Introduction To Physical Oceanography

Introduction To Physical Oceanography
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3 مايو 2021
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Introduction To Physical Oceanography
Robert H. Stewart
Department of Oceanography
Texas A & M University
Contents
Preface vii
1 A Voyage of Discovery 1
1.1 Physics of the ocean . 1
1.2 Goals . 2
1.3 Organization . 3
1.4 The Big Picture 3
1.5 Further Reading . 5
2 The Historical Setting 7
2.1 Definitions . 8
2.2 Eras of Oceanographic Exploration . 8
2.3 Milestones in the Understanding of the Ocean . 12
2.4 Evolution of some Theoretical Ideas 15
2.5 The Role of Observations in Oceanography 16
2.6 Important Concepts . 20
3 The Physical Setting 21
3.1 Ocean and Seas 22
3.2 Dimensions of the ocean . 23
3.3 Sea-Floor Features 25
3.4 Measuring the Depth of the Ocean . 29
3.5 Sea Floor Charts and Data Sets . 33
3.6 Sound in the Ocean . 34
3.7 Important Concepts . 37
4 Atmospheric Influences 39
4.1 The Earth in Space 39
4.2 Atmospheric Wind Systems . 41
4.3 The Planetary Boundary Layer . 43
4.4 Measurement of Wind 43
4.5 Calculations of Wind . 46
4.6 Wind Stress 48
4.7 Important Concepts . 49
iiiiv CONTENTS
5 The Oceanic Heat Budget 51
5.1 The Oceanic Heat Budget 51
5.2 Heat-Budget Terms 53
5.3 Direct Calculation of Fluxes . 57
5.4 Indirect Calculation of Fluxes: Bulk Formulas . 58
5.5 Global Data Sets for Fluxes . 61
5.6 Geographic Distribution of Terms 65
5.7 Meridional Heat Transport . 68
5.8 Variations in Solar Constant . 70
5.9 Important Concepts . 72
6 Temperature, Salinity, and Density 73
6.1 Definition of Salinity . 73
6.2 Definition of Temperature 76
6.3 Geographical Distribution 79
6.4 The Oceanic Mixed Layer and Thermocline 79
6.5 Density 83
6.6 Measurement of Temperature 88
6.7 Measurement of Conductivity or Salinity 92
6.8 Measurement of Pressure 94
6.9 Temperature and Salinity With Depth . 95
6.10 Light in the Ocean and Absorption of Light 97
6.11 Important Concepts . 100
7 The Equations of Motion 103
7.1 Dominant Forces for Ocean Dynamics . 103
7.2 Coordinate System 104
7.3 Types of Flow in the ocean . 105
7.4 Conservation of Mass and Salt . 106
7.5 The Total Derivative (D/Dt) 107
7.6 Momentum Equation . 108
7.7 Conservation of Mass: The Continuity Equation . 111
7.8 Solutions to the Equations of Motion 113
7.9 Important Concepts . 114
8 Equations of Motion With Viscosity 115
8.1 The Influence of Viscosity 115
8.2 Turbulence 116
8.3 Calculation of Reynolds Stress: . 119
8.4 Mixing in the Ocean . 123
8.5 Stability 127
8.6 Important Concepts . 132CONTENTS v
9 Response of the Upper Ocean to Winds 133
9.1 Inertial Motion 133
9.2 Ekman Layer at the Sea Surface 135
9.3 Ekman Mass Transport . 143
9.4 Application of Ekman Theory 145
9.5 Langmuir Circulation 147
9.6 Important Concepts . 147
10 Geostrophic Currents 151
10.1 Hydrostatic Equilibrium . 151
10.2 Geostrophic Equations 153
10.3 Surface Geostrophic Currents From Altimetry . 155
10.4 Geostrophic Currents From Hydrography . 158
10.5 An Example Using Hydrographic Data . 164
10.6 Comments on Geostrophic Currents 164
10.7 Currents From Hydrographic Sections . 171
10.8 Lagrangian Measurements of Currents . 172
10.9 Eulerian Measurements . 179
10.10Important Concepts . 181
11 Wind Driven Ocean Circulation 183
11.1 Sverdrup’s Theory of the Oceanic Circulation . 183
11.2 Western Boundary Currents . 189
11.3 Munk’s Solution . 190
11.4 Observed Circulation in the Atlantic 192
11.5 Important Concepts . 197
12 Vorticity in the Ocean 199
12.1 Definitions of Vorticity 199
12.2 Conservation of Vorticity 202
12.3 Influence of Vorticity . 204
12.4 Vorticity and Ekman Pumping . 205
12.5 Important Concepts . 210
13 Deep Circulation in the Ocean 211
13.1 Defining the Deep Circulation 211
13.2 Importance of the Deep Circulation . 212
13.3 Theory for the Deep Circulation 218
13.4 Observations of the Deep Circulation 222
13.5 Antarctic Circumpolar Current . 229
13.6 Important Concepts . 232
14 Equatorial Processes 233
14.1 Equatorial Processes . 234
14.2 El Ni˜no 238
14.3 El Ni˜no Teleconnections . 246vi CONTENTS
14.4 Observing El Ni˜no 248
14.5 Forecasting El Ni˜no . 249
14.6 Important Concepts . 252
15 Numerical Models 253
15.1 Introduction–Some Words of Caution 253
15.2 Numerical Models in Oceanography 255
15.3 Global Ocean Models . 256
15.4 Coastal Models 260
15.5 Assimilation Models . 264
15.6 Coupled Ocean and Atmosphere Models 266
15.7 Important Concepts . 269
16 Ocean Waves 271
16.1 Linear Theory of Ocean Surface Waves . 271
16.2 Nonlinear waves . 276
16.3 Waves and the Concept of a Wave Spectrum . 277
16.4 Ocean-Wave Spectra . 283
16.5 Wave Forecasting . 287
16.6 Measurement of Waves 289
16.7 Important Concepts . 291
17 Coastal Processes and Tides 293
17.1 Shoaling Waves and Coastal Processes . 293
17.2 Tsunamis . 297
17.3 Storm Surges . 298
17.4 Theory of Ocean Tides 300
17.5 Tidal Prediction . 308
17.6 Important Concepts . 312
References 31
Index
absolute vorticity, 200, 200, 210
abyss, 211, 226
abyssal circulation, 105, 211, 211, 218,
219, 222, 312
acceleration equation, 109
accuracy, 17, 19, 19, 87
altimeter, 157, 170
Argos, 174
AVHRR temperature, 90
maps, 92
Boussinesq approximation, 154
CTD, 96
current meter, 181
density, 76, 83, 84, 101, 163
depth from XBT, 95
drag coefficient, 48
echo sounders, 30
El Ni˜no forecasts, 252
equation
momentum, 153
of state, 87
sound speed, 35
equations
geostrophic, 169
fluxes
from models, 64
ICOADS, 62
radiative, 58
geoid, 156, 158
heat fluxes, 59
numerical models, 253, 255
coastal, 262
coupled, 268
pressure, 94, 95, 160
rainfall, 64, 249
salinity, 73, 76, 92–94
from titration, 92
satellite tracking systems, 158
short-wave radiation, 60
storm surge, 263
temperature, 79
bucket, 89
sea-surface maps, 92
ship-injection, 90
thermistor, 88
XBT, 95
thermometers
mercury, 88
platinum, 88
tides, 308–312
topography, 182
wave height, 290
winds
Beaufort, 44
calculated, 47
scatterometer, 45
ship, 46
SSM/I, 46
acoustic tomography, 180
acoustic-doppler current profiler, 180
adiabatically, 84
Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), 58, 60,
90, 91, 92, 101, 177, 178, 264,
266
advection, 51
altimeters, see satellite altimetry
amphidromes, 311
anomalies
atmospheric pressure, 247
density, 163
sea-surface temperature, 79, 92,
159, 241, 243, 251
sealevel, 159
331332 INDEX
specific volume, 163
wind, 251
wind stress, 251
Antarctic Circumpolar Current, 83, 222,
229, 231, 232, 268
calculations of, 269
Antarctic Intermediate Water, 225, 226
anti-cyclonic, 135
Argos system, 96, 135, 173–175, 249
atmospheric boundary layer, 43
atmospheric circulation
causes, 233
driven by ocean, 39
atmospheric conditions
finding historical, 215
atmospheric transmittance, 56
β-plane, 105, 207, 237, 260
Ekman Pumping, 206
fluid dynamics on, 206
baroclinic flow, 163
barotropic flow, 163
basins, 27
bathymetric charts
ETOPO-2, 34
GEBCO, 33
bathythermograph (BT), 70, 95
expendable (XBT), 95, 266
bore, 296
bottom water, 215
Antarctic, 225–227
North Atlantic, 211, 213, 214, 232
boundary currents, 105
boundary layer, 115
Boussinesq approximation, 112, 114,
154, 254, 255, 257, 260, 261
box model, 107, 168
breakers
and edge waves, 297
and long-shore currents, 296
height of, 294, 295
plunging, 295, 296
spilling, 295
surging, 295
types of, 295
Brunt-Vaisala frequency, 129, see stability, frequency
bulk formulas, 58
buoyancy, 87, 103, 114, 123, 127
frequency, 129
buoyancy flux, 51
canyon, 27
carbon dioxide, 213
chlorinity, 74
chlorophyll
calculating concentration, 99
measurement from space, 99
circulation
abyssal, 211, 211, 218, 219, 222,
312
deep
Antarctic Circumpolar Current,
229
fundamental ideas, 218
importance of, 212
observations of, 222
theory for, 218–222
Gulf Stream recirculation region,
194
meridional overturning, 212, 256,
269
North Atlantic, 192
Sverdrup’s Theory, 183
Thermohaline, 212
Circumpolar Deep Water
composition, 230
closure problem, 122
conductivity, 75
measurement of, 92
conservation laws, 103
conservation of mass, 106, 111
conservative, 202
conservative flow, 202
conservative properties, 224
continental shelves, 27
continental slopes, 27
continuity equation, 111, 112, 113
coordinate systems, 104
β-plane, 105INDEX 333
Cartesian, 104
f-plane, 104
for sun and moon, 304
spherical coordinates, 105
Copenhagen sea water, 75
core, 225
core method, 225, 227
tracers, 227
Coriolis force, 104, 110, 136, 139, 153
Coriolis parameter, 120, 122, 134, 137,
152, 153, 155, 164, 198, 199,
207
near equator, 236
CTD, 14, 94, 96, 101, 164, 166, 168,
170, 180, 182, 262
current shear, 129
currents
along shore, 296
rip, 296
surface, 235
tidal, 300
wave-driven, 296
Dansgaard/Oeschger event, 216
data
validated, 17
data assimilation, 47, 68, 264, 266
data sets, 17
what makes good data?, 17
declinations, 304
deep circulation, 105, 219
Antarctic Circumpolar Current,
229
fundamental ideas, 218
importance of, 212
observations of, 222
theory for, 218–222
densification, 224
density, 83
absolute, 83
accuracy of, 87
anomaly or sigma, 84
equation
of state, 87
neutral surfaces, 86
potential, 84
diapycnal mixing, 123, 125, 127
diffusive convection, 131
dispersion relation, 272
doldrums, 235
Doodson numbers, 306
double diffusion, 127, 131
salt fingers, 130
drag
coefficient, 48, 48, 49, 121, 138,
139, 192, 262, 263, 284
form, 202, 231
drifters, 2, 149, 173, 182
accuracy of current measurements,
173, 174
and numerical models, 253
holey-sock, 174
in Kuroshio, 170
in Pacific, 140, 141
measurement of Ekman currents,
142
rubber duckie, 179
dynamic instability, 129
dynamic meter, 160
dynamic topography, 155
earth
equinox, 305
in space, 39
perigee of, 305
radii of, 21
rotation rate, 108
earth-system science, 8
echo sounders, 29–30
errors in measurement, 30
eddy diffusivity, 120
eddy viscosity, 120
Ekman layer, 115, 135–143, 151, 164,
202
bottom, 136, 140
characteristics, 148
coastal upwelling, 145
defined, 135
depth, 139
Ekman’s assumptions, 137, 141
influence of stability, 142
observations of, 142334 INDEX
sea surface, 135–139
surface-layer constants, 138
theory of, 136
Ekman Number, 139
Ekman pumping, 2, 145–147, 149, 205,
207–210, 219, 237
defined, 147
example, 208
Ekman transport, 143–145, 186, 231,
234, 299
mass transport defined, 143
uses, 145
volume transport defined, 144
El Ni˜no, 238–244
forecasting, 249, 251
atmospheric models, 250
coupled models, 251
oceanic models , 250
observing, 248
teleconnections, 246
theory of, 242
El Ni˜no–Southern Oscillation (ENSO),
see Southern Oscillation
Envisat, 33
equation of state, 87
equatorial processes, 234
El Ni˜no, 238
Ni˜na, 238
undercurrent, 235
theory, 236
equatorially trapped waves, 245
equinox, 305
precession of, 305
ERS satellites, 11, 33, 48, 63, 156,
249, 266, 291
Euler equation, 109
Eulerian measurements, 179
acoustic tomography, 180
acoustic-doppler current profiler,
180
f -plane, 104
fluid dynamics on, 205
Taylor-Proudman Theorem, 205
fetch, 286
floats, 175
ALACE, 175
Argo, 96, 175, 266
in North Atlantic, 195
flow
conservative, 202
types of, 105
flux
buoyancy, 51
direct calculation of
gust probe measurement, 57
radiometer measurements, 58
global data sets for, 61
indirect calculation of
bulk formulas, 58
latent heat flux
calculation of, 60
net long-wave radiation, 60
sensible heat flux
calculation of, 61
water flux
calculation of, 60
flux adjustments, 269
flux corrections, 269
form drag, 202, 231
Fourier series, 278
Fourier transform, 278
friction, 104
friction velocity, 121
and wind stress, 121
fully developed sea, 283
general circulation, 105
geoid, 32, 32, 33, 155, 156, 158, 160,
161, 182
errors, 158
undulations, 32, 33, 155
geophysical fluid dynamics, 8
geophysics, 8
geopotential, 155, 160
anomaly, 162
meter, 160
surface, 160, 161
Geosat, 11, 33, 156, 290
Follow-On mission, 266
geostrophic approximation, 3, 152, 169
geostrophic balance, 151, 152, 181INDEX 335
and Rossby waves, 246
ignores friction, 170
limitations of, 169
not near equator, 170, 237
geostrophic currents, 3, 14, 15, 149,
163
altimeter observations of, 126
and Ekman pumping, 145, 208
and Ekman transports, 209
and level of no motion, 170
assimilated into numerical models, 264
calculated by numerical model, 258
cannot change, 169
comments on, 164
deep interior, 219
eddies, 126
equations for, 153–155, 160
from altimetry, 155–158
from hydrographic data, 158–172
from slope of density surfaces, 171
in Gulf Stream, 170
in ocean’s interior, 207
in Pacific, 210
measured by altimetry, 170, 182
Munk’s theory for, 198
not near equator, 237
relative, 164
relative to level of no motion, 182
relative to the earth, 164
surface, 155
Sverdrup’s theory for, 197
velocity of, 147
vertical and Ekman pumping, 207
vorticity, 201
vorticity constraints, 205, 206
geostrophic equations, 152, 153
limitations of, 169
geostrophic transport, 189
Global Conveyer Belt, 213
Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment
floats, 175
products, 266
global precipitation
map of, 61
Global Precipitation Climatology Project,
64
GRACE, 143, 156, 158
gravity, 103
greenhouse effect, 55
group velocity, 273
Gulf Stream, 5, 172, 194, 198
and deep mixing, 222
and mixing, 126
as a western boundary current,
105, 193
calculated by MICOM numerical
model, 259
calculation of, 264, 266, 267
cross section of, 168, 223
density surfaces, 172
eddies, 172
forecasts, 265, 266
forecasts of, 270
Franklin-Folger map of, 13
is baroclinic, 163
mapped by Benjamin Franklin, 7,
9, 13
mapped by floats, 193
mapped by Topex/Poseidon, 156
northeast of Cape Hatteras, 170
observations of, 192
position of, 264
recirculation region, 194
sketch of, 197
south of Cape Cod, 164
Stommel’s theory for, 189
T-S plots, 223
transport, 192, 214
transport of heat by, 213
velocity of, 172
vorticity, 200
wiggles, 264
gyres, 105
heat budget, 51
geographical distribution of terms,
65
importance of, 52
terms of, 51, 53336 INDEX
through the top of the atmosphere,
68
zonal average, 66
heat flux, 2, 47, 51, 65, 235, 250, 257,
259, 264, 265, 268, 269
from icoads, 72
from numerical models, 64, 65
global average, 66
infrared, see infrared flux
latent, see latent heat flux
mean annual, 68
measurement of, 72
measurements of, 57
net, 67, 70, 72
net through the top of atmosphere,
68–71
Oberhuber atlas, 251
poleward, 215
sensible, see sensible heat flux
solar, see insolation
units of, 52
zonal average, 66, 70
heat storage, 68
seasonal, 53
heat transport
calculation of, 70
direct method, 70
residual method, 70
surface flux method, 70
Global Conveyer Belt, 213
meridional, 68, 68
oceanic, 213
Heinrich events, 216
hydrographic data, 158, 162
across Gulf Stream, 172, 196, 223
and altimetry, 181
and geostrophic currents, 163, 164,
166, 168–170, 182
and north Atlantic circulation, 192
and potential vorticity, 202
and Sverdrup transport, 186
and water masses, 224
disadvantage of, 168
from Carnegie, 185
from Endeavor, 164, 168
hydrographic sections, 171, 176
hydrographic stations, 95, 161–163, 167
across Antarctic Circumpolar Current, 229
and acoustic Doppler current profiler, 180
used for salinity, 92, 93
hydrography, 8
hydrostatic equilibrium, 151
ice-age, 215–218
ICOADS (international comprehensive
ocean-atmosphere data set),
43, 60, 61, 62, 65, 92, 241
in situ, 11, 83–85, 87
inertial
current, 134, 135, 147
motion, 133
oscillation, 3, 134
period, 135, 142, 148
infrared flux, 68
annual average, 56
factors influencing, 54
net, 55
insolation, 51, 53, 70
absorption of, 65
annual average, 54, 67
at surface, 65
at top of atmosphere, 54, 65, 69
balanced by evaporation, 66
calculation of, 59, 60, 64
factors influencing, 53
maps of, 59
maximum, 40
zonal average, 62, 66
instability
dynamic, 129
International Hydrographic Bureau, 22,
27, 34
international nautical mile, 21
International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, 64
inverse problem, 264
irradiance, 97
isobaric surface, 153
isopycnal model, 258
isopycnal surfaces, 163INDEX 337
isotropic turbulence, 122
Jason, 33, 63, 156, 157, 182, 266, 290
accuracy of, 33, 157
jets, 105
JPOTS (Processing of Oceanographic
Station Data), 87
Kelvin wave, see waves, Kelvin
Kuroshio, 43, 98
as a western boundary current,
105
geostrophic balance in, 170
observed by drifters, 141
thermocline, 129
transport of, 192
width of, 192
La Ni˜na, 238–244
forecasting, 249, 251
atmospheric models, 250
coupled models, 251
oceanic models, 250
observing, 248
teleconnections, 246
theory of, 242
Lagrangian measurements, 172
holey-sock drifters, 174
satellite tracked surface drifters,
173
tracers, 175
Langmuir circulation, 147
latent heat flux, 51, 56
calculation of, 60
latitude, 21
level surface, 30, 32, 127, 153, 155,
162
light, 97
absorption of, 97
linearity, 19
longitude, 21
meridional transport, 68
mesoscale eddies, 105, 151, 157, 172,
256, 259, 267, 270
mixed layer, 79, 84, 101, 120, 223, 228
and Ekman layer, 141, 142
and Ekman pumping, 207
and inertial oscillations, 148
and phytoplankton, 145
currents, 235
currents within, 148
deepened by Kelvin waves, 242
equatorial, 234
external forcing of, 2, 80
high latitude, 82
in eastern basins, 146
in numerical models, 251
measured by bathythermograph,
95
mid-latitude, 81, 82
mixing in, 125
mixing through base of, 127
seasonal growth and decay, 82
solar heating and phytoplankton,
99
T-S plot, 223
theory, 122
tropical Pacific, 82
upwelling through, 146
velocity within, 142
water mass formation within, 223
mixing, 123
above seamounts, 222
along constant-density surfaces, 226
among water masses, 224, 225
and core method, 225
and deep circulation, 224
and flushing time, 107
and poleward heat flux, 215
average horizontal, 126
average vertical, 123
between water masses, 223, 226
by winds, 215
diapycnal, 123, 125, 127
energy for, 215
equatorial, 234
horizontal, 127
in Circumpolar Current, 231, 269
in numerical models, 257, 258, 260–
262
coastal, 262338 INDEX
Gent-McWilliams scheme, 269
Mellor and Yamada scheme, 260,
261
Pacanowski and Philander scheme,
268
quasi-geostrophic, 265
Smagorinski scheme, 262
in thermocline, 211, 219, 222
increases density, 224
measured vertical, 124–126
meridional, 122
oceanic, 123
of deep waters, 125, 211, 215, 219,
221, 232
of heat downward, 219
of momentum, 120, 121
of tracers, 227
of tritium, 228
on surfaces of constant density,
257
tidal, 39, 103, 125, 212, 215, 219,
300, 312
vertical, 19, 28, 123, 222, 226
measured, 124
zonal, 122
mixing-length theory, 15, 121, 122
molecular viscosity, 116
momentum equation, 108
Cartesian coordinates, 109
Coriolis term, 110
gravity term, 110
moon
coordinates, 304
Munk’s solution, 190
Nansen bottles, 95
nautical mile, 21
Navier-Stokes equation, 109
net infrared radiation, 51
net long-wave radiation, 60
neutral path, 86
neutral surface element, 86
neutral surfaces, 86
North Atlantic Deep Water, 94, 216,
225–227
numerical models, 4
assimilation, 264
Harvard Open-Ocean Model, 265
Mercator, 266
NLOM, 266
atmospheric, 250
coastal, 260
Dartmouth Gulf of Maine Model,
260
Princeton Ocean Model, 260
coupled, 251, 266
accuracy of, 268
Climate System Model, 267
flux adjustments in, 267–269
Hadley Center Model, 268
Princeton Coupled Model, 268
deep circulation, 222
for tidal prediction, 310
isopycnal, 258
limitations of, 253
mechanistic models, 255
numerical weather models, 46
reanalysis from, 47
reanalyzed data from, 64
sources of reanalyzed data, 48
oceanic, 250
primitive-equation, 257
climate models, 259
Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Modular Ocean Model
(MOM), 257
IHybrid Coordinate Ocean Model,
257
Parallel Ocean Program Model,
257
simulation models, 255, 255
spin-up, 256
storm-surge, 262
Sea, Lake, and Overland Surges
Model, 263
Nyquist critical frequency, 280
observations, 4, 16
ocean, 1
Atlantic Ocean, 22
defined, 22
dimensions of, 23INDEX 339
dominant forces in, 103
features of, 27–28
Indian Ocean, 23
maps of, 33
mean salinity, 79
mean temperature, 79
milestones in understanding, 13–
15
Pacific Ocean, 22
processes in, 4
oceanic circulation
abyssal, 211, 211, 218, 219, 222,
312
deep
Antarctic Circumpolar Current,
229
fundamental ideas, 218
importance of, 212
observations of, 222
theory for, 218–222
Gulf Stream recirculation region,
194
Meridional Overturning, 212
Sverdrup’s Theory, 183
Thermohaline, 212
oceanic experiments, 17
oceanography, 8
eras of exploration, 8–12
new methods of, 4
path line, 188
perigee, 305
periodogram, 281
phase velocity, 272
physical oceanography, 8
big picture, 3
goals of, 2
plains, 27
planetary vorticity, 199
potential
density, 84
temperature, 84, 84
potential vorticity, 202
conservation
consequences of, 204
conservation of, 203
precision, 19
pressure
measurement of, 94
quartz bourdon gage, 95
quartz crystal, 95
strain gage, 94
vibratron, 94
units of, 153
pressure gradient
horizontal, 104
pseudo-forces, 104
pycnocline, 82
quasi-geostrophic, 265
QuikScat, 45, 63
radiance, 97
rainfall
calculation of, 60
cumulative, 60
equatorial, 233
global, 80
map, 61
over cold ocean, 242
patterns, 241
rates, 249
Texas, 248
tropical, 249
rainfall
and ENSO, 247
reduced gravity, 245
reference surface, 164
relative vorticity, 200
Reynolds Stress, 117, 119
calculation of, 119
Richardson Number, 129
ridges, 28
rip currents, 293, 296, 312
Rossby wave, see waves, Rossby
Rubber Duckie Spill, 178
salinity, 73, 74
accuracy of, 87, 93
based on chlorinity, 74
based on conductivity, 75
conservation of, 224340 INDEX
geographical distribution of, 79
measurement of, 92
measurement with depth, 95
Practical Salinity Scale, 75
simple vs. complete, 74
salt fingering, 131
sampling error, 17, 18, 44, 46, 60, 158
satellite altimetry, 156, 290, 310
errors in, 157
maps of the sea-floor topography,
33
systems, 31
use in measuring depth, 30
satellite tracked surface drifters, 173
scatterometer
Quikscat, 45
scatterometers, 44, 45, 47, 49, 59, 250,
289
accuracy of, 45
seamounts, 28
seas
marginal, 23
Mediterranean, 23
Seasat, 33
sensible heat flux, 51, 57
annual average, 69
calculation of, 61
global average, 65
maps of, 68
uncertainty, 63
zonal average, 66
sequential estimation techniques, 47,
265
sills, 28, 28
solar constant
and insolation, 60, 69
value, 60
variability of, 70, 71
sound
absorption of, 36
channel, 35, 36, 36, 180, 181
in ocean, 34
rays, 36
speed, 35
and Boussinesq approximation,
112
as function of depth, 35
in incompressible fluid, 112
typical, 37
variation of, 35
use of, 34, 37
used to measure depth, 29, 30, 37
Southern Oscillation, 239, 240, 240,
241
El Ni˜no Southern Oscillation (ENSO),
234, 241, 246, 251
Index, 234, 240, 241, 248
specific humidity, 57
specific volume, 161
anomaly, 162
squirts, 105
stability, 128
dynamic, 127
equation, 128
frequency, 127, 129, 129, 132
in Pacific, 129
sketch of, 128
static, 127
standard geopotential distance, 162
Stommel’s Theory, 189
Stommel, Arons, Faller theory, 218–
221
storm surges, 298
strain gage, 94
stream function, 188
stream lines, 188
sun, 7, 39, 40, 103, 271
coordinates, 304
equinox, 39
height above horizon, 53, 54
perigee of, 305
warms equatorial watewrs, 233
surf zone, 296
surface analysis, 46, 47, 65
surface currents, 235
surface temperature, 234
Sverdrup, 107, 144
Sverdrup’s assumptions, 186
Sverdrup’s Theory, 183
Taylor-Proudman Theorem, 206
teleconnections, 246INDEX 341
temperature, 76, 76
absolute, 76
accuracy of, 87
conservation of, 224
geographical distribution of, 79
global maps of, 92
measurement at surface, 88
Advanced Very High Resolution
Radiometer (AVHRR), 266
by Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR),
90
by bucket thermometers, 89
by mercury thermometers, 88
by platinum resistance thermometers, 88
by thermistors, 88
errors in, 90–91
from ship injection temperatures,
89
measurement with depth, 95
by bathythermograph (BT), 95
by CTD, 96
by expendable bathythermograph
(XBT), 95
by reversing thermometers, 95
potential, 84, 84
practical scale, 76
surface, 234
thermistor, 88
thermocline, 81, 82, 82, 123–126, 129,
147, 202, 221
and current shear, 142
and Kelvin waves, 242
below Gulf Stream, 196
deep, 238
eddy diffusivity in, 124, 221
equatorial, 238, 242, 244–246, 252
in North Atlantic, 192
in numerical models, 251
mixing in, 126, 211, 219, 222
permanent, 82
seasonal, 82, 82, 147
shallow, 234
stability of, 129
upper, 235, 236
ventilated, 127
vertical velocity in, 219, 220
Thermohaline Circulation, 212
thermometer
mercury, 88
reversing, 88, 89, 95, 96, 101
on Nansen bottles, 95
tidal
currents, 105
amphidromes, 311
bore, 309
constituents, 306, 309
principal, 306
currents, 300
dissipation, 311
Doodson numbers, 306
frequencies, 304–308
hour angle, 304
potential, 301, 302
prediction, 308
altimetry plus numerical models, 310
altimetry plus response method,
310
deep water, 309
from hydrodynamic theory, 309
harmonic method, 308
response method, 309
shallow water, 308, 309
tides, 15, 271, 312
and perigee, 305
and storm surges, 263
and the equinox, 305
diurnal, 311
equilibrium, 306, 307
hour angle, 304
partial, 306
semi-diurnal, 311
theory of, 300–308
Topex/Poseidon, 11, 15, 33, 63, 156,
157, 182, 249, 290, 310, 312
accuracy of, 33, 157
ground tracks, 12
observations of dissipation, 311
observations of El Ni˜no, 159
observations of Gulf Stream, 156342 INDEX
observations of tides, 309
observations of topography, 157
tide map, 311
topographic blocking, 204
topographic steering, 204
topography, 32
dynamic, 155
measured by altimetry, 182
oceanic, 155
total derivative, 107
tracers, 175, 227
transport
across equator, 220
and Ekman pumping, 145, 147
and upwelling, 145
atmospheric, 81
by Antarctic Circumpolar Current,
222, 229, 231, 232, 269
by equatorial undercurrent, 236
by Gulf Stream, 192, 194, 198,
214
by waves, 276
calculated by Stommel and Arons,
220
carbon dioxide, 213
convergence of, 210
eastward, 144
Ekman, 142, 143, 145, 206–209
Ekman mass, 143, 144, 147
Ekman volume, 144
Ekman, observations of, 144
equatorial, 234
geostrophic mass, 189
global Sverdrup, 187
heat, 2, 51, 67, 70–72, 122, 212–
215
heat in North Atlantic, 232
heat upward, 123
in North Atlantic, 193, 194
in Pacific, 185, 186, 210
in Southern Ocean, 230
in western boundary currents, 192,
220
mass, 199, 212, 221
mass and storm surges, 299
meridional, 68–70
momentum, 119
northward, 184, 198
northward heat, 216
northward in trades, 208
southward in westerlies, 208
stream function, 189–191
surface mass, 189
Sverdrup, 183–185
through Drake Passage, 230
volume, 107, 188
volume, in deep ocean, 212
wind-driven, 136
trenches, 28
tropical convergence zone, 235
tsunami, 3, 256, 293
Cascadia 1700, 299
characteristics, 297
Hawaiian, 298
Indian Ocean, 297
tsunamis, 105, 297
turbulence, 25, 103, 193, 254
atmospheric, 287
calculation of, 254, 260
closure problem, 122, 261
due to tides, 212
in deep ocean, 28
in Gulf Stream, 198
in mixed layer, 81
in numerical models, 253
isotropic, 122
laboratory, 194
measurement of, 48, 117, 125
oceanic, 194
Reynolds number, 132
subgrid, 260, 270
theory of, 15, 16, 121, 123
transition to, 117
two dimensional, 25
turbulent
boundary layer, 121
fine structure, 124
mixing, 122, 123, 126, 130, 131
stress, 117, 119, 183
upwelling, 145, 215
and carbon storage, 213INDEX 343
and deep circulation, 219, 220
and fisheries, 145
and water temperature, 145
coastal, 145, 146, 149
due to Ekman pumping, 2, 145
equatorial, 234, 242, 244
importance of, 145
in North Pacific, 218
in thermocline, 125
of Circumpolar deep Water, 231
radiance, 99
vibratron, 94
viscosity, 115
eddy, 120
molecular, 116
turbulent, 116
vorticity, 199
absolute, 200, 210
conservation of, 202
water
clarity of, 98
compressibility coefficient, 113
type, 3, 224
type mixing, 224, 225
water flux
calculation of, 60
water mass, 223, 226
Antarctic Bottom Water, 226
Antarctic Intermediate Water, 226
Circumpolar Deep Water, 226
deep circulation, 224
North Atlantic Deep Water, 226
wave
solitary, 309
waves
breaking, 295
currents, 296
dispersion relation, 272
edge, 297
edge waves, 105
energy, 274
equatorial, 105
fetch, 286
forecasting, 287
Fourier series, 278
Fourier transform, 278
generation by wind, 287
group velocity, 273
internal waves, 105
Kelvin, 105, 242, 244–246, 252,
271, 273
length, 272
linear theory, 271
measurement of, 289–291
gages, 289
satellite altimeters, 290
synthetic aperture radars, 290
momentum, 276
nonlinear, 276
Nyquist critical frequency, 280
period, 272
periodogram, 281
phase velocity, 272
planetary waves, 105
Rossby, 105, 242, 244–246, 273
shoaling, 293
significant height, 275
solitary, 276
spectra, 283
calculating, 281
concept, 277
energy, 282
JONSWAP, 285
Pierson-Moskowitz, 283
wave-height, 282
surface waves, 105
tidal currents, 105
tsunamis, 105
Yanai, 105
westerly wind bursts, 242
western boundary currents
Stommels Theory, 189
wind, 104
Beaufort scale, 43, 44, 49
from numerical weather models,
47, 49
from scatterometers, 44, 47, 49,
59, 250, 289
generation of waves, 287
global map, 40344 INDEX
global mean, 42
measurement of, 43–46
speed, 59
wind sea, 287
wind stress, 48, 49, 184, 191, 192
and drag coefficient, 48
and Ekman layer, 138
and Ekman pumping, 147
and mass transport in ocean, 144
and numerical models, 257, 259,
260
and storm surges, 299
and surface currents, 147
and Sverdrup transport, 187
annual average, 185, 191
anomalies, 251
calculation of, 59
components, 137, 184
curl of, 183, 184, 192, 198, 199,
207–210
daily averages of, 64
equatorial, 238, 242
from numerical models, 65
is a vector, 59
mean annual, 257
zonal average, 185
wind-driven circulation, 105
Windsat, 45
World Ocean Circulation Experiment,
11, 12, 16, 125, 229
zonal, 79
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