Handbook of Corrosion Engineering – Third Edition

Handbook of Corrosion Engineering – Third Edition
اسم المؤلف
Pierre R. Roberge
التاريخ
4 أبريل 2024
المشاهدات
216
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Handbook of Corrosion Engineering – Third Edition
Pierre R. Roberge
CONTENTS
Preface vii
Acknowledgments ix
About the Author x
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1 The Concept of Corrosion in History / 1
1.2 Visualizing Corrosion Cells / 3
1.3 A Simple Corrosion Model / 5
1.4 Corrosion in Our Daily Life / 12
1.5 Strategic Impact and Cost of Corrosion Damage / 17
1.6 What Corrosion Engineers Do? / 20
References / 22
Chapter 2. Atmospheric Corrosion 25
2.1 Introduction / 25
2.2 Outdoor Atmospheres / 27
2.3 Indoor Atmospheres / 29
2.4 Atmospheric Corrosivity Factors and Their Measurement / 31
2.5 Atmospheric Corrosion Tests / 41
2.6 Prevention and Control / 50
References / 61
Chapter 3. Corrosion in Water and Seawater 65
3.1 Introduction / 66
3.2 Corrosion and Water Quality/Availability / 66
3.3 Types of Water / 73
3.4 Cooling Water Systems / 83
3.5 Steam Generating Systems / 88
3.6 Water Treatment / 95
3.7 Scaling Indices / 101
3.8 Lead Corrosion: Chloride-to-Sulfate Mass Ratio / 106
3.9 Corrosion in Seawater / 107
References / 118
Chapter 4. Corrosion in Soils 121
4.1 Introduction / 122
4.2 Soil Classification / 122
4.3 Soil Parameters Affecting Corrosivity / 123
4.4 Soil Corrosivity Classifications / 127iv CONTENTS
4.5 Soil Corrosion Cells / 129
4.6 Auxiliary Effects of Corrosion Cells / 140
4.7 Examples of Buried Systems / 142
4.8 Corrosion of Materials Other Than Steel / 145
References / 148
Chapter 5. Corrosion of Reinforced Concrete 149
5.1 Introduction / 149
5.2 Degradation of Reinforced Concrete / 150
5.3 Remedial Measures / 158
5.4 Condition Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Structures / 169
5.5 Other Forms of Concrete Degradation / 173
References / 174
Chapter 6. Microorganisms and Biofouling 175
6.1 Introduction / 176
6.2 Examples of Microbial Corrosion / 176
6.3 Nature of Biofilms / 177
6.4 Biofilm Formation and Growth / 179
6.5 Marine Biofouling / 182
6.6 Problems Associated with Biofilms / 182
6.7 Biocorrosion Mechanisms / 184
6.8 Microorganisms Classification / 185
6.9 Monitoring Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion / 189
6.10 Biofilm Control / 196
References / 202
Chapter 7. Modeling and Life Prediction 205
7.1 Models, Computers, and Corrosion / 206
7.2 Early Models (Historical Notes) / 206
7.3 Bottom-Up Corrosion Models / 208
7.4 Top-Down Corrosion Models / 226
7.5 Corrosion Information and Communication Technologies / 241
References / 243
Chapter 8. Corrosion Failures 247
8.1 Introduction / 247
8.2 Mechanisms and Forms of Corrosion Failures / 248
8.3 Investigating Corrosion Failures / 334
References / 339
Chapter 9. Corrosion Management, Maintenance, and Inspection 343
9.1 The Cost of Poor Maintenance / 344
9.2 Corrosion Management Strategies / 345CONTENTS v
9.3 The Impact Corrosion Management System / 348
9.4 Maintenance Strategies / 354
9.5 Inspection Strategies / 357
9.6 Industrial Examples / 381
References / 411
Chapter 10. Corrosion Monitoring 413
10.1 What Is Corrosion Monitoring? / 413
10.2 Corrosion Monitoring Techniques / 415
10.3 Corrosion Monitoring Locations / 459
10.4 Corrosion Monitoring Systems / 461
10.5 Integration in Process Control / 462
10.6 Modeling the Corrosion Monitoring Response / 464
10.7 Probe Design and Selection / 465
10.8 Data Communication and Analysis Requirements / 474
References / 474
Chapter 11. Engineering Materials: Selection and Design Considerations 477
11.1 Materials Selection / 479
11.2 Corrosion Aware Materials Selection / 479
11.3 Selection Compromises / 487
11.4 Materials Selection Road Map / 491
11.5 Basics of Metallurgy / 496
11.6 Engineering Materials / 510
11.7 Design Considerations / 639
References / 647
Chapter 12. Protective Coatings 651
12.1 Types of Coatings / 652
12.2 Why Coatings Fail / 653
12.3 Soluble Salts and Coating Failures / 655
12.4 Economic Aspects of Coatings Selection and Maintenance / 659
12.5 Organic Coatings / 662
12.6 Inorganic (Nonmetallic) Coatings / 679
12.7 Metallic Coatings / 687
12.8 Coating Inspection and Testing / 703
12.9 Surface Preparation / 714
References / 720
Chapter 13. Corrosion Inhibitors 723
13.1 Basic Concepts / 724
13.2 Types of Inhibitors / 733
13.3 Environmental Factors / 743
13.4 Green Inhibitors / 756
13.5 Application Techniques / 758
13.6 Safety Precautions / 762
References / 763vi CONTENTS
Chapter 14. Cathodic Protection (Web Chapter)
Appendix A. Periodic Table (Web Only)
Appendix B. SI Units Conversion Table (Web Only)
Appendix C. Reference Electrodes (Web Only)
Appendix D. Chemical Compositions of Engineering Alloys (Web Only)
Appendix E. Historical Perspective (Web Only)
Index 765
INDEX
Note: Page numbers followed by f denote figures; page numbers followed by t denote tables.766 INDEX
Alkalinity (Cont.):
titanium, 630
tungsten, 587
weak-acid cation resins, 101
zirconium, 638
Alloy 20Cb-3, 561t
Alloy 25, 561t
Alloy 188, 561t
Alloy 230, 561t
Alloy 254, 598
Alloy 255, 562t–563t
Alloy 600, 94
Alloying:
additions, 509
aluminum, 512, 519
cast iron, 528
duplex stainless steel, 605
laser surface, 695t, 697t, 699t
metallurgy, 501–504, 502f–504f
nickel, 551, 557–558
platinum, 574
stainless steel, 598–601, 600t
titanium, 618
Alpha/beta titanium alloys, 619
Alpha titanium alloys, 619
Aluminum (alloys), 510–523, 511t
alloying, 519
alloying additions, 509
ANN, 239
anodic reactions, 8
anodizing protective coatings, 682–683, 682t, 683f
applications, 516–517
atmospheric corrosion, 27t, 58
tests, 42f
brasses, seawater, 116t
bronzes, 537t
chloride-containing agar gels, 3
copper plating, 9
coupon exposure of, 38
CP, 145–146
cracking, 518
crevice corrosion, 258, 260–261, 261f
exfoliation corrosion, 282–284, 282f–284f, 283t,
486, 487f
fresh water, 76
galvanic corrosion, 264, 272
heat treatment, 519–520
hydrogen, 520
IGC, 278–279
marine biofouling, 182
mechanical properties, 512
pitting corrosion, 239
precipitation hardening, 507
production, 511–512
protective coatings, 520, 688t
reactivity, 482
reinforced concrete, 156
SCC, 321, 520–523, 521t–522t, 523f
soils, 145–146
special products, 514
Aluminum (alloys) (Cont.):
temper designation system, 514–515
titanium, 618
welding, 517–518
zirconium, 635
AMCs. See Airborne molecular contaminants
American Petroleum Institute (API), 369, 381
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM):
ASTM A262, 281, 598
ASTM A775, 165
ASTM B117, 45, 49
ASTM C114, 172
ASTM C227, 173
ASTM C289, 173
ASTM C856, 172
ASTM D 664, 459
ASTM D 974, 459
ASTM D 3230, 459
ASTM D714, 703
ASTM D3359, 703
ASTM D4541, 703
ASTM E1459, 338
ASTM G-1, 421
ASTM G-4, 417
ASTM G-31, 419
ASTM G 44, 520
ASTM G-48, 420
ASTM G-71, 420
ASTM G-78, 420, 420f
ASTM G28, 282
ASTM G62, 714
ASTM G78, 262
ASTM G85, 49–50
ASTM G161-00, 336
CF, 329
grain number, 498, 500f
protective coatings, 708, 710, 711t–712t
salt spray cabinet testing, 48, 49–50
sulfur dioxide, 38
titanium, 620, 620t
UNS, 532
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME):
ASME B31G, 388, 388nd
RBI, 382
American Water Works Association (AWWA), 16,
66–67, 67t, 70
CMPs, 351
LSI, 105
soils, 127
Ammonia:
brasses, 538
copper, 147
dezincification, 276
FCCU, 380
fresh water, 78t
indoor atmospheric corrosion, 30
molybdenum, 576, 578
steam generating systems, 89
strong-base anion resins, 101
titanium, 632INDEX 767
Amphoteric, 146, 146na
zinc, 633
AND gate, FTA, 376, 378f
Anisotropic:
exfoliation corrosion, 282
zirconium, 634
ANN. See Artificial neural network
Annealing, 504–507, 505f, 506f
aluminum, 511–512
high-performance alloys, 555–556
stainless steel, 281
tantalum, 585
zirconium, 635
Annular flow, 456
Anodes (anodic reactions), 8
atmospheric corrosion, 32
corrosion cells, 3–4
Daniell cells, 7
EN, 441
galvanic series, 266
LCDT, 303–304
SCC, 325
steel, 4–5, 5f
ZRA, 446
Anodic passivating inhibitors, 207–208, 733, 734f
Anodic polarization, 254f, 426, 599, 734
Anodic protection, 637
corrosion potential, 452
Anodic surface, galvanic corrosion, 268–269
Anodizing protective coatings, 679–685, 682t, 683f,
684f
Antimony, 734
brasses, 538
zirconium, 635
AOD. See Argon-oxygen decarburization
API. See American Petroleum Institute
APS. See Adenosine 5-phosphosulfate
Area effects, galvanic corrosion, 267–270, 268f–271f
Argon-oxygen decarburization (AOD), 552
duplex stainless steel, 605
ferritic stainless steel, 601–602
Aristotle, 1
Armco iron, 609
Army Corps of Engineers, 124
Arsenic, 284, 450, 734
brasses, 538
Artificial neural network (ANN), 236–239, 237f–240f,
238t
Asbestos:
concrete, 67t
copper, 271
Ashby, Michael, 479
ASIP. See Aircraft structural integrity program
ASME. See American Society of Mechanical
Engineers
Asset performance metrics, 366
ASTM. See American Society for Testing and
Materials
Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria (Pourbaix), 264,
266t
Atmospheric corrosion, 25–61, 26f
aerosol particles, 34–37, 35f–37f
aircraft, 55–58, 56f–59f
copper, 528
corrosion inhibitors, 739–743, 740t, 741f,
742f
coupon exposure, 38–39, 38f–40f
tests, 44, 44f
dew point, 32–34, 33f
factors and measurement, 31–40
gaseous pollutants, 30–31, 37–38, 37f
indoors, 29–31, 31t
iron, 32, 32f
maps, 50–51, 50f–52f
material selection, 58–60, 59f, 60f
prevention and control, 50–61
RH, 29, 32–34, 33f
tests, 41–50, 41f–49f, 46t
tin, 617
TOW, 27, 32–34
ATP. See Adenosine triphosphate
Austenitic stainless steel, 59–60, 591–592, 591t,
602–603
BWR, 406
chloride, 86
crevice corrosion, 86
filler metals, 595–596
IGC, 279
passive films, 686
rebar, 167
SCC, 90, 321ne
seawater, 115
sensitization, 50, 279, 281, 421
welding, 594, 596
Automobiles, 12–14, 13f, 14f
closed recirculated cooling water systems, 83–84
ion implantation, 697
magnesium alloys, 571
salt spray testing, 47f
wrought aluminum, 513
zinc alloys, 633
Average weather conditions, atmospheric corrosion,
42
Avogadro’s number, 11
AWWA. See American Water Works Association
B Check, aircraft, 407
Bacteria, 187–189. See also Biofilm; Sulfate reducing
bacteria
aluminum, 146
fresh water, 76
methane, 189
MIC, 189
seawater, 111
sulfates, 188f
sulfur cycle, 188f
ZRA, 446
Basic event, FTA, 376, 378f
Batch treatment, corrosion inhibitors, 758
Battelle Institute, 38768 INDEX
Batteries:
Daniell cells, 5
electroplating cells, 138
Bayesian network (BN), 353
Bernoulli principle, 297
Beryllium, 635
Beta phase titanium alloys, 620
Bicarbonate, 380, 743
Binders, protective coatings, 675–677
Bioaccumulation, corrosion inhibitors, 731–732
Biocides, 198–201, 199t–200t
Biodegradation, corrosion inhibitors, 732
Biodeposits, 184–185
Biofilm, 175–202
contents, 178–179
control, 196–202, 197f, 198t–200t
cooling towers, 202
formation and growth, 179–181, 181f
friction factor, 182–183, 183t
MIC, 179, 180–181
thermal conductivity, 183–184, 183t
water treatment, 98–100, 99f, 100f
Biofouling, 96t, 403t, 538
marine environments, 181
seawater, 112
Biological assays, MIC, 191–192
Bird bath, aircraft, 55, 55f
Bismuth, 540, 576, 578
Blackheart malleable cast iron, 525
Blast furnace slag, 169
Blow-down, 86
BN. See Bayesian network
Bode plots, 434, 435, 435f, 436f
Boiler tube corrosion, 403
Boiling water reactors (BWRs), 92–93, 92f
fuel cladding corrosion, 405
IGSCC, 406
Bottom-up modeling, 208–226, 211f, 212t, 213t, 214f,
215f, 216t, 217t, 218f, 223f, 224f, 225t
Brackish water, 80–81
carbon steel, 612
copper, 539
soils, 141–142
titanium, 622
Brasses, 532, 538
aluminum, seawater, 116t
cold work, 208
cracking, 25
dealloying, 275
dezincification, 276, 276f
erosion-corrosion, 295, 295f
impinging jet, 318
SCC, 540
seawater, 116t
soils, 147
welding, 536
Bresle method, 36
Bronzes, 533, 536, 537t
BS 7295-1, 165
Buffering, seawater, 108, 113
Bulk stress, fretting corrosion, 332
BWRs. See Boiling water reactors
C Check, aircraft, 408
CA. See Corrosion allowance
Cadmium, 523–524
gold, 574
protective coatings, 688t–689t
tin, 617
zirconium, 635
Calcium:
seawater, 112–115
soils, 142
Calcium carbonate:
Larson-Skold index, 105
LSI, 102, 103, 104
PSI, 105
reinforced concrete, 156–158, 157f
scaling indices, 101
seawater, 108, 113
Calcium hydroxide, 150
reinforced concrete, 156, 169
Calcium phosphate inhibitors, 217, 217t
California Department of Transportation (Caltrans),
16
Caliper tools, pipelines, 393
Caltrans. See California Department of Transportation
Carbides:
cobalt, 553
nickel, 552
Carbon:
austenitic stainless steel, 592
nickel, 552
Carbon dioxide:
ANN, 239
biofilm, 180
carbon steel, 612
copper, 539
dezincification, 276
fresh water, 77t
magnesium, 572
MIC, 177, 178f
molybdenum, 576, 578
niobium, 580
pressure, 456
reinforced concrete, 151, 156
seawater, 108, 113
steam condensate, 82
strong-base anion resins, 101
zinc, 633
Carbon monoxide, 29
Carbon steel, 609–610, 610t, 612–615
BWRs, 93
erosion-corrosion, 294
flow-induced corrosion, 294
fretting corrosion, 332
heat exchanger corrosion, 404
hydrogen blistering, 287
mesa corrosion, 398nf
piping, flow-induced corrosion, 290INDEX 769
Carbon steel (Cont.):
pitting corrosion, 177, 179f
power plants, 406
PWRs, 94
rebar, 166–167, 167f
seawater, 109t, 116
sensitization, 509
Case-based reasoning (CBR), 239–240, 240f
CASs. See Condition assessment surveys
Cast aluminum, 511t, 512–513
grain size, 520
Cast copper, 533f
Cast iron, 524–530
alloying, 528
CP, 530, 530f
crevice corrosion, 527
fretting corrosion, 527
graphitic corrosion, 527
heat exchangers, 404
IGC, 527
piping, 68–69
graphitic corrosion, 276–277
pitting corrosion, 527
SCC, 527–528
seawater, 109t, 116t
soils, 125, 129, 145, 146f
SRB, 187
transmission water pipes, 67t
water mains, 16
welding, 526–527, 527t
Cast magnesium, 571–572
Cast stainless steel, 593
Castings, alloying, 503–504, 504f
Catalytic converters, waste heat boilers, 92
Cathodes (cathodic reactions), 9f–11f
acrylic coatings, 3
atmospheric corrosion, 32
corrosion cells, 3–4
corrosion inhibitors, 733–736, 734f, 743, 747–748
Danielle cells, 7
deposition corrosion, 273
EN, 441
galvanic corrosion, 272
hydrogen ions, 8
iron, 10, 11f
LCDT, 304
oxygen reduction as, 9
protective coatings, 657
steel, 4–5, 5f
water splitting, 8
ZRA, 446
Cathodic depolarization:
biofilm, 184
oxygen, 76, 733
ZRA, 446
Cathodic polarization, 112, 426, 733–734
Cathodic protection (CP):
aluminum, 145–146
automobile, 14
cast iron, 530, 530f
Cathodic protection (Cont.):
cavitation, 297, 298
corrosion potential, 452
ICCP, 15
offshore pipelines, 397
platinum, 574
protective coatings, 712
reinforced concrete, 15–16, 162, 163t
seawater, 113
soils, 127
calcium, 142
concrete, 147
copper, 147
hydrogen, 141
pipelines, 143
plant piping, 144
zinc, 207
Cathodic reaction. See Cathodes (cathodic reactions)
Cathodic surface:
crevice corrosion, 258
galvanic corrosion, 268–269
Cation-exchange capacity (CEC), 125
Caustic gouging, 404
Cavitation, 288, 289f, 296–299, 297f, 640t
CBDA. See Corrosion-based design analysis
CBR. See Case-based reasoning
CDA. See Copper Development Association
CEC. See Cation-exchange capacity
Cement clinker, 150
Ceramic protective coatings, 679
CF. See Corrosion fatigue
CHARM. See Chemical hazard assessment and risk
management
Chelating agents, 74
Chemical analysis of process samples, 458–459
Chemical hazard assessment and risk management
(CHARM), 732
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD), 696, 697t, 699t
Chloride:
aerosol particles, 35, 35f
alloying, 503
atmospheric corrosion, 27, 28
austenitic stainless steel, 602
brackish water, 81
BWRs, 94
cast iron, 529
concrete degradation, 16
copper, 528–539
corrosion inhibitors, 737, 743
crevice corrosion, 258, 262
drinking water, 81
duplex stainless steel, 593, 605
ferritic stainless steel, 590
fresh water, 77t
heat exchangers, 86
HSLA, 610
Larson-Skold index, 105
LSI, 105
martensitic stainless steel, 589
nickel, 557, 558–559770 INDEX
Chloride (Cont.):
offshore pipelines, 398
pitting corrosion, 251, 558–559
protective coatings, 656
PWRs, 94
reinforced concrete, 151, 154–156
condition assessment, 172
ICCP, 163–164, 164f, 165f
residual oxidant, 458
SCC, 321, 322, 328
seawater, 108
soils, 126, 135
zinc, 146
stainless steel, 147, 598
strong-base anion resins, 101
supercritical steam plants, 90
titanium, 630–631
zirconium, 636
Chloride-to-sulfate mass ratio (CSMR), 68, 68f, 106, 107t
Chlorimet, 550
Chlorination, 100
CHLOR*TEST, 36, 36f
Chromate filming, 685–686
Chromic acid anodizing, 683
Chromium:
alloying additions, 509
aluminum, 512
austenitic stainless steel, 591, 592
BWRs, 93
cast iron, 528, 529
cobalt, 553
crevice corrosion, 258
cyclic polarization test, 428
electroplating, 690
erosion-corrosion, 295
ferritic stainless steel, 590, 601
HSLA, 609
iron alloys, 10
martensitic stainless steel, 589, 603
nickel, 551, 558
phase diagrams, 501–502, 502f, 503f
protective coatings, 689t
protective film, 558
stainless steel, 599–601
stainless steel IGC, 279
steel, 59, 615
titanium, 618
white cast iron, 524
Chromium-iron alloys, 10
CIPS. See Closed-interval potential survey
Cladding, 182, 691–693, 693f
BWRs, 93
fuel corrosion, 405
PWRs, 93
Classify Industrial and Marine Atmospheres
(CLIMAT), 39, 39f, 40f
tests, 44, 44f
Clean Air Act, U.S., 670
CLIMAT. See Classify Industrial and Marine
Atmospheres
Closed-interval potential survey (CIPS), pipelines,
386, 386nc, 387f
Closed recirculated cooling water systems, 83–84
Closed vapor spaces, corrosion inhibitors, 755
CMASs. See Coupled multielectrode array systems
CMPM. See Corrosion management practice model
CMPs. See Corrosion management practices
CMS. See Corrosion management system
Co-58, 94
Co-60, 94
Cobalt (alloys), 553, 562t
dealloying, 275
HE, 559
nickel, 552
PWRs, 94
SCC, 559
Coefficient of expansion:
molybdenum, 577
titanium, 618
COF. See Consequences of failure
Cold wall effect, 655
Cold work, 2, 499
aluminum alloys, 278
annealing, 505–507, 505f, 506f
austenitic stainless steel, 592
brasses, 208
ductility, 506
high-performance alloys, 556
niobium, 578
SCC, 359
tantalum, 582
Columbium. See Niobium
Columns:
cracking, 359–360, 360f
SCC, 359–360, 360f
zirconium, 636
Combustion torch, 694t, 696t, 698t
Community metabolism, MIC, 184
Completed maintenance KPI, 365
Concentration, CBDA, 363
Concentration cells:
soils, 135–137, 135f, 136f
stainless steel, 147
Concrete. See also Reinforced concrete
asbestos, 67t
HPC, 169
prestressed pipes, 75t
soils, 147–148
transmission water pipes, 67t
Condition assessment surveys (CASs), 490
Conditional event, FTA, 376, 378f
Conductivity, 454, 454f. See also Thermal conductivity
aluminum, 517
copper, 531t
copper-nickel alloys, 542
Consequences of failure (COF), 356
aircraft, 408
RBI, 370–371
risk matrices, 375–376, 375f
Constant phase element (CPE), 434INDEX 771
Constraint optimization, 353–354
Continuous injection, corrosion inhibitors, 758
Cooling towers, biofilm, 180, 202
Cooling water systems, 83–88, 84f, 85f, 87f, 88f, 88t
ozone, 214–216, 216t
Coordinated phosphate, 89
Copper (alloys), 270–271, 530–549, 532t
aluminum, 278, 512
BWRs, 92
carbon steel, 609
cast iron, 528
coupons, 38
decorative corrosion products, 546–549
distribution systems, soils, 143
electroplating:
aluminum, 9
steel, 4, 4f
erosion-corrosion, 294
flow-induced corrosion, 292, 293t
fresh water, 76
galvanic corrosion, 270, 271f
heat exchangers, 86, 404
HIC, 286
HSLA, 609
indoor atmospheric corrosion, 31, 31t
marine biofouling, 182
microfouling, 544
nickel, 551
piping, 66, 68
deposition corrosion, 273
drinking water, 69
MIC, 16
soils, 144
pitting corrosion, 250, 252f, 253f
piping, 16
precipitation hardening, 507
reactivity, 482
reinforced concrete, 172
SCC, 540
seawater, 117
silver, 574
soils, 129, 147
steam condensate, 82
steel, 59, 615
supercritical steam plants, 91
tin, 617
trade names, 534t–535t
tungsten, 586
UNS, 531–532
welding, 531t, 533–536
zinc:
atmospheric corrosion, 27t
Daniell cells, 5–7
Copper Development Association (CDA), 532
Copper hydroxide, 100
Copper-nickel alloys, 533
dealloying, 275
erosion-corrosion, 295–296, 545
galvanic corrosion, 543–544, 543t, 544t
marine environments, 540–542, 541t
Copper-nickel alloys (Cont.):
phase diagrams, 501, 502f, 504f
pitting corrosion, 542
protective film, 544–545
SCC, 543
seawater, 544–545, 546
velocity, 545, 545t
welding, 536
Copper sulfate electrode (CSE), 125
reinforced concrete, 172
Cor-ten, 58–59
CORRAG, 27, 27t, 223
Corrosion allowance (CA), 365, 365na
corrosion inhibitors, 729
Corrosion-based design analysis (CBDA), 360–363,
361f, 362f
Corrosion cells:
anodic sites, 3–4
cathode sites, 3–4
ENA, 439
fluorescence, 3
materials selection, 492
oxygen, 4
sodium chloride, 4
soils, 129–140, 130f, 131f, 132t, 133f–140f
auxiliary effects, 140–142
visualization, 3–5, 4f, 5f
Corrosion costs, 17–19, 19t, 20f
categorization, 345–348, 345f, 346f
corrosion inhibitors, 729–730, 730f
Corrosion Data Survey of Metals, 483
Corrosion Data Survey of Nonmetals, 483
Corrosion Engineers Reference Book (NACE), 103–104
Corrosion failures, 247–339
investigating, 334–339, 335f, 336f
materials selection, 495
mechanisms and forms, 248–334, 249f
protective coating:
chromate filming, 685–686
salts, 655–658, 656f, 657f, 659f
protective coatings, 653–655, 653f, 654f, 655t
Corrosion fatigue (CF), 94, 249, 329–330, 329f, 330f
pitting corrosion, 482
power industry, 401
power plant turbines, 405
SCC, 325
waterside corrosion, 404
Corrosion inhibitors, 158, 159, 288, 458, 723–763
application techniques, 758–762, 761t
atmospheric corrosion, 739–743, 740t, 741f, 742f
availability, 728–730, 729f, 730f
cathodic reactions, 733–736, 734f
concentration and performance, 760–762
efficiency, 725–726, 726f, 727f, 728t
environmental assessment, 731–733, 743–756
flow-induced corrosion, 294
green, 756–758
LPR, 431
oil and gas, 751–755
pigments, 3772 INDEX
Corrosion inhibitors (Cont.):
protective coatings, 674, 759
reinforced concrete, 167
risk categories, 730, 731t
safety, 762–763
SCC, 328
selection, 760
solid particle impingement, 299
temperature, 755
types, 733–743, 734f, 736f–738f, 740t, 741f, 742f
water distribution systems, 70
Corrosion loops, 72
Corrosion management, 344–408, 349f
financial tools, 352–354
industrial examples, 381–408, 382t, 383t, 384f, 385f,
387f, 389f, 392f, 395f–397f, 399t, 402t, 403t,
404f, 405t, 409f, 410f
inspection strategies, 357–381, 358f–362f, 364t,
367t, 368f, 369f, 373f, 373t, 375f, 377f–379f,
381f
maintenance strategies, 354–357
NACE IMPACT study, 18–19, 348–354, 352f
strategies, 345–348
top-down modeling, 226–229, 228f
Corrosion management practice model (CMPM),
348–350, 349t, 350t
Corrosion management practices (CMPs), 348,
350–352
Corrosion management system (CMS), 348, 352
Corrosion monitoring, 413–474
data communication and analysis, 474
defined, 413–415
direct intrusive techniques, 417–446
direct nonintrusive techniques, 446–450, 447f–449f
electrochemical reactions, 426–446, 427f,
429f–440f, 430t, 442f–445f
ER, 417, 423–425, 423f, 424f
indirect techniques, 415t
inductive resistance probes, 425–426, 425f
intrusive techniques, 415t
locations, 459–461, 459f, 460f
mass loss coupons, 417–423, 417f, 418f, 420f, 422f
nonintrusive techniques, 415t
offline techniques, 416t, 457–459
online techniques, 416t, 450–457, 451f, 452f, 454f, 455f
physical techniques, 417–426
potentiodynamic polarization, 426–434, 427f,
429f–434f, 430t
probe design and selection, 465–473, 466f, 467f,
467t, 469f–472f
process control, 462–464, 463f
response modeling, 464–465, 465f
response time, 466–468, 466f, 467f, 467t
sensitivity, 466–468, 466f, 467f, 467t
systems, 461–462
Corrosion potential, 426, 452–453
Corrosion prevention and control (CPAC), 479–480,
487, 491
materials section, 495–496
metallurgy, 508–510
Corrosion prevention compounds (CPCs), 495, 678,
740–742, 741f, 742f
Corrosion rate (CR), 365
corrosion inhibitors, 729, 729f
coupons, 419
EIS, 434
ENA, 440
ER, 424
LPR, 432
nickel, 558
zinc, 633
zirconium, 636
Corrosion resistant alloys (CRAs), 730
Corrosion under insulation (CUI):
crevice corrosion, 43
materials selection, 495
protective coatings, 703
Cost-adding methodology, 353
Cost of corrosion KPI, 363–365
Coupled multielectrode array systems (CMASs),
471–473, 472f
dew point, 456
Coupon immersion tests, 428–429
Coupons:
atmospheric corrosion, 38–39, 38f–40f
tests, 44, 44f
cleaning and evaluation, 421–423, 422f
crevice corrosion, 418, 420, 420f
galvanic corrosion, 420
HAZ, 421
heat transfer, 421
mass loss, 417–423, 417f, 418f, 420f, 422f
MIC, 193–194
rotating cage, 311
rotating cylinder, 307
SCC, 418, 421
sensitization, 421
uniform corrosion, 419
weight loss, 72
Coverage completeness, protective coatings, 707
CP. See Cathodic protection
CPAC. See Corrosion prevention and control
CPCs. See Corrosion prevention compounds
CPE. See Constant phase element
CR. See Corrosion rate
Cracking. See also Environmental cracking;
Hydrogen-induced cracking; Stress corrosion
cracking
aluminum, 518
cast iron, 526–527
columns, 359–360, 360f
detection tools, 393
heat exchangers, 360
piping, 360, 361f
reactors, 359, 359f
reinforced concrete, 151, 151f, 154, 155f
alkali-aggregate reaction, 173
soils, 147
steel, 611–612
titanium, 621INDEX 773
CRAs. See Corrosion resistant alloys
Crevice corrosion, 256–264, 257f, 259f–263f, 259t
austenitic stainless steel, 86
cast iron, 527
coupons, 418, 420, 420f
CUI, 43
duplex stainless steel, 86, 604t
heat exchangers, 86
offshore pipelines, 397
stainless steel, 604t, 605
testing, 261–262
Critical pitting potential, 253–255, 254f, 254t
Crystal structure, 496–498, 497f, 498f
CSE. See Copper sulfate electrode
CSMR. See Chloride-to-sulfate mass ratio
CUI. See Corrosion under insulation
Cushman, A. S., 3, 4, 207
CVD. See Chemical vapor deposition
Cyanide, 284, 303, 459
brasses, 538
Cyclic corrosion testing, 48
Cyclic polarization test, 428
D Check, aircraft, 408
Damage to date (DDT), 365
Daniell cells, 5–8, 6f, 7f
DC polarization, corrosion monitoring, 426–434,
427f, 429f–434f, 430t
DCVG. See Direct current voltage gradient
DDT. See Damage to date
Dealloying, 273–277, 275t
coupons, 418
heat exchanger corrosion, 404
Dehumidification, atmospheric corrosion,
60–61
Deicing salt, 52, 53f, 54f, 55
reinforced concrete, 155
Deionization, 82
Demineralized water, 82
supercritical steam plants, 90
Denickelification, copper-nickel, 543
Department of Defense, U.S. (DoD), 353, 357
Department of the Interior, U.S., 396
Department of Transportation, U.S. (DOT), 382
Deposition accumulation monitors, 194–195, 195f
Deposition corrosion, 9, 273
DeSilva, F. J., 100
Detonation gun, 694t, 696t, 698t
Detroit Water Sewerage Department (DWSD),
67–68
Dew point, 32–34, 33f, 456
Dezincification, 276, 276f
Differential aeration cells, 256, 257f
Dilute electrolyte salt fog/dry test, 50
Dimensional stable anodes (DSAs), 622
DIN/BS/EN 12696, 163
Direct current voltage gradient (DCVG), 386, 386nb,
387f
Dissimilar metal corrosion. See Galvanic corrosion
Dissolution/reprecipitation, dealloying, 277
Dissolved oxygen (DO), 455, 455f
carbon steel, 612
corrosion inhibitors, 749
crevice corrosion, 256
deposition corrosion, 273
flow-induced corrosion, 290
fresh water, 76–78, 78f
seawater, 109–111
soils, 124f
steam condensate, 82
steam generating systems, 89
supercritical steam plants, 90
water, 67
steel, 79–80, 80f
zinc, 633
Dissolved solids. See also Total dissolved solids
fresh water, 78t
Dissolving wall method, flow-induced corrosion, 303
Distilled water, 82
Distribution systems, soils, 143
DNA, MIC, 193
DO. See Dissolved oxygen
DoD. See Department of Defense, U.S.
DOT. See Department of Transportation, U.S.
Double-shell tanks (DSTs), 468–470, 469f, 470f
Drinking water (potable water), 69, 81, 351
Droplet corrosion, 210
Dry film gauging, protective coatings, 705, 709f
DSAs. See Dimensional stable anodes
DSTs. See Double-shell tanks
Ductile cast iron, 525–526
transmission water pipes, 67t
water mains, 16
Ductility:
austenitic stainless steel, 592
cold work, 506
copper, 531t
ferritic stainless steel, 590
hydrogen attack, 286
IGC, 277
stainless steel, 166
tantalum, 580
Dunstan, W. R., 207
Duplex stainless steel, 593, 593t, 603–605, 604t
crevice corrosion, 86
rebar, 167
seawater, 115
welding, 595, 597
Duralumin, 507
Duranickel, 549
Durichlor 51, 529–530
Duriron, 529–530
Dwarf cells, 187
DWSD. See Detroit Water Sewerage Department
Ebullition, 78
EC. See Environmental cracking
ECA. See Electrokinetic charge
ECDA. See External corrosion direct assessment
EDA. See Environmental deterioration analysis774 INDEX
Eden, D. A., 439
EIS. See Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
Elastic wave tools, cracking, 393
Electric arc spraying, 694t, 696t, 698t,
700f–702f
Electric generator corrosion, 406
Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 94, 401
Electrical resistance (ER), 190
corrosion monitoring, 417, 423–425, 423f, 424f
Electrochemical hydrogen patch probe, 451, 452f
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), 426,
434–437, 434f–437f, 710
ANN, 239
Electrochemical noise (EN), 437–445, 438f–440f,
442f–445f
dew point, 456
Electrochemical noise analysis (ENA), 439–445
Electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation (EPR),
428
Electrochemical reactions, 5–12
corrosion monitoring, 426–446, 427f, 429f–440f,
430t, 442f–445f
Daniell cells, 5–8, 6f, 7f
dealloying, 275
Faraday’s law, 11–12
magnesium, 9f
Electroendosmosis, 141, 654
Electrogalvanization, 27
Electrokinetic charge (ECA), 82, 82na
Electroless plating (EN), 690–691
Electrolyte theory, 2
Electrolytic etching, 587
Electromagnetic acoustic tools, cracking, 393
Electromotive force, 264, 266t
Electronics:
indoor atmospheric corrosion, 30
tantalum, 580, 582
tungsten, 586
Electrophoretic disposition, 14, 14nd
Electroplating, 687, 690
cadmium, 523–524
copper:
aluminum, 9
steel, 4, 4f
high-strength steel, gold, 574
tin, 617
zinc, 633
sulfuric acid, 7f
Electroplating cells, 138
Eluviation horizon, 122
Emissivity:
molybdenum, 577
tungsten, 586
Emulsions, corrosion inhibitors, 763
EN. See Electrochemical noise; Electroless plating
ENA. See Electrochemical noise analysis
Engineering materials. See Materials selection
Environmental assessment:
corrosion inhibitors, 731–733, 743–756
materials selection, 492–495
Environmental cracking (EC), 319–320, 320t. See also
Corrosion fatigue; Stress corrosion cracking
Environmental deterioration analysis (EDA), 408,
409f
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 66
CSMR, 106
drinking water, 81
MDEQ, 68
Environmental scanning electron microscopy
(ESEM), 194
Environmental test rooms, 713
Enzyme-based assays, MIC, 193
EPA. See Environmental Protection Agency
Epoxy:
pipelines, 143f
rotating cylinder, 307
rotating disk, 305
Epoxy-coated reinforcing steel, 165–166
EPR. See Electrochemical potentiodynamic
reactivation
EPRI. See Electric Power Research Institute
ER. See Electrical resistance; Erosion rate
Erosion-corrosion, 288, 294–296, 295f, 296f
copper-nickel alloys, 545
offshore pipelines, 397
Erosion rate (ER), 299
ESEM. See Environmental scanning electron
microscopy
ESs. See Expert systems
Evans, Ulick, 207, 208
Event tree analysis (ETA), 380–381, 381f
EVS. See Extreme value statistics
Exfoliation corrosion, 282–284, 282f–284f, 283t, 486,
487f, 519, 520
Expert systems (ESs), 233–236, 233f, 235f, 236f
Exponential distribution, 220
External corrosion direct assessment (ECDA), 383–388,
384f, 385f, 387f
Extreme value statistics (EVS), 220–221
FAA. See Federal Aviation Administration
FAC. See Flow-accelerated corrosion
Failure mode, effect and criticality analysis (FMEA,
FMECA), 374–375, 380
Failure risk assessment (FRA), 348
Faraday, Michael, 11, 207
Faraday’s law, 11–12
Fast Fourier transform (FFT), 441, 445
Fatigue strength reduction factor, 333
Fatty acid profiles, 193
Fault event, 376, 378f
Fault tree analysis (FTA), 376–379, 377f–379f
FCCU. See Fluid catalytic cracking unit
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), 356, 408
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), 12, 16,
17–18, 383
Ferralium, 562t–563t
Ferritic stainless steel, 590–591, 590t, 601–602
filler metals, 596
sensitization, 281, 421INDEX 775
Ferritic stainless steel (Cont.):
SRB, 187
welding, 594–597
Ferrocyanide, 303–304
Ferrous sulfate, 546
Ferroxyl indicator, 2, 2na, 4–5, 4f, 4nc
FFT. See Fast Fourier transform
FHWA. See Federal Highway Administration
Field life (FL), 363–365
Field signature method (FSM), 447–450, 447f–449f
Filiform corrosion, 53f, 264
Filler metals, 336f, 508
aluminum, 517
cracking, 518
magnesium, 513
stainless steel, 595–596
Filming corrosion inhibitors, 458
FL. See Field life
Flame spraying, 694t, 696t, 698t
Flaw size ratio, 329, 329f
Flint Water Service Center, 67–68
Flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC), 288, 289f, 290,
291f, 294–296, 406
heat exchangers, 404
Flow-induced corrosion, 288–319, 289f–291f, 292t, 293f,
293t, 295f–297f, 300f, 301f, 301t, 304f, 305f, 306t,
307f–313f, 310t, 314t, 315f, 316t, 317f, 318f, 319t
Flow loop, 314–315, 314t, 315f
Flow regimes, 294, 456
Flow systems, 313–319
Fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU), 380–381, 381f
Fluorescence, 3
Fluoride:
fresh water, 77t
reinforced concrete, 147
seawater, 112
titanium, 628
Flush-mounted electrode design, 468
Fly ash, 169
FMEA. See Failure mode, effect and criticality analysis
FMECA. See Failure mode, effect and criticality
analysis
Foaming, corrosion inhibitors, 762–763
Fontana, M. G., 334
Formaldehyde, 30
Fossil fuel steam plants, 89–90, 91f
Fouling, 457. See also Microfouling
biofilm, 177, 182
brackish water, 81
heat exchangers, 86, 183
marine environments, 182
MIC, 406
natural waters, 73
FRA. See Failure risk assessment
Free jet, 317–318, 317f
Freeze-thaw damage, 173
Fresh water, 74–80
DO, 76–78, 78f, 79t
impurities, 77t–78t
soils, 141–142
Fretting corrosion, 330–333, 331f–333f, 450, 527
Friction factor, biofilm, 182–183, 183t
FSM. See Field signature method
FTA. See Fault tree analysis
Fuel cladding corrosion, 405
Fungi, 86, 98, 177t, 186, 187. See also Biofilm
aluminum, 146
Galvanic cathodic protection (GCP), 16, 163–164
Galvanic corrosion, 264–273, 264t, 265t, 267f–273f
aluminum, 519
copper-nickel alloys, 543–544, 543t, 544t
coupons, 420
dealloying, 273–277, 275t
deposition corrosion, 273
heat exchangers, 404
titanium, 631
Galvanic series, 264–266, 265t, 267f, 268f
Galvanization:
atmospheric corrosion, 26f, 27, 58
service life, 28f
distribution systems, soils, 143
fresh water, 76
hot-dip, 691
iron, seawater, 116t
piping, 68–69
pitting corrosion, 251f
rebar, 167–168
reinforced concrete, 159, 159f–161f
soils, 132, 132t–134t
steel:
seawater, 116t
soils, 129
Gamma double prime, 533
Gamma radiography, 446–447
Gardner, H. A., 3, 4, 207
Gas analysis, 457
Gas chromatography, 710
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), 517
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), 517
zirconium, 635
Gathering systems, soils, 143
GCP. See Galvanic cathodic protection
General immersion tests, protective coatings, 710
Geometry tools, pipelines, 393
Glass protective coatings, 679
GMAW. See Gas metal arc welding
GNP. See Gross national product
Gold, 482, 573–574, 574t
Goulding, E., 207
Grain size (boundary):
austenitic stainless steel, 592
cast aluminum, 520
high-performance alloys, 550
magnesium, 572
metallurgy, 498–501, 498f, 500f
Graphite, 145, 524–525
Graphitic corrosion, 276–277, 404, 527
Gray cast iron, 525, 526t
Green inhibitors, 756–758776 INDEX
Greene, N. D., 334
Gross national product (GNP), 17
Groundwater, 74–76, 388
GTAW. See Gas tungsten arc welding
Gunmetal, 116t
Hafnium, 633, 635
Half-cell potential measurements, 74t, 75t, 171–172,
172f
Halides, 458
Hall-Heroult process, 511
Hall-Petch relation, 499
Halo, concrete, 16
Hard water, 74
Hardcoating, 683
Hardness:
aluminum, 512
austenitic stainless steel, 591t
cooling water systems, 86
duplex stainless steel, 593t
ferritic stainless steel, 590t
fresh water, 77t
fretting corrosion, 330
HE, 287
martensite transformation, 508
martensitic stainless steel, 590t
PH stainless steel, 592t
silver, 574
weak-acid cation resins, 101
zirconium, 633
Harmonized mandatory control scheme (HMCS), 732
Harmonized offshore chemical notification format
(HOCNF), 732
Hastelloys, 286, 550, 557, 558, 560, 563t–564t
HAZ. See Heat affected zone
Hazard and operability (HAZOP), 372–374, 373f, 373t
Hazard quotient (HQ), 732, 733
HAZOP. See Hazard and operability
HCA. See High consequence area
HE. See Hydrogen embrittlement
Heap, Howard, 357
Heat affected zone (HAZ):
aluminum, 517–518
bronze, 536
cast iron, 526
coupons, 421
duplex stainless steel, 595, 605
ferritic stainless steel, 594, 596–597
gamma radiography, 446
hydrocarbon environment corrosion, 470
martensitic stainless steel, 595
stainless steel, 279–281, 280f
steel, 611
titanium, 621
welding, 508
Heat exchangers, 86–87, 86f, 88f, 88t
austenitic stainless steel, 603
corrosion, 404
cracking, 360
zirconium, 636
Heat transfer:
corrosion inhibitors, 724, 762
coupons, 421
titanium, 622
Heat transfer data (HTD), 304
orifice, 316, 316t
Heat treatment:
aluminum, 519–520
high-performance alloys, 555
metallurgy, 504–508, 505f, 506f
stainless steel, 597–598
Heavy metals:
bacteria, 187
brackish water, 81
fresh water, 76
magnesium, 572
Helical coil, 39
HELP. See Hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity
HIC. See Hydrogen-induced cracking
HICs. See Hybrid integrated circuits
High-chromium white cast iron, 524
High consequence area (HCA), 388
High-performance alloys, 549–560, 551t, 561t–570t
iron-nickel, 550–553
nickel, 550–553
SCC, 557
welding, 553–556
High-performance concrete (HPC), 169
High-pressure die-casting process (HPDC), 571
High-purity metals, 508–509, 519
High-solids protective coatings, 673–674
High-speed autoclave testing (HSAT), 309–310
High-strength low alloy (HSLA) steel, 609–610
atmospheric corrosion, 58–59, 59f
fatigue strength reduction factor, 333
fretting corrosion, 332
hydrogen, 162
High-strength steel:
plating, gold, 574
SCC, 328
High-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF), 694t, 696t,
698t, 700f
Higher-solids protective coatings, 674
Hladky, K., 434
HMCS. See Harmonized mandatory control scheme
HOCNF. See Harmonized offshore chemical
notification format
Holiday detection, 713–714, 713f–714f
Homogenization anneal, 505
Hot-dip galvanizing, 691
Hot spots, 357–359, 358f, 640t
HPC. See High-performance concrete
HPDC. See High-pressure die-casting process
HQ. See Hazard quotient
HSAT. See High-speed autoclave testing
HSLA. See High-strength low alloy steel
HTD. See Heat transfer data
HVOF. See High-velocity oxy-fuel
Hybrid integrated circuits (HICs), 30
Hydraulic cement protective coating, 679, 681fINDEX 777
Hydrazine:
solid particle impingement, 299
steam generating systems, 89
Hydrocarbon environment corrosion, 470–471, 471f
Hydrogen (ions), 2
aluminum, 520
aluminum welds, 517–518
cathodic reactions, 8
Daniell cells, 7
HSLA, 162
molybdenum, 576
niobium, 580
offshore pipelines, 398
protective coatings, 658
soils, 141
steam condensate, 82
Hydrogen attack, 284–288, 287f
power plants, 404
Hydrogen embrittlement (HE), 284–286
cadmium, 524
carbon steel, 614–615
cobalt, 559
gold, 574
hardness, 287
tantalum, 575, 585
titanium, 621, 632
Hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity (HELP), 285,
286
Hydrogen fuel cell probe, 451, 452f
Hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC), 286, 287f,
450–451
iron, 287
nuclear waste containers, 222, 223f
tensile strength, 287
Hydrogen monitoring, 450–452, 451f, 452f
Hydrogen pressure (vacuum) probe, 451, 451f
Hydrogen reduction, 9
Hydrogen sulfide, 77t, 142f, 538, 578
Hydroscope (remote field inspection), 74t, 75t
Hydrostatic testing, 391
Hydrous ferrous oxide, 480
Hydroxyl ions:
cathodic reactions, 3
crevice corrosion, 258
phenolphthalein, 3
reinforced concrete, 156, 165
seawater, 112–113
steam generating systems, 89
IAP. See Ion activity product
IBED. See Ion beam-enhanced deposition
Ibero-American Atmospheric Corrosion Map Project
(MICAT), 225
ICCP. See Impressed current cathodic protection
ICDA. See Internal corrosion direct assessment
ICP Materials. See International Cooperation Program
on Effects on Materials
IGA. See Intergranular attack
IGC. See Intergranular corrosion
IGSCC. See Intergranular stress corrosion cracking
ILI. See Inline inspection
Impact echo/spectral analysis, 75t
IMPACT Plus (NACE), 354
IMPACT study (NACE), 18–19, 348–354, 352f
Impermeability, protective coatings, 674
Impinging jets, 317–319, 317f, 318f, 319t, 320f
Impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP), 15
reinforced concrete, 161–165, 162f, 163t, 164f, 165f
soils, 141
gathering systems, 143
Impressed current cells, 138, 138f
Incipient anode effect, 16
Incoloys, 565t
Inconels, 286, 565t–567t
Inductive resistance probes, 425–426, 425f
Ingot iron, 609
Inhibit gate, 376, 378f
Inline inspection (ILI), 391–396, 392f, 395f
offshore pipelines, 398
Inorganic (nonmetallic) protective coatings, 679–687
Intelligent pigs. See Inline inspection
Intergranular attack (IGA):
stainless steel, 508, 598
steam generating systems, 402
Intergranular corrosion (IGC), 249, 277–288
alloying, 504
aluminum, 519
cast iron, 527
exfoliation corrosion, 282–284, 282f–284f, 283t
magnesium, 572
pitting corrosion, 255–256, 256f
SCC, 324f
Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC), 406
Intermediate coatings, 674
Intermetallic phases, nickel, 553
Intermittent spraying, 42–45
Internal corrosion direct assessment (ICDA), 388–396,
389f, 392f, 395f
International Cooperation Program on Effects on
Materials (ICP Materials), 224–225, 225t
International Society Automation (ISA), 31
International Standard Organization (ISO):
CORRAG, 27, 27t
ISO 9226, 39
ISO 11474, 43
ISO 12944, 660
Ion activity product (IAP), 101
Ion association model, 211–212, 212t, 213t
Ion beam-enhanced deposition (IBED), 695t, 697t,
698t
Ion exchange resins, 100–101
Ion implantation, 695t, 697t, 699t
Ion plating, 695t, 696t, 697t, 698t
Iron (alloys). See also Cast iron
anodic reactions, 8
atmospheric corrosion, 32, 32f
bacteria, 189
biofilm, 179, 184
cathodic reaction, 10, 11f
chromium, 10778 INDEX
Iron (alloys) (Cont.):
crevice corrosion, 258
electrolyte theory, 2
galvanic corrosion, 270
galvanization, seawater, 116t
HIC, 287
nickel, 551
protective coatings, 3, 657
reactivity, 482
steam condensate, 82
titanium, 618
zirconium, 633
Iron-nickel alloys, 550–553
Iron piping, 68–69
ISA. See International Society Automation
ISO. See International Standard Organization
Isocorrosion diagrams, 587–588, 589f
Jet-in slit, 317–318, 317f
Johnson, W. H., 284
Jowett, A. D., 207
K11430, 59
K12043, 59
KBS. See Knowledge-based system
Kennedy Space Center (KSC), 39, 39f, 40f, 42
Key performance indicator (KPI), 353
corrosion inhibitors, 729–730, 730f
inspection, 363–366, 367t
Key process parameters, RBI, 372
Knowledge-based modeling, 233–240, 233f,
235f–240f, 238t, 240f
Knowledge-based system (KBS), 493f, 494f
KPI. See Key performance indicator
KSC. See Kennedy Space Center
Kuch, A., 104
LA. See Location for analysis
Laminar flow:
flow loop, 314
rotating cylinder, 306, 308f
Langelier saturation index (LSI), 102–105,
102t
ion association model, 211, 213t
LaQue Francis L., 20
Larson-Skold index, 105–106
Laser surface alloying, 695t, 697t, 699t
LCC. See Life-cycle costing
LCDT. See Limiting current density technique
LCR. See Lead and Copper Rule
Lead (alloys), 560
aluminum, 512
atmospheric corrosion, 29
bronzes, 537t
CSMR, 106, 107t
piping, 66, 69
CSMR, 68, 68f
SCC, 328
soils, 146–147
zirconium, 635
Lead and Copper Rule (LCR), 67–68
Leaded copper, 533
Leaky capacitor, 434
Levich equation, 305
Life-cycle costing (LCC), 353
cost of corrosion KPI, 363
materials selection, 488–489
Limiting current density technique (LCDT), 302,
303–304, 304f
flow loop, 314
orifice, 316
rotating cylinder, 306
Linear polarization resistance (LPR), 190, 388,
430–434, 430f–433f, 430t
corrosion potential, 453
EN, 438
Lipopolysaccharides, 179
Lithium, 514, 578
Load-bearing capacity, crevice corrosion, 260
Location for analysis (LA), 361–362, 364t
Log-normal distribution, 219–220
Low-alloy steel, 294, 615, 615t. See also High-strength
low alloy steel
SCC, 321ne
Low-alloy white cast iron, 524
LPR. See Linear polarization resistance
LSI. See Langelier saturation index
Macrocells, reinforced concrete, 156
Magnesium (alloys), 570–572, 573t
aluminum, 512, 519, 572
atmospheric corrosion of, tests, 42f
biofilm, 179
concrete, soils, 147
deposition corrosion, 273
electrochemical reactions, 9f
filler metals, 513
fresh water, 76
IGC, 277–278
precipitation hardening, 507
reactivity, 482
seawater, 112–115
wrought aluminum, 514
Magnesium chloride, 34, 155
Magnetic flux, 417
Magnetic flux leakage (MFL), 74t
cracking, 393
ILI, 391, 392f
Magnetite, 480
Maintenance optimization, 354
Maintenance significant items (MSIs), 408
Maintenance Steering Groups (MSGs),
356–357
aircraft, 408, 409f, 410f
Malleability:
copper, 531t
nickel, 568t
tantalum, 580
Malleable cast iron, 524–525
Malouin, P. J., 691INDEX 779
Manganese:
aluminum, 512
austenitic stainless steel, 591
bacteria, 189
biofilm, 179
bronzes, 537t
copper-nickel alloys, 542
MIC, 184
stainless steel, 601
steel, 615
titanium, 618
Manual metal arc (MMA):
copper, 533
copper-nickel alloys, 536
nickel, 554
steel, 611
Mapping tools, pipelines, 393
Marine environment:
aerosol particles, 209–210
wind speed, 210–211, 211f
Marine environments:
atmospheric corrosion, 28–29
biofouling, 181
copper-nickel alloys, 540–542, 541t
epoxy-coated reinforcing steel rebar, 166
fouling, 182
HSLA, 610
protective coatings, 656–657
reinforced concrete, 155
sulfates, 173
titanium, 622
zirconium, 638
Martensite transformation, 507–508
cast iron, 526
Martensitic stainless steel, 589–590, 590t, 603
welding, 595, 597
Martensitic white cast iron, 524
Mass loss coupons, 417–423, 417f, 418f, 420f, 422f
Mass transfer coefficient:
flow-induced corrosion, 302–303
HTD, 304
surface geometry and corrosion rates, 304–305,
305f
Mass transfer data (MTD), 305
orifice, 316, 316t
Mass transport control, 288
Materials Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), 741
Materials selection, 477–646
candidate materials, 491, 492f
CASs, 490
checklist, 487, 488t
compromises, 487–491
corrosion aware, 479–486, 480f, 481t–483t,
484f–487f
corrosion data, 484–485, 486f
corrosion failures, 495
CPAC, 495–496
design considerations, 639–646, 639t–640t,
641f–647f
engineering materials, 510–639
Materials selection (Cont.):
environmental assessment, 492–495
interaction complexity, 486, 487f
LCC, 488–489
metallurgy, 496–510, 497f–499t, 500f, 502f–506f
multiple environment combinations, 482–483,
483t–485t
past experience, 491
prioritization, 490–491
road map, 491–496
Materials Technology Institute (MTI), 334, 369
Maximum entropy method (MEM), 441, 445
MDEQ. See Michigan Department of Environmental
Quality
Mechanistic modeling, 208–217, 211f, 212t, 213t, 214f,
215f, 216t, 217t
MEM. See Maximum entropy method
Mercury:
brasses, 538
copper, 540
platinum, 574
silver, 574
Mesa corrosion, 299, 299nd, 398, 398nf
Metal inert gas (MIG), 517
brasses, 536
martensitic stainless steel, 597
steel, 611
titanium, 621
Metal ion analysis, 457
Metallic protective coating, 687–702, 687f, 688t–690t,
692t, 693f, 694t–699t, 700f–702f
Metallizing. See Thermal spraying
Metallurgy, 497f–499t
alloying, 501–504, 502f–504f
CPAC, 508–510
crystal structure, 496–498, 497f, 498f
grain size, 498–499, 498–501, 498f, 500f
heat treatment, 504–508, 505f, 506f
history, 510
Methane, 189
Methanol, 629
MFL. See Magnetic flux leakage
MIC. See Microbially influenced corrosion
MICAT. See Ibero-American Atmospheric Corrosion
Map Project
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality
(MDEQ), 67–68
Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC), 175–202,
177t
activity assays, 192
bacteria, 189
biofilm, 179, 180–181
biological assays, 191–192
carbon dioxide, 177, 178f
community metabolism, 184
copper piping, 16
deposition accumulation monitors, 194–195, 195f
direct inspection, 192
DNA, 193
ECDA, 388780 INDEX
Microbially influenced corrosion (Cont.):
enzyme-based assays, 193
fatty acid profiles, 193
growth assays, 192
heat exchangers, 86, 404
manganese, 184
monitoring, 189–196, 191t, 194f–197f, 197t
pitting corrosion, 179f
protective coatings, 184, 185f
soils, 124f
stainless steel, 147
water distribution systems, 176, 178f
Microbiological analysis, 458
Microfouling:
copper, 544
seawater, 108
MIG. See Metal inert gas
Miller, W. J., 207
Mist flow, 456
MMA. See Manual metal arc
Modeling, 205–243
bottom-up, 208–226, 211f, 212t, 213t, 214f, 215f,
216t, 217t, 218f, 223f, 224f, 225t
corrosion management, 226–229, 228f
historical, 206–208f
knowledge-based, 233–240, 233f, 235f–240f, 238t,
240f
mechanistic, 208–217, 211f, 212t, 213t, 214f, 215f,
216t, 217t
probabilistic, 217–226, 218f, 219t, 223f, 224f,
225t
risk-based, 229–231, 230f, 231t, 232f
top-down, 226–241, 227f, 228f, 230f, 231t, 232f,
233f, 235f–240f, 238t
Modified salt spray tests, 49–50
Modulus of elasticity:
molybdenum, 576
reinforced concrete, 171t
titanium, 618, 619t
Molybdenum (alloys), 575–578, 576t, 579t
cast iron, 529
cobalt, 553
duplex stainless steel, 593
erosion-corrosion, 295
ferritic stainless steel, 601
heat exchangers, 86
HSLA, 609
nickel, 281–282, 552
stainless steel, 601
steel, 615
titanium, 618
Molybdenum-rhenium alloy, 576
Molybdenum-tungsten alloy, 576
Monel, 549–550, 557, 558, 560, 567t–568t
MSDS. See Materials Safety Data Sheets
MSGs. See Maintenance Steering Groups
MSIs. See Maintenance significant items
MTD. See Mass transfer data
MTI. See Materials Technology Institute
Muntz metal, 116t
NACE. See National Association of Corrosion Engineers
Nalco Guide to Cooling-Water Systems Failure
Analysis, 336
National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE):
abrasive spraying, 715–716
CF, 334
Corrosion Engineers Reference Book, 103–104
IMPACT Plus, 354
IMPACT study, 18–19, 348–354, 352f
LCC, 488
protective coatings, 708
National Bureau of Standards (NBS), 124
National Physical Laboratory (NPL), 243
Natural gas. See Oil and gas
Natural waters, 73–81
ANN, 239
NBS. See National Bureau of Standards
NDE. See Nondestructive evaluation
Near alpha titanium alloys, 620
Near neutral environments, corrosion inhibitors,
749–750
Nernst diffusion model, flow-induced corrosion, 302
Net positive suction head (NPSH), cavitation, 298–299
Net present value (NPV), 354, 489
Neural networks, 236–239, 237f–240f, 238t
Nichrome, 550
Nickel (alloys). See also Copper-nickel alloys
alloying, 551, 557–558
aluminum, 512
anodic reactions, 8
austenitic stainless steel, 591, 592
BWRs, 94
cast iron, 526, 528, 529
chloride, 557, 558–559
CR, 558
cyclic polarization test, 428
EN, 690–691
erosion-corrosion, 294, 295
heat exchangers, 86
high-performance alloys, 550–553
HSLA, 609
IGC, 281–282, 282f
marine biofouling, 182
martensitic stainless steel, 603
pitting corrosion, 557, 559t
precipitation hardening, 507
protective coatings, 690t
SCC, 328
seawater, 109t, 117
stainless steel, 601
steel, 59, 615
tin, 617
Nickel 200, 568
Nickel 201, 568t–569t
Nickel silvers, 536
Niobium (columbium), 509, 575–576, 576t, 578–580,
581t–582t
HE, 285
nickel, 552
zirconium, 633INDEX 781
Nitrates, 81, 328
Nitriding protective coatings, 686
Nitrites, 168
Nitrogen:
atmospheric corrosion, 27, 29, 37
chemical analysis of process samples, 459
duplex stainless steel, 595, 605
fresh water, 77t
molybdenum, 576, 578
niobium, 580
power plants, 404
titanium, 632
zirconium, 633, 635
Nitronics, 569t–570t
Noble metals, 573–574, 574t. See also Gold; Platinum;
Silver
deposition corrosion, 273
redox, 455
surface diffusion, 277
Nodular cast iron, 525–526
Nondestructive evaluation (NDE), 170, 171t
Nonstick protective coatings, 678–679, 679t
Normal chemistry, 361
Normal distribution, 219, 224f
Nowlan, Stanley, 357
Nozzle, 314–316, 316t, 317f
NPL. See National Physical Laboratory
NPSH. See Net positive suction head
NPV. See Net present value
Nuclear boiling water reactors. See Boiling water
reactors
Nuclear pressurized water reactors. See Pressurized
water reactors
Nuclear waste containers, HIC, 222, 223f
Nucleation event, 251, 332
Obama, Barack, 68
Oddo-Tomson index, 106
Offshore pipelines, corrosion management, 396–398,
396f, 397f, 399t
Ohmic inhibitors, 736
Oil and gas (petroleum):
aluminum, 517
CMPs, 351
corrosion inhibitors, 751–755
pipelines, corrosion management, 382–396, 382t,
383t, 384f, 385f, 387f, 389f, 392f, 395f
offshore, 396–398, 396f, 397f, 399t
salts, chemical analysis of process samples, 459
Once-off measurements, 366, 414
Once-through cooling water systems, 83
Open recirculated water cooling systems, 84, 84f, 85f, 86
OR gate, FTA, 376, 378f
Organic acid-producing bacteria, 189
Organic horizon, 122
Organic inhibitors, 735f–737f, 736–738
Organic matter:
brackish water, 81
fresh water, 76
seawater, 112
Organic protective coatings, 662, 663t–673t, 670,
673–675
Organic solvents, carbon steel, 614
Organophosphates, scale control, 98
Orifice, flow systems, 314–316, 316t, 317f
Oxalic acid anodizing, 683
Oxidation reduction (redox) potential,
455–456
Oxygen. See also Dissolved oxygen
brackish water, 81
BWRs, 93
cathodic depolarization, 76, 733
corrosion cells, 4
corrosion inhibitors, 743
flow-induced corrosion, 294
niobium, 580
oil and gas, 754
protective coatings, 656, 658
PWRs, 94
reinforced concrete, 151
seawater, 108
soils, 124, 125
steam generating systems, 89
steel, 76–78, 79f
titanium, 627, 632
zirconium, 633, 635
ZRA, 446
Oxygen concentration cells, soils, 135–137, 135f,
136f, 145
Oxygen reduction (redox) potential:
atmospheric corrosion, 32
as cathodic reaction, 9
chromium-iron, 10
crevice corrosion, 256
soils, 123, 125–126, 126t
steam condensate, 82
zinc, 10
Ozone:
atmospheric corrosion, 29
cooling tower biofilm, 202
cooling water systems, 214–216, 216t
residual oxidant, 458
P:
Pack cementation, 686
Pack rust, 260, 260f
Paint pigments, 3
Palladium:
titanium, 628
zirconium, 638
Parent material, 122
Particulate matter, atmospheric corrosion, 29
Passive films, 686
PCBs, indoor atmospheric corrosion, 30
PE. See Polyethylene
Pearlitic blackheart malleable cast iron, 525
PEC. See Predicted environmental concentration
Percolation, dealloying, 277
Permeability tests, reinforced concrete, 173
Petrographic examination, reinforced concrete, 172782 INDEX
Petroleum. See Oil and gas
PH, 453–454, 453nb
bacteria, 189
biofilm, 179
carbon steel, 612–613
concrete, soils, 147
corrosion inhibitors, 744–745
corrosion potential, 453
crevice corrosion, 258, 259t
ECDA, 388
flow-induced corrosion, 294
fresh water, 76, 77t
ion association model, 212
LSI, 102, 103, 104
MIC, 176
Oddo-Tomson index, 106
pitting corrosion, 250
power plants, 406
protective coatings, 657
PSI, 105
PWRs, 94
reactant corrosion inhibitors, 458
reinforced concrete, 151
scale control, 98
SCC, 322
seawater, 108, 112–113
soils, 123, 125
steam generating systems, 89
Stiff-Davis index, 106
strong-acid cation resins, 101
zinc, 633
PH. See Precipitation hardening
Phase diagrams, alloying, 501–504, 502f–504f
Phase transport control, 288
Phenolphthalein, 3
Phosphates:
brackish water, 81
lead, 560
power plants, 404
steam generating systems, 89
Phosphatizing protective coatings, 685
Phosphoric acid anodizing, 683
Phosphorus:
brasses, 538
HSLA, 609
martensitic stainless steel, 603
steel, 615
Physical techniques, corrosion monitoring, 417–426
Pickling:
magnesium, 572
stainless steel, 598
PH, 592
P&IDs. See Process and instrumentation diagrams
Pigments:
corrosion inhibitors, 3
paint, 3
protective coatings, 677
Pillowing, 261, 261f, 263
Pinhole leaks, 16
Pipe deformation tools, 393
Pipelines:
CMPs, 351
copper-nickel alloys, 545
corrosion monitoring, 461, 461f
FTA, 379, 379f
martensitic stainless steel, 589
natural gas, corrosion management, 382–396, 382t,
383t, 384f, 385f, 387f, 389f, 392f, 395f
offshore, corrosion management, 396–398, 396f,
397f, 399t
soils, 142–143, 143f, 144t
zinc, 633
Piping, 69–70, 70f
carbon steel, flow-induced corrosion, 290
cast iron, 68–69
graphitic corrosion, 276–277
copper, 66, 68
deposition corrosion, 273
MIC, 16
pitting corrosion, 16
cracking, 360, 361f
galvanization, 68–69
lead, 66
CSMR, 68, 68f
pinhole leaks, 16
power plants, 406
pressure in, 456
soils, 144
steel, 68–69
tantalum, 585
thermal expansion, 400
Pitting corrosion, 248–256, 250f
aluminum, 239
carbon steel, 177, 179f
cast iron, 527
CF, 482
chloride, 558–559
copper, 250, 252f, 253f
piping, 16
copper-nickel alloys, 542
coupons, 418
critical pitting potential, 253–255, 254f, 254t
deposition corrosion, 273
duplex stainless steel, 604t
EN, 443
ferritic stainless steel, 591
fretting corrosion, 330
heat exchangers, 404
IGC, 255–256, 256f
LPR, 434
magnesium, 572
martensitic stainless steel, 589
MIC, 176–177, 179f
nickel, 557, 559t
offshore pipelines, 397
power plants, 404
SCC, 482
sewer explosion, 249, 251f
soils, 142, 142f
steel pilings, 145INDEX 783
Pitting corrosion (Cont.):
stainless steel, 251, 256, 256f, 604t, 605
water, 249–250
Pitting-resistance equivalent number (PREN), 605
Plasma spraying, 694t, 696t, 698t, 701f
Plaster of Paris, 303
Plastics (polymeric materials), soils, 148
Platinum, 574, 574t
Pliny the Elder, 1–2
PNEC. See Predicted no effect concentration
POD. See Probability of detection
POF. See Probability of failure
POFC. See Probability of false calls
POI. See Probability of identification
Poisson distribution, 220
Polarization cells, 426
Polarization resistance. See also Linear polarization
resistance
corrosion potential, 453
EIS, 434, 437f
Polarization scans, 237, 238t
Pollutantmass transfer rate, 209
Polyelectrolytes, scale control, 98
Polyethylene (PE), 148
Polymeric materials (plastics), soils, 148
Polyphosphates, scale control, 98
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE):
rotating cylinder, 307
rotating disk, 305
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 148
transmission water pipes, 67t
Porosity:
aluminum welds, 517–518
dealloying, 275
reinforced concrete, 15, 151, 168
soils, 135f
steel, 611
titanium, 621
Portland cement, 150
Potable water. See Drinking water
Potassium, 150
ferrous ions, 4
molybdenum, 578
seawater, 109
steel, 59
zinc, 4
Potentiodynamic polarization, 426–434, 427f,
429f–434f, 430t
Potentiostaircase method, 428
Poultice corrosion, 263
Poultice corrosion, 13–14
Pourbaix, M., 208, 264
Power industry, corrosion management, 401–406,
402t, 403t, 404f, 405t
Power spectrum distribution (PSD), 445
Pozzolans, 169
PRA. See Probabilistic risk assessment
Prandtl number, 304
Precipitation hardening (PH), 507
stainless steel, 592–593, 592t, 686
Precipitation inhibitors, 735, 739
Predicted environmental concentration (PEC), 733
Predicted no effect concentration (PNEC), 733
PREN. See Pitting-resistance equivalent number
Present worth (PW), 489
Pressure, in piping, 456
Pressurized water reactors (PWRs), 93–94, 93f, 402
zirconium, 636, 637
Prestressed concrete pipes, 73
Primary water, 93, 94
Primers, protective coatings, 674
Probabilistic modeling, 217–226, 218f, 219t, 223f,
224f, 225t
Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), 382
Probability of detection (POD), 394
Probability of failure (POF), 370
aircraft, 408
risk matrices, 375–376, 375f
Probability of false calls (POFC), ILI, 394
Probability of identification (POI), ILI, 394
Process and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs), 373
Process industry:
aluminum, 516–517
corrosion management, 398–401, 400f
ProhesionTM test, 50
Protective coatings, 651–720. See also Cladding;
Galvanization
aluminum, 520
anodizing, 679–685, 682t, 683f, 684f
automobiles, 14, 14nd
binders, 675–677
carbon steel, 614–615
components, 675–678
corrosion failures, 653–655, 653f, 654f, 655t
chromate filming, 685–686
salts, 655–658, 656f, 657f, 659f
corrosion inhibitors, 674, 759
deicing salt, 52, 53f
distribution systems, soils, 143
ECDA, 388
erosion-corrosion, 294–295
filiform corrosion, 264
flow-induced corrosion, 289–290, 292t
fretting corrosion, 330
functionality, 674–675
high-solids, 673–674
higher-solids, 674
holiday detection, 713–714, 713f–714f
hydrogen attacks, 288
inspection and testing, 703–714, 704f–710f, 711t,
712f–714f, 712t
iron, 3
magnesium, 572
metallic, 687–702, 687f, 688t–690t, 692t, 693f,
694t–699t, 700f–702f
MIC, 184, 185f
nitriding, 686
nonorganic, 679–687
nonstick, 678–679, 679t
organic, 662, 663t–673t, 670, 673–675784 INDEX
Protective coatings (Cont.):
pack cementation, 686
phosphatizing, 685
pigments, 677
pipelines, soils, 143, 144t
SCC, 328
selection and maintenance, 659–662, 660t–662t
soils, concrete, 147–148
solvents, 677–678
steel, atmospheric corrosion of, 58
substrate, 703–704
surface preparation, 714–720, 716f–718f
temporary preservatives, 678
thermal spraying, 693, 694t
types, 652
waterborne, 673
Protective film:
chromium, 558
copper-nickel alloys, 544–545
passive, 686
refractory metals, 576–577
stainless steel, 599–601
titanium, 622
zinc, 633
zirconium, 637
Protruding electrode design, 468
PSD. See Power spectrum distribution
PSI. See Puckorius Scaling Index
PTFE. See Polytetrafluoroethylene
Puckorius Scaling Index (PSI), 105
Puddle iron, 2–3, 2nb, 270
PVC. See Polyvinyl chloride
PW. See Present worth
PWRs. See Pressurized water reactors
Q-phase grain boundary, 278
Quantitative risk analysis (QRA), 372
ETA, 380
FTA, 378
RBI. See Risk-based inspection
RC. See Resistive-capacitive behavior
RCA. See Root-cause analysis
RCM. See Reliability-centered maintenance
Reactant corrosion inhibitors, 458
Reactors. See also Boiling water reactors; Pressurized
water reactors
cracking, 359, 359f
SCC, 359, 359f
Rebar, 166–167, 166f
Redox. See Oxygen reduction potential
Reflectivity, 417
Refractory metals, 574–587
Reinforced concrete, 14–16, 15f, 149–173
alkali-aggregate reaction, 173
calcium carbonate, 156–158, 157f
chloride, 151, 154–156
condition assessment, 172
ICCP, 163–164, 164f, 165f
condition assessment, 169–173, 169t, 170f, 171t, 172f
Reinforced concrete (Cont.):
corrosion inhibitors, 167
corrosion potential, 452
cover and mix design, 168–169
CP, 162, 163t
freeze-thaw damage, 173
galvanization, 159, 159f–161f
GCP, 163–164
half-cell potential measurements, 171–172, 172f
ICCP, 161–165, 162f, 163t, 164f, 165f
initiation phase, 151, 152f
macrocells, 156
permeability tests, 173
petrographic examination, 172
propagation phase, 151–154, 152f
realkalization, 165
rebar options, 165–168, 166f, 167f
remedial measures, 158–169
repair techniques, 159, 160f–162f
service life, 152–154, 152f, 152t–153t, 154f
sulfates, 173
Relative humidity (RH), 29, 32–34, 33f
salt spray testing, 46–47, 46t
Reliability, 366, 367t
Reliability-centered maintenance (RCM),
356–357
Remaining life of a component (RLc), 363–365
Remote field inspection (hydroscope), 74t, 75t
Residual inhibitor, 458
Residual oxidant, 458
Resistive-capacitive behavior (RC), 437
Resistivity, soils, 125
Response time, corrosion monitoring, 466–468, 466f,
467f, 467t
Return on investment (ROI), 348, 352–353
Reverse osmosis, 82
Reverse sample genome probe (RSGP), 193
Reynolds number, 209, 290
RH. See Relative humidity
RIMAP. See Risk-based inspection and maintenance
procedure
Ring anode, 16
Risers, offshore pipelines, 396–398, 396f, 397f, 399t
Risk assessment methodologies, 372–381
materials selection, 491
Risk-based inspection (RBI), 369–372, 369t
ASME, 382
HAZOP, 374
Risk-based inspection and maintenance procedure
(RIMAP), 382
Risk-based modeling, 229–231, 230f, 231t, 232f
Risk matrices, 375–376, 375f
RL
c. See Remaining life of a component
Rockwell C53, 529–530
ROI. See Return on investment
Romanoff, M., 124
Root-cause analysis (RCA), 387
Rotating cage, 309–313, 310f–313f
Rotating cylinder, 306–309, 307f–309f, 310t
Rotating disk, 305–306, 306tINDEX 785
RP0190-2000, 163
RSGP. See Reverse sample genome probe
RSI. See Ryznar stability index
RSTRENG, 388, 388nd
Rust, 1, 207
hydrous ferrous oxide, 480
low-alloy steel, 615, 615t
protective coatings, 657
uniform corrosion, 248, 251f
Ryznar stability index (RSI), 105
SAE. See Society of Automotive Engineers
Salt bridge, 6–7, 6f
Salt spray testing, 712, 712f
Salts. See also Deicing salt; Sodium chloride
aerosol particles, 35–36
austenitic stainless steel, 602
carbon steel, 613–614
cooling water systems, 86
copper, 539
corrosion inhibitors, 744
HSLA, 610
magnesium, 572
oil and gas, chemical analysis of process samples, 459
protective coating corrosion failures, 655–658, 656f,
657f, 659f
reinforced concrete, 155
scaling indices, 102
seawater, 107, 108–109
soils, 123, 135
titanium, 618, 631
tungsten, 587
zirconium, 638
Saturation level (SL), 101–102
RSI, 105
SCAB test, 43–45
Scale inhibitors, 757
water treatment, 97–98
Scaling indices, water, 101–106, 102t
Scanning electron microscope (SEM), 421, 443,
444f
SCC. See Stress corrosion cracking
Schaeffler diagram, 593, 594f
Schmidt number, 290
SCIs. See Stress-corrosion indices
SDZs. See Solute-depleted zones
Seawater, 107t, 109t, 114f
brackish water, 81
calcium, 112–115
copper, 539
copper-nickel alloys, 544–545, 546
corrosion resistance, 115–117, 116t
dezincification, 276
DO, 109–111
ferritic stainless steel, 591, 601
flow-induced corrosion, 292, 293t
galvanic series, 266
magnesium, 112–115
organic matter, 112
pollution, 112
Seawater (Cont.):
reinforced concrete, 154, 155
sulfates, 173
salts, 107, 108–109
sodium chloride, 107, 107f
soils, 141
stainless steel, 598
steel, 110f
titanium, 622, 631
velocity, 117
zirconium, 637, 639
Seawater acidified test, 49
Secondary coatings, 674
Sedriks, A. J., 599
SEM. See Scanning electron microscope
Sensitivity, corrosion monitoring, 466–468, 466f, 467f,
467t
Sensitization:
austenitic stainless steel, 50, 279, 281, 421
carbon steel, 509
coupons, 421
ferritic stainless steel, 281, 421
stainless steel, 508, 607–608
EPR, 428
Sereda, P. J., 34
Series control, mass transfer coefficient, 304
Sewer systems:
CMPs, 351
pitting corrosion, 249, 251f
SHE. See Standard hydrogen electrode
Shear stress:
flow-induced corrosion, 292, 293f
rotating cage, 313
Sheet cavitation, 298
Sherwood number, 290, 292
SHRP. See Strategic Highway Research Program
Shut down of the unit (SID), 381
Silica:
biofilm, 180
BWRs, 92
fresh water, 77t
platinum, 574
strong-base anion resins, 101
Silica fume, 169
Silicon:
aluminum, 512
cast iron, 529
nickel, 552
steel, 59, 611, 615
wrought aluminum, 514
Silicone:
protective coating failures, 655t
SCC, 328
Silicone alkyds, 675
Silver, 574, 574t
brasses, 538
coupons, 38
LCDT, 303
reactivity, 482
Singley, J. E., 104786 INDEX
SL. See Saturation level
Slime. See Biofilm
Slug flow, 456
Smart pigs. See Inline inspection
SMEs. See Subject matter experts
Smog, 37
SMYS. See Specified minimum yield strength
Snow, J. P., 2–3
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 532
Sodium:
fresh water, 77t
molybdenum, 578
steam generating systems, 89
Sodium bisulfite, 299
Sodium chloride:
brackish water, 80
corrosion cells, 4
ferroxyl indicator, 4, 4nc
impinging jet, 318, 318f
RH, 34
seawater, 107, 107f
steam generating systems, 89
steel, 108f
Sodium hydroxide, 101, 150
Soft water, 74
Soils, 121–148
aeration, 125
zinc, 146
aluminum, 145–146
brackish water, 141–142
brasses, 147
cast iron, 125, 145, 146f
chloride, 126, 135
zinc, 146
classification, 122–123, 123t
concrete, 147–148
copper, 129, 147, 539
corrosion cells, 129–140, 130f, 131f, 132t, 133f–140f
auxiliary effects, 140–142
corrosivity classifications, 127–129, 127t–129t
corrosivity measurements, 74t
distribution systems, 143
DO, 124f
electroendosmosis, 141
fresh water, 141–142
galvanization, 132, 132t–134t
gathering systems, 143
hydrogen, 141
ICCP, 141
impressed current cells, 138, 138f
lead, 146–147
MIC, 124f
oxygen concentration cells, 135–137, 135f, 136f, 145
particle sizes, 22, 22t
pH, 123, 125
pipelines, 142–143, 143f, 144t
pitting corrosion, 142, 142f
steel pilings, 145
plant piping, 144
plastics, 148
Soils (Cont.):
porosity, 135f
redox, 125–126, 126t
resistivity, 125
seawater, 141
stainless steel, 129, 147
steel pilings, 145
stress cells, 139, 139f
sulfate, 126
surface film cells, 139–140, 140f
temperature cells, 137–138, 137f
transmission/communication towers, 145
types, 124–125
water, 123–124
well casings, 144–145
zinc, 125, 146
Solid particle impingement, 298–300, 300f
Solute-depleted zones (SDZs):
aluminum, 278
nickel, 281
stainless steel, 279, 281
Solvents:
carbon steel, 614
protective coatings, 677–678
Sonic/acoustic leak detection, 73, 74t, 75f, 75t
Sørensen, Søren Peter Lauritz, 453nb
Sour corrosion, oil and gas, 753
Spalling:
concrete, soils, 147
reinforced concrete, 151, 151f
alkali-aggregate reaction, 173
Special alloys, 533
Specified minimum yield strength (SMYS), 391
Spinodal decomposition, 275, 275nc
Splash zone, 81
offshore pipelines, 398
reinforced concrete, 155
sulfates, 173
Spray ponds:
biofilm, 180
cooling water systems, 83, 84
Sputtering/sputter deposition, 695t, 697t, 699t
Squeeze treatment, corrosion inhibitors, 759
SRB. See Sulfate-reducing bacteria
SSC. See Sulfide stress cracking
SSIs. See Structure significant items
SSPC. See Steel Structures Painting Council
Stainless steel, 587–608, 589f, 590t–593t, 599t, 600f,
603f, 606t. See also Austenitic stainless steel;
Duplex stainless steel; Ferritic stainless steel;
Martensitic stainless steel
atmospheric corrosion, 59–60, 60f
BWRs, 93, 94
corrosion potential, 452
crevice corrosion, 257, 604t, 605
cyclic polarization test, 428
erosion-corrosion, 294
filler metals, 595–596
finishes, 598, 599t
galvanic corrosion, 264, 272INDEX 787
Stainless steel (Cont.):
heat exchangers, 86, 404
heat treatment, 597–598
IGC, 279–281, 279f–281f
PH, 507, 592–593, 592t, 686
phase diagrams, 501, 503f
pitting corrosion, 251, 256, 256f, 604t, 605
PWRs, 93
rebar, 166–167, 166f
SCC, 237, 279, 321, 328, 598, 605–607
seawater, 109t, 116–117
sensitization, 508, 607–608
EPR, 428
soils, 129, 147
steam generating systems, 90f
supercritical steam plants, 90, 91
waste heat boilers, 92
welding, 508, 593–597, 594f
Standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), 172
Statue of Liberty, 270–272, 272f
Steam condensate, 82–83
copper, 539
titanium, 631
zirconium, 635
Steam generating systems, 88–94, 90f–93f
corrosion losses, 94, 95t, 96t
corrosion management, 401–403
monitoring, 98t
stainless steel, 90f
Steamside corrosion, 403
Steel, 608–617, 609t, 613t. See also Carbon steel;
High-strength low alloy steel; Low-alloy steel;
Reinforced concrete; Stainless steel
anodes, 4–5, 5f
atmospheric corrosion, 27t, 58–60, 59f, 60f
cathodes, 4–5, 5f
chloride, 135
copper plating, 4, 4f
coupon exposure of, 38
crevice corrosion, 260
DO in water, 79–80, 80f
ferroxyl indicator, 4–5, 4f
galvanic corrosion, 270, 270f
galvanization, seawater, 116t
hydrochloric acid, 10
hydrogen blistering, 287
impurities, 2
Larson-Skold index, 105
lead, 560
marine biofouling, 182
martensite transformation, 507–508
nitriding protective coatings, 686
oxygen, 76–78, 79f
piping, 68–69
protective coatings, 692t
SCC, 616–617
seawater, 110f
sodium chloride, 108f
soils, 125, 129, 145
surface film cells, 139–140
Steel (Cont.):
SRB, 187
transmission water pipes, 67t
welding, 610–612
Steel Structures Painting Council (SSPC), 663,
663t–670t
protective coatings, 703, 704, 704t, 708
Stern-Geary equation, 430
Stiff-Davis index, 106
Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP),
169–170, 169t
Stratified flow, 390, 390ne
Stress cells, 139, 139f
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC), 41, 249, 321–329,
322f–328f, 323t
aluminum, 510, 519, 520–523, 521t–522t, 523f
ANN, 237
annealing, 505
austenitic stainless steel, 90, 321ne, 602
brasses, 536, 538, 540
BWRs, 93, 94
cast iron, 527–528
cobalt, 559
cold work, 506
columns, 359–360, 360f
copper, 540
copper-nickel alloys, 543
coupons, 418, 421
duplex stainless steel, 593, 605
ECDA, 388
electric generators, 406
exfoliation corrosion, 284
FCCU, 380–381
ferritic stainless steel, 590, 591, 601
FTA, 379
heat exchangers, 404
high-performance alloys, 557
ILI, 394
log-normal distribution, 220
low-alloy steel, 321ne
LPR, 434
martensite transformation, 508
MFL, 391
Monel, 560
nickel-, 557
offshore pipelines, 398
pitting corrosion, 482
power plant turbines, 405
probes, 468–470, 469f, 470f
PWRs, 94
reactors, 359, 359f
stainless steel, 237, 279, 598, 605–607
steam generating systems, 402
steel, 616–617
supercritical steam plants, 90
titanium, 629, 632–633
waste heat boilers, 92
welding, 508
zirconium, 639
Stress-corrosion indices (SCIs), 602788 INDEX
Stress relief:
high-performance alloys, 556
SCC, 321, 328
stainless steel, 597–598
WE, 470
Strong-acid cation resins, 101
Strong-base anion resins, 101
Structure significant items (SSIs), 408
Subject matter experts (SMEs), 348
Submerged jet, 317–318, 317f, 320f
Substrate, protective coatings, 703–704
Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), 98, 185f, 187–189, 188f
chloride, 135
fungi, 187
soils, 124f, 125
sulfides, 147
Sulfates:
bacteria, 188f
chloride, 135
concrete, soils, 147
corrosion inhibitors, 743
fresh water, 77t
Larson-Skold index, 105
lead, 560
reinforced concrete, 173
soils, 126
Sulfide stress cracking (SCC), 286, 456
Sulfides:
bacteria, 189
concrete, soils, 147
corrosion inhibitors, 743
soils, zinc, 146
SRB, 147
Sulfur:
bacteria, 189
brasses, 538
chemical analysis of process samples, 459
cycle, bacteria, 188f
martensitic stainless steel, 603
silver, 574
titanium, 632
Sulfur dioxide, 27, 29, 37–38, 42, 49
Supercavitation, 298
Supercritical steam plants, 90–91
Surface diffusion, 277
Surface film cells, 139–140, 140f
Surface impedance, 426
Surface soil, 122
Surface water, 74–76
Suspended solids:
brackish water, 81
fresh water, 78t
Sweet corrosion, 752–753
Tactical perspectives, KPI, 366, 367t
Tafel slopes, 430–431, 431f
TAN. See Total acid number
Tantalum (alloys), 576, 576t, 580–585, 583t–584t
HE, 286
nickel, 552
niobium, 580
Taylor number, 307
TDSs. See Total dissolved solids
Temperature, 456
carbon steel, 614
corrosion inhibitors, 755
differential, protective coating failures, 655
stainless steel, 607–608
tin, 617
Temperature cells, soils, 137–138, 137f
Tempering, 508
Temporary preservatives, 678
Tensile strength:
aluminum, 510–511
austenitic stainless steel, 591t
cadmium, 523
duplex stainless steel, 593t
ferritic stainless steel, 590t
HIC, 287
HSLA, 610
hydrogen attack, 287
martensitic stainless steel, 590t
PH stainless steel, 592t
puddle iron, 2nb
reinforced concrete, 173
steel, 154
tin, 617
titanium, 619t
zirconium, 633
Thermal conductivity, 21
biofilm, 183–184, 183t
heat exchangers, 86, 88t
tantalum, 580
tungsten, 586
Thermal cycling, CF, 330
Thermal expansion. See also Coefficient of
expansion
niobium, 578
piping, 400
plastics, 148
tungsten, 586
Thermal spraying, 693, 694t
atmospheric corrosion, 27
Thin layer activation (TLA), 446–447
Tidal zones, reinforced concrete, 155
sulfates, 173
TIG. See Tungsten inert gas
Time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD), 398
Time of wetness (TOW), 224–225, 225t
atmospheric corrosion, 27, 32–34, 34f
tests, 42
Tin (alloys), 617
bronzes, 537t
titanium, 618
wrought aluminum, 514
zirconium, 633, 635, 637
Titanium (alloys), 617–633, 619t, 623t–627t,
628f–630f, 631t
alloying additions, 509
cyclic polarization test, 428
erosion-corrosion, 294, 295
galvanic series, 266INDEX 789
Titanium (alloys) (Cont.):
heat exchangers, 86, 404
hydrogen attacks, 288
marine biofouling, 182
supercritical steam plants, 91
tantalum, 575
welding, 621
Titanium, zirconium, molybdenum (TZM), 576
TLA. See Thin layer activation
TOFD. See Time-of-flight diffraction
Tooke gauge, 707, 710f
Top-down modeling, 226–241, 227f, 228f, 230f, 231t,
232f, 233f, 235f–240f, 238t
Topcoats, 675
Torsion loads, 330
Total acid number (TAN), 459
Total dissolved solids (TDSs), 457
ion association model, 212
LSI, 102–105, 102t
oil and gas, 753
Total solids, fresh water, 78t
TOW. See Time-of-wetness
Transfer, FTA, 376, 378f
Transgranular SCC, 321, 321ne, 324f, 325f
Traveling cavitation, 298
Treated waters, 81–83
Tungsten (alloys), 575–576, 576t, 585–587, 586, 588t
cobalt, 553
nickel, 552
Tungsten inert gas (TIG), 517
brasses, 536
duplex stainless steel, 595
martensitic stainless steel, 597
steel, 611
tantalum, 585
Turbulence:
flow-induced corrosion, 292, 293–294
flow loop, 314
rotating cylinder, 308f
rotating disk, 306
solid particle impingement, 299
TZM. See Titanium, zirconium, molybdenum
Ultrasonic testing (UT), 366, 392–394
cracking, 393
FSM, 447
Unalloyed white cast iron, 524
Undeveloped event, FTA, 376, 378f
UNESCO. See United Nations Scientific, Education
and Cultural Organization
Unified Numbering System (UNS):
copper, 531–532
titanium, 620, 620t
Unified Soil Classification System (USCS), 124
Uniform corrosion, 248, 251f
coupons, 419
FSM, 448
United Nations Scientific, Education and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO), 109
Universal Oil Products (UOP), 459
UNS. See Unified Numbering System
UOP. See Universal Oil Products
Uranium oxide, 93
USCS. See Unified Soil Classification System
UT. See Ultrasonic testing
Vacuum oxygen decarburization (VOD), 601
Van Daveer, J. R., 16
Vanadium, 286, 609, 618
Vapor cloud explosion (VCE), 381
Vapor phase inhibitors (VPIs), 678, 739–740, 740t,
755, 759
VCE. See Vapor cloud explosion
VCIs (volatile corrosion inhibitors). See Vapor phase
inhibitors
Velocity:
carbon steel, 614
copper-nickel alloys, 545, 545t
design considerations, 640t
seawater, 117
Vernon, W. H. J., 208
Vibration, 330
VOCs. See Volatile organic compounds
VOD. See Vacuum oxygen decarburization
Volatile corrosion inhibitors (VCIs). See Vapor phase
inhibitors
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs):
HSLA, 610
protective coatings, 670, 673–674
Volatilization, corrosion inhibitors, 759
Volta, Alessandro, 5
Volume diffusion, dealloying, 277
Vortex cavitation, 298
VPIs. See Vapor phase inhibitors
Waals forces, 699
Warburg component, 434, 435
Waste heat boilers, 91–92
Water. See also Brackish water; Drinking water; Fresh
water; Seawater
aluminum, 519
carbon steel, 612
concrete, soils, 147
cooling systems, 83–88, 84f, 85f, 87f, 88f, 88t
copper, 528–539
corrosion inhibitors, 744
crevice corrosion, 258
distribution systems, 65–106
condition assessment techniques, 73, 74t
contributing factors to, 70, 70t
main breaks, 16
management, 70–73, 71f, 72f
MIC, 176, 178f
DO, 67
steel, 79–80, 80f
lead and CSMR, 106, 107t
leaks, 71
pitting corrosion, 249–250
protective coating failures, 654
quality:
LSI, 103
water distribution systems, 16–17, 62–73790 INDEX
Water (Cont.):
recycling, 95
reinforced concrete, 151
scaling indices, 101–106, 102t
soils, 123–124
steam generating systems, 88–94, 90f–93f, 95t
tin, 617
titanium, 618, 622, 631
toxicity, corrosion inhibitors, 732
treatment, 95–101
biofilm, 98–100, 99f, 100f
methods, 99t
scale control, 97–98
types, 73–83
water quality, 16–17
zinc, 10
zirconium, 635, 637
Water jetting, 717, 718f
Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA), 351
Water splitting, cathode reactions, 8
Waterborne protective coatings, 673
Waterside corrosion, boiler tubes, 403
WBS. See Work breakdown structure
WE. See Working electrode
Weak-acid cation resins, 101
Weak-base anion resins, 101
Weight loss coupons, 72
Welding, 508
aluminum, 517–518
cast iron, 526–527, 527t
copper, 531t, 533–536
corrosion cells, 140
ferritic stainless steel, 590
high-performance alloys, 553–556
molybdenum, 577–578
niobium, 580
SCC, 92
stainless steel, 593–595, 594f, 596–597
steel, 610–612
tantalum, 585
titanium, 621
zirconium, 635
Wenner four-pin method, 125
Wet abrasive blasting, 719
Wet candle method, 35, 35f
Wet film gauging, 705, 708f
White cast iron, 524
Whiteheart malleable cast iron, 525
WHO. See World Health Organization
Wind speed:
marine environment, 210–211, 211f
topographic effects, 225–226
Work breakdown structure (WBS), 490
Working electrode (WE), 426, 439–441
SCC, 469
World Health Organization (WHO), 81
Wrought aluminum, 511t, 513–514
Wrought copper, 532t
Wrought iron:
exfoliation corrosion, 282–283
State of Liberty, 270–271
tungsten, 587
Wrought magnesium alloys, 572
Wrought zirconium, 635
WSAA. See Water Services Association of Australia
X-ray diffraction, 480, 481t
Yield strength:
austenitic stainless steel, 591t
duplex stainless steel, 593, 593t
ferritic stainless steel, 590t
IGC, 277
martensitic stainless steel, 590t
PH stainless steel, 592t
SCC, 321, 323f, 391
SMYS, 391
titanium, 619t
Young’s modulus, 479
Zeolite, 89
Zero point of charge (ZPC), 737
Zero-resistance ammeter (ZRA), 433, 433na, 437–438,
445–446
Zinc (alloys). See also Galvanization
aluminum, 512
brasses, 147
copper:
atmospheric corrosion, 27t
Daniell cells, 5–7
CP, 207
deposition corrosion, 273
dezincification, 276, 276f
drinking water, piping, 69
electroplating, 633
sulfuric acid, 7f
hydrochloric acid, 7f, 10, 10f
oxygen reduction, 10
pitting corrosion, 256
potassium ferricyanide, 4
soils, 125, 146
tin, 617
water, 10, 69
wrought aluminum, 514
Zircaloys, 93, 637
Zirconium (alloys), 575–576, 633–639, 634t, 635t,
637t
cyclic polarization test, 428
HE, 285
tantalum, 575
titanium, 618
Zone water audits, 73, 74t
ZPC. See Zero point of charge
ZRA. See Zero-resistance ammeter

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