Efficiency Evaluation of Energy Systems

Efficiency Evaluation of Energy Systems
اسم المؤلف
Mehmet Kanoglu, Yunus A. Cengel, Ibrahim Dincer
التاريخ
2 يونيو 2020
المشاهدات
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Efficiency Evaluation of Energy Systems
Mehmet Kanoglu, Yunus A. Cengel, Ibrahim Dincer
Contents
1 Efficiency, Environment, and Sustainability 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Energy, Exergy, Environment, and Sustainable Development 1
1.3 Efficiency and Energy Management . 6
2 The First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics . 9
2.1 Introduction 9
2.2 Energy Change and Energy Transfer 10
2.2.1 Mass Transfer 11
2.2.2 Heat Transfer . 11
2.2.3 Work . 11
2.3 The First Law of Thermodynamics 12
2.4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics . 14
2.5 Entropy . 16
2.5.1 Entropy Balance 18
2.6 Exergy 19
2.6.1 What Is Exergy? . 20
2.6.2 Reversibility and Irreversibility 21
2.6.3 Reversible Work and Exergy Destruction . 22
2.6.4 Exergy Change . 22
2.6.5 Exergy Transfer Mechanisms 23
2.6.6 Exergy Balance 24
3 Energy and Exergy Efficiencies 27
3.1 Introduction 27
3.2 Efficiencies of Cyclic Devices . 30
3.3 Efficiencies of Steady-Flow Devices 36
3.3.1 Turbine . 36
3.3.2 Compressor . 38
vii3.3.3 Pump 40
3.3.4 Nozzle . 42
3.3.5 Throttling Valve . 43
3.3.6 Heat Exchanger . 44
3.3.7 Mixing Chamber 48
3.3.8 Electric Resistance Heating . 49
4 Energy Conversion Efficiencies . 55
4.1 Conversion Efficiencies of Common Devices 55
4.1.1 Electric Resistance Heater 55
4.1.2 Electric Water Heater . 56
4.1.3 Natural Gas Water Heater 56
4.1.4 Combustion Efficiency 56
4.1.5 Heating Values 57
4.1.6 Boiler Efficiency 57
4.1.7 Generator Efficiency and Overall Efficiency . 59
4.1.8 Lighting Efficacy 59
4.2 Efficiencies of Mechanical and Electrical Devices . 60
4.3 Cryogenic Turbine Efficiencies . 62
5 Efficiencies of Power Plants . 69
5.1 Introduction . 69
5.2 Efficiencies of Vapor Power Cycles 70
5.3 Efficiencies of Gas Power Plants . 74
5.4 Efficiencies of Cogeneration Plants . 77
5.4.1 Steam-Turbine-Based Cogeneration Plant 79
5.4.2 Gas-Turbine-Based Cogeneration Plant 81
5.5 Efficiencies of Geothermal Power Plants . 82
5.6 Energetic and Exergetic Analyses of a Photovoltaic System 89
6 Efficiencies of Refrigeration Systems . 95
6.1 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps 95
6.1.1 Heat Pump Efficiencies . 96
6.1.2 The Carnot Refrigeration Cycle 98
6.2 Second Law Analysis of Vapor-Compression
Refrigeration Cycle . 100
6.3 Energy and Exergy Efficiencies of Vapor-Compression
Heat Pump Cycle. . 106
6.4 Absorption Refrigeration Cycle. 109
6.5 Liquefaction of Gases . 111
6.5.1 Linde–Hampson Cycle 112
6.5.2 Precooled Linde–Hampson Liquefaction Cycle 118
viii Contents6.6 Efficiency Analysis of Psychrometric Processes . 123
6.6.1 Balance Equations for Common Air-Conditioning
Processes 123
6.6.2 Heating or Cooling 126
6.6.3 Heating with Humidification 129
6.6.4 Cooling with Dehumidification . 130
6.6.5 Evaporative Cooling 130
6.6.6 Adiabatic Mixing of Air Streams . 131
Appendix A . 133
Appendix B . 149
Nomenclature 161
References 165
Index
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