiring or
    promotion—for reasons not relevant to the
    job, 356
    employee promotion and, 350
    fear of, 437
    pay discrepancies and, 356
    stereotyping, 420–422, 437
    Workplace wellness programs
    (WWPs), 446–447, 500–501
    Work specialization, 300
    Work teams, 507. See also Teams
    Writing skills, 619–620, 620–621
    Z
    Zero based budgeting, 650

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