Handbook of Theories of Aging

Handbook of Theories of Aging
اسم المؤلف
Vern L. Bengtson, K. Warner Schaie
التاريخ
2 أبريل 2022
التصنيف
المشاهدات
50
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Handbook of Theories of Aging
Vern L. Bengtson, PhD
K. Warner Schaie, PhD
Editors
Contents
Preface ix
Acknowledgments xiii
Contributors xv
Section I: Bases of Theory-Building in Aging
1 Are Theories of Aging Important? Models and Explanations in
Gerontology at the Turn of the Century 3
Vern L Bengtson, Cam /. Rice, and Malcolm L Johnson
2 Historical Development of Theories of Aging 21
Jon Hendricks and Andrew Achenbaum
3 Elements of a Narrative Gerontology 40
Gary M. Kenyon, Jan-Eric Ruth (deceased), and Wilhelm Mader
4 On Reestablishing the Phenomenon and Specifying Ignorance:
Theory Development and Research Design in Aging 59
Angela M. O’Rand and Richard T. Campbell
Section II: Biological and Biomedical Concepts and Theories of Aging
5 Stress Theories of Aging 81
Caleb E. Finch and Teresa E. Seeman
6 Biological Theories of Senescence 98
Vincent J. Cristofalo, Maria Tresini, Mary Kay Francis, and
Craig Volker
7 Theories of Neuropsychology and Aging 113
Diana S. Woodruff-Pak and Michelle Papka
8 The Role of Aging Processes in Aging-Dependent Diseases 133
David H. Solomon
vSection III:Psychological Concepts and Theories of Aging
9 Multilevel and Systemic Analyses of Old Age: Theoretical and
Empirical Evidence for a Fourth Age 153
Paul B. Baltes and Jacqui Smith
10 Theories of Everyday Competence and Aging 174
K. Warner Schaie and Sherry L Willis
11 Theories of Cognition 196
Timothy A. Salthouse
12 Social-Psychological Theories and Their Applications to Aging:
From Individual to Collective 209
Margret M. Baltes and Laura L. Carstensen
13 The Self-Concept in Life Span and Aging Research 227
A. Regula Herzog and Hazel R. Markus
14 Emotions in Adulthood 253
Gisela Labouvie-Vief
Section IV: Social Science Concepts and Theories of Aging
15 Anthropological Theories of Age and Aging 271
Christine L. Fry
16 Constructionist Perspectives on Aging 287
Jaber F. Gubrium and James A. Holstein
17 Paths of the Life Course: A Typology 306
Dale Dannefer and Peter Uhlenberg
18 The Aging and Society Paradigm 327
Matilda White Riley, Anne Foner, and John W. Riley, Jr.
19 The Political Economy Perspective in Aging 344
Jill Quadagno and Jennifer Reid
Section V: Applications and Potentials for Theories of Aging
20 Public Policy and Theories of Aging: Constructing and
Reconstructing Old Age 361
Alan Walker
21 Applying Theories of Aging to Gerontological Practice Through
Teaching and Research 379
Peter G. Coleman and Dorothy Jerrome
22 A Good Old Age: Paradox or Possibility 396
Margaret Gatz and Steven H. Zarit
23 On the Dynamics of Development and Aging 417
Johannes }. F. Schroots and F. Eugene Yates
24 Analyzing Social Theories of Aging 434
Victor W. Marshall
vi Contents25 Theories of Aging: A Personal Perspective 459
James E. Birren
Dedication 473
Author Index 481
Subject Index
Subject Index
A&S. See Aging and society paradigm
(A&S)
Acetylcholine, Alzheimer’s Disease and,
127-128
Activities of Daily Living (ADLs),
competence and, 183, 186
Age
vs. aging, 331
chronological vs. functional, 276, 460
context constructed from, 299-302
See also Mental health in old age
Age and Anthropological Theory
(Kertzer and Keith), 273
Age class systems, in social
anthropology, 278-279
Age segregation, vs. age integration,
61-63
Age stratification theory, of welfare
state provisions, 346-347, 355
Aged heterogeneity, concept of, 12
Ageism
benign ageism and, 12
example of, 293
self-fulfilling prophecies and, 329
social gerontology and, 212
Ageless Self, The (Kaufman), 297-298
Aging
vs. age, 331
complexity of, 464-465
vs. death and dying, 47-49
defined, 419, 460
interactionist view of, 461
successful aging, defined, 396
See also Aging and society paradigm
(A&S); Dynamics of development
and aging; Mental health in old
age; Psychological aging; Social
phenomenon of aging
Aging in Early Industrial Society
(Quadagno), 446
Aging Enterprise, The (Estes), 444
Aging and Modernization (Cowgill and
Holmes), 273, 443
Aging research. See Self-concept in life
span and aging research
Aging and society paradigm (A&S)
age, meanings of, 327-328
background of, 328-330
conclusions regarding, 341
guidelines for use of, 330
phase 1 of, lives and structures
accumulation principle and, 331
age vs. aging and, 331
age criteria and, 332
age stratification, heuristic value
of, 332-333
gerontocracy vs. juvenocracy
concept and, 332-333
lives, 331-332
structures, 332
phase 2 of, two dynamisms
changing lives, 333-334500 Subject Index
Aging and society paradigm(A&S)
phase 2 of, two dynamisms
(continued)
changing structures, 334
cohort differences concept and,
333-334
cohort succession and, 334
phase 3 of, interplay
age barrier flexibility and, 338
age integration and, 338
asynchrony and, 335-336
benefits vs. disadvantages from,
338-339
imbalances and, 336
interdependence and, 335
social homeostasis and, 337
phase 4 of, impending changes
age integration and, 337-339
cohort norm formation and, 339-
341
Aging and Society (Riley et al.), 328-
329
Aging theories. See Theories of aging
Aging-dependent diseases, aging
processes role in, 145-147
aging, defined, 134
aging processes
benign nature of, 147
defined, 134-136
future research on, 148
summary of, 135 fig., 138-140
aging-dependent diseases
concept of, 136
future research on, 148
universality of, 147
Alzheimer’s disease, 142-143
atherosclerosis, 139, 140, 141, 144
comorbidity of, 143
diabetes mellitus, 141-142
disease, defined, 133-134
epidemiology of, 137-138
glycation of proteins and, 139
implications of, 148-149
ischemic heart disease, 140
longevity increase and, 133, 149
malignant neoplasms, 140-141
manifestations of aging, concept of,
136
models of, 143-145, 145fig.
osteoarthritis, 142
oxidation process and, 138
pathogenic processes and, 139-140
theoretical considerations of, 145-
148
Alzheimer’s Disease
as aging-dependent disease, 142-143
cognitive factors, and, 405, 410
declarative memory loss and, 122
depression and, 403
estrogen-replacement therapy for,
127, 405
Lewy bodies and, 128-129
working memory deficits in, 119
See also Neuropsychology theories of
aging
American Geriatrics Society, 30
American Sociological Association
(ASA), 321
Antagonistic pleiotrophy, concept of,
100-101
Anthropological theories of aging
age concept in, 272-274
age, defined, 282
age, as temporal variable, 280-282
aged, defined, 283-284
aging, defined, 282-283
challenge of time and, 274—276
comparative method used in, 271
historical perspective on, 271-272
holistic nature of, 271-272
life course cultural models and, 277
age class systems, 278-279
generational systems, 278
staged life courses, 279-280
modernization process and, 273
societies, maturational differences in,
276-277
themes in
complexity, 273-274
context specificity, 274
culture and understanding, 274
diversity, 274Subject Index 501
ASA (American Sociological
Association), 321
Asian cultural factors, relatedness selfconcept and, 235, 241
Atherosclerosis, 139, 140, 141, 144
Attachment Awarenessand Dementia
Care Course, 392
Attachment theory
intimacy issues and, 384, 391-392
dementia caretaking and, 391-392
Baltimore Longitudinal Study on
Aging, 107, 428, 464
Bangor Longitudinal Study of Ageing, 388
Behavioral factors
vs. biological factors, 466-469
self-concept and, 241-244
self-concept in life span and aging
research, 241-244
See also Dynamics of development
and aging,behavioral
perspective on; Self-concept in
life span and aging research,
behavior and
Benign ageism concept, 12
Berkeley Guidance and Oakland
Growth studies, 65
Berlin Aging Study. See Psychological
aging
Biological theories of senescence
aging, complexity of and, 464-465,
468
antagonistic pleiotrophy vs. longevity
assurance mechanisms and,
100-101
vs. behavioral and social theories,
466-469
caloric restriction and, 102
cellular level senescence and, 105-
110
animal size and, 107
cell culture vs. human
extrapolation and, 108-109
cell immortality and, 106
cell replicative life span and, 106-
108
pathways to senescence and, 109
somatic cell differentiation and,
106
telomere shortening and, 108
in vivo vs. in vitro senescence and,
106-107
error catastrophe theory, 104
evolution of
DNA encoding and, 99
natural selection concept and, 98-
99
predation threat and, 99-100
free-radical theory, 102-103
hormonal theories, 104-105
immunological theories, 105
rate of living theory, 101-102
somatic mutation theory, 104
stochastic vs. programmed theories,
100
Bracketing of attention, concept of, 288
Calendrics, time and, 275-276
Caloric restriction, 102
Cancer, 140-141
Cholinergic theory, of Alzheimer’s
Disease, 126
Chronological time
vs. functional age, 275-276, 460, 467
staged life courses and, 279-280
Class stratification, 351-352, 355
Cognition theories
cognitive skills age trends and, 196-
197, 197fig., 198fig.
distal explanations of, 198-202
disuse perspective and, 200-202
educational factors and, 200
sociocultural changes and, 199-
200
investigative strategies and, 204-206
process analysis, 205
statistical control, 205-206
structural equation models, 206
neuropsychological research and, 206
proximal explanations of, 202-204
processing resources alteration
and, 204502 Subject Index
Cognition theories
proximal explanations of (continued
specific-deficit hypothesis and,
203-204
strategy efficiency decline and,
202-203
research issues in, 206-207
See also Cognitive flexibility
Cognitive flexibility
Alzheimer’s Disease and, 124-125
frontal lobe function and, 120-121
prospective memory and, 121
source memory and, 121-122
See also Cognition theories;
Competence; Emotioncognition relationship in
adulthood
Cohort effects
cohort-centric thinking and, 306-308
concept of, 199
intracohort variability, neglect of,
311-312
Cohort norm formation
elements of, 350
example of, 339-340
future issues regarding, 341
sources of, 340
Collaborative memory, 219-220
Compensation, resources loss
adaptation and, 218-219
Competence
cognitive abilities and, 175, 176-177,
184
functional competence and, 176,
184
hierarchical model of, 174-175
life span perspective on, 188-190
measurement of
IADL checklist, 186
objective assessment, 186-187
person-environment fit, 184-185,
187-188, 212
subjective ratings, 185-186
psychological vs. legal competence
and
cognitive functioning and, 184
functional or behavioral
impairment and, 184
implications of, 182-184
person and environment
congruence and, 184-185
status or disabling condition
assignment and, 184
theoretical approaches to, 175-176
basic cognition links and, 176-177
componential and hierarchical
perspectives on, 177-178
domain-specific knowledge and
problem solving and, 180-181
latent cognitive constructs and,
176-177
person-environment fit and, 177,
181-182
postformal forms of reasoning
and,179
Constructionist perspectives on aging
contextuality and, 291-292
new directions in, 302-304
regarding knowledge, 33
research in
identity management, 292-294,
389-390
narratives of aging, 297-299
social worlds, 294-297
using age to construct context,
299-302
social construction, defined, 302
subjective orientation of, 288-289
world composed of meanings and,
289-291
Constructs, concept of, 13
Contextuality
of constructionist perspectives on
aging, 291-292
using age to construct, 299-302
Continuity theory, 46
Coping skills
cognitive skills age trends and, 196-
197, 197fig., 198fig.
emotional regulation and, 262-263
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 124
Cultural factorsSubject Index 503
constructionist aging perspective
and,291-292
emotional-cognitive relationship
development and, 258-259, 265
as sources of self-concept, 235-236
wisdom and, 261
See also Anthropological theories of
aging; Social aging theories;
Social factors; Social
phenomenon of aging; Socialpsychological aging theories
Culture and Aging (Clark and
Anderson), 272-273
Cumulative disadvantage theory, of
status attainment research, 346
Current Populations Surveys, 66
Darwin, Charles, 11
Death and dying
vs. aging process, 47-49
certainty of, 48
despair of, 48
facticity and possibility regarding,
48
good death concept and, 388-389
as a journey, 49
research issues on, 49
as source of existential meaning, 49
suicide and, 48—49
Declarative memory
of medial temporal lobe, 122-123
vs. prospective memory, 121
Delirium, risk factors of, 405-406
Dementia
attachment theory and, 384, 391-392
dementia care mapping and, 391
Lewy body disease and, 128-129
Parkinson’s disease and, 124
selective optimization with
compensation and, 409
Depression
assimilation and accommodation
skills and, 381
brain abnormalities and, 403
classification criteria and, 403
coping skills for, 407
depletion syndrome concept and,
403
etiology of, 403-404
family caregiving stressor and, 404-
405
late onset vs. recurrence of, 402
medical illnesses and, 403-404
minor vs. major classification of, 403
prevalence of, 401, 404
resiliency to, 263
socioeconomic factors and, 404
symptom patterns and, 402-403
symptom severity and, 402
Development and aging. See Dynamics
of development and aging
Diabetes mellitus, 141-142
Diminishing homoeostatic capacity,
theory of, 11
Discourses on the Temperate Life
(Cornaro), 24
Diseases of the Elders and Their Chronic
Illnesses (Characot), 25
Disengagement theory, 11-12, 215, 381,
436, 443, 449-451
Distal cognitive theories of aging, 198-
199
disuse perspective and, 200-202
educational factors and, 200
sociocultural changes and, 199-200
Division of Labor in Society, The
(Durkheim), 446
Duke Longitudinal Study, of aging, 428
Dynamic Systems of Development (Van
Geert), 427
Dynamic systems theory (DST). See
Dynamics of development and
aging
Dynamics of development and aging,
465-466
behavioral perspective on, 430-431,
468
development and aging, dynamics
of, 424-425, 426fig.
ontogenetic psychology,
formalization in, 426-427
variability and, 428-430504 Subject Index
Dynamics of development and aging
(continued)
biophysical perspective on, 419, 430,
468
exercise performance, as
biomarker, 422-424
senescence and, 419-420
senescence and, rate of, 420-422,
421 fig.
dynamic systems theory and, 418-
419
Gompertz curve and, 419
psychological process of change and,
417-418, 424
summary regarding, 430-431
Education factors
cognition theories of aging and, 200
as self-concept source, 236-237
trends in, 63
EEGs, underarousal studies and, 115-
116
Ego integrity, development of, 398
Emergent Theories of Aging (Birren and
Bengtson), 59
Emotion-cognition relationship in
adulthood
in adult development, 258-260
cultural factors and, 258-259
mid-life readjustment and, 260
self-concept development and, 259
selves of one’s parents and, 260
“social clocks” and, 260
assimilative and accommodative
skills and, 263-264, 381
biological aspects of, 254-257
cross-cultural studies of, 255
cross-species studies of, 255
feedback and feed-forward
processes and, 256-257
life-span studies of, 255-256
conclusions regarding, 265
coping skills and, 262-263
in early development, 257-258
historical perspective on, 253-254
in late life, 261-262
loss and emotional resilience and,
262
social networks and, 264—265
Empirical adequacy, of theories of
aging, 13
Endocrine system
hormonal theories of aging and,
104-105
stress theories of aging and, 89-94,
92fig.
Environment-person fit, competence
and, 177, 181-182, 184-185,
187-188, 212
Error catastrophe theory, of senescence,
104
Estrogen theory, of Alzheimer’s Disease,
127, 405
Ethnomethodology, 290, 292, 303
European Organization of Economic
Cooperation and Development
studies, 72
Event-related potentials (ERPs) studies,
of brain activity, 116
Everyday competence. See Competence
Evolutionary theory of aging, 30
Executivefunctioning
Alzheimer’s Disease and, 124-125
of prefrontal cortex, 118-119
Exercise
aging biomarkers and, 422-424
mental health and, 410
Expression of Emotion in Man and
Animals, The (Darwin), 255
Facticity concept
death and dying and, 48
of narrative gerontology, 41
Facts, defined, 5-6
Fair Housing Act of 1968, 354
Family formation trends, 63
Fiscal welfare programs, 350
Framingham studies of heart disease,
462
Free fatty acid (FFA) plasma levels,
autonomic nervous system
arousal and, 116Subject Index 505
Free-radical theory, of senescence, 102-
103
From Generation to Generation
(Eisenstadt), 278
Frontal lobes
cognitive flexibility and, 120-121
frontal-lobe syndrome and, 119-120
prefrontal cortex executive function
and,118-119
Gender differences
in agency and communion
motivation, 383
in aging personality qualities, 397
in aging-dependent disease, 143
in Alzheimer’s Disease, 126, 127
gender stratification and, 352-353,
355-356
in self-concept sources, 237-238, 241
General Social Survey, 66
Generational time, 278
age class systems and, 278-279
staged life courses and, 279-280
Geriatrics (Nascher), 26
German Socio-Economic Panel
(GSOEP) study, 71-72
Gerontological Society of America, 30,
459, 461, 463
Gerontology
age, study of within species and, 10
aged heterogeneity and, 12
aged, issues concerning, 9, 17
aging, developmental process of, 9-
10, 17
applications and solutions search in,
12-13
benign ageism concept and, 12
chronological vs. functional age and,
276, 460
cross-disciplinary and
interdisciplinary investigations
in, 15-16, 17-18
disengagement theory and, 11-12,
215, 381, 436, 443, 449-451
“general theory” decline and, 10-12
historical perspective on, 460—461
interventions accountability and, 12-
13
knowledge, constructionist approach
to, 33
knowledge, positivistic approach to,
33
postmodernism and, 4, 8, 13-15
push and pull of success in, 32-33
research directions in, 17-18
social aging theories and, 12, 17
theory development in
evaluation of, 13
future of, 16-17
problems of, 8-9, 459-460
See also Gerontology, theory and
practice linkage; Narrative
gerontology; Theories of aging,
specific subject
Gerontology, theory and practice
linkage, 383
collaborative research and, 389-392
conclusions regarding, 392
identity issues and
active management of self and,
381-382
agency and communion
motivation dimensions and,
383
control theory and, 382
psychosocial life tasks and, 382-
383, 389-390
importance of, 379-380
intimacy issues and, 383
attachment theory and, 384-385,
391-392
dementia care and, 391-392
relationships and health, teaching
about, 387-389
student practitioner, needs of
assessment process and, 386
good death concept and, 388-389
of medical students vs. social
works, 385-386
psychosocial framework and, 386-
387
Gerotranscendence, concept of, 398506 Subject Index
Gibbs free energy theory, 419
Glucocorticoids
hormonal theories of aging and,
104-105
stress theories of aging and, 84-86,
92-94
Great Depression research, 67-68
Growing Older: The Process of
Disengagement (Gumming and
Henry), 443
GSOEP (German Socio-Economic
Panel) study, 71-72
Guided autobiography, 220
Guilt, in early development, 257-258
Gurland depression classification
criteria, 403
Gynaecia (Soranus of Ephesus), 23
Handbook of Aging and the Individual
(Birren), 81-82
Hermeneutic circle concept, of
narrative gerontology, 42
Hippocampus
declarative memory and, 123
HPA axis changes, stress theories
and, 84-86
Hormonal clock theory on aging, 30
Hormonal theories, of senescence, 104-
105
HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal)
axis. See Stress theories of aging
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal(HPA)
axis. See Stress theories of aging
lADLs (Instrumental Activities of Daily
Living), competence and, 183,
186
Identity management
gerontological practice and, 381-383,
389-390
interactionist research on, 292-294
IHD (ischemic heart disease), 140
Immunological theories, of senescence,
105
Immunology, 30
Instrumental Activities of Daily Living
(lADLs), competence and, 183,
186
Intelligence, age differences in, 162-
165, 163fig., 165fig.
Intergenerational support, 12-13
Interventions, types and examples of, 7
Intimacy issues, gerontological practice
and, 383-385
Ischemic heart disease (IHD), 140
Japanese cultural factors, relatedness
self-concept and, 235, 241
lohn D. and Catherine T. MacArthur
Foundation, 396
Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, 27, 28, 463
Kansas City Studies of Aging, 449-451
Knowledge
life span knowledge, as self-concept
source, 238-239
positivistic vs. constructionist
approach to, 33
professional knowledge, power of,
35-36
professional recognition and
creativity and, 34-35
wisdom and, 50-52
See also Competence
Korsakoff’s syndrome, 120
Labor force participation trends, 62-63
Learned dependency model, of social
gerontology, 210,213-215
dependency rewards and, 213-214
passive control concept and, 214
self-selected dependency and, 214-
215
social contact maintenance and, 213
Legal competence. See Competence,
psychological vs. legal
competence
Lewy body disease, 124
dementia of, 128-129
Life course aging theories, 59-60
age segregation to age integration
and, 61-63Subject Index 507
child bearing age and, 62
conclusions regarding, 75
cultural models of, 277
age class systems, 278-279
generational systems, 278
staged life courses, 279-280
data collection and, 65-66
disjunctive to continuous transition
processes and, 61, 63
education trends and, 63
epidemiological research and, 67
family formation trends and, 63
Great Depression research and, 67-
68,69
international comparisons and, 70-
73
labor force participation and, 62-63
life span knowledge, self-concept
and,238-239, 241
macro-micro relationships, model of
and,73-74
multilevel asynchrony and, 74-75
organism development and
degradation and, 465-466
“phenomenon, establishment of”
and, 60-61
population trends and, 62-63
retirement trends and, 63, 64
separate to mutually contingent
pathways and, 61, 64-65
short-run changes and proximate
contingencies and, 66-70
“specifying ignorance” and, 60-61
wage growth, by age cohorts and,
69-70, 70table
WWII research and, 68-69
See also Life course paths; Selfconcept in life span and aging
research
Life course paths
cohort-centric thinking and, 306-
308
organism principle of, 308
phenomena and explanation types of
classification framework for, 312-
315, 314fig.
individual outcomes,
personological explanations for,
315
individual outcomes, sociological
explanations for, 315-317
population outcomes,
personological explanations for,
317-318
population outcomes, sociological
explanations for, 318-319
symbolic construct, life course as,
319-321
problems of
choice, putative role of, 312
intracohort variability, neglect of,
311-312
social forces equated with social
change, 309-311
social interaction principle of, 308
social structure principle of, 308-309
summary regarding, 321-323
Life expectancy trends, 62
Life Satisfaction Index, 399
LIS (Luxembourg Income Study), 72
Logical adequacy, of theories of aging,
13
Logistic growth equation, of
ontogenetic psychology, 426-
427
Longitudinal Studies of Aging, I, II, 66
Longitudinal Study of Generations, 64
Loss
assimilation and accommodation to,
263-264, 381
attachment theory and, 384, 391-392
emotional resilience to, 262
Luxembourg Income Study (LIS), 72
MacArthur Network on Successful
Aging, 243
MacArthur Successful Aging Study, 90
Malignant neoplasms, 140-141
Mathematical models, of biological
systems, 467
Maturation, societal differences in,
276-277508 Subject Index
Medial temporal lobe declarative
memory theory, of aging, 122-
123
Memory
declarative memory and, 121, 123
medial temporal lobe declarative
memory and, 122-123
nondeclarative memory and, 123
prospective memory and, 121
source memory and, 121-122
stress affect on, 90-91
Mental health in old age
affective experience, structure of, 399
Alzheimer’s disease and, 405
conclusions regarding, 411
criteria of, 398
delirium and, 405-406
depression and, 401-405
ego integrity development and, 398
emergent personality qualities and,
397
Erikson life cycle stages and, 398
gender differences in, 397-398
gerotranscendence concept and, 398
indicators of, 397
life course context and, 399
life satisfaction and, 398-399
objective vs. subjective indicators of,
396
optimism vs. pessimism and, 400
paranoia and, 406-407
past, current, and possible selves
comparisons and, 400
prevention implications for, 409,
410table
economic habits, 411
health habits, 410
social contacts, 411
thought habits, 410
primary vs. secondary control
transition and, 399-400
psychological well-being and, 396—
397, 399
social comparison processes and,
381, 400
successful aging concept and, 396
temporal comparison processes and,
381, 400
theoretical perspective on, 400-401,
401table
treatment implications for
autonomy, support of, 408^409
building on strengths, 408
coping mechanisms, 407
environmental changes, 409
minimum intervention, 408
selective optimization with
compensation, 400, 409
support networks, 408
See also Depression; Self-concept in
life span and aging research;
Well-being
Metabolic rates, longevity and, 101-102
Models, defined, 6
Narrative gerontology
characteristics of, 40-41
conclusions regarding, 54-55
constructionist perspective on, 297-
299
death and dying and, 47—52
existential-ontological nature of, 43-
44
hermeneutic circle concept and, 42
interrelated dimensions of lives and,
41
lifestories concept of, 41
modern vs. postmodern view and,
43
past and future experienced as
present, 46
physical vs. psychological time and,
45-47
postmodern aging and, 52-54
recovering meaning and, 43
research issues of, 44, 46-47, 49, 52,
54
scientific theory and, 43
terminology of, 40
theories of aging and, 42-45
National Academy of Science, 29
National Advisory Committee on theSubject Index 509
Employment of Older Men and
Women (U.K.), 369
National Center for Health Statistics,
66
National Institute on Aging, 452
Health and Retirement Study of, 66
National Longitudinal Survey
of labor market experience, 65
on marriage trends, 62
National Research Council, 29
National Science Foundation (NSF),
29
Nature of Man, The (Metchnikoff), 25,
460-461
Neurodegeneration theories of aging.
See Neuropsychology theories
of aging
Neuroendocrine system
hormonal theories of aging and,
104-105
stress theories of aging and, 82-83
Neuropsychology of Lashley, The
(Lashley), 114
Neuropsychology theories of aging
brain vs. mind and, 114
contemporary theories, 117, 121-122
frontal lobes and cognitive
flexibility, 120-121
frontal-lobe syndrome, 119-120
medial temporal lobe declarative
memory theory, 122-123
prefrontal cortex executive
function theory, 118-119
definitions regarding, 113
early theories
overarousal, 116-117
right hemisphere aging, 117
underarousal, 115-116
historical perspective on, 113-114
neurodegeneration theories, 123-124
Lewy bodies dementia and, 128-
129
neurodegeneration theories,
Alzheimer’s Disease
biochemical theories, 126-127
clinical features of, 124
genetic predisposition and, 125-
126
neuropathological mechanisms
and, 125
threshold theory and the nun
study, 127-128
theories and models and, 114-115
Nondeclarative memory, 123
NSF (National Science Foundation), 29
Old age. See Mental health in old age
Old Age and the Welfare State
(Guillemard), 444
Older People (Havighurst and
Albrecht), 31
Oldest old age group, 159, 167-169
Ontogenetic psychology, formalization
in, 426-427
Operational adequacy, of theories of
aging, 13
Optimization, of outcomes or goal
attainment, 219
Organization of Behavior: A
Neuropsychological Theory, The
(Hebb),113
Origin of Species by Means of Natural
Selection (Darwin), 11
Osteoarthritis, 142
Overarousal theory of aging, 116-117
Oxford Book of Aging, 21-22
Panel Study of Income Dynamics
(PSID), 65, 71-72
Paradigm, defined, 6
Paranoia
biological factors and, 406
sensory loss and, 406
social relationship deficiencies and,
406
Parkinson’s disease
dementia of, 124
Lewy bodies and, 128-129
memory impairment of, 119, 120
Person-environment fit, competence
and, 177, 181-182, 184-185,
187-188, 212510 Subject Index
Personal Adjustment in Old Age (Cavan,
Burgess, Havinghurst,
Goldhamer), 31
Personal control beliefs, HPA reactivity
and, 88-89
Personality, age differences in, 165-166,
166fig.
Phenomenology, 288
Pick’s disease, 124
Pilgrim’s Progress (Bunyan), 23
Political economy of aging
conclusions regarding, 355-356
inequalities in old age and,344-345
social theory and
age stratification theory and,346-
347
cumulative disadvantage theory
and, 346
Marx production theory and, 345,
437
status attainment researchand,
346
Weber’s sociocultural variables
and, 345
welfare state, distribution principles
of, 348
fiscal welfare, 349-350
social assistance, 349
social insurance, 349
welfare state, stratification processes
of, 350-351
age stratification, 346-347, 355
class stratification, 351-352, 355
gender stratification, 352-353,
355-356
racial stratification, 353-355, 356
welfare state, as a stratification
system and, 347-348
See also Public policy
Population trends
child bearing age, 62
labor force participation, 62-63
life expectancy, 63
marriage age,62
Positivistic approach, to knowledge, 33
Possibility concept
death and dying and,48
of narrative gerontology, 41
Postmodernism
constructs, concept of, 13
gerontology application of, 4, 8, 14-
15
narrative gerontology and,42-43,
52-54
reason idealization rejection and,
14
research issues in, 54
scientific theory critiqued by, 13-14,
17
themes of, 4
Practical interventions, examples of, 7,
10-11
Pragmatic adequacy, of theories of
aging, 13
Prefrontal cortex executive function
theory of aging, 118-119
Problems of Aging (Cowdry), 27-28, 29,
30, 463
Programmed theories, of senescence,
100
Prolongation of Life, The (Metchnikoff),
25, 460-461
Prospective memory, 121
Proximal cognitive theories of aging,
202-203
processing resources alteration and,
204
specific-deficit hypothesis and, 203-
204
strategy efficiency decline and, 202-
203
PSID'(Panel Study of Income
Dynamics), 65, 71-72
Psychological aging
advanced old age findings and
aging as a systemic phenomenon
and, 166-267
in intelligence, 162-165, 163fig.,
165fig.
in personality, 165-166, 166fig.
biological and cultural
incompleteness and, 167-169Subject Index 511
development dynamics and, 417-
418, 424-425, 426fig.
life span theory observations and
adaptive fitness and, 154-155
cultural need, increase of, 156,
156fig., 157-158
culture efficacy, decrease of, 156,
156fig., 158
deficits as change catalysts and, 160
differential functional aging and,
155-156
evolutionary selection benefits,
decrease of, 156, 156fig., 157
oldest old mortality rates and, 159
ontogenetic architecture,
incompleteness of, 158-159
ontogenetic perspective of, 154
resources allocation and, 160-161
selective optimization with
compensation and, 161-162
ontogenetic psychology,
formalization in, 426—427
variability in, 428-430
Psychological competence. See
Competence, psychological vs.
legal
Psychology of Aging (Birren), 82
Psychosocial factors, HPA reactivity
and,88-89
Public Health Service, 29
Public policy
1940s-early 1970s, 362, 368-370
mid 1970s-late 1980s, 362, 367, 370-
372
present phase of, 362, 374
age-barrier retirement and, 369-370
Beveridge residual model and, 366,
369
Bismarckian employment-related
system and, 366, 368
conclusions regarding, 375
democratic pluralism and, 365
in different countries, 363-364
early retirement and, 370-371
early retirement, termination of,
372-373
vs. economic policy, 365
European Communities emphasis of,
364, 368
family-oriented model and, 366
health and social services expansion
and, 370, 373-374
labor market, changes in, 373
labor market, devaluation of older
people by, 371
liberal-pluralist tradition and, 365,
368
neoclassical theory and, 365-366
old age, burden vs. productive
citizens and, 372-374
old age as product of, 362-363
political economy perspective and,
367-368
Scandinavian citizenship model and,
366
vs. social policy, 364-365
social theory domains and, 363
structural functionalism and, 365
symbolic interactionist perspective
and, 367
theories of aging and, 364-368
theorizing by policy makers and,
363
Racial stratification, of welfare state
provisions, 353-355, 356
Rate of living theory, of senescence,
101-102
Reasoning, postformal forms of, 189
Research Network on SuccessfulAging,
396
Retirement trends, 63, 64
Right hemisphere aging theory, 117
Rockefeller Foundation, 29
Role of the Aged in Primitive Society
(Simmons), 272
Roles, as self-concept source, 239
Ryff’s measure of psychological wellbeing, 240
Seattle Longitudinal Study (SLS), on
aging, 428512 Subject Index
Selective optimization with
compensation (SOC) model, of
aging, 218-221
attachment relationships and, 388
collaborative memory example and,
219-220
compensation factor of, 218-219
gain-loss dynamic of, 220
guided autobiography example and,
220
mental health status and, 400, 409
optimization factor of, 219
selection factor of, 218
Self-concept in life span and aging
research
active management of the self and,
381-382
agency and communion motivation
and, 383
attachment relationships and, 385,
387-389
behavior and
activity theory and, 243
vs. biological and social aging
theories, 466-469
health-promoting behaviors and,
244
leisure activities and, 243-244
levels of behavior and, 242
life span perspective on, 242-243
possible self activities and, 242,
244
routines and, 242
strategies of, 242
conclusions regarding, 246-247
control theory and, 382
definitions regarding, 228
emotional disengagement and, 381
emotional-cognitive development
and, 259
impact of, 227-228
life span negotiation and, 229
multi-level self-system concept and,
228
nature of self and
content of the self, 232-234
functions of self, 230-232
past selves and, 234
positive vs. negative attributes
and,232-233
self-description examples and,
229-230, 233-234
self-making concept and, 230
self-narratives and, 231
self-schemas and, 231
self-views and, 231-232
psychosocial life tasks and, 382-383
social and temporal comparisons
and, 381
sociocultural influence and, 229
sources of the self and, 234
cultural differences, 235-236
gender, 237-238
intersection among sources and,
241
life span knowledge, 238-239
roles and resources, 239
self and the life span, 239-241
socioeconomic status, 236-237
well being and, 244-246
Self-schema
attachment relationships and, 385,
387-389
self-concept and, 231
well-being and, 245
Senescence
definition of, 98, 419
See also Biological theories of
senescence
Senescence (Hall), 22, 26
Shame, in early development, 257-258
SOC (selective optimization with
compensation) model, of aging,
218-221
Social aging theories, 12, 17, 59
Bengtson’s theory on, 444—447,
445fig.
vs. biological and behavioral
theories, 466-469
conclusions regarding, 451-453
contrast and conflict within, 436-
437Subject Index 513
Hendricks’ theory of, 441-444,
443table
individual adjustment emphasis and,
31
Kansas City Studies of Aging and,
449-451
knowledge, integration of, 435
Lynott and Lynott’s theory of, 447-
449
predictions and interventions from,
436
structural condition emphasis and,
31-32
theory, defined, 434
theory, role of, 435-436
typology, understanding theory
through, 437-441, 438table
interpretive perspective of,
438table, 439
macro analysis level and, 438table,
439-440, 445fig.
macro, micro analysis levels,
linkage of, 438table, 440-441,
445fig.
micro analysis level and, 438table,
440-441, 445fig.
normative perspective of, 437,
438-439, 438table
See also Aging and society paradigm
(A&S); Anthropological
theories of aging;
Constructionist perspectives on
aging; Life course aging
theories; Life course paths;
Political economy of aging;
Social-psychological aging
theories
Social assistance, in a welfare system,
349
Social breakdown theory, 13
Social constructionism. See
Constructionist perspectives on
aging
Social Darwinism, 11
Social factors
HPA reactivity and, 88-89
in mental health, 411
as self-concept source, 236-237, 241
See also Aging and society paradigm
(A&S); Life course paths;
Political economy of aging;
Social aging theories; Social
phenomenon of aging; Socialpsychological aging theories
Social gerontology
chronological vs. functional age and,
276, 460
See also Aging and society paradigm
(A&S); Life course paths;
Political economy of aging;
Social-psychological aging
theories
Social insurance, 349
Social interventions, examples of, 7
Social networks
emotional-cognitive relationship and,
264-265
mental health factor of, 411
Social phenomenology, 288, 290
Social phenomenon of aging
age segregation to age integration
and, 61-63
disjunctive to continuous transition
processes and, 63
multilevel asynchrony and, 74—75
“phenomenon, establishment of”
and, 60-61
“specifying ignorance” and, 60-61
See also Aging and society paradigm
(A&S)
Social policy, vs. public policy, 364-365
Social schema, well-being and, 245
Social science concepts. See Aging and
society paradigm (A&S);
Anthropological theories of
aging; Constructionist
perspectives on aging; Life
course paths; Political economy
of aging; Social aging theories;
Social phenomenon of aging;
Social-psychological aging
theories514 Subject Index
Social Science Research Council, 452
Social theory
of early twentieth century, 11
reductionism and, 11
Social worlds, constructionist
perspective on, 294-297
Social-psychological aging theories
vs. biological and behavioral
theories, 466-469
collective emphasis of, 210
contextualism concept and, 217
group problem solving and, 217
vs. individual, 209-210
model of, 217-218
social interactive perspective on,
217
collective selective optimization, with
compensation and, 210, 218-
221
attachment relationships and, 388
collaborative memory example
and, 219-220
compensation factor of, 218-219
gain-loss dynamic of, 220
guided autobiography example
and, 220
optimization factor of, 219
selection factor of, 218
individual centered approaches and
learned dependency model and,
210, 213-215
socioemotional selectivity theory
and, 210, 215-216
mainstream social psychology and,
211
social gerontology and, 212
See also Aging and society paradigm
(A&S)
Socioeconomic factors, as self-concept
source, 236-237, 241
Socioemotional selectivity theory, of
social psychology, 215-216
emotional regulation and, 215
information seeking and, 215
perceived time, role of in, 216
social network size and, 216
Somatic mutation theory, of
senescence, 104
Soranus of Ephesus, 23
Source memory, 121-122
Stanford Terman Study, of aging, 65,
428
Status attainment research, 346
Stochastic theories, of senescence, 100
Stratifcation Among the Aged (Dowd),
446
Stress theories of aging
cell-level nerve tissue analysis and,
81
cognition affects and, 90
endocrine system and
dysregulation of, 89-91
regulation patterns of, 91-94,
92fig.
genetic influences and, 82, 83fig.
historical perspective on, 81-83
HPA axis changes and
age-related disorders and, 89, 93
astrocyte activation and, 85, 91,
93-94
diet and, 94
exercise and, 94
gender differences and, 87-88
glucocorticoid levels and, 84-86,
92-94
hippocampal formation and, 84-
86
in homeostatic regulatory
processes, 83-84
psychosocial factors and, 88-89,
93-94
regulation of, 91-94, 92fig.
regulation patterns, individual
differences in, 86
memory affects and, 90
neuroendocrine reactivity
importance and, 82-83
Subjective orientation, of
constructionist perspective on
aging, 288-289
Symbolic interactionist perspective, on
identity management, 292-294Subject Index 515
Theories of aging
aging complexity and, 464-465
development and, 465-466
empiricism and, 463-464
evaluation methods of, 13
future development of, 16-7
modern vs. postmodern views and,
42-43
narrative gerontology and, 42-45
vs. practical application, 462-463
research directions and, 17-18
specialization leading to
fragmentation of, 466
summary regarding, 469-470
See also Aging and society paradigm
(A&S); Aging-dependent diseases,
aging processes role in; Biological
theories of senescence;
Competence; Emotion-cognition
relationship in adulthood;
Narrative gerontology;
Neuropsychology theories and
aging; Political economy of aging;
Psychological aging; Public
policy; Self-concept in life span
and aging research; Stress
theories of aging; Theories of
aging, specific subject; specific
theory
Theories of aging, historical
development of, 460-461
building theories and, 24-25
conclusions regarding, 36-37
developmental trajectory of, 35-36
disciplinary heritage and, 28-32
discipline-specific emphasis and, 29,
36
early social worldview models of,
22-23
gerontology push and pull of success
and, 32-33
Hebrew Scripture and, 22-23
in historical contexts, 23
holistic approaches and, 27
multidisciplinary approaches and,
26, 28, 36, 37
professional knowledge, power of,
35-36
professional recognition and, 34-35
scholarly institutions and, 28-29
searching for explanations and, 33-
34
societal norms and, 23-24
sociological theories and, 31-32
theory in aging and, 25-28, 460-461
Theories of aging, importance of, 3-5,
6-7
conclusions regarding, 18
critical analyses of knowledge and, 4
definitions regarding, 5
explanation process and, 5
facts, defined, 5-6
focus of theory and, 5
future directions of, 16-17
interpretive science critiques and, 7-8
interventions and, 7
knowledge explanation and, 7
knowledge integration and, 7
limits of knowledge and, 4
models, defined, 6
paradigm, defined, 6
predictions of unknowns and, 7
See also Gerontology
Theory of diminishing homeostatic
capacity, 11
Time
anthropological aging theories and,
274-276
physical vs. psychological, 45-47
Type II diabetes, 141-142
Underarousal theory of aging, 115-
116
UNDP (United National Development
Programme), 72-73
United National Development
Programme (UNDP), 72-73
United Nations databases, 72-73
Welfare state, as a stratification system,
347-348
fiscal welfare and, 349-350576 Subject Index
Welfare state, as a stratification system
(continued)
social assistance and, 349
social insurance and, 349
See also Public policy
Well-being
control theory and, 382
current vs. ideal selective
comparisons and,246
life satisfaction and,398-399
loss, emotional resilience to, 262, 265
psychosocial relationships and, 387-
389
self-esteem and,245
self-schema and,245
social schema and,245
stress moderation and,245-246
See also Mental health in old age
Werner’s syndrome, 146-147
Wisdom
acquisition of, 50
emotion-cognition relationship and, 261
enhancement of with age,178,261
ethical dimension of, 50
guided autobiography and,398
interpretations of, 50
problems of life and, 51
research issues in, 52
spiritual dimensions of aging and, 51
Women
child bearing trends of, 62
cohort norm formation of, 339-340
gender role changes of, 74
gender stratification processand,
352-353
HPA reactivity of, 87-88
identity management of, 292-294
labor force trends of, 62-63
life course trends of, 64
marriage trends of, 62
memory, cortisol levels and,90-91
relatedness in self-concept of, 237-
238
social clocks of, 260
World Bank studies, 72
World War II research, 68-69

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