Introduction to AutoCAD 2023 for Civil Engineering Applications

Introduction to AutoCAD 2023 for Civil Engineering Applications
اسم المؤلف
Nighat Yasmi
التاريخ
29 أبريل 2024
المشاهدات
90
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Introduction to AutoCAD 2023 for Civil Engineering Applications
Learning to use AutoCAD’for Civil Engineering Projects
Nighat Yasmin Ph.D.
Clemson University
TABLE OF CONTENTS

  1. INTRODUCTION TO ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 1
    1.1. Learning Objectives 1
    1.2. Engineering Problem 2
    1.3. Technical Drawing 2
    1.4. Drawing Methods 2
    1.5. Drawing Standards 4
    1.6. Scale 4
    1.6.1. Type of scale 4
    1.6.1.1. Representative Fraction 4
    1.6.1.2. Equivalence relation 5
    1.6.1.3. Converting RF to ER 5
    1.6.1.4. Graphical representation 6
    1.7. Scale Of A Drawing 7
    1.7.1. Full-scale 7
    1.7.2. Large scale 7
    1.7.3. Small scale 7
    1.8. Computer Aided Graphics 8
    1.8.1. AutoCAD 2023 8
    1.8.2. AutoCAD and drawing scale 8
  2. GETTING STARTED WITH AUTOCAD 2023 11
    2.1. Learning Objectives 11
    2.2. Introduction 12
    2.3. Focus Of The Book 16
    2.4. Initial Setup 16
    2.5. Typical Window Screen 18
    2.6. Drawing Area 19
    2.6.1. Model space 20
    2.6.2. Paper space and layout 21
    2.6.3. Display/hide model and layout tabs 22
    2.7. Status Bar 23
    2.8. The Cursor 25
    2.8.1. Location of the cursor 26
    2.8.2. Size of the intersecting lines 26
    2.8.3. Size of the aperture 27
    2.8.4. Color of the cursor 27
    2.9. World Coordinate System (WCS) 28
    2.10. Scrollbars 29
    2.11. ViewCube 29
    2.11.1. ViewCube settings 30
    2.11.2. View switching 31
    2.12. Drawing Display Format 32
    2.13. Command Line Window 34
    2.13.1. Move the CLW 35
    2.13.2. Display/hide the CLW. 35
    2.13.3. Resize the CLW 36
    2.13.4. Change the color of the CLW 36
    2.13.5. Change the font of the CLW. 37
    2.14. Ribbon 38Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
    2.14.1. Color scheme 39
    2.14.2. Relocate 39
    2.14.3. Hide or display a ribbon 41
    2.14.4. States 45
    2.14.5. Ribbon’s tab 46
    2.14.5.1. Display or hide tabs 46
    2.14.5.2. Tab relocation 46
    2.14.5.3. New tab 47
    2.14.6. Ribbon’s panel 52
    2.14.6.1. Panel components 52
    2.14.6.2. Display or hide panel 54
    2.14.6.3. Panel relocation 55
    2.14.6.4. Floating panel 56
    2.14.6.5. Create new panel 57
    2.14.6.6. Add panel to a tab 60
    2.14.6.7. Add commands to a panel 60
    2.15. Workspace 66
    2.15.1. Save a workspace 66
    2.15.2. Rename a workspace 67
    2.15.3. Switch a workspace 68
    2.15.4. Delete a workspace 68
    2.16. Basics Of A Drawing File 70
    2.17. New Drawing J 70
    2.18. Drawing’sName 74
    2.19. Drawing Units 74
    2.19.1. Length 74
    2.19.2. Angle 76
    2.19.3. Insertion scale 78
    2.19.4. Convert measurements from ISO to ANSI (and vice versa) 78
    2.20. Drawing Limits 80
    2.21. Grid (I I) And Snap (I‘ ‘ I)Commands 82
    2.21.1. Toggle grid and snap in the model space 83
    2.21.2. Toggle the grid and snap in the layout 85
    2.21.3. Grid properties 85
    2.21.3.1. Grid style 85
    2.21.3.2. Grid spacing 85
    2.21.3.3. Gridbehavior 86
    2.21.3.4. Grid color 87
    2.21.4. Snap properties 87
    2.21.4.1. Snap spacing 87
    2.21.4.2. Polar spacing 87
    2.21.4.3. Snap type 87
    2.22. Save A File 89
    2.22.1. Save As 89
    2.22.2. SaveH 90
    2.23. Open A Pre-existing File 1^1 91
    2.24. Close A File 93
    2.25. Exit AutoCAD 94
  3. TWO-DIMENSIONAL DRAWINGS 97
    3.1. Learning Objectives 97
    3.2. Introduction 98Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications iii
    3.3. Dynamic Input 98
    3.3.1. Toggle dynamic input 99
    3.3.2. Components of a dynamic input 99
    3.3.2.1. Pointer input 100
    3.3.2.2. Dimension input 101
    3.3.2.3. Dynamic prompts 103
    3.3.3. Drafting tooltip appearance 104
    3.4. Input Data 105
    3.4.1.1. Tab key 105
    3.4.1.2. Comma key 106
    3.4.1.3. Less than key 107
    3.4.1.4. Remove typing errors from the dynamic input tooltips 107
    3.5. Reference System 107
    3.5.1. Cartesian coordinates 108
    3.5.2. Polar coordinates 108
    3.5.3. AutoCAD and the coordinate systems 109
    3.5.3.1. Absolute Cartesian coordinates 109
    3.5.3.2. Relative Cartesian coordinates 110
    3.5.3.3. Absolute Polar coordinates Ill
    3.5.3.4. Relative Polar coordinates Ill
    3.6. Point l’-‘l 112
    3.6.1. Change style and size of a point 113
    3.6.1.1. Style 113
    3.6.1.2. Point size 113
    3.7. Line KJ 114
    3.7.1. Points selection 114
    3.7.2. Snap points 116
    3.7.3. Cartesian coordinates 117
    Polar coordinates 117
    Object Appearance
    3.15.1. Color Control 150
    3.15.1.1. Set color of an object before it is drawn 150
    3.15.1.2. Change color of an object after it is drawn 150
    3.15.2. Lineweight Control 151
    3.15.2.1. Change thickness of a line before it is drawn 152
    3.15.2.2. Change thickness of a line after it is drawn 152
    3.15.3. Linetype Control 153
    3.15.3.1. Load a linetype 153
    3.15.3.2. Change linetype before an object is drawn 155
    3.15.3.3. Change linetype after an object is drawn 155
    3.15.3.4. Linetype scale 156Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
    3.16. Table U=U 158
    3.16.1. Create a table 160
    3.16.2. Table resize 160
    3.16.3. Modify table’s shape 162
    3.16.4. The cursor movement 165
    3.16.5. Insert a multiline text in a cell. 165
    3.16.6. The data type 166
    3.16.7. Populate the table 167
    3.16.8. Modify the contents of a table 168
    3.16.8.1. Table Style dialog box 168
    3.16.8.2. Table update using the property palette 174
  4. TWO-DIMENSIONAL DRAWINGS’ EDITING 179
    4.1. Learning Objectives 179
    4.2. Introduction 180
    4.3. Grips 180
    4.3.1. Grips toggle 180
    4.3.2. Change the size and color of the grips 181
    4.4. Object Selection 182
    4.4.1. Method #1: Green Method. 182
    4.4.1.1. Version#! (Lasso method) 182
    4.4.1.2. Version #2 (Rectangle method) 183
    4.4.2. Method #2: Blue Method 183
    4.4.2.1. Version#! (Lasso method) 183
    4.4.2.2. Version #2 (Rectangle method) 183
    4.4.3. Method #3 184
    4.5. Similar Object Selection 184
    4.6. Object De-Selection 185
    4.7. Zoom Capabilities 185
    Object Snap —I
    Toggle object snap
    Size and color of the object snap cursor
    Object snap commands
    Endpoint l_!_.
    Midpoint zC.Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications v
    4.10.3.3. Node C
    4.10.3.4. Intersection E I
    4.10.3.5. Extension I I
    4.10.3.6. Apparent intersection 1^ I
    4.10.3.7. Center I® I.
    4.10.3.8. Quadrant EH
    4.10.3.9. Geometric center B
    ra
    4.10.3.10. Tangent z
    4.10.3.11. Perpendicular EZI
    4.11. The Editing Commands
    4.12. Cancel 202
    4.13. Erase LJ 203
    4.13.1. Erase one object 203
    4.13.1.1. Using delete key 203
    4.13.1.2. Using Erase tool 203
    4.13.2. Erase multiple objects simultaneously 203
    4.14. Undo® 204
    4.14.1. Undo one command 204
    4.14.2. Undo several commands 204
    4.15. Redo 204
    4.15.1. Redo one command 205
    4.15.2. Redo several commands 205
    4.16. Oops
    4.17. Delete Duplicate Objects f
    Polar array
    Fill angle
    Angle between
    Polar array and grip points
    Copy L
    Array
    Edit array.
    Mirror
    Path array L_L
    Path array and grip points.
    Rectangular Array
    Rectangular array’s grip points
    4.22.1. Move in xy-plane 235
    4.22.2. Move in z-direction 235Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
    4.27. Break At A Point 244
    4.28. Explode 1 244
    4.29.
    4.30. Fillet 249
    4.31. Chamfer 252
    Trim
    Trim: FAQ.
    4.33. Extend 258
    4.36. The Properties Palette And Object Editing 269
    Lines
    Circular arc
    Polyline
    Spline
    Combination of objects
    Polyline Edit
    Grips And Object Editing
    Select a point
    Stretch/shrink
    Erase
    Move
    Scale
    Rotate
  5. ANNOTATIVE OBJECTS 273
    5.1. Learning Objectives 273
    5.2. Introduction 274
    5.3. Characteristics Of Annotative Objects 274
    5.3.1. Add a scale factor to the annotative object’s scale list 275
    5.3.2. Ghost objects 277
    5.4. Annotative Object’s Creation Process 278
    5.5. Text [AJ 279
    5.5.1. Multiline versus single line text 279
    5.5.2. Standard versus annotative text 279
    5.5.3. Annotative leader style 280
    5.5.3.1. Text style dialog box 281
    5.5.4. Create multiline annotative text 283
    5.5.5. Text Editor 285
    5.5.5.1. Style 286
    5.5.5.1.1. Font height 286
    5.5.5.1.2. Background mask 286
    5.5.5.2. Formatting 287
    5.5.5.2.1. Stacked characters 289
    5.5.5.3. Paragraph 289
    5.5.5.3.1. Justification 290
    5.5.5.3.2. List 291
    5.5.5.3.3. Line spacing 291
    5.5.5.3.4. Paragraph dialog box 292
    5.5.5.4. Insert 293
    5.5.5.4.1. Column 293
    5.5.5.4.2. Symbol 293Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications vii
    5.5.5.5. Spellcheck 294
    5.5.5.6. Tools 294
    5.5.5.7. Options 295
    5.5.5.8. Close 296
    5.5.6. Annotate tab and Text panel 296
    5.5.7. Modify multiline annotative text 297
    5.5.8. Delete text style 297
    5.5.9. Add the scales to the text properties 298
    5.5.10. Annotative text and viewport scale 298
    5.5.11. Text relocation 299
    5.5.12. Express Tools tab and Text panel
    Hatch
    Arc Aligned
    Enclose in object
    5.6.1. Hatch editor tab 307
    5.6.1.1.1. Boundaries 307
    5.6.1.1.2. Pattern 307
    5.6.1.1.3. Properties 308
    5.6.1.1.4. origin 309
    5.6.1.1.5. Options 310
    5.6.1.1.6. Close 313
    5.6.2. Create annotative hatch 314
    5.6.3. Add the scales to the hatch properties 315
    5.6.4. Update the viewports scales 316
    5.7. Leader Lines 12 316
    5.7.1. Annotative leader style 317
    5.7.2. Create annotative leader 319
    5.7.3. Add the scales to the leader properties 321
    5.7.4. Update the viewports scales 321
    5.7.5. Arrow 322
    5.7.6. Arrowhead size 323
    Annotation-Status Bar Button
    Annotation visibility
    Annotation auto scale
    Annotation Scale
    Viewport scale sync
    Conversion of Annotative Object to Non-annotative
  6. LAYERS 331
  7. 1 . Learning Objectives 331
    6.2. Introduction 332
    6.3. Layers In AutoCAD 333
    6.4. Layer Command 1^1 334
    6.5. Layer Properties Manager 334
    6.5.1. Characteristics of a layer 335
    I I
    6.5.2. Create a new layer 339
    6.5.3. Delete an existing layer 340
    6.5.4. Make a layer to be a current layer ‘ 341
    6.6. Drawing And Layers 341
    6.7. The Defpoints Layer 341viii Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
    6.8. Move Objects Between Layers 341
    6.9. Update Layer Properties 343
    6.10. Layers: FAQ 343
    6.11. Illustrative Example 344
  8. BLOCKS 349
    7.1. Learning Objectives 349
    7.2. Introduction 350
    Basic Block
    Create a basic block
    Block definition dialog box 351
    Wblock 354
    Create a Wblock
    Write block dialog box
    Block With Attributes
    The initial setup 356
    Attribute definition dialog box 357
    Create attributes 359
    Create block with attributes 360
    Convert to Wblock 360
    Block With Text Boxes 361
    Basic Block Insertion 0 363
    Insert dialog box 363
    Insert a block with default values 365
    Change the scale of the block at the insertion 366
    Rotate the block at the insertion 367
    Insert a Wblock 368
    Insert a block with attributes 369
    Insert a block with text boxes 370
    Combine Blocks 370
    Modify Block.
    Design Center (E)
    O]
    Insert a block (known dimension) „
    Insert a block (unknown dimension)
  9. LAYOUTS AND TEMPLATE 377
    8.1. Learning Objectives 377
    8.2. Introduction 378
    8.3. Layout 378
    8.3.1. Paper background and shadow 378
    8.3.2. Printable area 380
    8.3.3. Viewport 383
    8.3.3.1. Viewport resizing 383
    8.3.3.2. Multiple viewports 383
    8.3.3.3. Non-rectangular viewports 385
    8.3.3.4. Viewport scaling 387
    8.3.3.5. Rescale a viewport 387
    8.3.3.6. Lock the scale of a viewport 388
    8.4. Add An Entry In The Scale List 390
    8.5. Layout Manipulation 392
    8.5.1. Delete a layout 392
    8.5.2. Move a layout 393Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
    8.5.3. Copy a layout 394
    8.5.4. Rename a layout 395
    8.5.5. Insert a layout 396
    8.5.5.1. Default layout 396
    8.5.5.2. Layout from template 396
    8.5.6. Grid and Snap commands 397
    8.5.7. An Example 397
    8.6. Layers Freezing And Layouts 399
    8.7. Object Appearance And Layouts 401
    8.8. Template File 402
    8.8.1. Landscape template for ISO units 402
    8.8.2. Portrait template for ISO units 407
    8.8.3. Template for ANSI units 409
    8.9. Modify Attribute Of A Block In A Template File 409
  10. DIMENSIONS 411
    9.1. Learning Objectives 411
    9.2. Introduction 412
    9.3. Dimensioning In General 412
    9.4. Terminology 413
    9.5. Dimensions: Basic Rules 415
    9.6. Dimensions Styles 416
    9.6.1. Standard dimensions 416
    9.6.2. Annotative dimensions 416
    9.7. Illustrative Example 417
    9.8. Dimension Style Manager I1—H 418
    9.9. Modify Dimension Style Dialog Box 419
    9.9.1. Lines 420
    9.9.2. Symbols and arrows 421
    9.9.3. Text 422
    9.9.4. Fit 423
    9.9.5. Primary units 423
    9.9.6. Alternate units 424
    9.9.7. Tolerance 424
    9.10. Modify Dimension Style 424
    9.10.1. Modify dimension style using the dialog box
    9.10.2. Modify dimension style using the properties palette
    9.11. Dimensioning Techniques
    9.11.1. Linear dimensions tL
    9.11.1.1. Extension lines 426
    9.11.1.2. Object selection 427
    Text relocation 428
    Space adjustment
    Aligned dimensions
    Angular dimensions
    431
    9.11.3.1. Angles <180° 432 9.11.3.2. Angles >180°
    9.11.4. Dimensioning radii
    9.11.5. Dimensioning circles l^-y
    435X Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
    9.12. Center Mark 437
    9.12.1. Command line method 437
    9.12.2. Panel method – 439
    Smart Dimension 439
    Types Of Dimensions..
    Continue dimension
    Baseline dimensions
    Ordinate dimensions
    9.14.4. Tabular dimensions 446
    9.14.5. Combined dimensions 447
    9.15. Quick Dimension ^1 447
    9.16. Dimensioning Fillets And Rounds 448
    9.17. Centerline 448
    9.18. Line Of Symmetry 449
  11. TOLERANCE 451
    10.1. Learning Objectives 451
    10.2. Introduction 452
    10.3. Terminology 453
    10.4. Tolerance Methods 453
    10.4.1. Plus-minus method 453
    10.4.1.1. Unilateral 454
    10.4.1.2. Bilateral 454
    10.4.1.3. Tolerance expression 454
    10.4.1.4. Unilateral values 454
    10.4.1.5. Bilateral values 455
    10.4.1.6. Usage of Plus-minus tolerance 456
    10.4.2. Limits tolerance 456
    10.5. Standard Tolerance 456
    10.6. Double Dimensioning 457
    10.6.1. Double dimensioning: an error 457
    10.6.2. Solution #1 458
    10.6.3. Solution #2 458
    10.7. Chain And Baseline Dimension 458
    10.8. Tolerance Study 459
    10.9. Tolerance In AutoCAD 460
    10.9.1. Tolerance tab 461
    10.9.1.1. Tolerance format 461
    10.9.1.2. Tolerance Alignment 463
    10.9.1.3. Zero Suppression 463
    10.9.2. Add or modify tolerance 464
    10.9.2.1. Add or modify tolerance using the dialog box 464
    10.9.2.2. Add or modify tolerance using the property palette 464
  12. LAND SURVEY 467
    11.1. Learning Objectives 467
    11.2. Introduction 468
    11.3. Location 468
    11.3.1. Longitudes 468
    11.3.2. Latitudes 468
    11.3.3. Location on a map 469Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications xi
    11.4. Angular Measurement 469
    11.4.1. Units of measurement 470
    11.4.2. Direction 470
    11.4.2.1. Azimuth 470
    11.4.2.2. Bearing 470
    11.4.2.3. Relationship between azimuth and bearing 470
    11.5. Traverse 471
    11.5.1. Open traverse 472
    11.5.2. Closed traverse 472
    11.5.2.1. Connecting traverse 472
    11.5.2.2. Loop traverse 472
    11.6. Drawing A Traverse Using AutoCAD 473
    11.6.1. Traverse for the given azimuths 473
    11.6.2. Traverse for the given bearings 476
    11.7. Add Dimensigns To A Traverse 477
    11.7.1. Length 477
    11.7.2. Add reference line to a traverse 478
    11.7.3. Azimuth angle 479
    11.7.4. Bearing angle 479
    11.7.5. Save the file 479
    11.8. Parcel 479
    11.9. Deed 479
    11.10. Land Survey 480
    11.11. Rectangular System 480
    11.11.1. Reference lines 480
    11.11.2. Township and range 481
    11.12. Metes And Bounds 484
    11.12.1. Land description using metes and bounds 484
    11.12.2. AutoCAD And Metes And Bounds 485
    11.13. Lots And Blocks 487
    11.13.1. Terminology 487
    11.13.2. Lots And Blocks 488
    11.13.3. AutoCAD And Lot And Block. 488
    11.13.4. Area of a lot 494
    11.13.4.1. Closed boundary method 494
    11.13.4.2. Hatch method 495
    11.13.4.3. Area command method 496
  13. CONTOURS 499
    12.1. Learning Objectives 499
    12.2. Introduction 500
    12.3. Characteristics Of A Contour Line 501
    12.4. Terminology 501
    12.5. AutoCAD And Contour Map 505
    12.5.1. Create Script file 505
    12.5.2. Create layers 505
    12.5.3. Change point style 506
    12.5.4. Read the script files 507
    12.5.5. Create the contour map 507
    12.5.6. Curve fitting 508
    12.5.7. Add the labels to the index contours 509
  14. DRAINAGE BASIN 511
    13.1. Learning Objectives 511
    13.2. Introduction 512
    13.3. Hydrologic Cycle 512xii Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
    13.4. Terminology 512
    13.5. Drainage Basin or Watershed 514
    13.6. Drainage Basin Characteristics 514
    13.6.1. Drainage area 514
    13.6.2. Drainage basin length 575
    13.6.3. Drainage basin slope 575
    13.6.4. Miscellaneous 575
    13.7. Major Steps In A Drainage Basin Delineation 515
    13.8. Drainage Basin Delineation Using AutoCAD 516
  15. FLOODPLAINS 525
  16. 1. Learning Objectives 525
    14.2. Introduction 526
    14.3. Terminology 526
    14.4. Major Steps In A Floodplain Delineation 529
    14.5. Floodplain Delineation Using AutoCAD 529
  17. ROAD DESIGN 545
    15.1. Learning Objectives 545
    15.2. Introduction 546
    15.3. Plan And Profile 546
    15.3.1. Plan 547
    15.3.2. Profile 547
    15.4. Draw Road Plan Using AutoCAD 547
    15.5. Plot A Road Profile Using AutoCAD 550
    15.6. Cross-Section 556
    15.7. Draw A Cross-Section Using AutoCAD 556
  18. EARTHWORK 565
    16.1. Learning Objectives 565
    16.2. Introduction 566
    16.3. Earthwork 566
    16.3.1. Cut 566
    16.3.2. Fill 566
    16.3.3. Location of a road. 566
    16.4. Slope 566
    16.5. Angle Of Repose 567
    16.6. ROAD: Plan And Existing Profile 568
    16.7. Proposed Profile Of A Road 568
    16.8. Delineate The Earthwork Using AutoCAD 570
  19. FLOORPLAN 577
    17.1. Learning Objectives 577
    17.2. Introduction 578
    17.3. FloorPlan 580
    17.4. Wall 580
    17.4.1. Exterior 581
    17.4.2. Interior 581
    17.4.3. Load bearing 581
    17.4.4. Non-load bearing 581
    17.4.5. Wall thickness 581
    17.5. Doors 581
    17.5.1. Types of Doors 581
    17.5.2. Door sizes 583
    17.5.3. Door selection 584Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications xiii
    17.5.4. Door appearance in floor plan 584
    17.6. Windows 585
    17.6.1. Types of windows 585
    17.6.2. Window sizes 586
    17.6.3. Window selection 586
    17.7. Stair 587
    17.7.1. Terminology 587
    17.7.2. Important points to remember 588
    17.7.3. Types of stairs 588
    17.8. Basics Of Floor Plan Design 589
    17.9. Design Technique 591
    17.10. AutoCAD And Floor Plan 591
    17.10.1. New file 591
    17.10.2. The input units 591
    17.10.2.1. Architectural 592
    17.10.2.2. Precision 592
    17.10.3. Load linetypes 592
    17.10.4. Orthogonal lines 592
    17.10.5. Layers 593
    17.10.6. The floor plan 593
    17.10.6.1. Exterior wall 593
    17.10.6.2. Interior walls 594
    17.10.6.3. Label 595
    17.10.6.4. Doors 596
    17.10.6.5. Walls cleanup 599
    17.10.6.6. Windows 600
    17.10.6.7. Wall hatch 603
    17.10.6.8. Roofline 603
    17.10.6.9. Frontporch 604
    17.10.6.10. Back patio 605
    17.10.6.11. Kitchen 605
    17.10.6.12. Master bathroom 608
    17.10.6.13. North direction 611
    17.10.6.14. Other bathroom 611
    17.10.6.15. The complete floor plan 611
    17.11. Dimensioning An Architectural Drawing 611
    17.11.1. Create Layers 612
    17.11.2. Set Dimension Style dialog box 612
    17.11.3. Add dimensions to the floor plan 614
  20. ELEVATIONS 623
    18.1. Learning Objectives 623
    18.2. Introduction 624
    18.3. Roof 626
    18.3.1. Terminology 626
    18.3.2. Types of roof. 626
    18.3.3. Important points 626
    18.4. AutoCAD And Roof Plan 627
    18.4.1. Open file 627
    18.4.2. Load linetypes 627
    18.4.3. Layers 627
    18.4.4. The roof plan 628
    18.5. The Front Elevation 631
    18.5.1. Open file 631
    18.5.2. Load linetypes 631
    18.5.3. Orthogonal lines 631
    18.5.4. Layers 631xiv Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
    18.5.5. Draw the front elevation 632
    18.5.5.1. Ground level 632
    18.5.5.2. Slab level 633
    18.5.5.3. Doors 633
    18.5.5.4. Windows 635
    18.5.5.5. Front wall 638
    18.5.5.6. Roof 640
    18.5.5.7. Frontporch 641
    18.5.5.8. Landscaping 643
    18.5.5.9. Complete front elevation 643
    18.6. The Right-Side Elevation 643
    18.6.1. Open file 644
    18.6.2. Load linetypes 644
    18.6.3. Layers 645
    18.6.4. Orthogonal lines 645
    18.6.5. Miter line 645
    18.6.6. Ground and slab level 645
    18.6.7. Doors 646
    18.6.8. Windows 647
    18.6.9. Wall 648
    18.6.10. Roof. 649
    18.6.11. Complete right-side elevation 652
    18.6.12. Front and right-side elevations 654
    18.7. Back And Left-Side Elevations 654
  21. SITE PLAN 655
    19.1. Learning Objectives 655
    19.2. Introduction 656
    19.3. Terminology 656
    19.4. Components Of A Site Plan 656
    19.5. AutoCAD And Site Plan 657
    19.5.1. Open file 657
    19.5.2. Layers 659
    19.5.3. Units 659
    19.5.4. Load linetypes 659
    19.5.5. Property line 660
    19.5.6. North 661
    19.5.7. Ground slope 661
    19.5.8. Setbacks 662
    19.5.9. Road 663
    19.5.10. Adjacent properties 664
    19.5.11. Building 665
    19.5.12. Driveway 666
    19.5.13. Walkway 667
    19.5.14. Swimming pool 669
    19.5.15. Utilities 671
    19.5.16. Template file 672
  22. CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS 675
    20.1. Learning Objectives 675
    20.2. Introduction 676
    20.3. Drawing Format 676
    20.4. Blocks Used 676
    20.5. Family Of Construction Drawing 678
    20.5.1. Cover sheet 678
    20.5.2. General information 678Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications xv
    20.5.3. Quantity sheet 678
    20.5.4. Survey or mapping 679
    20.5.5. Soil information 679
    20.5.6. Erosion control 679
    20.5.7. Landscape drawings 680
    20.5.8. Structural drawings 680
    20.5.9. Fire protection drawings 680
    20.5.10. Architectural drawings 680
    20.5.11. Plumbing drawings 680
    20.5.12. Mechanical drawings 680
    20.5.13. Electrical drawings 681
    20.5.14. Telecommunication drawings 681
    20.5.15. Plan and profile drawings 681
  23. PLOTTING FROM AUTOCAD 2023 683
    21.1. Learning Objectives 683
    21.2. Introduction 684
    21.3. Print O. 684
    21.3.1. Plot dialog box 686
    21.3.1.1. Page setup 686
    21.3.1.2. Printer/plotter 687
    21.3.1.3. Paper size 687
    21.3.1.4. Plot area 688
    21.3.1.5. Plot offset 693
    21.3.1.6. Plot scale 693
    21.3.1.7. Shaded viewport options 694
    21.3.1.8. Plot options 695
    21.3.1.9. Drawing orientation 696
    21.3.1.10. Preview 697
    21.3.1.11. Plot to layout 697
    21.3.1.12. OK and cancel 697
    21.4. Plot From Layouts 698
    21.5. Change Layout’s Orientation 700
    21.6. Page Setup From Layouts 703
    21.7. Layout Plotting: FAQ 705
    21.8. EmailDWGFile 706
    21.9. Portable Document Format (PDF) 706
    21.9.1. Create a PDF file 706
    21.9.2. Import a PDF file into AutoCAD 709
    21.10. Option Dialog Box 711
  24. EXTERNAL REFERENCE FILES (XREF) 713
    22.1. Learning Objectives 713
    22.2. Introduction 714
    22.3. AutoCAD And Referencing An External File 714
    22.3.1. Attach command 714
    22.3.2. Attach external reference dialog box 715
    22.3.2.1. Name 715
    22.3.2.2. Preview 716
    22.3.2.3. Reference type 716
    22.3.2.4. Scale 716
    22.3.2.5. Insertion point 717
    22.3.2.6. Path type 717
    22.3.2.7. Rotation 717
    22.3.2.8. Block unit 717
    22.3.3. File attachment 717xvi Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
    22.3.4. Unreconciled layers 719
    22.4. Reference An Image File 720
    22.5. Reference A PDF File 721
    22.6. 723
    22.9.1. 727
    22.9.1.1. 728
    22.9.1.2. 728
    22.9.1.3. 728
    22.9.1.4. 728
    22.9.1.5. Details 728
    22.7.
    22.8.
    22.9.
    725
    725
    726
    File Update
    View Reference Files
    22.9.1.6. Preview Q 728
    22.10. Open A Referenced File 728
    22.11. Detach A Referenced File 729
  25. SUGGESTED IN-CLASS ACTIVITIES 731
    23.1. Introduction 731
    23.2. Download AutoCAD 2023 732
    23.3. Customizea Workspace 733
    23.4. Grid and Snap Capabilities 734
    23.5. Erase, Line, Polyline and Polyline Edit 736
    23.6. Point, Circle, Polygon, Offset, Move, Trim, Extend, and Zoom 738
    23.7. Object appearance 742
    23.8. Object appearance, Hatch, Copy, Mirror, and Scale 744
    23.9. Array, Text, Hatch, Ellipse, qleader, and Draw Order 746
    23.10. Layers 748
    23.11. Make & Insert Block, and Template Files 750
    23.12. Create layouts and create views by freezing layers 752
    23.13. Dimension 755
    23.14. Azimuths, Bearing, and Closed Travers 757
    23.15. Closed Travers 760
    23.16. Lots and Blocks 763
    23.17. Rotate, Text, Background Mask Commands and Contour Map 764
    23.18. Drainage Basin Delineation 766
    23.19. Floodplain Delineation 768
    23.20. Road Design: Plan and Profile 772
    23.21. Road Design: Cross-Section 774
    23.22. Road Design: Earthwork 776
    23.23. Floorplan 778
    23.24. Floor Plan (Cont.) 780
    23.25. Dimensions (Architectural drawing) 782
    23.26. Roof Plan 784
    23.27. Front Elevation 786
    23.28. Right Side Elevation 788
    23.29. Site Plan 790
    23.30. Tables 792Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications xvii
  26. HOMEWORK DRAWINGS 795
    24.1. Grid-1 (Units: Inches) 795
    24.2. Grid-2 (Units: Millimeters) 796
    24.3. Circles (Units: Inches) 796
    24.4. Light Signal (Units: Inches) 797
    24.5. Plate with holes (Units: Inches) 798
    24.6. Circle-TTR (Units: Millimeters) 798
    24.7. Bridge Pier (Units: Millimeters) 799
    24.8. Object Properties (Units: Inches) 799
    24.9. Pipe Cutter (Units: Millimeters) 800
    24.10. Polygons and Circles (Units: Inches) 800
    24.11. Rectangular Array (Units: Inches) 801
    24.12. Polar Array (Units: Inches) 801
    24.13. Mirror, Copy, and Scale (Units: Inches) 802
    24.14. Spiral of Archimedes (Units: Millimeters) 804
    24.15. Elevator system (Units: Millimeters) 806
    24.16. Ferris wheel (Units: Millimeters) 810
  27. BIBLIOGRAPHY 813
  28. INDEX 817Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications 817
  29. Index
    Angular measurement, 469
    Azimuth, 470, 494, 495, 496
    Bearing, 470
    Conversion, 470
    Units, 470
    Annotation
    Convert annotative to non-annotative, 327
    Hatch, 314
    Status bar button, 323
    Annotative
    Leader style dialog box, 280
    Text style dialog box, 317
    Annotative Object’s
    Creation And Display Process, 278
    Annotative Objects
    Add scale to scale list, 275
    Characteristics, 274
    Ghost objects, 277
    Area of a lot, 494
    Array, 210
    Edit, 227
    Path, 223
    Grip points, 226
    Polar, 218
    Angle between, 222
    Fill angle, 221
    Rectangular, 210
    Grip points, 215
    Arrow, 322
    Arrow head size, 323
    AutoCAD, 70
    Start, 12
    Azimuth, 470, 473, 479, 494, 495, 496
    B
    Bearing, 470, 476, 479
    Blocks, 350
    Attributes, 356
    Basic, 350
    Combine, 370
    Convert to wblock, 360
    Create, 351
    Design center, 370
    Insert
    Default values, 365
    Known dimensions, 373
    Unknown dimensions, 374
    Insert dialog box, 363
    Modify, 370
    Text, 361
    Update attribute, 409
    Wblock, 354
    Break, 242
    Break at a point, 244
    Cancel, 202
    Center mark, 437
    Centerline, 437, 448, 449
    Chamfer, 252
    Circle, 120
    Diameter, 121
    Radius, 121
    Tangent, tangent, radius, 125
    Tangent, tangent, tangent, 127
    Three points, 123
    Two points, 122
    Circular Arc, 143
    Command line, 34
    Color, 36
    Display, 35
    Font, 37
    Hide, 35
    Move, 35
    Resize, 36
    Contour, 500
    AutoCAD, 505
    Characteristics, 501
    Curve fitting, 508
    Depression, 503
    Index contour, 502
    Labels, 509
    Peak, 503
    Ridge, 504
    Saddle, 503
    Script file, 505
    Slope, 502
    Stream, 504
    Terminology, 501
    Coordinate systems
    AutoCAD, 109
    Cartesian coordinates, 108
    Absolute, 109
    Relative, 110
    Polar coordinates, 108
    Absolute, 111
    Relative, 111818 Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
    Copy, 207
    Cursor, 25
    Customization, 23
    Deed, 479
    Design Center, 370
    Dimensions, 412
    Aligned, 431
    Angular, 431
    Angle < 180°, 432 Angle > 180°, 433
    Annotative, 416
    Basic Rules, 415
    Center mark, 437
    Centerline, 437
    Circle, 435
    Dimension Style Manager, 418
    Example, 417
    Extension Lines, 426
    Fillets, 448
    Linear, 426
    Modify styles, 419
    Arrow, 421
    Center mark, 421
    Lines, 420
    Text, 422
    Tolerance, 424
    Units, 423
    Modify using dialog box, 424
    Modify using property palette, 424
    Object selection, 427
    Quick dimensions, 447
    Radii, 434
    Rounds, 448
    Smart dimensions, 439
    Space adjustment, 429
    Standard, 416
    Standard vs Annotative, 416
    Terminology, 413
    Text relocation, 428
    Types of dimensions, 442
    Baseline, 443
    Combined, 447
    Continue, 442
    Ordinate, 445
    Tabular, 446
    Doors, 581
    Door appearance, 584
    Selection, 584
    Size, 583
    Types, 581
    Drafting and Annotation, 16
    Switch, 16
    Workspace, 18
    Drainage basin, 514
    Area, 514
    Delineation steps, 515
    Delineation using AutoCAD, 516
    Length, 515
    Miscellaneous, 515
    Slope, 515
    Draw order, 190
    Bring to front, 190
    Send to back, 190
    Drawing area, 19
    Drawing display format, 32
    Drawing limits, 80
    Drawing methods, 2
    Drawing name, 74
    Drawing standards, 4
    Drawing units, 74
    Angle, 76
    Conversion (ANSI-ISO), 78
    Insertion scale, 78
    Length, 74
    Dynamic input, 98
    Components, 99
    Dimension input, 101
    Dynamic prompts, 103
    Pointer input, 100
    Drafting tooltip appearance, 104
    On/Off, 99
    Earthwork, 566
    Angle of repose, 567
    AutoCAD, 570
    Cut, 566
    Fill, 566
    Road location, 566
    Slope, 566
    Elevation, 624
    Front and AutoCAD, 631
    Right side and AutoCAD, 643
    Ellipse, 138
    Elliptical Arc, 143
    Email drawing file, 706
    Erase, 203
    Existing profile of a road, 568
    Explode, 244
    Extend, 258
    File, 70
    Basic, 70
    Close, 93
    New, 70
    Open, 91
    Save, 89
    Fillet, 249
    Floodplain, 526Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications 819
    Delineation step, 529
    Delineation using AutoCAD, 529
    Terminology, 526
    Floor plan, 580
    AutoCAD, 591
    Back porch, 605
    Design Basic, 589
    Design techniques, 591
    Dimension, 611
    Doors, 596
    Exterior wall, 593
    Front porch, 604
    Interior wall, 594
    Label, 595
    North, 611
    Roofline, 603, 611
    Windows, 599, 600
    Input data, 105
    Comma key, 106
    Less than key, 107
    Tab key, 105
    Typing error, 107
    Join, 245
    Circular arc, 247
    Combination, 249
    Line, 246
    Polyline, 249
    Spline, 249
    Grid, 82
    Behavior, 86
    Color, 87
    Properties, 85
    Spacing, 85
    Style, 85
    Toggle (Layout), 85
    Toggle (Model space), 83
    Grips, 180
    Color, 181
    Object editing
    Erase, 267
    Move, 267
    Resize, 267
    Rotate, 268
    Scale, 268
    Selection, 266
    Size, 181
    Toggle, 180
    H
    Hatch, 305
    Annotation, 314
    Boundaries, 307
    Hatch creation, 307
    Hatch edit, 309, 310, 313
    Options, 309, 310, 313
    Pattern, 307
    Properties, 308
    Hydrograph, 528
    Discharge, 528
    Stage, 528
    Station-Stage, 528
    Hydrologic cycle, 512
    Terminology, 512
    Latitudes, 468
    Layers, 333
    Characteristics, 335
    Command, 334
    Create, 339
    Current, 341
    Defpoints, 341
    Delete, 340
    Drawing with layers, 341
    Example, 344
    FAQ, 343
    Manager, 334
    Move object, 341
    Update, 343
    Layout, 21, 378
    Background, 378
    Change orientation, 700
    Copy, 394
    Delete, 392
    Display tabs, 22
    Grid, 397
    Hide tabs, 22
    Insert
    Default layout, 396
    From template file, 396
    Layer example, 397
    Layer freeze, 399
    Move, 393
    Object appearance, 401
    Page setup, 703
    Plot, 698
    Printable area, 380
    Rename, 395
    Snap, 397
    Leader
    Create annotative Qleader, 319
    Leader
    Annotative820 Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
    Leader style dialog box, 280
    QLeader style dialog box, 280
    Create annotative leader, 319
    Leader lines, 316
    Arrow, 322
    Arrow head size, 323
    Line, 114
    Orthogonal line, 114, 118
    Points section, 114
    Polar coordinate, 117
    Snap points, 116
    Line of symmetry, 448, 449
    Linetype scale, 156
    Longitudes, 468
    Lots and blocks, 488
    Area, 494
    AutoCAD, 488
    Terminology, 487
    M
    Menu bar, 42
    Display, 42
    Hide, 44
    Metes and bounds, 484
    Mirror, 228
    Model space, 20
    Move, 233
    In xy-plane, 235
    In z-direction, 235
    0
    Object Appearance, 149
    Color, 150
    Linetype, 153
    Lineweight, 151
    Object de-selection, 185
    Object selection, 182
    Object selection- select similar, 184
    Object snap, 190
    Apparent Intersection, 197
    Center, 197, 198
    Endpoint, 194
    Extension, 196
    Intersection, 195
    Midpoint, 194
    Perpendicular, 200
    Quadrant, 198
    Tangent, 199
    Toggle, 192
    Offset, 230
    Oops, 205, 206
    Orthographic views, 578
    Page setup, 703
    Pan, 189
    Panel, 52
    Add commands, 60
    Command expender, 54
    Display, 54
    Expender, 52, 53, 54
    Floating, 56
    New, 57
    Relocate, 55
    Paper space, 21
    Parcel, 479
    PDF
    Create, 706
    Import, 709
    Plan of a road, 568
    Plot, 684
    Layout, 698
    Layout plotting problems, 705
    OK and cancel, 697
    Option dialog box, 711
    Orientation, 696
    Page setup, 686
    Page setup, 703
    Paper size, 687
    Plot area, 688
    Display, 688
    Extents, 692
    Layout, 692
    Limits, 690
    Window, 690
    Plot Offset, 693
    Plot options, 695
    Plot scale, 693
    Plot to layout, 697
    Preview, 697
    Printer, 687
    Shaded viewport options, 694
    Plot dialog box, 686, 728
    Point, 112
    Point measure, 534, 557
    Size, 113
    Style, 113
    Pointer, 25
    Polygon, 129
    Polyline, 133
    Angle, 134
    Arc, 133
    CEnter, 135
    Direction, 136
    Halfwidth, 136
    Polyline edit, 261
    Close, 262
    Decurve, 265
    Edit vertex, 265
    Fit, 264Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications 821
    Join, 263 Profile, 547
    Open, 263 Profile and AutoCAD, 550
    Spline, 265 Roof, 626
    Undo, 265 Roof plan, 627
    Width, 264 Terminology, 626
    Print, 684 Types, 626
    Properties Palette Rotate, 236
    Object editing, 269
    Proposed profile of a road, 568
    S
    Q 1 Scale, 4, 238
    AutoCAD, 8
    Qleader lines, 316 Conversion, 5
    Arrow, 322 Equivalence relation, 5
    Arrow head size, 323 Full, 7
    Graphical representation, 6
    Large, 7
    R I Representative Fraction, 4
    Small, 7
    Rectangle, 144
    Type, 4
    Rectangular system, 480 Scale list, 390
    Range, 481 Add an entry, 390
    Township, 481 Scroll bars, 29
    Redo, 204 Site plan, 656
    Reference system, 107
    AutoCAD, 657
    Cartesian coordinates, 108
    Component, 656
    Absolute, 109
    Terminology, 656
    Relative, 110
    Snap, 82
    Polar coordinates, 108 Polar spacing, 87
    Absolute, 111
    Properties, 87
    Relative, 111
    Spacing, 87
    Ribbon, 38
    Toggle (Layout), 85
    Color, 39
    Toggle (Model space), 83
    Display, 42
    Type, 87
    Hide, 41
    Stair, 587
    Move, 39
    Terminology, 587
    Panel, 52
    Types, 588
    Add commands, 60
    Status bar, 23
    Command expander, 54
    Customization, 23
    Components, 52 Status bar button
    Display, 54
    Annotation, 323
    Expender, 52, 53, 54 Stretch, 240
    Floating, 56
    New, 57
    Relocate, 55 T
    States, 45
    Tab, 46 Tab, 46
    Add panel, 60 Add panel, 60
    Display, 46 Display, 46
    Hide, 46 Hide, 46
    New, 47 New, 47
    Relocate, 46 Relocate, 46
    Road design, 546 Table, 158
    Cross-section, 556 Create, 160
    Cross-section and AutoCAD, 556 Cursor movement, 165
    Plan, 547 Data type, 166
    Plan and AutoCAD, 547 Dialog box, 160
    PnP, 546 Modify contents, 168822 Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
    Multiline text, 165
    Populate, 167
    Property palette, 174
    Reshape, 162
    Resize, 160
    Style dialog box, 168
    Technical Drawing, 2
    Template file, 402
    Create Landscape, 402
    Create Portrait, 407
    Update title block, 409
    Text, 279
    Annotate tab, 296
    Annotative
    Text style dialog box, 317
    Arc aligned, 302
    Background mask, 286
    Column, 293
    Create multiline annotative text, 283
    Create multiline text, 283
    Delete text style, 297
    Enclose in object, 304
    Express tools, 302
    Insert, 293
    Justification, 290
    Line spacing, 291
    List, 291
    Modify multiline text, 297
    Multiline vs single line, 279
    Options, 295
    Paragraph, 289
    Paragraph dialog box, 292
    Spell check, 294
    Stacked characters, 289
    Standard vs annotative text, 279
    Symbol, 293
    Text editor, 285
    Background mask, 286
    close, 296
    Column, 293
    Font height, 286
    Format, 287
    Line spacing, 291
    List, 291
    Options, 295
    Paragraph, 289, 292
    Spell check, 294
    Stacked character, 289
    Style, 286
    Symbol, 293
    Tools, 294
    Tools, 294
    Viewport scale, 298
    Tolerance, 452
    Add or Modify, 464
    Using dialog box, 464
    Using properties palette, 464
    AutoCAD, 460
    Chain and baseline dimension, 458
    Direct, 453
    Double dimensioning, 457
    Limits, 456
    Plus-minus, 453
    Bilateral, 454
    Expression, 454
    Unilateral, 454
    Usage, 456
    Standard, 456
    Terminology, 453
    Tolerance study, 459
    Tolerance tab, 461
    Traverse, 471
    Add dimension, 477
    Add NS to traverse, 478
    AutoCAD, 473
    Azimuth, 473, 479
    Display, 479
    Draw, 473
    Bearing, 476, 479
    Display, 479
    Draw, 476
    Closed, 472
    Open, 472
    Trim, 255
    FAQ, 258
    Undo, 204
    u
    ViewCube, 29
    Setting, 30
    Switching, 31
    Viewport, 383
    Lock scale, 388
    Multiple, 383
    Non-rectangular, 385
    Rescale, 387
    Resize, 383
    Scale, 387
    Wall, 580
    Exterior, 581
    Interior, 581
    Load bearing, 581
    Non-load bearing, 581
    Thickness, 581
    Watershed, 514
    Window, 585
    Selection, 586
    Size, 586Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications 823
    Types, 585
    Working drawing, 676
    Workspace, 66
    Delete, 68
    Rename, 67
    Save, 66
    Switch, 68
    World Coordinate System, 28
    Xref, 714
    Attach drawing file, 714
    Attach external reference dialog box, 715
    Clip, 723
    Detach referenced file, 729
    File update, 725
    Image file, 720
    Open referenced file, 728
    PDF file, 721
    Remove clip, 725
    Unreconciled layers, 719
    View reference files, 726
    Z
    Zoom, 185
    Zoom center, 187
    Zoom object, 188
    Zoom scale, 187
    Zoom window, 185
    Zoom-all, 189
    Zoom-in, 188
    Zoom-out, 188
    Zoom-wheel, 18

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