Make – Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Vol2 – Signal Processing

Make – Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Vol2 – Signal Processing
اسم المؤلف
Charles Platt with Fredrik Jansson
التاريخ
27 أبريل 2024
المشاهدات
113
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
Loading...

Make – Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Vol2 – Signal Processing
Charles Platt with Fredrik Jansson
LEDs , LCDs , Audio , Thyristors , Digital Logic , Amplification
Table of ContentsSymbol Variants . 11
How It Works . 12
Switching AC 13
Variants 13
Values 14
What Can Go Wrong 14
Unexpected Triggering Caused by Heat 14
Low-Temperature Effects 14
Manufacturing Tolerances . 14

  1. triac . 15
    What It Does 15
    Symbol Variants . 15
    How It Works . 17
    Quadrants 17
    Threshold, Latching, and Holding Current 18
    Triac Testing 19
    Breakover Voltage . 20
    Switching AC 20
    Triac Triggered by a Diac . 22
    Other Triac Drivers 22
    Charge Storage . 23
    Variants 23
    Values 23
    What Can Go Wrong 24
    Unexpected Triggering Caused by Heat 24
    Low-Temperature Effects 24
    Wrong Type of Load . 24
    Wrongly Identified Terminals 24
    Failure to Switch Off . 24

INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

ANALOG

  1. solid-state relay . 25
    What It Does 25
    Advantages . 25
    Disadvantages 26
    How It Works . 26
    Variants 27
    Instantaneous versus Zero Crossing 27
    NC and NO Modes . 28
    Packaging 28
    Solid-State Analog Switch . 28
    Values 29
    How to Use It . 29
    What Can Go Wrong 30
    vi Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 2Overheating Caused by Overloading . 30
    Overheating Caused by Bad Terminal Contact 30
    Overheating Caused by Changing Duty Cycle 30
    Overheating Caused by Component Crowding . 30
    Overheating in Dual Packaging 30
    Reverse-Voltage Burnout 30
    Low Voltage Output Current May Not Work 30
    Inability to Measure AC Output 30
    Relay Turns On but Won’t Turn Off . 31
    Relays in Parallel Won’t Work . 31
    Output Device Doesn’t Run at Full Power . 31
    Solid-State Relays and Safety Disconnects 31
  2. optocoupler . 33
    What It Does 33
    How It Works . 34
    Variants 35
    Internal Sensors . 35
    Basic Optocoupler Types 36
    Values 36
    How to Use It . 36
    What Can Go Wrong 37
    Age . 37
    LED Burnout 37
    Transistor Burnout 37
  3. comparator 39
    What It Does 39
    Hysteresis . 39
    How It Works . 39
    Differences from an Op-Amp 42
    Variants 42
    Values 43
    How to Use It . 44
    AND gate . 45
    Bistable Multivibrator . 46
    Relaxation Oscillator 46
    Level Shifter . 46
    Window Comparator 46
    Other Applications 47
    What Can Go Wrong 47
    Oscillating Output . 47
    Confused Inputs 48
    Wrong Chip Type 48
    Omitted Pullup Resistor . 48
    CMOS Issues 48
    Erratic Output . 48
    Swapped Voltages 48
    Heat-Dependent Hysteresis 48
    Table of Contents vii7. op-amp 49
    What It Does 49
    How It Works . 49
    Dual Inputs . 50
    Negative Feedback 51
    Op-Amps and Comparators 52
    Variants 52
    Values 52
    How to Use It . 53
    Controlling the Gain . 53
    Calculating Amplification 53
    Unintentional DC Voltage Amplification 54
    Low-Pass Filter 54
    High-Pass Filter . 55
    Relaxation Oscillator 55
    Single Power Source . 56
    Offset Null Adjustment 56
    What Can Go Wrong 57
    Power Supply Problems . 57
    Bad Connection of Unused Sections . 57
    Oscillating Output . 57
    Confused Inputs 58
  4. digital potentiometer . 59
    What It Does 59
    Advantages . 59
    How It Works . 60
    Variants 61
    Volatile and Nonvolatile Memory 61
    Taper . 62
    Data Transfer 62
    SPI 62
    I2C Protocol . 63
    Up/Down Protocol 63
    Other Control Systems 64
    Connections and Modes . 64
    Values 65
    How to Use It . 66
    Achieving Higher Resolution 66
    What Can Go Wrong 67
    Noise and Bad Inputs 67
    Wrong Chip . 67
    Controller and Chip Out of Sync . 67
    Nonlinear Effects 67
    Data Transfer Too Fast . 67
  5. timer 69
    What It Does 69
    Monostable Mode . 69
    viii Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 2Astable Mode . 70
    How It Works . 70
    Variants 70
    The 555 Timer . 70
    555 Monostable Operation 71
    555 Astable Operation . 72
    556 Timer . 73
    558 Timer . 73
    CMOS 555 Timer 74
    5555 Timer 74
    7555 Timer 74
    7556 Timer 74
    4047B Timer 75
    Dual Monostable Timers . 75
    Values 76
    555 Timer Values 76
    Time Calculation in Monostable Mode . 77
    Time Calculation in Astable Mode 77
    Dual Monostable Timers . 77
    How to Use It . 79
    555 Monostable Mode 79
    555 Astable Mode . 80
    Separate Control of High and Low Output Times . 80
    555 Fifty Percent Astable Duty Cycle: 1 . 80
    555 Fifty Percent Astable Duty Cycle: 2 . 81
    Use of the 555 Control Pin . 81
    555 Flip-Flop Emulation . 82
    555 Hysteresis . 83
    555 and Coupling Capacitors 84
    555 Loudspeaker Connection 84
    Burst Mode . 84
    “You Lose” Game Sound . 85
    What Can Go Wrong 85
    Dead Timer . 85
    CMOS Confused with Bipolar 86
    The Pulse that Never Ends . 86
    Erratic Chip Behavior 86
    Interference with Other Components 86
    Erratic Behavior of Output Devices . 86
    Fatal Damage Caused by Inductive Loads 87
    DIGITAL
  6. logic gate 89
    What It Does 89
    Origins 89
    How It Works . 89
    Inversion 90
    Single-Input Gates 90
    Table of Contents ixGates with More than Two Inputs 91
    Boolean Notation . 91
    Arithmetical Operations . 91
    Other Operations . 92
    Variants 93
    Part Numbers . 94
    Families . 95
    Family Interoperability 96
    Gates per Chip 96
    Two Inputs, Single Gate . 96
    Three Inputs, Single Gate 97
    Single Gate, Selectable Function . 97
    Two Inputs, Dual Gate . 98
    Original 74xx 14-Pin Format . 98
    Quad Two-Input 74xx Pinouts . 98
    Triple Three-Input 74xx Pinouts 99
    Dual Four-Input 74xx Pinouts . 100
    Single Eight-Input 74xx Pinouts 100
    74xx Inverters 101
    Additional Variations . 102
    Pinouts in the Original 4000 Series 102
    4000 Series Inverters . 103
    How to Use It 103
    Which Family 103
    Applications . 104
    What Can Go Wrong . 105
    Static 105
    Floating Pins . 105
    Family Incompatibilities 105
    Overloaded Outputs . 105
    Output Pulled Down . 105
    Incorrect Polarity and Voltages . 105
    Bent Pins 105
    Unclean Input . 106
    Analog Input . 106
  7. flip-flop 107
    What It Does 107
    How It Works 107
    NAND-Based SR Flip-Flop 108
    NOR-Based SR Flip-Flop 109
    Forbidden States . 110
    The JK Flip-Flop 112
    Master-Slave Flip-Flop 113
    D-Type Flip-Flops 114
    Summary 116
    Variants . 116
    Packaging . 117
    Values . 117
    x Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 2How to Use It 118
    What Can Go Wrong . 119
    Ambiguous Documentation 119
    Faulty Triggering . 119
    Metastability . 119
    Other Issues . 119
  8. shift register . 121
    What It Does 121
    Schematic Representation 122
    How It Works 122
    Abbreviations and Acronyms . 123
    Parallel Outputs and Inputs . 123
    Variants . 124
    Serial In, Serial Out . 124
    Serial In, Parallel Out . 124
    Parallel In, Serial Out . 124
    Parallel In, Parallel Out 125
    Universal 125
    Values . 125
    Power Considerations 126
    Three-State Output 126
    How to Use It 126
    Dual Inputs 127
    Preloading the Shift Register . 127
    Polling a Keyboard . 127
    Arithmetical Operations 127
    Buffering 128
    What Can Go Wrong . 128
    Confusing Classification 128
    Inadequate Setup Time 128
    Unconnected Input 129
    Output Enable Issues . 129
    Floating Output Bus 129
  9. counter . 131
    What It Does 131
    Schematic Representation 131
    How It Works 132
    Modulus and Modulo 132
    Pin Identifiers 133
    Variants . 134
    Ripple versus Synchronous . 134
    Ring, Binary, and BCD 134
    Clock Sources 135
    Rising Edge and Falling Edge . 136
    Multiple Stages 136
    Single and Dual 136
    High-State, Low-State, and Three-State . 136
    Table of Contents xiDescending Output 136
    Programmable Counters . 137
    Examples 137
    Values . 137
    What Can Go Wrong . 137
    Lock-Out 137
    Asynchronous Artifacts . 137
    Noise 138
  10. encoder 139
    What It Does 139
    Schematic Symbol . 139
    Similar Devices . 140
    How It Works 140
    Variants . 141
    Values . 142
    How to Use It 142
    Cascaded Encoders 142
    What Can Go Wrong . 143
  11. decoder 145
    What it Does 145
    Input Devices 145
    LED Driver . 146
    Schematic Symbol . 146
    Similar Devices . 146
    How It Works 148
    Variants . 148
    Values . 148
    How to Use It 149
    What Can Go Wrong . 149
    Glitches 149
    Unhelpful Classification 149
    Active-Low and Active-High 149
  12. multiplexer . 151
    What It Does 151
    Differential Multiplexer . 152
    Similar Devices . 152
    How It Works 153
    Schematic Symbol . 153
    Pin Identifiers 154
    Variants . 155
    Values . 155
    How to Use It 156
    Other Application Notes . 157
    What Can Go Wrong . 157
    Pullup Resistors 157
    Break Before Make . 157
    xii Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 2Signal Distortion . 157
    Limits of CMOS Switching 157
    Transients . 157
    LIGHT SOURCE, INDICATOR, OR DISPLAY
    REFLECTIVE
  13. LCD 159
    What It Does 159
    How It Works 159
    Variants . 160
    Active and Passive Types . 161
    Crystal Types . 161
    Seven-Segment Displays . 161
    Additional Segments . 162
    Dot-Matrix Displays 163
    Color 166
    Backlighting Options . 167
    Zero-Power Displays . 167
    How to Use It 167
    Numeric Display Modules 167
    Alphanumeric Display Module . 168
    What Can Go Wrong . 169
    Temperature Sensitivity 169
    Excessive Multiplexing . 170
    DC Damage 170
    Bad Communications Protocol . 170
    Wiring Errors . 170
    SINGLE SOURCE
  14. incandescent lamp . 171
    What It Does 171
    History 172
    How It Works 172
    Spectrum 173
    Non-Incandescent Sources . 174
    Power Consumption . 175
    Variants . 175
    Miniature Lamps . 175
    Panel-Mount Indicator Lamps 176
    Halogen or Quartz-Halogen 176
    Oven Lamps . 176
    Base Variants 177
    Values . 177
    Power . 177
    Illuminance 178
    Table of Contents xiiiIntensity . 178
    MSCP 178
    Efficacy 179
    Efficiency 179
    How to Use It 179
    Relative Advantages . 179
    Derating . 180
    What Can Go Wrong . 180
    High Temperature Environment 180
    Fire Risk . 181
    Current Inrush . 181
    Replacement Problems . 181
  15. neon bulb 183
    What It Does 183
    How It Works 184
    Construction . 184
    Ionization 184
    Negative Resistance 185
    How to Use It 186
    Limited Light Output . 187
    Efficiency 187
    Ruggedness . 187
    Power-Supply Testing 188
    Life Expectancy 188
    Variants . 189
    Nixie Tubes 189
    What Can Go Wrong . 189
    False Indication 189
    Failure in a Dark Environment 189
    Premature Failure with DC 190
    Premature Failure through Voltage Fluctuations 190
    Replacement 190
  16. fluorescent light . 191
    What It Does 191
    How It Works 191
    Ballast and Starter 192
    Flicker . 193
    Variants . 193
    CCFLs 194
    Sizes . 194
    Comparisons 194
    Values . 195
    Brightness . 195
    Spectrum 195
    What Can Go Wrong . 195
    Unreliable Starting . 195
    Terminal Flicker 195
    xiv Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 2Cannot Dim 196
    Burned Out Electrodes . 196
    Ultraviolet Hazard 196
  17. laser 197
    What It Does 197
    How It Works 198
    Laser Diode 198
    Coherent Light . 200
    Variants . 201
    CO2 Lasers . 201
    Fiber Lasers 201
    Crystal Lasers 201
    Values . 201
    How to Use It 202
    Common Applications . 202
    What Can Go Wrong . 202
    Risk of Injury . 202
    Inadequate Heat Sink 202
    Uncontrolled Power Supply 203
    Polarity 203
  18. LED indicator 205
    What It Does 205
    Schematic Symbols 206
    Common Usage 206
    How It Works 207
    Multicolor LEDs and Color Mixing . 207
    Variants . 208
    Size and Shape . 208
    Intensity . 208
    Efficacy 208
    Diffusion . 209
    Wavelength and Color Temperature 209
    Internal Resistor 210
    Multicolored . 210
    Infrared 211
    Ultraviolet . 211
    Values . 211
    Forward Current . 211
    Low-Current LEDs 211
    Forward Voltage . 212
    Color Rendering Index . 212
    Life Expectancy 212
    Light Output and Heat . 212
    View Angle 213
    How to Use It 213
    Polarity 213
    Series Resistor Value . 214
    Table of Contents xvLEDs in Parallel . 214
    Multiple Series LEDs 214
    Comparisons with Other Light Emitters . 214
    Other Applications . 215
    What Can Go Wrong . 215
    Excessive Forward Voltage . 215
    Excessive Current and Heat . 215
    Storage Issues . 215
    Polarity 215
    Internal Resistors . 215
  19. LED area lighting . 217
    What It Does 217
    Trends in Cost and Efficiency . 218
    Schematic Symbol . 218
    How It Works 218
    Visible Differences . 220
    Side-by-Side Comparison 220
    Heat Dissipation . 222
    Efficacy 222
    Dimming 222
    Ultraviolet Output . 222
    Color Variation . 222
    Variants . 223
    Comparisons 223
    Values . 225
    What Can Go Wrong . 225
    Wrong Voltage . 225
    Overheating . 225
    Fluorescent Ballast Issues . 225
    Misleading Color Representation . 226
    MULTI-SOURCE OR PANEL
  20. LED display 227
    What It Does 227
    How It Works 228
    Variants . 228
    LCD comparisons 228
    Seven-Segment Displays . 228
    Multiple Numerals . 229
    Additional Segments . 229
    Dot-Matrix Displays 230
    Pixel Arrays 231
    Multiple Bar Display 232
    Single Light Bar 232
    Values . 232
    How to Use It 232
    Seven-Segment Basics . 232
    xvi Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 2Driver Chips and Multiplexing 233
    Sixteen-Segment Driver Chip . 234
    Dot-Matrix LED Display Modules . 234
    Pixel Arrays 235
    Multiple Bar Display Driver . 236
    One-Digit Hexadecimal Dot Matrix . 236
    What Can Go Wrong . 237
    Common Anode versus Common Cathode 237
    Incorrect Series Resistance . 237
    Multiplexing Issues . 237
  21. vacuum-fluorescent display . 239
    What It Does 239
    How It Works 239
    Anode, Cathode, and Grid 240
    How to Use It 240
    Modern Application 241
    Variants . 241
    Color 241
    Character Sets and Pictorial Design . 242
    Comparisons 242
    What Can Go Wrong . 242
    Fading . 242
  22. electroluminescence . 243
    What It Does 243
    How It Works 243
    Phosphors . 244
    Derivation . 244
    Variants . 244
    Panels . 244
    Flexible Ribbons . 245
    Rope Light . 245
    OLED 246
    SOUND SOURCE
    AUDIO ALERT
  23. transducer . 249
    What It Does 249
    How It Works 249
    Variants . 250
    Electromagnetic . 250
    Piezoelectric . 250
    Ultrasonic Transducer 250
    Formats . 251
    Values . 251
    Table of Contents xviiFrequency Range 251
    Sound Pressure 251
    Weighted Sound Values 252
    Unweighted Values 253
    Measurement Location . 253
    Limitations 253
    Voltage 254
    Current 254
    How to Use It 254
    Appropriate Sound Intensity . 254
    Volume Control 254
    AC Supply . 254
    Self-Drive Transducer Circuit . 254
    What Can Go Wrong . 254
    Overvoltage . 254
    Leakage . 255
    Component Mounting Problems . 255
    Moisture . 255
    Transducer-Indicator Confusion 255
    Connection with a Microcontroller 255
  24. audio indicator . 257
    What It Does 257
    How It Works 257
    Audio Frequency . 258
    History 258
    Variants . 258
    Sound Patterns 258
    Formats . 258
    Values . 259
    Voltage 259
    Current 260
    Frequency . 260
    Duty Cycle . 260
    How to Use It 260
    Appropriate Sound Intensity . 260
    Volume Control 260
    Wiring . 260
    What Can Go Wrong . 260
    REPRODUCER
  25. headphone . 261
    What It Does 261
    How It Works 261
    Audio Basics . 261
    Variants . 262
    Moving Coil 262
    Other Types 263
    xviii Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 2Mechanical Design . 264
    Values . 265
    Intensity . 265
    Frequency Response . 265
    Distortion 266
    Impedance 266
    What Can Go Wrong . 266
    Overdriving 266
    Hearing Damage . 266
    Mismatched Impedance 266
    Incorrect Wiring 266
  26. speaker 267
    What It Does 267
    How It Works 267
    Construction . 268
    Multiple Drivers 269
    Venting 270
    Resonance . 270
    Miniature Speakers . 270
    Variants . 271
    Electrostatic Speaker . 271
    Powered Speakers . 271
    Wireless Speakers 271
    Innovative Designs . 271
    Values . 271
    What Can Go Wrong . 272
    Damage . 272
    Magnetic Field . 272
    Vibration 272
    Index . 273
    What Can Go Wrong sound source > reproducer > speakerSymbols
    2N682 SCR, 2
    4047B timer, 75
    40TPS12 SCR, 2
    4131-503 digital potentiometer,
    62
    4543B decoder, 168
    4543B decoder chip, 168
    555 timer, 70–73, 76, 79–84
    5555 timer, 74
    556 timer, 73
    558 timer, 73
    7447 decoder, 148
    74HC00 logic gate, 93
    74HC123 timer, 75
    74HC163 counter, 132
    74HC221 timer, 76
    74HC4514 decoder, 147
    74HC4515 decoder, 139, 147
    74HC5555 timer, 74
    74HCT5555 timer, 74
    74LS123 timer, 75
    74LS148 decoder, 139
    74LS47 decoder, 148
    7555 timer, 74
    7556 timer, 74
    BTA208X-1000B triac, 16
    BTB04-600SL triac, 16
    CAT5114 digital potentiometer,
    64
    CD4047B timer, 75
    CMX60D10 relay, 27
    D804 optocoupler, 37
    DB3TG diac, 12
    DC60S7 relay, 27, 28
    HEF4528B timer, 75
    LM339 comparator, 42
    LM3914 driver, 236
    LM741 op-amp, 49, 53
    M74HC4538 timer, 75
    MAC97A6 triac, 16
    MAX6954 driver chip, 234
    MC14538B timer, 75
    NTE926 timer, 73
    OPTEKD804 optocoupler, 34
    PT-2040PQ transducer, 253
    PUI XL453 audio indicator, 257
    SSD1306 LED display module,
    235
    SSD1331 LED display module,
    235
    TIL311 driver, 236
    WS0010 LED display module, 235
    X0403DF SCR, 2, 5
    A
    A-weighting audio standard, 252
    absolute zero, 173
    acoustically transparent headphones, 264
    activator, electroluminescent, 244
    active matrix LCD, 161
    additive primaries, 166
    address of tap, digital potentiometer, 62, 63
    Adobe 1998, 167
    alert, 249, 257
    alternating current, 172
    American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII),
    163
    AMOLED (active-matrix OLED),
    246
    analog input/output, 66
    273
    Indexanalog integrated circuits
    comparator, 39–48
    (see also comparator)
    digital potentiometer, 59–67
    (see also digital potentiometer)
    op-amp, 49–58
    (see also op-amp)
    optocoupler, 33–37
    (see also optocoupler)
    solid-state relay, 25–31
    (see also solid-state relay)
    timer, 69–87
    (see also timer)
    analog multiplexer, 151, 152
    analog output optocoupler, 36
    analog-digital converter, 39, 47,
    59
    AND gate, 45, 90, 91, 92, 97, 98,
    100, 102, 103
    anode
    LED display, 232
    LED indicator, 213
    vacuum-fluorescent display
    (VFD), 240
    arithmetical operations, binary,
    91
    arithmetical operators, 89
    ASCII (see American Standard
    Code for Information Interchange)
    astable multivibrator, 46, 55, 69
    (see also timer)
    astable timer, 70, 72, 77, 80
    asynchronous counter, 118, 134
    asynchronous flip-flop, 107
    asynchronous input, 123
    audio alerts
    audio indicator, 257–260
    transducer, 249–255
    audio frequency, 54, 251, 252,
    253, 254, 257, 258
    audio indicator, 249, 257–260
    PUI XL453, 257
    current, 260
    design, 257–258
    duty cycle, 260
    formats, 258
    frequency, 258, 260
    function, 257
    history, 258
    potential problems, 260
    sound intensity, 260
    sound patterns, 258
    use of, 260
    values, 259
    variants, 258
    voltage, 259
    volume control, 260
    wiring, 260
    audio transducer (see transducer)
    B
    back-EMF, 29, 30, 87
    backlighting, electroluminescent,
    167
    backplane, 161
    ballast, 180, 192, 194, 225
    band gap, 207
    bandpass filter, 59
    bandwidth, 36
    bass-reflex enclosure, 270
    bayonet base, 177
    BCD output, 135
    beeper, 249, 257
    bi-pin tube, 194
    bidirectional multiplexer, 151
    bidirectional optocoupler, 36
    bidirectional shift, 125
    bidirectional thyristor, 11
    binary addition, 91
    binary arithmetic, 89, 92
    binary counter, 134
    binary digit, 121, 134
    binary ripple counter, 121
    binary-coded decimal (BCD) output, 135
    bipolar transistor, 1, 18, 70
    bistable displays, 167
    bistable multivibrator, 46, 69, 107
    (see also flip-flop)
    bit, 121, 134
    bitmap, 159, 227
    black body radiation, 173
    Boolean algebra, 89
    Boolean operators, 89, 91
    breakdown voltage, 1, 4, 20, 184
    breakover frequency, 53
    breakover level, 12
    breakover voltage, 4, 14, 15, 20
    bubble, 90, 116, 123, 133, 155
    buffer, 90, 128
    burn in, 160
    burst mode, 84
    buzzer, 249, 257, 258
    C
    Camenzind, Hans, 70
    canalphones, 264
    candela, 178
    candlepower, 178
    capacitor
    coupling, 84
    light-emitting, 244
    carbon arc, 171
    cascade, 134
    cascaded encoders, 142
    cascading, 157
    cathode, 188, 192, 232, 239
    cathode vacuum-fluorescent display (VFD), 240
    cathode-ray tube (CRT), 160, 239,
    244
    CCFL (see cold-cathode fluorescent lamp)
    CCT (see correlated color temperature)
    cd (candela), 178
    ceramic wafer, 250, 258
    CFL (see compact fluorescent
    lamp)
    channel current, 155
    channels, 42, 52, 153
    charge storage, 23, 24
    chemiluminescence, 244
    chip select pin (CS), 63, 64
    cilia, 261
    circumaural headphones, 264
    clipped output, 50
    clock, 121
    clock input, 131, 133
    clocked comparator, 47
    clocked in, 121
    274 Indexclosed-back headphones, 264
    closed-box speaker, 270
    CLR operation, 133
    CMOS 555 timer, 74
    CMOS chips, 48, 94
    CMYK system, 166
    CO2 lasers, 201
    code hopping encoder, 139
    coherent light, 197, 200
    cold-cathode fluorescent lamp
    (CCFL), 191, 194
    cold-cathode fluorescent panel,
    167
    color
    fluorescent lights, 194, 241,
    242
    in LCDs, 166–167
    of LEDs, 205, 207, 209–211,
    212, 219–222, 222, 226
    primary, 166–167
    color rendering index (CRI), 174
    color super twisted nematic
    (CSTN) LCD, 161
    color temperature, 173, 209, 219,
    222
    color-rendering index (CRI), 212
    common anode, 232
    common cathode, 232
    common mode voltage range, 53
    common pin, 161
    commutating dv/dt, 23
    compact fluorescent lamp (CFL),
    191
    comparator, 39–48, 70, 83, 90
    LM339, 42
    analog-digital converter, 47
    AND gate, 45
    bistable multivibrator, 46
    clocked, 47
    continuous converter, 47
    design, 39–42
    digital, 39
    dual, 42
    function, 39
    hysteresis, 39, 44
    latched, 47
    level shifter, 46
    and op-amps, 42, 52
    potential problems, 47–48
    relaxation oscillator, 46
    use of, 44–47
    values, 43–44
    variants, 42–43
    window, 42
    window comparator, 46
    zero point finder, 47
    conduction angle, 7, 9
    cone, 268
    confused inputs, 48
    continuous converter, 47
    converter, serial to parallel, 107
    correlated color temperature, 222
    counter, 107, 121, 131–138
    74HC163, 132
    asynchronous, 118, 134
    binary, 134
    binary ripple, 121
    clock sources, 135
    decade, 135
    decoded output, 134
    descending output, 136
    design, 132–134
    divide-by-16, 134
    function, 131–132
    glitches, 138
    gray code, 131
    hexadecimal, 134
    modulus-16, 134
    modulus/modulo, 132
    multiple stages, 136
    octal, 134
    output states, 136
    pin identifier, 133
    potential problems, 137–138
    programmable, 137
    ring, 131, 134
    ripple, 107, 134, 148
    rising edge and falling edge,
    136
    schematic representation,
    131–132
    single and dual, 136
    synchronous, 134, 136
    values, 137
    variants, 134–137
    coupler, output, 198
    coupling capacitor, 84
    CRI (see color rendering index)
    crossover network, 269
    crosstalk, 161
    crowbar overvoltage protection,
    2
    CRT (see cathode-ray tube)
    crystal, 249
    crystal lasers, 201
    crystal-set radio, 265
    CS (chip select pin), 63, 64
    current
    alternating, 172
    audio-indicator, 260
    channel, 155
    direct, 172
    forward, 211
    gate threshold, 18
    holding, 2, 18
    latching, 2, 18
    leakage, 156
    transducer, 254
    current amplifier, 2, 18
    Current Transfer Ration (CTR), 36
    D
    D-type flip-flop, 114, 116
    data distributor, 140, 146, 152
    data selector, 140, 146, 151, 152
    (see also multiplexer)
    data transfer, 62
    Db (see decibels)
    dBA, 253
    debounced, 66
    decade counter, 135
    decibel, 251–252, 259, 265
    decoded output counter, 134
    decoder, 134, 139, 140, 143, 145–
    149, 151, 153, 157
    7447, 148
    74HC4514, 147
    74HC4515, 147
    74LS47, 148
    design, 148
    function, 145–146
    input devices, 145–146
    LED driver, 146
    potential problems, 149–149
    schematic symbol, 146–146
    Index 275seven-segment, 146
    similar devices, 146
    use of, 149
    values, 148
    variants, 148
    decoder chip, 151
    demultiplexer, 140, 146, 151
    derated relay, 30
    derating curve, 213
    descending output counter, 136
    diac, 1, 11–14, 15, 22
    DB3TG, 12
    abbreviations, 14
    design, 12–13
    function, 11
    potential problems, 14
    switching AC, 13
    symbol variants, 11
    values, 14
    variants, 13
    diaphragm, 262, 268
    dies, 219
    differential multiplexer, 152
    digipot (see digital potentiometer)
    digital comparator, 39
    digital integrated circuits
    counter, 131–138
    decoder, 145–149
    encoder, 139–143
    flip-flop, 107–119
    logic gate, 89–106
    multiplexer, 151–157
    shift register, 121–129
    digital multiplexer, 151
    digital potentiometer, 59–67, 156
    4131-503, 62
    CAT5114, 64
    address of tap, 62, 63
    advantages/disadvantages,
    59–60
    connections and modes, 64
    data transfer, 62
    design, 60–61
    function, 59–60
    higher resolution, 66
    I2C protocol, 63
    potential problems, 66
    programmable, 59
    SPI protocol, 62
    taper, 62
    up/down protocol, 63
    use of, 66
    values, 65–66
    variants, 61–65
    volatile/nonvolatile memory,
    61
    digital-analog converter, 39, 47,
    59
    digitally adjustable potentiometer (see digital potentiometer)
    digitally controlled potentiometer (see digital potentiometer)
    digitally programmed potentiometer (DPP) (see digital potentiometer)
    digpot (see digital potentiometer)
    diode, PIN, 35
    diode, protection, 30
    direct current, 172
    disallowed state, 135
    discrete semiconductor
    diac, 22
    discrete semiconductors, 1
    (see also thyristor)
    dispersion, 178, 208, 225
    display
    electroluminescent (see electorluminscent (EL) display)
    LED (see LED display)
    display module, 164, 231
    divide-by-16 counter, 134
    dot-matrix displays, 163–165,
    230, 234–236, 239
    double super twisted nematic
    LCD, 161
    drift, 48
    driver, 267
    driver chip, 233–234
    driver, dynamic, 262
    dual comparator, 42
    dual counter, 136
    dual digital potentiometer, 61
    dual inputs, 50–51, 127
    dual monostable timer, 75–76, 77
    dual voltage device, 39
    dual voltage power supply, 50
    duty cycle, 260
    dv/dt triggering, 8
    dynamic driver, 262
    dynamic transducer, 262
    E
    e-ink displays, 167
    ear canal headphones, 264
    earbuds, 261, 263, 264
    earphone, 261, 264
    edge pass, 69
    edge triggering, 69
    edge-triggered shift register, 123
    efficiency, 272
    EL (see electroluminescent (EL)
    display)
    electret, 264
    electric newspaper, 236
    electroluminescence, 243
    electroluminescent (EL) display,
    243–247
    derivation, 244
    design, 243
    flexible ribbons, 245
    function, 243
    OLED, 246–247
    panels, 244–245
    phosphors, 244
    rope light, 245
    variants, 244–247
    electroluminescent backlighting,
    167
    electromagnetic relay, 33
    electromagnetic transducer, 250,
    253
    electronic ballast, 193, 225
    electronic paper displays, 167
    electrostatic headphones, 263
    electrostatic speaker, 271
    Enable, 116
    encoded output, 134
    encoder, 139–143, 152
    74HC4515 decoder, 139
    74LS148 decoder, 139
    cascaded, 142
    code hopping, 139
    design, 140–141
    276 Indexfunction, 139–140
    potential problems, 143
    priority, 140, 141
    rotary, 139
    rotational, 66
    schematic symbol, 139
    similar devices, 140
    simple, 141
    tri-state, 141
    use of, 142
    values, 142
    variants, 141
    equal-loudness contours, 252
    erratic output, 48
    F
    falling voltage, 43
    falling-edge triggered shift register, 123
    fanout, 94
    feedback
    negative, 51–52
    positive, 44
    ferromagnetic disc, 250
    FF (see flip-flop)
    fiber lasers, 201
    FIFO (see first-in, first-out (FIFO)
    shift register)
    filament, 171, 239
    film-compensated super twisted
    nematic (FSTN) LCD, 161
    first-in, first-out (FIFO) shift register, 123
    flange base, 177
    flexible ribbon, 245
    flicker, 193
    flip-flop, 46, 70, 89, 107–119, 121,
    132
    asynchrononous/synchronous,
    107
    D-type, 114
    design, 107–116
    forbidden states, 110–112
    function, 107
    JK, 112–113
    master-slave, 113
    NAND-based, 108–109
    NOR-based, 109–110
    packaging, 117
    potential problems, 118–119
    summary of types, 116
    use of, 118
    values, 117–118
    variants, 116–117
    flip-flop emulation, 82
    floating inputs, 127
    floating pins, 105
    fluoresce, 192
    fluorescence, 191, 239
    fluorescent lamp, 191
    fluorescent light, 24, 167, 174,
    191–196, 207, 217, 223, 239
    (see also vacuum-fluorescent
    display)
    ballast and starter, 192
    brightness, 195
    CCFLs, 194
    comparisons, 194
    design, 191–195
    flicker, 193
    function, 191
    potential problems, 195
    sizes, 194–194
    spectrum, 195
    tubes, 191
    values, 195
    variants, 193
    fluorescent tubes, 191
    flux, 177
    foot-candles, 178
    forbidden states, 110–112
    frequency
    audio, 54, 251, 252, 253, 254,
    257, 258, 260
    breakover of op amp, 53
    unity gain, 53
    frequency response, 265
    fused quartz, 176
    G
    gain, 50
    gain medium, 198
    game sound, 85
    gamut, 167, 207
    ganged analog potentiometer, 61
    gas-discharge device, 191
    gate threshold current, 18
    gate turn-off thyristor (GTO), 1,
    11, 15
    gated circuit, 113
    glitches, 138, 149
    glow discharge, 185
    gray code counters, 131
    ground loops, 35
    GTO (see gate turn-off thyristor)
    H
    half adder, 92
    halogen lighting, 176, 217, 221
    harmonics, 266
    headphone, 261–266
    acoustically transparent, 264
    balanced armature, 264
    circumaural, 264
    closed-back, 264
    design, 261–262
    distortion, 266
    electret, 264
    electrostatic, 263
    frequency response, 265–266
    function, 261
    impedence, 266
    in-ear, 264
    intensity, 265
    mechanical design, 264–265
    moving coil, 262–263
    noise-cancelling, 264
    open-back, 264
    potential problems, 266
    supra-aural, 264
    values, 265–266
    variants, 262–265
    headset, 264
    hearing aids, 261
    heat sensitivity, 14
    heat sink, 28, 206, 222
    Hertz, Heinrich Rudolph, 262
    hexadecimal counter, 134
    high linearity optocouplers, 36
    high logic state, 89
    high speed optocoupler, 36
    Index 277high-brightness LED, 205, 217,
    227
    high-intensity LED, 217
    high-output LED, 217
    high-pass filter, 55
    high-power LEDs, 217
    Hold state, 109, 114
    holding current, 2, 18
    holding level, 12
    hysteresis, 42, 44–45, 48, 83, 185
    hysteresis range, 43
    hysteresis zone, 39
    I
    I2C protocol, 62, 63
    IEM (see in-ear monitor)
    ignition voltage, 184
    illuminance, 178
    impedence, 271
    in-ear earphones, 264
    in-ear headphones, 264
    in-ear monitor, 264
    incandescence, 191, 243
    incandescent bulbs, 219
    incandescent lamp, 11, 15, 24,
    171–181, 200, 223
    advantages/disadvantages,
    179–180
    base variants, 177
    derating, 180
    design, 172–175
    efficacy, 179
    efficiency, 179
    function, 171–172
    halogen or quartz halogen,
    176
    illuminance, 178
    intensity, 178
    mean spherical candlepower
    (MSCP), 178
    miniature lamps, 175–176
    non-incandescent sources,
    174
    oven lamp, 176
    panel-mount indicator lamp,
    176
    potential problems, 180
    power, 177–178
    power consumption, 175
    schematic symbols, 171
    spectrum, 173
    use of, 179–180
    values, 177–179
    variants, 175–177
    incandescent lamps, 206, 217
    incoherent light, 159
    increment/decrement protocol,
    62
    Indiglo electroluminscent displays, 244
    inductor, 193
    infrared emitters, 211
    inhibit pin, 153
    input
    analog, 66
    asynchronous, 123
    clock, 131, 133
    confused, 48, 58
    dual, 50–51, 127
    floating, 127
    inverting/noninverting, 39, 51
    parallel, 123, 134
    input bias current, 53
    input devices, decoder, 145
    input differential voltage range,
    53
    input offset voltage, 43, 53
    input voltage, 155
    instant-start ballast, 194
    integrated circuits (see analog integrated circuits, digital integrated circuits)
    inter-integrated circuit, 62
    internal sensors, 35
    internal series resistor, 210
    intrinsic layer, optocoupler, 35
    invalid number, 135
    inversion, logic gates, 90
    inverter, 36, 89, 91, 114
    inverting input, 39, 51
    ionization, 184
    isolation transformers, 34
    J
    jam loaded, 134
    jam-type flip-flop, 108
    jam-type parallel data input, 124
    jitter, 44
    JK flip-flop, 112–113, 116
    K
    keyboard, polling, 127
    L
    ladder, 60
    lamp
    oven, 176
    panel-mount indicator lamp,
    176
    lamp lenses, 176
    laser, 197–203
    CO2 lasers, 201
    coherent light, 200–201
    common applications, 202
    crystal lasers, 201
    design, 198–201
    fiber lasers, 201
    function, 197
    laser diode, 197, 198–199
    potential problems, 202
    use of, 202
    values, 201
    variants, 201
    laser diode, 197, 198–199
    latch, 107, 112
    latch function, 43
    latched comparator, 47
    latching current, 2, 18
    latching relay, 4
    LCD (liquid-crystal display), 159–
    170, 207, 227, 246
    4543B decoder, 168
    active and passive types, 161
    additional segments, 162–163
    alphanumeric display module,
    168–169
    backlighting, 167
    278 Indexcolor, 166–167
    color super twisted nematic
    (CSTN), 161
    crystal types, 161
    design, 159–160
    dot-matrix displays, 163–165
    double super twisted nematic,
    161
    film-compensated super twisted nematic (FSTN), 161
    function, 159
    LED comparisons, 228
    numeric display module, 167–
    168
    potential problems, 169–170
    reflective, 161
    seven-segment displays, 161–
    162
    super twisted nematic (STN),
    161
    transreflective, 161
    twisted nematic (TN), 161
    use of, 167–169
    variants, 160–167
    zero-power displays, 167
    LCD display (see LCD (liquid crystal display))
    leakage
    capacitors, 77
    diac, 12
    SCR, 2
    solid-state relay (SSR), 26
    triac, 17
    leakage current, 156
    LED (generic), 26, 159, 167, 174,
    227, 243
    LED area lighting, 24, 191, 195,
    217–226, 227
    color variation, 222
    comparisons, 220–222, 223–
    224
    costs and efficiency, 218
    design, 218–223
    dimming, 222
    efficacy, 222
    function, 217–218
    heat dissipation, 222
    high-brightness, 217
    high-output, 217
    high-power, 217
    potential problems, 225
    schematic symbol, 218
    ultraviolet output, 222
    values, 225
    variants, 223–224
    visible differences, 220–220
    LED display, 146, 227–237
    LM3914, 236
    MAX6954, 234
    SSD1306, 235
    SSD1331, 235
    TIL311, 236
    WS0010, 235
    additional segments, 229–230
    design, 228
    dot-matrix displays, 230, 234–
    236
    driver chips and multiplexing,
    233–234
    function, 227–228
    LCD comparisons, 228
    multiple bar display, 232, 236
    multiple numerals, 229
    one-digit hexadecimal dot
    matrix, 236
    pixel arrays, 231, 235–236
    potential problems, 237
    seven segment numeral, 228
    seven-segment displays, 228–
    229, 232–233
    single light bar, 232
    sixteen-segment driver chip,
    234
    use of, 232–236
    values, 232
    variants, 228–232
    LED indicator, 205–215, 218, 227
    color rendering index (CRI),
    212
    common usage, 206
    comparisons to other light
    emitters, 214
    design, 207
    diffusion, 209
    efficacy, 208
    forward current, 211
    forward voltage, 212
    function, 205–207
    high-brightness, 205
    infrared, 211
    intensity, 208
    internal resistor, 210
    LEDs in parallel, 214
    life expectancy, 212
    light output and heat, 212
    low-current LEDs, 211
    multicolor LEDs and color mixing, 207
    multicolored, 210
    multiple series LEDs, 214
    other applications, 215
    polarity, 213
    potential problems, 215
    schematic symbols, 206
    series resistor value, 214
    size and shape, 208
    ultraviolet, 211
    use of, 213–215
    values, 211–213
    variants, 208–211
    view angle, 213
    wavelength and color temperature, 209–210
    lens, 183
    level shifter, 46
    light
    coherent, 197, 200–201
    incoherent, 159
    monochromatic, 197
    light wires, 243
    light-emitting capacitor, 244
    light-emitting diode (see LED)
    linear relationship, 50
    linear taper, 62
    linearity versus saturation, 42
    liquid-crystal display (see LCD)
    logarithmic taper, 62
    logic chip, 139
    logic gate, 89–106, 108, 126, 140
    74HC00, 93
    4000 series, 94
    7400 series, 93
    binary arithmetical operations,
    91
    Boolean notation, 91
    chip families, 95–96
    design, 89
    Index 279function, 89
    gates and inputs, 90, 96–103
    inversion, 90
    part numbers, 94–95
    potential problems, 105–106
    uses, 103
    variants, 93
    logic state, 89, 107
    logic, positive, 90
    logic, transistor-transistor, 70, 93
    logic-output optocoupler, 36
    loudspeaker, 84, 249, 263, 267
    low logic state, 89
    low-current LEDs, 211
    low-pass filter, 54
    Lower State Transition Voltage
    (LSTV), 43
    lumen (lm), 177, 195, 218, 225
    lumens per watt, 179, 195
    luminaire, 217
    luminary, 217
    luminescence, 191, 243
    luminous flux, 177, 195, 208, 218
    lux, 178
    M
    magnetic ballast, 225
    maintaining voltage, 185
    maser, 197
    master-slave flip-flop, 113, 116
    mc (millicandela), 178
    mean spherical candlepower
    (MSCP), 176, 178
    metal-oxide semiconductor fieldeffect transistor (see MOSFET)
    metastability, in flip-flops, 119
    microcontroller, 29, 59
    microphone, 262
    millicandelas, 187, 208
    miniature speakers, 270
    mismatching, 266
    mixed-signal device, 59
    MOD, 133
    mode select pins, 125
    modulo/modulus, 132
    modulus-16 counter, 134
    monochromatic light, 197
    monostable multivibrator, 69
    (see also timer)
    monostable timer, 69, 71, 77, 79
    MOSFET (metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor),
    26, 70
    motion detector, passive infrared,
    211
    motor, AC, 11
    moving coil headphones, 262
    MSCP (see mean spherical candlepower)
    multicolor LED, 207
    multiple bar display, 232, 236
    multiple series LED, 214
    multiple-stage counter, 136
    multiplexer, 28, 140, 146, 151–
    157
    analog, 151, 152
    bidirectional, 151
    demultiplexer, 140, 146, 151,
    152, 157
    design, 153
    differential, 152
    digital versus analog, 151
    function, 151
    pin identifiers, 154–155
    potential problems, 157
    schematic symbol, 153
    similar devices, 152–153
    use of, 156
    values, 155
    variants, 155
    multiplexing, 168, 233–234, 241
    multisource lighting
    electroluminescent (EL) display, 243–247
    LED display, 227–237
    vacuum-fluorescent display
    (VFD), 239–242
    multivibrator, 69
    (see also timer)
    astable, 46, 55, 69
    bistable, 46, 69, 107
    MUX (see multiplexer)
    N
    NAND gate, 37, 90, 91, 93, 94, 95,
    97, 98, 100, 102, 103, 108, 109,
    123, 127, 135
    (see also NAND-based SR flipflop)
    NAND-based SR flip-flop, 108–
    109, 116
    nanometer, 195, 209
    negative feedback, 49, 51–52
    negative resistance, 185
    neon bulb, 31, 183–190, 191, 193
    construction, 184
    efficiency, 187
    function, 183
    how it works, 183–186
    ionization, 184
    life expectancy, 188
    light output, 187
    negative resistance, 185–186
    Nixie tubes, 189
    potential problems, 189
    power-supply testing, 188
    ruggedness, 187
    use of, 186–189
    variants, 189
    neon bulbs, 206
    neon indicator, 183
    neon lamp, 183
    neon lamp assembly, 183
    neutral value, 49
    (see also zero value)
    Newtons per square meter (Pa),
    251
    Nixie tubes, 189
    noise-cancelling headphones,
    264
    noise-creating device, 249, 267
    noninverting input, 39, 51
    nonvolatile memory, 61
    NOR gate, 90, 91, 97, 98, 100, 102,
    103, 108, 109
    (see also NOR-based SR flipflop)
    NOR-based SR flip-flop, 109–110
    numeric display module, 167–
    168
    280 IndexNV (see nonvolatile memory)
    O
    octal counter, 134
    OE (output-enable), 126
    offset null adjustment, 56
    OLED (organic light-emitting diode), 217, 227, 243, 246–247
    on-resistance, 156
    one-digit hexadecimal dot matrix, 236
    op-amp, 39, 49–58, 90
    LM741, 49, 53
    calculating amplification, 53
    and comparators, 52
    confused input, 58
    controlling the gain, 53
    design, 49–52
    differences from comparator,
    42
    dual inputs, 50–51
    as high-pass filter, 55
    as low-pass filter, 54
    negative feedback, 51–52
    offset null adjustment, 56
    oscillating output, 57
    potential problems, 57–58
    as relaxation oscillator, 55
    as single power source, 56
    use of, 53–57
    values, 52
    variants, 52
    what it does, 49
    open collector, 40
    open loop mode, 51
    open loop operation, 42
    open loop voltage gain, 53
    open-back headphones, 264
    open-drain outputs, 126
    operating voltage, 259
    operational amplifier (see opamp)
    optical maser, 197
    optical switch, 34
    optocoupler, 25, 33–37, 215
    D804, 37
    OPTEKD804, 34
    analog output, 36
    basic types, 36
    bidirectional, 36
    design, 34–34
    function, 33–34
    high speed, 36
    high-linearity, 36
    internal sensors, 35–36
    logic-output, 36
    potential problems, 37
    schematic symbols, 34
    use of, 36–37
    values, 36
    variants, 34–36
    OR gate, 90, 91, 97, 98, 99, 100,
    102, 103, 140, 142
    organic LED (see OLED (organic
    light-emitting diode))
    oscillating output, 47, 57
    oscillator, relaxation, 12, 46, 55
    output
    analog, 66
    clipped, 50
    descending, 136
    encoded, 134
    erratic, 48
    open-drain, 126
    oscillating, 47, 57
    parallel, 123
    push-pull, 42
    three-state, 142
    types of, 134
    ultraviolet, 222
    weighted, 134
    output coupler, 198
    output mode, comparator, 42
    oven lamp, 176
    overvoltage protection, 2, 6, 155
    P
    Pa (Pascals), 251
    panel, 243
    Panelescent electroluminescent
    lighting, 244
    parallel input, 134
    parallel-enable pin, 134
    parallel-in, parallel-out (PIPO)
    shift converters, 125
    parallel-in, serial-out (PISO) shift
    register, 124
    parallel-serial converters, 124
    parchmentized thread, 172
    passive infrared motion detector,
    211
    passive matrix LCD, 161
    phase angle, 7, 13
    phase control, 2, 7–7, 13, 22
    phones (see headphone)
    phosphor, 192, 239, 244
    phosphorescence, 244
    photocell, 35
    photodarlington, 34
    photodiode, 26, 34
    photon, 207
    photoresistor, 34
    phototransistor, 26, 34, 45
    photovoltaic PIN diode, 35
    piezein, 250
    piezo, 258
    piezoelectric alerts (see audio indicator)
    piezoelectric transducer, 249,
    250, 253
    pin
    common, 161
    floating, 105
    inhibit, 153
    parallel-enable, 134
    reset, 70
    trigger, 69
    pin base, 177
    PIN diode, 35
    pin identifier, 133
    pip, 184
    PIPO (see parallel-in, parallel-out
    (PIPO) shift converters)
    pixel arrays, 231, 235–236
    PMOLED (passive-matrix OLED),
    246
    PN junction, 207
    PNPN device, 3
    polling a keyboard, 127
    positive feedback, 44
    positive logic, 90
    Index 281potentiometer, 35
    (see also digital potentiometer)
    power rating, 272
    powered speaker, 271
    primary colors, 166–166
    priority encoder, 140, 141
    programmable counter, 137
    programmable digital potentiometer, 59
    programmable unijunction transistor (PUT), 2, 9
    propagation delay, 44, 134
    protection diode, 30
    pullup resistor, 36, 40, 48, 71, 126,
    153
    pulse-width modulation, 7, 194,
    211
    pumping a laser, 198
    push-pull output, 42
    pushbutton, 66, 71
    pushbutton protocol, 62
    Q
    quad digital potentiometer, 61
    quadrants, 17–18
    quartz crystal, 131, 135
    R
    race condition, 112
    radiant flux, 177
    radiant luminous efficacy (LER),
    179, 187, 208, 222
    radiant luminous efficiency (LFR),
    179
    radiation, black body, 173
    rail-to-rail values, 42
    rapid-start ballast, 194
    rated voltage, 259
    Rayleigh scattering, 202
    RC network, 70
    rectifier, 2
    reference voltage, 70
    reflective display (see LCD (liquid
    crystal display))
    reflective LCD, 161
    reflective primaries, 166
    reflex port, 270
    regenerative device, 2
    register, 121
    relaxation oscillator, 12, 46, 55
    relay
    electromagnetic, 33
    latching, 4
    solid-state (see solid-state relay)
    zero-crossing, 25, 27
    remainder, 132
    reproducers
    headphone, 261–266
    speaker, 267–272
    reset pin, 70
    reset state, 109
    resistor array, 232
    resolution, 43
    resonant cavity, 198
    response time, comparator, 42
    restricted combination, 112
    retriggering, timer, 69
    RGB LCD monitors, 167
    RGB primaries, 166
    rheostat mode, 64
    ring counter, 121, 131, 134
    ringing, 112
    ripple counter, 107, 134, 148
    rising voltage, 43
    rising-edge triggered shift register, 123
    rope light, 243, 245
    rotary encoder, 139
    rotary switch, 151
    rotational coder, 139
    rotational encoder, 66
    S
    saturation versus linearity, 42
    SCR (silicon-controlled rectifier),
    1–9, 11, 15, 26, 34
    2N682, 2
    40TPS12, 2
    X0403DF, 2, 5
    abbreviations, 6
    AC current applications, 5
    breakdown and breakover
    voltage, 4
    concept demo, 4
    design, 1–2
    function, 1
    internal configuration, 3–5
    overvoltage protection, 7
    phase control, 7–7
    potential problems, 8–9
    switching behavior, 2
    use, 6–8
    values, 5
    variants, 5, 6
    screw-in lamps, 177
    SCS (see silicon-controlled
    switch)
    segments, 239
    self-drive transducer circuit, 254
    sensitivity, 272
    sensor, 34, 35, 249, 262
    serial peripheral interface (see
    SPI)
    serial-in, parallel-out (SIPO) shift
    register, 123, 124
    serial-in, serial-out (SISO) shift
    register, 123, 124
    serial-parallel coverter, 123
    serial-to-parallel converters, 107
    series resistor, 207
    series resistor value, 214
    settling time, 149, 157
    setup time, 125
    seven-segment decoder, 146
    seven-segment displays, 228–
    229, 232–233
    seven-segment numeral, 228
    shift register, 63, 121–129, 131,
    146
    abbreviations and acronyms,
    123
    arithmetical operations, 127
    buffering, 128
    design, 122
    function, 121–122
    parallel outputs and inputs,
    123–124
    polling the keyboard, 127
    potential problems, 128–129
    282 Indexpower considerations, 126
    preloading, 127
    schematic representation, 122
    three-state output, 126
    use of, 126–128
    values, 125–126
    variants, 124–125
    shift registers, 107
    shortened modulus, 135
    sidac, 14
    silicon-controlled rectifier (see
    SCR)
    silicon-controlled switch (SCS), 1,
    11, 15
    simple encoder, 141
    single counter, 136
    single light bar, 232
    single power source, 56
    single-inline package (SIP), 27
    single-input gates, 90
    single-source lighting
    fluorescent light, 191–196
    incandescent lamp, 171–181
    lasers, 197–203
    LED area lighting, 217–226
    LED indicator, 205–215
    neon bulb, 183–190
    sink current, 44
    SIPO (see serial-in, parallel-out
    (SIPO) shift register)
    siren, 258
    SISO (see serial-in, serial-out (SISO) shift register)
    sixteen-segment driver chip, 234
    slew rate at unity gain, 53
    snubber, 30
    snubber network, 23
    snubberless triac, 23
    solid-state analog switch, 28
    solid-state relay (SSR), 1, 11, 15,
    25–31, 33, 36, 215
    (see also optocoupler)
    CMX60D10, 27
    DC60S7, 27, 28
    advantages/disadvantages, 25
    design, 26–27
    function, 25–26
    instantaneous versus zero
    crossing, 27
    NC and NO modes, 28
    packaging, 28
    potential problems, 30
    solid-state analog switch, 28
    use of, 29–30
    values, 29
    variants, 27–28
    sound pressure level, 251–252,
    251
    sound reproduction device, 249,
    267
    sound sources (see audio alerts,
    reproducers)
    spatial coherence, 200
    spatial distribution, 213
    speaker, 249, 267–272
    closed-box, 270
    construction, 268
    design, 267–270
    electrostatic, 271
    function, 267
    innovative designs, 271
    miniature speakers, 270
    multiple drivers, 269–270
    potential problems, 272
    powered, 271
    resonance, 270
    values, 271
    variants, 270–271
    venting, 270
    wireless, 271
    spectral lines, 174
    SPI (serial peripheral interface),
    62
    spontaneous emission, 198
    SPST switch, 25
    sputtering, 188
    SR flip-flop (see NAND-based SR
    flip-flop)
    sRGB, 167
    SSR (see solid-state relay)
    standard LED, 205, 227
    starter, 192, 225
    starting voltage, 184
    state diagram, 135
    steradians, 178
    stimulated emission, 198
    striking voltage, 184
    strip lights, 223
    strobe, 153
    super twisted nematic (STN) LCD,
    161
    supra-aural headphones, 264
    surface-mount transducers, 251
    swapped voltages, 48
    switch, 25, 71, 107
    rotary, 151
    silicon-controlled (SCS), 1, 11,
    15
    solid-state analog switch, 28
    SPST, 25
    switch bounce, 109
    synchronous circuit, 113
    synchronous counter, 134, 136
    synchronous flip-flop, 107
    T
    T-type flip-flop, 116
    tap, 60
    tap address, 62, 63
    taper, 62
    task lighting, 217
    TFT (see thin-film transistor)
    THD (see total harmonic distortion)
    thermal compound, 30
    thick phosphor, 244
    thin-film OLED, 243
    thin-film transistor (TFT), 161, 246
    3-wire programmable potentiometers, 63
    three-state output, 126, 142
    three-wire chips, 64
    threshold voltage, 207
    through hole, 206
    thyratron, 1
    thyristor
    diac, 11–14, 15
    SCR, 1–9
    triac, 15–24
    timer, 69–87
    4047B, 75
    555, 70–85
    5555, 74
    556, 73
    558, 73
    Index 28374HC123, 75
    74HC221, 76
    74HC5555, 74
    74HCT5555, 74
    7555, 74
    7556, 74
    CD4047B, 75
    HEF4528B, 75
    M74HC4538, 75
    MC14538B, 75
    NTE926, 73
    astable mode, 70, 72, 77, 80
    bipolar version, 70
    burst mode, 84
    CMOS 555, 74
    CMOS version, 71
    and coupling capacitors, 84
    design, 70
    dual monostable, 75–76, 77
    function, 69–70
    game sound, 85
    hysteresis, 83
    loudspeaker connection, 84
    monostable mode, 69, 71, 77,
    79
    output time control, 80
    potential problems, 85–87
    TTL version, 70
    use of, 79–85
    values, 76–79
    variants, 70–76
    toggle, 43, 113
    total harmonic distortion (THD),
    266
    transducer, 249–255, 257, 267
    PT-2040PQ, 253
    AC supply, 254
    current, 254
    design, 249
    dynamic, 262
    electromagnetic, 250, 253
    formats, 251
    frequency range, 251
    function, 249
    limitations, 253–254
    measurement location, 253
    piezoelectric, 249, 250, 253
    potential problems, 254
    self-drive transducer circuit,
    254
    sound intensity, 254
    sound pressure, 251–252
    surface-mount, 251
    ultrasonic, 250
    unweighted values, 253
    use of, 254
    values, 251–254
    variants, 250–251
    voltage, 254
    volume control, 254
    weighted sounds values, 252–
    253
    transformer, isolation, 34
    transistor, bipolar, 1
    transistor-transistor logic, 93
    transistor-transistor logic protocol, 70
    transparent, 108, 114
    transreflective LCD, 161
    tri-state encoder, 142
    triac, 1, 7, 11, 15–24, 25, 34
    BTA208X-1000B, 16
    BTB04-600SL, 16
    MAC97A6, 16
    breakover voltage, 20
    charge storage, 23
    design, 17–23
    function, 15–16
    other drivers, 22
    potential problems, 24
    quadrants, 17–18
    snubberless, 23
    switching AC, 20–22
    symbol variants, 15–16
    testing, 19–20
    triggered by diac, 22
    values, 23–24
    variants, 23
    triac-based dimmer, 179
    trigger pin, 69
    trimmer, 40, 254
    truth table, 90
    TTL (see transistor-transistor logic)
    tweeter, 269
    twisted nematic (TN) LCD, 161
    two-wire chips, 64
    U
    ultrasonic transducer, 250
    ultraviolet output, 222
    unity gain frequency, 53
    universal shift register, 125
    unweighted sound values, 253
    up/down protocol, 62, 63
    Upper State Transition Voltage
    (USTV), 43
    V
    Vactrol, 35
    vacuum-fluorescent display,
    (VFD), 239–242
    anode in, 240
    cathode, 240
    character sets and pictorial design, 242
    color, 241
    comparisons, 242
    design, 239–240
    function, 239
    modern application, 241
    potential problems, 242
    use of, 240–241
    variants, 241–242
    variable frequency drive, 239
    velocity, 262
    vent, 270
    VFD (see vacuum-fluorescent display)
    view angle, 208
    volatile memory, 61
    voltage, 259
    breakdown, 1, 4, 20, 184
    breakover, 4, 15, 20
    dual, 39
    falling, 43
    forward, 212
    ignition, 184
    input, 155
    input offset, 43, 53
    maintaining, 185
    in multiplexers, 155
    operating, 259
    284 Indexrated, 259
    reference, 70
    rising, 43
    starting/striking, 184
    threshold, 207
    transducer, 254
    voltage amplification, 53
    voltage amplifier, 49
    voltage converter, 39
    voltage divider, 71
    voltage divider mode, 65
    voltage gain, 43
    voltage level, 69
    voltage regulator, 59
    voltage spike, 72
    voltage transition, 69
    W
    wafers, 219
    water clear, 205
    wavelength, 262
    wavelength coherence, 200
    wedge base, 177
    weighted output, 134
    weighted sound values, 252–253
    window comparator, 42, 46
    wiper, 60
    wiper resistance, 65
    wireless speaker, 271
    woofer, 269
    X
    XNOR gate, 90, 91, 98, 100, 102,
    103
    XOR gate, 90, 91, 92, 97, 98, 100,
    102, 103
    Z
    zero point finder, 47
    zero value, 49
    zero-crossing relay, 25, 27
    zero-crossing signal, 66Symbols
    2N682 SCR, 2
    4047B timer, 75
    40TPS12 SCR, 2
    4131-503 digital potentiometer,
    62
    4543B decoder, 168
    4543B decoder chip, 168
    555 timer, 70–73, 76, 79–84
    5555 timer, 74
    556 timer, 73
    558 timer, 73
    7447 decoder, 148
    74HC00 logic gate, 93
    74HC123 timer, 75
    74HC163 counter, 132
    74HC221 timer, 76
    74HC4514 decoder, 147
    74HC4515 decoder, 139, 147
    74HC5555 timer, 74
    74HCT5555 timer, 74
    74LS123 timer, 75
    74LS148 decoder, 139
    74LS47 decoder, 148
    7555 timer, 74
    7556 timer, 74
    BTA208X-1000B triac, 16
    BTB04-600SL triac, 16
    CAT5114 digital potentiometer,
    64
    CD4047B timer, 75
    CMX60D10 relay, 27
    D804 optocoupler, 37
    DB3TG diac, 12
    DC60S7 relay, 27, 28
    HEF4528B timer, 75
    LM339 comparator, 42
    LM3914 driver, 236
    LM741 op-amp, 49, 53
    M74HC4538 timer, 75
    MAC97A6 triac, 16
    MAX6954 driver chip, 234
    MC14538B timer, 75
    NTE926 timer, 73
    OPTEKD804 optocoupler, 34
    PT-2040PQ transducer, 253
    PUI XL453 audio indicator, 257
    SSD1306 LED display module,
    235
    SSD1331 LED display module,
    235
    TIL311 driver, 236
    WS0010 LED display module, 235
    X0403DF SCR, 2, 5
    A
    A-weighting audio standard, 252
    absolute zero, 173
    acoustically transparent headphones, 264
    activator, electroluminescent, 244
    active matrix LCD, 161
    additive primaries, 166
    address of tap, digital potentiometer, 62, 63
    Adobe 1998, 167
    alert, 249, 257
    alternating current, 172
    American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII),
    163
    AMOLED (active-matrix OLED),
    246
    analog input/output, 66
    273
    Indexanalog integrated circuits
    comparator, 39–48
    (see also comparator)
    digital potentiometer, 59–67
    (see also digital potentiometer)
    op-amp, 49–58
    (see also op-amp)
    optocoupler, 33–37
    (see also optocoupler)
    solid-state relay, 25–31
    (see also solid-state relay)
    timer, 69–87
    (see also timer)
    analog multiplexer, 151, 152
    analog output optocoupler, 36
    analog-digital converter, 39, 47,
    59
    AND gate, 45, 90, 91, 92, 97, 98,
    100, 102, 103
    anode
    LED display, 232
    LED indicator, 213
    vacuum-fluorescent display
    (VFD), 240
    arithmetical operations, binary,
    91
    arithmetical operators, 89
    ASCII (see American Standard
    Code for Information Interchange)
    astable multivibrator, 46, 55, 69
    (see also timer)
    astable timer, 70, 72, 77, 80
    asynchronous counter, 118, 134
    asynchronous flip-flop, 107
    asynchronous input, 123
    audio alerts
    audio indicator, 257–260
    transducer, 249–255
    audio frequency, 54, 251, 252,
    253, 254, 257, 258
    audio indicator, 249, 257–260
    PUI XL453, 257
    current, 260
    design, 257–258
    duty cycle, 260
    formats, 258
    frequency, 258, 260
    function, 257
    history, 258
    potential problems, 260
    sound intensity, 260
    sound patterns, 258
    use of, 260
    values, 259
    variants, 258
    voltage, 259
    volume control, 260
    wiring, 260
    audio transducer (see transducer)
    B
    back-EMF, 29, 30, 87
    backlighting, electroluminescent,
    167
    backplane, 161
    ballast, 180, 192, 194, 225
    band gap, 207
    bandpass filter, 59
    bandwidth, 36
    bass-reflex enclosure, 270
    bayonet base, 177
    BCD output, 135
    beeper, 249, 257
    bi-pin tube, 194
    bidirectional multiplexer, 151
    bidirectional optocoupler, 36
    bidirectional shift, 125
    bidirectional thyristor, 11
    binary addition, 91
    binary arithmetic, 89, 92
    binary counter, 134
    binary digit, 121, 134
    binary ripple counter, 121
    binary-coded decimal (BCD) output, 135
    bipolar transistor, 1, 18, 70
    bistable displays, 167
    bistable multivibrator, 46, 69, 107
    (see also flip-flop)
    bit, 121, 134
    bitmap, 159, 227
    black body radiation, 173
    Boolean algebra, 89
    Boolean operators, 89, 91
    breakdown voltage, 1, 4, 20, 184
    breakover frequency, 53
    breakover level, 12
    breakover voltage, 4, 14, 15, 20
    bubble, 90, 116, 123, 133, 155
    buffer, 90, 128
    burn in, 160
    burst mode, 84
    buzzer, 249, 257, 258
    C
    Camenzind, Hans, 70
    canalphones, 264
    candela, 178
    candlepower, 178
    capacitor
    coupling, 84
    light-emitting, 244
    carbon arc, 171
    cascade, 134
    cascaded encoders, 142
    cascading, 157
    cathode, 188, 192, 232, 239
    cathode vacuum-fluorescent display (VFD), 240
    cathode-ray tube (CRT), 160, 239,
    244
    CCFL (see cold-cathode fluorescent lamp)
    CCT (see correlated color temperature)
    cd (candela), 178
    ceramic wafer, 250, 258
    CFL (see compact fluorescent
    lamp)
    channel current, 155
    channels, 42, 52, 153
    charge storage, 23, 24
    chemiluminescence, 244
    chip select pin (CS), 63, 64
    cilia, 261
    circumaural headphones, 264
    clipped output, 50
    clock, 121
    clock input, 131, 133
    clocked comparator, 47
    clocked in, 121
    274 Indexclosed-back headphones, 264
    closed-box speaker, 270
    CLR operation, 133
    CMOS 555 timer, 74
    CMOS chips, 48, 94
    CMYK system, 166
    CO2 lasers, 201
    code hopping encoder, 139
    coherent light, 197, 200
    cold-cathode fluorescent lamp
    (CCFL), 191, 194
    cold-cathode fluorescent panel,
    167
    color
    fluorescent lights, 194, 241,
    242
    in LCDs, 166–167
    of LEDs, 205, 207, 209–211,
    212, 219–222, 222, 226
    primary, 166–167
    color rendering index (CRI), 174
    color super twisted nematic
    (CSTN) LCD, 161
    color temperature, 173, 209, 219,
    222
    color-rendering index (CRI), 212
    common anode, 232
    common cathode, 232
    common mode voltage range, 53
    common pin, 161
    commutating dv/dt, 23
    compact fluorescent lamp (CFL),
    191
    comparator, 39–48, 70, 83, 90
    LM339, 42
    analog-digital converter, 47
    AND gate, 45
    bistable multivibrator, 46
    clocked, 47
    continuous converter, 47
    design, 39–42
    digital, 39
    dual, 42
    function, 39
    hysteresis, 39, 44
    latched, 47
    level shifter, 46
    and op-amps, 42, 52
    potential problems, 47–48
    relaxation oscillator, 46
    use of, 44–47
    values, 43–44
    variants, 42–43
    window, 42
    window comparator, 46
    zero point finder, 47
    conduction angle, 7, 9
    cone, 268
    confused inputs, 48
    continuous converter, 47
    converter, serial to parallel, 107
    correlated color temperature, 222
    counter, 107, 121, 131–138
    74HC163, 132
    asynchronous, 118, 134
    binary, 134
    binary ripple, 121
    clock sources, 135
    decade, 135
    decoded output, 134
    descending output, 136
    design, 132–134
    divide-by-16, 134
    function, 131–132
    glitches, 138
    gray code, 131
    hexadecimal, 134
    modulus-16, 134
    modulus/modulo, 132
    multiple stages, 136
    octal, 134
    output states, 136
    pin identifier, 133
    potential problems, 137–138
    programmable, 137
    ring, 131, 134
    ripple, 107, 134, 148
    rising edge and falling edge,
    136
    schematic representation,
    131–132
    single and dual, 136
    synchronous, 134, 136
    values, 137
    variants, 134–137
    coupler, output, 198
    coupling capacitor, 84
    CRI (see color rendering index)
    crossover network, 269
    crosstalk, 161
    crowbar overvoltage protection,
    2
    CRT (see cathode-ray tube)
    crystal, 249
    crystal lasers, 201
    crystal-set radio, 265
    CS (chip select pin), 63, 64
    current
    alternating, 172
    audio-indicator, 260
    channel, 155
    direct, 172
    forward, 211
    gate threshold, 18
    holding, 2, 18
    latching, 2, 18
    leakage, 156
    transducer, 254
    current amplifier, 2, 18
    Current Transfer Ration (CTR), 36
    D
    D-type flip-flop, 114, 116
    data distributor, 140, 146, 152
    data selector, 140, 146, 151, 152
    (see also multiplexer)
    data transfer, 62
    Db (see decibels)
    dBA, 253
    debounced, 66
    decade counter, 135
    decibel, 251–252, 259, 265
    decoded output counter, 134
    decoder, 134, 139, 140, 143, 145–
    149, 151, 153, 157
    7447, 148
    74HC4514, 147
    74HC4515, 147
    74LS47, 148
    design, 148
    function, 145–146
    input devices, 145–146
    LED driver, 146
    potential problems, 149–149
    schematic symbol, 146–146
    Index 275seven-segment, 146
    similar devices, 146
    use of, 149
    values, 148
    variants, 148
    decoder chip, 151
    demultiplexer, 140, 146, 151
    derated relay, 30
    derating curve, 213
    descending output counter, 136
    diac, 1, 11–14, 15, 22
    DB3TG, 12
    abbreviations, 14
    design, 12–13
    function, 11
    potential problems, 14
    switching AC, 13
    symbol variants, 11
    values, 14
    variants, 13
    diaphragm, 262, 268
    dies, 219
    differential multiplexer, 152
    digipot (see digital potentiometer)
    digital comparator, 39
    digital integrated circuits
    counter, 131–138
    decoder, 145–149
    encoder, 139–143
    flip-flop, 107–119
    logic gate, 89–106
    multiplexer, 151–157
    shift register, 121–129
    digital multiplexer, 151
    digital potentiometer, 59–67, 156
    4131-503, 62
    CAT5114, 64
    address of tap, 62, 63
    advantages/disadvantages,
    59–60
    connections and modes, 64
    data transfer, 62
    design, 60–61
    function, 59–60
    higher resolution, 66
    I2C protocol, 63
    potential problems, 66
    programmable, 59
    SPI protocol, 62
    taper, 62
    up/down protocol, 63
    use of, 66
    values, 65–66
    variants, 61–65
    volatile/nonvolatile memory,
    61
    digital-analog converter, 39, 47,
    59
    digitally adjustable potentiometer (see digital potentiometer)
    digitally controlled potentiometer (see digital potentiometer)
    digitally programmed potentiometer (DPP) (see digital potentiometer)
    digpot (see digital potentiometer)
    diode, PIN, 35
    diode, protection, 30
    direct current, 172
    disallowed state, 135
    discrete semiconductor
    diac, 22
    discrete semiconductors, 1
    (see also thyristor)
    dispersion, 178, 208, 225
    display
    electroluminescent (see electorluminscent (EL) display)
    LED (see LED display)
    display module, 164, 231
    divide-by-16 counter, 134
    dot-matrix displays, 163–165,
    230, 234–236, 239
    double super twisted nematic
    LCD, 161
    drift, 48
    driver, 267
    driver chip, 233–234
    driver, dynamic, 262
    dual comparator, 42
    dual counter, 136
    dual digital potentiometer, 61
    dual inputs, 50–51, 127
    dual monostable timer, 75–76, 77
    dual voltage device, 39
    dual voltage power supply, 50
    duty cycle, 260
    dv/dt triggering, 8
    dynamic driver, 262
    dynamic transducer, 262
    E
    e-ink displays, 167
    ear canal headphones, 264
    earbuds, 261, 263, 264
    earphone, 261, 264
    edge pass, 69
    edge triggering, 69
    edge-triggered shift register, 123
    efficiency, 272
    EL (see electroluminescent (EL)
    display)
    electret, 264
    electric newspaper, 236
    electroluminescence, 243
    electroluminescent (EL) display,
    243–247
    derivation, 244
    design, 243
    flexible ribbons, 245
    function, 243
    OLED, 246–247
    panels, 244–245
    phosphors, 244
    rope light, 245
    variants, 244–247
    electroluminescent backlighting,
    167
    electromagnetic relay, 33
    electromagnetic transducer, 250,
    253
    electronic ballast, 193, 225
    electronic paper displays, 167
    electrostatic headphones, 263
    electrostatic speaker, 271
    Enable, 116
    encoded output, 134
    encoder, 139–143, 152
    74HC4515 decoder, 139
    74LS148 decoder, 139
    cascaded, 142
    code hopping, 139
    design, 140–141
    276 Indexfunction, 139–140
    potential problems, 143
    priority, 140, 141
    rotary, 139
    rotational, 66
    schematic symbol, 139
    similar devices, 140
    simple, 141
    tri-state, 141
    use of, 142
    values, 142
    variants, 141
    equal-loudness contours, 252
    erratic output, 48
    F
    falling voltage, 43
    falling-edge triggered shift register, 123
    fanout, 94
    feedback
    negative, 51–52
    positive, 44
    ferromagnetic disc, 250
    FF (see flip-flop)
    fiber lasers, 201
    FIFO (see first-in, first-out (FIFO)
    shift register)
    filament, 171, 239
    film-compensated super twisted
    nematic (FSTN) LCD, 161
    first-in, first-out (FIFO) shift register, 123
    flange base, 177
    flexible ribbon, 245
    flicker, 193
    flip-flop, 46, 70, 89, 107–119, 121,
    132
    asynchrononous/synchronous,
    107
    D-type, 114
    design, 107–116
    forbidden states, 110–112
    function, 107
    JK, 112–113
    master-slave, 113
    NAND-based, 108–109
    NOR-based, 109–110
    packaging, 117
    potential problems, 118–119
    summary of types, 116
    use of, 118
    values, 117–118
    variants, 116–117
    flip-flop emulation, 82
    floating inputs, 127
    floating pins, 105
    fluoresce, 192
    fluorescence, 191, 239
    fluorescent lamp, 191
    fluorescent light, 24, 167, 174,
    191–196, 207, 217, 223, 239
    (see also vacuum-fluorescent
    display)
    ballast and starter, 192
    brightness, 195
    CCFLs, 194
    comparisons, 194
    design, 191–195
    flicker, 193
    function, 191
    potential problems, 195
    sizes, 194–194
    spectrum, 195
    tubes, 191
    values, 195
    variants, 193
    fluorescent tubes, 191
    flux, 177
    foot-candles, 178
    forbidden states, 110–112
    frequency
    audio, 54, 251, 252, 253, 254,
    257, 258, 260
    breakover of op amp, 53
    unity gain, 53
    frequency response, 265
    fused quartz, 176
    G
    gain, 50
    gain medium, 198
    game sound, 85
    gamut, 167, 207
    ganged analog potentiometer, 61
    gas-discharge device, 191
    gate threshold current, 18
    gate turn-off thyristor (GTO), 1,
    11, 15
    gated circuit, 113
    glitches, 138, 149
    glow discharge, 185
    gray code counters, 131
    ground loops, 35
    GTO (see gate turn-off thyristor)
    H
    half adder, 92
    halogen lighting, 176, 217, 221
    harmonics, 266
    headphone, 261–266
    acoustically transparent, 264
    balanced armature, 264
    circumaural, 264
    closed-back, 264
    design, 261–262
    distortion, 266
    electret, 264
    electrostatic, 263
    frequency response, 265–266
    function, 261
    impedence, 266
    in-ear, 264
    intensity, 265
    mechanical design, 264–265
    moving coil, 262–263
    noise-cancelling, 264
    open-back, 264
    potential problems, 266
    supra-aural, 264
    values, 265–266
    variants, 262–265
    headset, 264
    hearing aids, 261
    heat sensitivity, 14
    heat sink, 28, 206, 222
    Hertz, Heinrich Rudolph, 262
    hexadecimal counter, 134
    high linearity optocouplers, 36
    high logic state, 89
    high speed optocoupler, 36
    Index 277high-brightness LED, 205, 217,
    227
    high-intensity LED, 217
    high-output LED, 217
    high-pass filter, 55
    high-power LEDs, 217
    Hold state, 109, 114
    holding current, 2, 18
    holding level, 12
    hysteresis, 42, 44–45, 48, 83, 185
    hysteresis range, 43
    hysteresis zone, 39
    I
    I2C protocol, 62, 63
    IEM (see in-ear monitor)
    ignition voltage, 184
    illuminance, 178
    impedence, 271
    in-ear earphones, 264
    in-ear headphones, 264
    in-ear monitor, 264
    incandescence, 191, 243
    incandescent bulbs, 219
    incandescent lamp, 11, 15, 24,
    171–181, 200, 223
    advantages/disadvantages,
    179–180
    base variants, 177
    derating, 180
    design, 172–175
    efficacy, 179
    efficiency, 179
    function, 171–172
    halogen or quartz halogen,
    176
    illuminance, 178
    intensity, 178
    mean spherical candlepower
    (MSCP), 178
    miniature lamps, 175–176
    non-incandescent sources,
    174
    oven lamp, 176
    panel-mount indicator lamp,
    176
    potential problems, 180
    power, 177–178
    power consumption, 175
    schematic symbols, 171
    spectrum, 173
    use of, 179–180
    values, 177–179
    variants, 175–177
    incandescent lamps, 206, 217
    incoherent light, 159
    increment/decrement protocol,
    62
    Indiglo electroluminscent displays, 244
    inductor, 193
    infrared emitters, 211
    inhibit pin, 153
    input
    analog, 66
    asynchronous, 123
    clock, 131, 133
    confused, 48, 58
    dual, 50–51, 127
    floating, 127
    inverting/noninverting, 39, 51
    parallel, 123, 134
    input bias current, 53
    input devices, decoder, 145
    input differential voltage range,
    53
    input offset voltage, 43, 53
    input voltage, 155
    instant-start ballast, 194
    integrated circuits (see analog integrated circuits, digital integrated circuits)
    inter-integrated circuit, 62
    internal sensors, 35
    internal series resistor, 210
    intrinsic layer, optocoupler, 35
    invalid number, 135
    inversion, logic gates, 90
    inverter, 36, 89, 91, 114
    inverting input, 39, 51
    ionization, 184
    isolation transformers, 34
    J
    jam loaded, 134
    jam-type flip-flop, 108
    jam-type parallel data input, 124
    jitter, 44
    JK flip-flop, 112–113, 116
    K
    keyboard, polling, 127
    L
    ladder, 60
    lamp
    oven, 176
    panel-mount indicator lamp,
    176
    lamp lenses, 176
    laser, 197–203
    CO2 lasers, 201
    coherent light, 200–201
    common applications, 202
    crystal lasers, 201
    design, 198–201
    fiber lasers, 201
    function, 197
    laser diode, 197, 198–199
    potential problems, 202
    use of, 202
    values, 201
    variants, 201
    laser diode, 197, 198–199
    latch, 107, 112
    latch function, 43
    latched comparator, 47
    latching current, 2, 18
    latching relay, 4
    LCD (liquid-crystal display), 159–
    170, 207, 227, 246
    4543B decoder, 168
    active and passive types, 161
    additional segments, 162–163
    alphanumeric display module,
    168–169
    backlighting, 167
    278 Indexcolor, 166–167
    color super twisted nematic
    (CSTN), 161
    crystal types, 161
    design, 159–160
    dot-matrix displays, 163–165
    double super twisted nematic,
    161
    film-compensated super twisted nematic (FSTN), 161
    function, 159
    LED comparisons, 228
    numeric display module, 167–
    168
    potential problems, 169–170
    reflective, 161
    seven-segment displays, 161–
    162
    super twisted nematic (STN),
    161
    transreflective, 161
    twisted nematic (TN), 161
    use of, 167–169
    variants, 160–167
    zero-power displays, 167
    LCD display (see LCD (liquid crystal display))
    leakage
    capacitors, 77
    diac, 12
    SCR, 2
    solid-state relay (SSR), 26
    triac, 17
    leakage current, 156
    LED (generic), 26, 159, 167, 174,
    227, 243
    LED area lighting, 24, 191, 195,
    217–226, 227
    color variation, 222
    comparisons, 220–222, 223–
    224
    costs and efficiency, 218
    design, 218–223
    dimming, 222
    efficacy, 222
    function, 217–218
    heat dissipation, 222
    high-brightness, 217
    high-output, 217
    high-power, 217
    potential problems, 225
    schematic symbol, 218
    ultraviolet output, 222
    values, 225
    variants, 223–224
    visible differences, 220–220
    LED display, 146, 227–237
    LM3914, 236
    MAX6954, 234
    SSD1306, 235
    SSD1331, 235
    TIL311, 236
    WS0010, 235
    additional segments, 229–230
    design, 228
    dot-matrix displays, 230, 234–
    236
    driver chips and multiplexing,
    233–234
    function, 227–228
    LCD comparisons, 228
    multiple bar display, 232, 236
    multiple numerals, 229
    one-digit hexadecimal dot
    matrix, 236
    pixel arrays, 231, 235–236
    potential problems, 237
    seven segment numeral, 228
    seven-segment displays, 228–
    229, 232–233
    single light bar, 232
    sixteen-segment driver chip,
    234
    use of, 232–236
    values, 232
    variants, 228–232
    LED indicator, 205–215, 218, 227
    color rendering index (CRI),
    212
    common usage, 206
    comparisons to other light
    emitters, 214
    design, 207
    diffusion, 209
    efficacy, 208
    forward current, 211
    forward voltage, 212
    function, 205–207
    high-brightness, 205
    infrared, 211
    intensity, 208
    internal resistor, 210
    LEDs in parallel, 214
    life expectancy, 212
    light output and heat, 212
    low-current LEDs, 211
    multicolor LEDs and color mixing, 207
    multicolored, 210
    multiple series LEDs, 214
    other applications, 215
    polarity, 213
    potential problems, 215
    schematic symbols, 206
    series resistor value, 214
    size and shape, 208
    ultraviolet, 211
    use of, 213–215
    values, 211–213
    variants, 208–211
    view angle, 213
    wavelength and color temperature, 209–210
    lens, 183
    level shifter, 46
    light
    coherent, 197, 200–201
    incoherent, 159
    monochromatic, 197
    light wires, 243
    light-emitting capacitor, 244
    light-emitting diode (see LED)
    linear relationship, 50
    linear taper, 62
    linearity versus saturation, 42
    liquid-crystal display (see LCD)
    logarithmic taper, 62
    logic chip, 139
    logic gate, 89–106, 108, 126, 140
    74HC00, 93
    4000 series, 94
    7400 series, 93
    binary arithmetical operations,
    91
    Boolean notation, 91
    chip families, 95–96
    design, 89
    Index 279function, 89
    gates and inputs, 90, 96–103
    inversion, 90
    part numbers, 94–95
    potential problems, 105–106
    uses, 103
    variants, 93
    logic state, 89, 107
    logic, positive, 90
    logic, transistor-transistor, 70, 93
    logic-output optocoupler, 36
    loudspeaker, 84, 249, 263, 267
    low logic state, 89
    low-current LEDs, 211
    low-pass filter, 54
    Lower State Transition Voltage
    (LSTV), 43
    lumen (lm), 177, 195, 218, 225
    lumens per watt, 179, 195
    luminaire, 217
    luminary, 217
    luminescence, 191, 243
    luminous flux, 177, 195, 208, 218
    lux, 178
    M
    magnetic ballast, 225
    maintaining voltage, 185
    maser, 197
    master-slave flip-flop, 113, 116
    mc (millicandela), 178
    mean spherical candlepower
    (MSCP), 176, 178
    metal-oxide semiconductor fieldeffect transistor (see MOSFET)
    metastability, in flip-flops, 119
    microcontroller, 29, 59
    microphone, 262
    millicandelas, 187, 208
    miniature speakers, 270
    mismatching, 266
    mixed-signal device, 59
    MOD, 133
    mode select pins, 125
    modulo/modulus, 132
    modulus-16 counter, 134
    monochromatic light, 197
    monostable multivibrator, 69
    (see also timer)
    monostable timer, 69, 71, 77, 79
    MOSFET (metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor),
    26, 70
    motion detector, passive infrared,
    211
    motor, AC, 11
    moving coil headphones, 262
    MSCP (see mean spherical candlepower)
    multicolor LED, 207
    multiple bar display, 232, 236
    multiple series LED, 214
    multiple-stage counter, 136
    multiplexer, 28, 140, 146, 151–
    157
    analog, 151, 152
    bidirectional, 151
    demultiplexer, 140, 146, 151,
    152, 157
    design, 153
    differential, 152
    digital versus analog, 151
    function, 151
    pin identifiers, 154–155
    potential problems, 157
    schematic symbol, 153
    similar devices, 152–153
    use of, 156
    values, 155
    variants, 155
    multiplexing, 168, 233–234, 241
    multisource lighting
    electroluminescent (EL) display, 243–247
    LED display, 227–237
    vacuum-fluorescent display
    (VFD), 239–242
    multivibrator, 69
    (see also timer)
    astable, 46, 55, 69
    bistable, 46, 69, 107
    MUX (see multiplexer)
    N
    NAND gate, 37, 90, 91, 93, 94, 95,
    97, 98, 100, 102, 103, 108, 109,
    123, 127, 135
    (see also NAND-based SR flipflop)
    NAND-based SR flip-flop, 108–
    109, 116
    nanometer, 195, 209
    negative feedback, 49, 51–52
    negative resistance, 185
    neon bulb, 31, 183–190, 191, 193
    construction, 184
    efficiency, 187
    function, 183
    how it works, 183–186
    ionization, 184
    life expectancy, 188
    light output, 187
    negative resistance, 185–186
    Nixie tubes, 189
    potential problems, 189
    power-supply testing, 188
    ruggedness, 187
    use of, 186–189
    variants, 189
    neon bulbs, 206
    neon indicator, 183
    neon lamp, 183
    neon lamp assembly, 183
    neutral value, 49
    (see also zero value)
    Newtons per square meter (Pa),
    251
    Nixie tubes, 189
    noise-cancelling headphones,
    264
    noise-creating device, 249, 267
    noninverting input, 39, 51
    nonvolatile memory, 61
    NOR gate, 90, 91, 97, 98, 100, 102,
    103, 108, 109
    (see also NOR-based SR flipflop)
    NOR-based SR flip-flop, 109–110
    numeric display module, 167–
    168
    280 IndexNV (see nonvolatile memory)
    O
    octal counter, 134
    OE (output-enable), 126
    offset null adjustment, 56
    OLED (organic light-emitting diode), 217, 227, 243, 246–247
    on-resistance, 156
    one-digit hexadecimal dot matrix, 236
    op-amp, 39, 49–58, 90
    LM741, 49, 53
    calculating amplification, 53
    and comparators, 52
    confused input, 58
    controlling the gain, 53
    design, 49–52
    differences from comparator,
    42
    dual inputs, 50–51
    as high-pass filter, 55
    as low-pass filter, 54
    negative feedback, 51–52
    offset null adjustment, 56
    oscillating output, 57
    potential problems, 57–58
    as relaxation oscillator, 55
    as single power source, 56
    use of, 53–57
    values, 52
    variants, 52
    what it does, 49
    open collector, 40
    open loop mode, 51
    open loop operation, 42
    open loop voltage gain, 53
    open-back headphones, 264
    open-drain outputs, 126
    operating voltage, 259
    operational amplifier (see opamp)
    optical maser, 197
    optical switch, 34
    optocoupler, 25, 33–37, 215
    D804, 37
    OPTEKD804, 34
    analog output, 36
    basic types, 36
    bidirectional, 36
    design, 34–34
    function, 33–34
    high speed, 36
    high-linearity, 36
    internal sensors, 35–36
    logic-output, 36
    potential problems, 37
    schematic symbols, 34
    use of, 36–37
    values, 36
    variants, 34–36
    OR gate, 90, 91, 97, 98, 99, 100,
    102, 103, 140, 142
    organic LED (see OLED (organic
    light-emitting diode))
    oscillating output, 47, 57
    oscillator, relaxation, 12, 46, 55
    output
    analog, 66
    clipped, 50
    descending, 136
    encoded, 134
    erratic, 48
    open-drain, 126
    oscillating, 47, 57
    parallel, 123
    push-pull, 42
    three-state, 142
    types of, 134
    ultraviolet, 222
    weighted, 134
    output coupler, 198
    output mode, comparator, 42
    oven lamp, 176
    overvoltage protection, 2, 6, 155
    P
    Pa (Pascals), 251
    panel, 243
    Panelescent electroluminescent
    lighting, 244
    parallel input, 134
    parallel-enable pin, 134
    parallel-in, parallel-out (PIPO)
    shift converters, 125
    parallel-in, serial-out (PISO) shift
    register, 124
    parallel-serial converters, 124
    parchmentized thread, 172
    passive infrared motion detector,
    211
    passive matrix LCD, 161
    phase angle, 7, 13
    phase control, 2, 7–7, 13, 22
    phones (see headphone)
    phosphor, 192, 239, 244
    phosphorescence, 244
    photocell, 35
    photodarlington, 34
    photodiode, 26, 34
    photon, 207
    photoresistor, 34
    phototransistor, 26, 34, 45
    photovoltaic PIN diode, 35
    piezein, 250
    piezo, 258
    piezoelectric alerts (see audio indicator)
    piezoelectric transducer, 249,
    250, 253
    pin
    common, 161
    floating, 105
    inhibit, 153
    parallel-enable, 134
    reset, 70
    trigger, 69
    pin base, 177
    PIN diode, 35
    pin identifier, 133
    pip, 184
    PIPO (see parallel-in, parallel-out
    (PIPO) shift converters)
    pixel arrays, 231, 235–236
    PMOLED (passive-matrix OLED),
    246
    PN junction, 207
    PNPN device, 3
    polling a keyboard, 127
    positive feedback, 44
    positive logic, 90
    Index 281potentiometer, 35
    (see also digital potentiometer)
    power rating, 272
    powered speaker, 271
    primary colors, 166–166
    priority encoder, 140, 141
    programmable counter, 137
    programmable digital potentiometer, 59
    programmable unijunction transistor (PUT), 2, 9
    propagation delay, 44, 134
    protection diode, 30
    pullup resistor, 36, 40, 48, 71, 126,
    153
    pulse-width modulation, 7, 194,
    211
    pumping a laser, 198
    push-pull output, 42
    pushbutton, 66, 71
    pushbutton protocol, 62
    Q
    quad digital potentiometer, 61
    quadrants, 17–18
    quartz crystal, 131, 135
    R
    race condition, 112
    radiant flux, 177
    radiant luminous efficacy (LER),
    179, 187, 208, 222
    radiant luminous efficiency (LFR),
    179
    radiation, black body, 173
    rail-to-rail values, 42
    rapid-start ballast, 194
    rated voltage, 259
    Rayleigh scattering, 202
    RC network, 70
    rectifier, 2
    reference voltage, 70
    reflective display (see LCD (liquid
    crystal display))
    reflective LCD, 161
    reflective primaries, 166
    reflex port, 270
    regenerative device, 2
    register, 121
    relaxation oscillator, 12, 46, 55
    relay
    electromagnetic, 33
    latching, 4
    solid-state (see solid-state relay)
    zero-crossing, 25, 27
    remainder, 132
    reproducers
    headphone, 261–266
    speaker, 267–272
    reset pin, 70
    reset state, 109
    resistor array, 232
    resolution, 43
    resonant cavity, 198
    response time, comparator, 42
    restricted combination, 112
    retriggering, timer, 69
    RGB LCD monitors, 167
    RGB primaries, 166
    rheostat mode, 64
    ring counter, 121, 131, 134
    ringing, 112
    ripple counter, 107, 134, 148
    rising voltage, 43
    rising-edge triggered shift register, 123
    rope light, 243, 245
    rotary encoder, 139
    rotary switch, 151
    rotational coder, 139
    rotational encoder, 66
    S
    saturation versus linearity, 42
    SCR (silicon-controlled rectifier),
    1–9, 11, 15, 26, 34
    2N682, 2
    40TPS12, 2
    X0403DF, 2, 5
    abbreviations, 6
    AC current applications, 5
    breakdown and breakover
    voltage, 4
    concept demo, 4
    design, 1–2
    function, 1
    internal configuration, 3–5
    overvoltage protection, 7
    phase control, 7–7
    potential problems, 8–9
    switching behavior, 2
    use, 6–8
    values, 5
    variants, 5, 6
    screw-in lamps, 177
    SCS (see silicon-controlled
    switch)
    segments, 239
    self-drive transducer circuit, 254
    sensitivity, 272
    sensor, 34, 35, 249, 262
    serial peripheral interface (see
    SPI)
    serial-in, parallel-out (SIPO) shift
    register, 123, 124
    serial-in, serial-out (SISO) shift
    register, 123, 124
    serial-parallel coverter, 123
    serial-to-parallel converters, 107
    series resistor, 207
    series resistor value, 214
    settling time, 149, 157
    setup time, 125
    seven-segment decoder, 146
    seven-segment displays, 228–
    229, 232–233
    seven-segment numeral, 228
    shift register, 63, 121–129, 131,
    146
    abbreviations and acronyms,
    123
    arithmetical operations, 127
    buffering, 128
    design, 122
    function, 121–122
    parallel outputs and inputs,
    123–124
    polling the keyboard, 127
    potential problems, 128–129
    282 Indexpower considerations, 126
    preloading, 127
    schematic representation, 122
    three-state output, 126
    use of, 126–128
    values, 125–126
    variants, 124–125
    shift registers, 107
    shortened modulus, 135
    sidac, 14
    silicon-controlled rectifier (see
    SCR)
    silicon-controlled switch (SCS), 1,
    11, 15
    simple encoder, 141
    single counter, 136
    single light bar, 232
    single power source, 56
    single-inline package (SIP), 27
    single-input gates, 90
    single-source lighting
    fluorescent light, 191–196
    incandescent lamp, 171–181
    lasers, 197–203
    LED area lighting, 217–226
    LED indicator, 205–215
    neon bulb, 183–190
    sink current, 44
    SIPO (see serial-in, parallel-out
    (SIPO) shift register)
    siren, 258
    SISO (see serial-in, serial-out (SISO) shift register)
    sixteen-segment driver chip, 234
    slew rate at unity gain, 53
    snubber, 30
    snubber network, 23
    snubberless triac, 23
    solid-state analog switch, 28
    solid-state relay (SSR), 1, 11, 15,
    25–31, 33, 36, 215
    (see also optocoupler)
    CMX60D10, 27
    DC60S7, 27, 28
    advantages/disadvantages, 25
    design, 26–27
    function, 25–26
    instantaneous versus zero
    crossing, 27
    NC and NO modes, 28
    packaging, 28
    potential problems, 30
    solid-state analog switch, 28
    use of, 29–30
    values, 29
    variants, 27–28
    sound pressure level, 251–252,
    251
    sound reproduction device, 249,
    267
    sound sources (see audio alerts,
    reproducers)
    spatial coherence, 200
    spatial distribution, 213
    speaker, 249, 267–272
    closed-box, 270
    construction, 268
    design, 267–270
    electrostatic, 271
    function, 267
    innovative designs, 271
    miniature speakers, 270
    multiple drivers, 269–270
    potential problems, 272
    powered, 271
    resonance, 270
    values, 271
    variants, 270–271
    venting, 270
    wireless, 271
    spectral lines, 174
    SPI (serial peripheral interface),
    62
    spontaneous emission, 198
    SPST switch, 25
    sputtering, 188
    SR flip-flop (see NAND-based SR
    flip-flop)
    sRGB, 167
    SSR (see solid-state relay)
    standard LED, 205, 227
    starter, 192, 225
    starting voltage, 184
    state diagram, 135
    steradians, 178
    stimulated emission, 198
    striking voltage, 184
    strip lights, 223
    strobe, 153
    super twisted nematic (STN) LCD,
    161
    supra-aural headphones, 264
    surface-mount transducers, 251
    swapped voltages, 48
    switch, 25, 71, 107
    rotary, 151
    silicon-controlled (SCS), 1, 11,
    15
    solid-state analog switch, 28
    SPST, 25
    switch bounce, 109
    synchronous circuit, 113
    synchronous counter, 134, 136
    synchronous flip-flop, 107
    T
    T-type flip-flop, 116
    tap, 60
    tap address, 62, 63
    taper, 62
    task lighting, 217
    TFT (see thin-film transistor)
    THD (see total harmonic distortion)
    thermal compound, 30
    thick phosphor, 244
    thin-film OLED, 243
    thin-film transistor (TFT), 161, 246
    3-wire programmable potentiometers, 63
    three-state output, 126, 142
    three-wire chips, 64
    threshold voltage, 207
    through hole, 206
    thyratron, 1
    thyristor
    diac, 11–14, 15
    SCR, 1–9
    triac, 15–24
    timer, 69–87
    4047B, 75
    555, 70–85
    5555, 74
    556, 73
    558, 73
    Index 28374HC123, 75
    74HC221, 76
    74HC5555, 74
    74HCT5555, 74
    7555, 74
    7556, 74
    CD4047B, 75
    HEF4528B, 75
    M74HC4538, 75
    MC14538B, 75
    NTE926, 73
    astable mode, 70, 72, 77, 80
    bipolar version, 70
    burst mode, 84
    CMOS 555, 74
    CMOS version, 71
    and coupling capacitors, 84
    design, 70
    dual monostable, 75–76, 77
    function, 69–70
    game sound, 85
    hysteresis, 83
    loudspeaker connection, 84
    monostable mode, 69, 71, 77,
    79
    output time control, 80
    potential problems, 85–87
    TTL version, 70
    use of, 79–85
    values, 76–79
    variants, 70–76
    toggle, 43, 113
    total harmonic distortion (THD),
    266
    transducer, 249–255, 257, 267
    PT-2040PQ, 253
    AC supply, 254
    current, 254
    design, 249
    dynamic, 262
    electromagnetic, 250, 253
    formats, 251
    frequency range, 251
    function, 249
    limitations, 253–254
    measurement location, 253
    piezoelectric, 249, 250, 253
    potential problems, 254
    self-drive transducer circuit,
    254
    sound intensity, 254
    sound pressure, 251–252
    surface-mount, 251
    ultrasonic, 250
    unweighted values, 253
    use of, 254
    values, 251–254
    variants, 250–251
    voltage, 254
    volume control, 254
    weighted sounds values, 252–
    253
    transformer, isolation, 34
    transistor, bipolar, 1
    transistor-transistor logic, 93
    transistor-transistor logic protocol, 70
    transparent, 108, 114
    transreflective LCD, 161
    tri-state encoder, 142
    triac, 1, 7, 11, 15–24, 25, 34
    BTA208X-1000B, 16
    BTB04-600SL, 16
    MAC97A6, 16
    breakover voltage, 20
    charge storage, 23
    design, 17–23
    function, 15–16
    other drivers, 22
    potential problems, 24
    quadrants, 17–18
    snubberless, 23
    switching AC, 20–22
    symbol variants, 15–16
    testing, 19–20
    triggered by diac, 22
    values, 23–24
    variants, 23
    triac-based dimmer, 179
    trigger pin, 69
    trimmer, 40, 254
    truth table, 90
    TTL (see transistor-transistor logic)
    tweeter, 269
    twisted nematic (TN) LCD, 161
    two-wire chips, 64
    U
    ultrasonic transducer, 250
    ultraviolet output, 222
    unity gain frequency, 53
    universal shift register, 125
    unweighted sound values, 253
    up/down protocol, 62, 63
    Upper State Transition Voltage
    (USTV), 43
    V
    Vactrol, 35
    vacuum-fluorescent display,
    (VFD), 239–242
    anode in, 240
    cathode, 240
    character sets and pictorial design, 242
    color, 241
    comparisons, 242
    design, 239–240
    function, 239
    modern application, 241
    potential problems, 242
    use of, 240–241
    variants, 241–242
    variable frequency drive, 239
    velocity, 262
    vent, 270
    VFD (see vacuum-fluorescent display)
    view angle, 208
    volatile memory, 61
    voltage, 259
    breakdown, 1, 4, 20, 184
    breakover, 4, 15, 20
    dual, 39
    falling, 43
    forward, 212
    ignition, 184
    input, 155
    input offset, 43, 53
    maintaining, 185
    in multiplexers, 155
    operating, 259
    284 Indexrated, 259
    reference, 70
    rising, 43
    starting/striking, 184
    threshold, 207
    transducer, 254
    voltage amplification, 53
    voltage amplifier, 49
    voltage converter, 39
    voltage divider, 71
    voltage divider mode, 65
    voltage gain, 43
    voltage level, 69
    voltage regulator, 59
    voltage spike, 72
    voltage transition, 69
    W
    wafers, 219
    water clear, 205
    wavelength, 262
    wavelength coherence, 200
    wedge base, 177
    weighted output, 134
    weighted sound values, 252–253
    window comparator, 42, 46
    wiper, 60
    wiper resistance, 65
    wireless speaker, 271
    woofer, 269
    X
    XNOR gate, 90, 91, 98, 100, 102,
    103
    XOR gate, 90, 91, 92, 97, 98, 100,
    102, 103
    Z
    zero point finder, 47
    zero value, 49
    zero-crossing relay, 25, 27
    zero-crossing signal, 66

كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.net
The Unzip Password : books-world.net

تحميل

يجب عليك التسجيل في الموقع لكي تتمكن من التحميل
تسجيل | تسجيل الدخول

التعليقات

اترك تعليقاً