Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook – Processing, Materials,and Applications

Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook – Processing, Materials,and Applications
اسم المؤلف
Myer Kutz
التاريخ
30 سبتمبر 2023
المشاهدات
201
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook – Processing, Materials,and Applications
Second Edition
Edited by
Myer Kutz
Table of contents
Dedication
Contributors
About the Editor
Preface to the First Edition
Preface to the Second Edition
Part I: Plastics, elastomeric and biobased materials
1: Engineering Thermoplastics—Materials, Properties, Trends
Abstract
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Aliphatic Polyamides
1.3. Aromatic Polyamides, Aramids
1.4. SemiAromatic Polyamides
1.5. Polyacetals
1.6. Polycarbonates
1.7. Poly (phenylene ether)
1.8. Polysulfones
1.9. High-Temperature Sulfone Polymers (HTS)
1.10. Thermoplastic Polyesters
1.11. Liquid Crystalline Polymers (Polyesters)
1.12. Poly(phenylene sulfide)
1.13. Polyetherimide
1.14. Polyimides
1.15. Polyamide Imides
1.16. Aromatic Polyketones
1.17. Polyarylates
1.18. Aliphatic Polyketones
1.19. Syndiotactic Polystyrene
1.20. Self-Reinforcing Polyphenylene
1.21. Poly(p-xylylene)
1.22. Polybenzimidazole
1.23. Comparison of Physical Properties
1.24. Trends in Engineering Thermoplastics
1.25. Processing
1.26. Conclusions
2: Polyolefins
Abstract
2.1. Industrial Processes for Polyolefin Production
2.2. Classes of Polyolefins
2.3. Catalysts for Olefin Polymerization
2.4. Industrial Reactors
2.5. Polyolefine Properties
2.6. Applications
2.7. Polyolefin Composites
3: Introduction to Fluoropolymers
Abstract
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Fluoropolymer Classification
3.3. Fluoropolymer Products
3.4. Monomer Synthesis
3.5. Monomer Properties
3.6. Polymerization and Finishing
3.7. Structure–Property Relationship of PE to PTFE
3.8. Polymer Properties of PTFE
3.9. Fabrication Techniques
3.10. Applications
3.11. Safety
3.12. Polymerization Surfactant
3.13. Economics
3.14. Summary
4: Poly(Vinyl Chloride)
Abstract
4.1. Introduction [1–3]
4.2. Synthesis of Vinyl Chloride [3,5]
4.3. PVC Resin Synthesis and Characterization [1–3]
4.4. PVC Compounds: Processing and Applications [4,7]
4.5. Recycling PVC [11]
4.6. Vinyl: Sustainability and Energy Efficiency [12]
4.7. Vinyl Chloride and Health
4.8. Dioxin
5: Thermoplastic Elastomers
Abstract
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Classification and Structure
5.3. Production
5.4. Structure–Property Relationships
5.5. Applications
5.6. Economic Aspects and Trade Names
6: Thermoset Elastomers
Abstract
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Some Experimental Details
6.3. Typical Stress–Strain Behavior
6.4. Control of Network Structure
6.5. Networks at Very High Deformations
6.6. Multimodal Chain-Length Distributions
6.7. Other Types of Deformation
6.8. Filler-Reinforced Elastomers and Elastomer-Modified Ceramics
6.9. Current Problems and Future Trends
7: Biodegradable and Biobased Polymers
Abstract
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Naturally Occurring Biodegradable Polymers
7.3. Biodegradable Polymers Derived From Renewable Resources
7.4. Biodegradable Polymers Derived From Petroleum
7.5. Biobased Polymers Derived From Plant Oil
7.6. Concluding Remarks
8: Polymeric Biomaterials
Abstract
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Polymeric Biomaterials in Ophthalmology
8.3. Polymeric Biomaterials in Orthopedics
8.4. Polymeric Biomaterials in Cardiovascular
8.5. Polymeric Biomaterials for Wound Closure
8.6. Polymeric Biomaterials in Extracorporeal Artificial Organs
8.7. Polymeric Biomaterials for Nerve Regeneration
8.8. Conclusions and Future Outlook
Part II: Plastics processing
9: Recycling of Plastics
Abstract
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Technology to Recycle Plastics
9.3. Challenges
9.4. Industries and Industry Organizations
9.5. Products
9.6. Conclusions
Acknowledgment
10: Injection Molding Technology
Abstract
10.1. The Injection Molding Screw
11: Microcellular Injection Molding
Abstract
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Background
11.3. General Discussion of Foam Processing
11.4. General Discussion of Microcellular Processing
11.5. General Discussion of Microcellular Injection Molding
11.6. Process Monitoring and Control Methods for Microcellular Injection Molding
11.7. Equipment Requirements for Microcellular Foam Injection Molding
11.8. Trexel’s MuCell Technology
11.9. Other Physical Foaming Techniques
11.10. Typical Objectives of Microcellular Injection Molding
11.11. Limitations of Microcellular Injection Molding
11.12. Best Target Applications
11.13. More Challenging Situations
11.14. Commercial Examples
11.15. Future Trends
Appendix
12: Extrusion Processes
Abstract
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Single-Screw Extruders
12.3. Single-Screw Extruder Mechanisms
12.4. Twin-Screw Extruder Equipment
12.5. Planetary Roller Extruders: Principle Components and Operating Principles
12.6. Shaping and Drawing and Extrusion Applications
12.7. Extrusion Laminations and Coatings
12.8. Solidification and Cooling
13: Blow Molding
Abstract
13.1. Introduction
13.2. The Process
13.3. Formulas for Blow Molding
13.4. Troubleshooting
Acknowledgments
14: Compression Molding
Abstract
14.1. Basics of Processing by Compression Molding
14.2. Molding Force and Pressure
14.3. Typical Presses
14.4. Compression Molds and Associated Tooling
14.5. Commonly Used Resins
14.6. Resin Charge Characteristics
14.7. Processing Parameters for Granules, Powders, and Preforms
14.8. Resin Matrix Modifiers
14.9. Engineered Fiber-Reinforced Molding Compounds
14.10. Comparisons with Transfer Molding and Injection Molding
14.11. Similar Processes
14.12. Modeling the Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer of Mold Filling
14.13. Ensuring Part Quality and Process Efficiency
Acknowledgments
15: Rotational Molding
Abstract
15.1. Introduction
15.2. Rotational Molding Process
15.3. Materials for Rotational Molding
15.4. Molds for Rotational Molding
15.5. Machinery for Rotational Molding
15.6. Design for Rotational Molding
16: Thermoforming
Abstract
16.1. Introduction
16.2. Thermoforming Characteristics
16.3. Thermoformed Product Characteristics
16.4. The Thermoforming Concept
16.5. Thermoforming Machinery
16.6. Thin-Gauge Thermoforming
16.7. Thick-Gauge Thermoforming
16.8. Other Thermoforming Technologies
16.9. Heaters
16.10. Thermoforming Mold Materials
16.11. Plastic Materials
16.12. Product Design
16.13. Operational Aspects of Thermoforming [22]
17: Process Monitoring and Process Control: An Overview
Abstract
17.1. Introduction
17.2. Historical Factors Affecting the Development of Process Monitoring and Controls
17.3. Basic Concepts: Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Controls
17.4. Transducers Used in Plastics Processes
17.5. Data Acquisition Systems
17.6. General Control Strategies: Extrusion Versus Injection Molding
17.7. Process Control Applications Overview: Extrusion
17.8. Process Control Applications Overview: Injection Molding
17.9. Process Development Tools
17.10. Conclusions
18: Polymer Stabilization
Abstract
18.1. Introduction
18.2. Degradation Chemistry
18.3. Stabilizers
18.4. Performance of Stabilizers
18.5. Other Factors Determining the Choice of Stabilizers
Appendix 18.1. Chemical structure, CAS number, and several trade names of several stabilizers
19: Chaotic Advection and Its Application to Extruding Micro- and Nanostructured Plastic Materials
Abstract
19.1. Applicability and Fundamentals
19.2. Machinery and Process Control
19.3. Micro- and Nanolayered Plastics
19.4. Polymer Blends
19.5. Polymer–Solid Composites and Nanocomposites
19.6. Mixtures and Nanodispersions
19.7. Decoration
19.8. Rheology Measurements with Concurrent In Situ Structuring
Part III: Additives, colorants and fillers
20: Surface Modification of Plastics
Abstract
20.1. Introduction: Surface Modification of Plastics: For What Reasons?
20.2. Overview of Surface Modification Techniques
20.3. Surface Modification (Activation) Techniques
20.4. Surface-Coating Deposition Techniques
21: Plastics Additives
Abstract
21.1. Introduction
21.2. Overview
21.3. Thermal Stabilizers
21.4. Nucleating Agents
21.5. Antioxidants
21.6. Flame Retardants
21.7. Color and Colorants
21.8. Fillers
21.9. Reinforcements
21.10. Impact Modifiers and Impact Modification
21.11. Miscellaneous
22: Dispersants and Coupling Agents
Abstract
22.1. Introduction
22.2. Dispersants
22.3. Practical Use Considerations
22.4. Types of Dispersants
22.5. Property Effects
22.6. Coupling Agents
22.7. Conclusions
23: Functional Fillers for Plastics
Abstract
23.1. Introduction
23.2. The Basics
23.3. Thermal and Electrical Properties
23.4. Hardness, Friction, Scratch Resistance, and Wear
23.5. Barrier Properties
23.6. Optical Properties
23.7. Processing
23.8. Extra Phase Effects
23.9. Popular Fillers
23.10. Specialty Fillers
24: Plasticizers
Abstract
24.1. Introduction
24.2. Mechanism of Plasticization
24.3. Types of Plasticizers
24.4. Phthalate Esters
24.5. Terephthalate Esters
24.6. Dibasic Acid Esters
24.7. Epoxy Plasticizers
24.8. Trimellitate Esters
24.9. Benzoate Esters
24.10. Cyclohexanoate Esters
24.11. Polymeric Plasticizers
24.12. Phosphate Esters
24.13. Citrate Esters
24.14. Other Plasticizers
24.15. Plasticizer Characteristics and Performance of Flexible PVC
24.16. Plasticizer Selections for Specific Applications
24.17. Plasticizers for Other Polymers
24.18. Human Health Aspects of Plasticizers
24.19. Future of Plasticizers
25: Adhesion Promoters: Silane Coupling Agents
Abstract
25.1. General Concepts
25.2. Silane Adhesion Promoters
25.3. Adhesion Promoter Mechanism with Silanes
25.4. Optimizing Coupling Agent Performance
25.5. How to Choose a Silane Coupling Agent
25.6. General Applications of Silane Coupling Agents
25.7. Industry and Utility
25.8. Non-Silane Adhesion Promoters
25.9. Sources of Adhesion Promoters
Part IV: Design and applications
26: Plastics Joining
Abstract
26.1. Introduction
26.2. Mechanical Joining
26.3. Adhesive Bonding
26.4. Welding
27: Design of Plastic Parts
Abstract
27.1. Introduction
27.2. Material Selection
27.3. Process Selection
27.4. Structural Design
27.5. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
27.6. Conclusions
Acknowledgments
28: Three-Dimensional Printing of Plastics
Abstract
28.1. Introduction
28.2. 3D Printing Processes
28.3. Design with 3D Printing
28.4. Manufacturing Strategy
28.5. Future Outlook
28.6. Conclusions
Acknowledgments
29: Plastics in Buildings and Construction
Abstract
29.1. Introduction
29.2. Applications
29.3. Plastic Applications in Green Building Design
29.4. Conclusions
Acknowledgments
30: Automotive Applications of Plastics: Past, Present, and Future
Abstract
30.1. Introduction
30.2. Exterior Components
30.3. Interior Components
30.4. Under-the-Hood Components
30.5. Future Outlook
30.6. Conclusions
31: Infrastructure Applications of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites
Abstract
31.1. Introduction
31.2. Products and Applications
31.3. Durability of Polymer Composites
31.4. Summary
32: The Plastic Piping Industry in North America
Abstract
32.1. Introduction
32.2. Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings Materials
32.3. Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride Materials
32.4. Cross-Linked Polyethylene (PEX) Materials
32.5. Polypropylene Materials
32.6. Polybutylene Materials
32.7. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Materials
32.8. Nylon (PA) Materials
32.9. Fluoropolymer Materials
32.10. Engineering Plastic Materials
32.11. Multilayer Piping Products
32.12. Composite Piping Products
32.13. Fiberglass-Reinforced Thermoset Piping
32.14. Cured-in-Place Piping
32.15. Pipeline and Piping Rehabilitation Technologies
32.16. Plastic Pipe and Fittings Manufacturing Processes
32.17. Long-Term Strength Testing of Thermoplastic Piping Materials
32.18. Test Methods for Determining Long-Term Hydrostatic Strength
32.19. Validation of Polyethylene Pipe Materials
32.20. Popelar Shift Function Calculations for PE Pipe Materials
32.21. Design of Plastic Piping Systems
32.22. Specifications, Product Standards, Test Methods, and Codes
32.23. Regulatory Matters
32.24. Applications of Thermoplastic Plastic Piping
32.25. Installation Using Thermoplastic Pipe for Pipeline Replacement
32.26. Other Piping Applications
33: PET Use in Blow Molded Rigid Packaging
Abstract
33.1. Introduction
743
Index
A
A-B-A block copolymer, 91
A/B pillar covers, 661–662
Abrasion, 443, 525–526
resistance, 526
Acetaldehyde (AA), 720
Acetylated tributyl citrate (ATBC), 544
Acid etching, 443
Acid-functionalized polymers, 506,
515–516
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), 19,
326, 357, 643, 654, 701
thermoplastics, 462
Acrylonitrile styrene acrylate (ASA), 654
Additive manufacturing (AM) processes,
24, 617
binder jetting, 618
directed energy deposition, 618
material extrusion, 618
material jetting, 618
powder bed fusion, 618
sheet lamination, 618
vat photopolymerization, 618
Additives, 489, 642
for biological defense, 499
chemical classes of, 490
Adhesion, 559
Adhesion enhancer, 561
Adhesion promoters, 555–571
applications, 562
general concepts, 555
industry and utility, 562–570
fiberglass, surface treatment of,
562–564
minerals in plastics, surface treatment
of, 564–567
PICA (paints, inks, coatings, and
adhesives), 568–570
mechanism with silanes, 557–561
bonding to the inorganic
substrate, 558
bonding to the organic polymer,
558–559
interphase region, 557
optimizing coupling agent
performance, 559–561
non-silane adhesion promoters, 570
silane, 555–557
chemistry, 556–557
coupling agents, 555–556, 561–562
sources of, 570–571
Adhesive bonding, 557, 607
in plastics joining, 580–582
application, 582
curing, 582
joint design, 582
surface preparation, 581
Adipates, 80
Administration of Quality Supervision,
Inspection and Quarantine
(AQSIQ), 183
Adsorption theory, 581
Advanced engineering thermoplastics
(AETP), 3
physical properties, comparison of,
18–20
Aerosol-based DBD treatment, of
foils, 472
Aesthetics additives, 22
Akashi-Kaikyo bridge, 677
Aliphatic polyamides, 4
PA66 molding, 4
polyamide 66, structure of, 4
Aliphatic polybenzimidazoles, 17
Aliphatic polyketones, 15–16
structure of, 16
Alkyl radical scavenging, 400
Aluminates, 514
Aluminum-plastic composite water
piping, 702
Aluminum trihydrate (ATH),
493, 529
Aluminum vacuum web coating, 477
American Chemistry Council (ACC), 167
American Composites Manufacturers’
Association (ACMA), 686
American National Standards
(ANS), 713
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI), 713
American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM) Committee,
55, 617, 698, 708
11-Aminoundecanoic acid, 4
Ammonium perfluorooctanoate
(APFO), 67
Ammonium polyphosphate (APP)
helium glow discharge, 450
Amorphous Carbon Treatment on Internal
Surface (ACTIS) coating,
470, 471
Amorphous polymers, 20, 521, 583
properties of, 20
high-performance, 20
Analytical melting model, 225
Anchoring, 510
Angiosarcoma of the liver (ASL), 88
Antimony/halogen systems, 493
Antioxidants, 491–492, 501
carbon blacks, 492
chemical types of, 491
lactones, 492
primary antioxidants, 491
secondary antioxidants, 492
sulfur-based, 492
thin films, 492
vitamin E, 492
A-PD precursor delivery system, 475
Ap/Po ratio methods, 535, 536
Aramids (aromatic polyamides), 5
Aromatic polyketones, 14–15
Arrhenius activation energy, 710
Arrhenius equation, 710
Aspect ratio, 519
Assembly, 606–607
ASTM D883-12, 169
ASTM standards, 640
Atmospheric-plasma treater, 450
Atmospheric-pressure glow discharge
(APGD), 449
Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet
(APPJ)
alignment of several potential-free, 452
arrays, 451
for deposition of coatings, 473
wide-angle rotating jet head plasma
jet, 452
Autoclave temperature development, 31
Automotive industry, 49
polypropylene, 49
Automotive Manufacturers Equipment
Compliance Agency
(AMECA), 655
Azeotropic dehydrative condensation, 132
Azo compound, 35
cross-linking, 706
B
Bairocade, 726
Bamboo fiber (BF), 130
Bamboo pulp fiber (BPF), 130
Barrel sections like extruders, 244
Barrier
films, 639–640
flights, 236
properties, 526
Bell brittleness testing procedures, 534
Benzoate esters, 542
Biocides, 499
Biodegradable aliphatic-aromatic
polyesters, 137744 Index
Biodegradable polymers, 127
cellulose, 129–131
naturally occurring, 127
overview of, 127
from petroleum, 135
poly(butylene adipate-coterephalate), 137
poly(butylene succinate), 136
polycaprolactone, 135
from plant oil, 137
carbon-carbon double bond
functionalization in
triglycerides, 138
ester group, modification of, 138
from renewable resources, 132
polyhydroxyalkanoates, 133–135
polylactic acid, 132–133
soy protein plastic, 131
starch, 128–129
Biofibers, 646
Biomaterials
applications of, 145
biomimetic apatite formation, 150
for IOLs, 148
Biostability, 151
Biphenyl tetra carboxylic dianhydridebased polyimides structures, 14
4,4″-Bis (4-chlorophenylsulfonyl)
biphenyl, 9
Bisphenol A (BPA), 6
Bisphenol A polycarbonate (BPA-PC), 397
BiW materials, properties of, 658
Blast-resistant structures, 688–689
Blennerhassett bridge (WV), 680
Block copolymers, 93
with polyisobutylene midsegments, 96
Block diagram, for blown film MD
thickness control, 387
Blow air entrance, 272
Blow air pressure, 289
Blow molding, 265, 598–599, 736–738
blow pressure curve, 736–737
blow-up ratio, 275
clamp tonnage, 276
die swell, 276
heat extraction load, 276
injection blow molding. See also
Injection molding
internal cooling (hot fill bottles), 738
origin of, 719
part thickness, 275
pinch-offs, 277
polyethylene terephthalate, 717–740
commercial manufacturing processes,
726–728
container and preform design
fundamentals, 728–735
development, 717–719
morphology, 722–724
packaging material, 719
permeation and barrier, 724–726
processing, 735
rigid packaging, 717–740
structure and manufacturing, 720–722
process of, 265–273
under 5 L, 275
over 5 L, 275
parison programming-wall
distribution, 273
resin characteristics, 273–275
Reynolds number, 276
shrinkage, 279
stretch blow molding, 285–289
troubleshooting, 279
injection blow, 281–284
venting, 278
Blow molding cycle, 266, 267, 728
Blow molding polyarylsulfones, 8
Blow pressure curve, 737
Blow-up ratio (BUR), 723
Body-in-white (BiW), 657–658
Bond strengths, 502–504
“Bootstrap” strategy, 613
Borstar polypropylene heterophasic
copolymers, 46
Borstar polypropylene homopolymers, 46
Borstar PP process, 46
Breakdown paschen curves, 448
Bridges, 675–676
decks, 678–682
pavements, 678–682
smart materials for, 685–686
substructures, 682
superstructures, 676–678
system design and construction, 676
unique bridges, 682–683
Brønsted-Lowry Acids, 502
Building envelopes, 639–640
Building Officials and Code
Administrators International,
Inc. (BOCA), 714
Buildings and construction industry
applications, 635–646
barrier films, 639–640
building envelopes, 639–640
cladding, 635–636
conduits, 640–642
decking, 646
doors, 642–644
electrical wiring insulation, 640–642
fencing, 646
glazing, 642–644
green building design, plastic
applications in, 646–647
house wraps, 639–640
insulation, 636–638
piping, 644–646
plastics in, 635–647
railing, 646
roofing, 638–639
siding forms, 635–636
windows, 642–644
Bulk-density cylinder, 330
Bulk molding compounds, stack of, 310
Bumpers, 652–653
Butene, 33
Butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), 491
Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), 537, 548
n-Butylmethacrylate (n-BMA)
monomer, 150
C
Cabinet shuttle machines, 357
Cadmium colors, 494
Calcium carbonate, 494, 521
Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
rating systems, 698
Canopy machines, 355
Cantilever snap-fit, 578
Capped POM, structure of, 6
Carbonated soft drink (CSD) bottle,
717, 729
Carbon blacks, 492, 495
filler, 567
structure of, 495
Carbon dioxide pressure-temperature
phase diagram, 204
Carbon fiber loadings, 51
Carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP),
651, 653, 658, 666
Carbon fibers
use of, 685
Carbon FRP (CFRP) cables, 679
Carboxylic acid anchoring groups, 511
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), 155
Cardiovascular, polymeric
biomaterials, 151
expanded PTFE, 152
polyethylene terephthalate, 152
polyurethanes, 151
Carpet America Recovery Effort (CARE),
174, 184
Cast aluminum mold, 332
Catalyst copolymer, 707
Catalyst residues, 490
Catalytic gas combustion radiant
heaters, 361
Cavity plate, 302
Cavity pressure
profiles, 208
Cavity pressure, 378
C-C double bond, 28
Celluloid, 533
Cellulose, 489
Cellulosic fibers, 130
natural fibers, 130
Center for Integration of Composites into
Infrastructure (CICI), 675
Central nervous system (CNS), 156
Cetyltrimethyl ammoniumbromide
(CTAB), 512
Chaotic advection based processing, of
plastics, 395, 399
applicability and fundamentals, 423–425
decoration, 435–436
machinery and process control, 425–429
micro- and nanolayered plastics, 430
mixtures and nanodispersions, 434–435
polymer blends, 431–432Index 745
polymer-solid composites and
nanocomposites, 432–434
rheology measurements with concurrent
in situ structuring, 436–437
Chartwell adhesion promoters, 515
Chemical aging, 693
Chemical foaming agents (CFA), 203
Chemical forces, 555
Chemical process piping systems, 699
Chemical reactions, 556
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD)
polymerization method, 17
China Entry-Exit Inspection, 183
Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE), 82
Chlorinated polyolefins, 570
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
(CPVC), 699
use of, 699
Chlorine trifluoride (ClF3), 64
Chlorotrifluoroethylene, 60
synthesis of, 57–58
Chopped/ground/shredded e-plastics
resin, 305
Chromium salts, 514
Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel
(CHAP), 550
Circumferential profiling, 731
Citrate esters, 543–544
Cladding, 635–636
Clamp tonnage, 195, 276
Clay, 495
Clean-reactor technology, 89
Closed-circuit television (CCTV), 703
Closed loop, 380
Closure and Container Manufacturing
Association (CCMA), 735
13C-NMR spectroscopy, 536
Coalescing agent, 549
Coat-hanger design, of film, 257
Coating, 685
Cobalt-chromium, 153
Codes, piping, 713–714
Coefficient of friction (COF), 222, 525
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion
(CLTE), 23
Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE),
524–525
Coextrusion technology, 259
Coiling bridge, 684
Cold staking, 579
Color/colorants, 494, 527
Combustion process, 458
Commercial APPJ systems, 474
Commercial silanes, thermal stability
of, 560
Common blow molding difficulties, 280
Compatibility, with polymer, 504–505, 545
Compatibilizers, 179
Complex automobile electronic throttle
control, 292
Composite army bridge (CAB), 683
Composite Building Systems Inc.
(CBS), 689
Composite piping
applications of, 716
systems, 716
Composites, 702
Compression molding, 300, 708
basics of processing, 291
commonly used resins, 303–304
compression molds and associated
tooling, 300–302
engineered fiber-reinforced molding
compounds, 310–311
BMC/SMC/GMT/LFT/CFRT
processing, 312–313
ensuring part quality and process
efficiency, 316–318
fluid dynamics and heat transfer of mold
filling, 314–316
molding force and pressure, 294
mold instrumentation, 302–303
process, 307, 316
processing parameters for granules/
powders/preforms, 306
curing and solidification reaction,
306–307
cycle and molding times, 308
mold closure control, 307
resin charge control, 307
temperature control, 308
resin charge characteristics, 304–305
thermoset resin pricing, 305–306
resin matrix modifiers, 308
additives, 308–309
fillers, 309
reinforcements, 309
sample compression molding procedure,
298–299
similar processes, 314
transfer molding and injection molding,
313–314
typical presses, 294–298
Compression press, typical, 293
Computed tomography scanner, 623
Computer-aided design (CAD), 617
Computer aided engineering (CAE), 730
Concentration, 518
Conductivity, 523–524
Conduits, 640–642
Conical twin screws, 247
Contact forming, 349
Contact lens
and intraocular lens, 147
Continental Can Company (CCC), 717
Continuing technological advances, 3
Continuous fiberglass-reinforced
thermosetting resin pipe, 705
Continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastic
(CFRT), 309
Continuous liquid interface production
(CLIP), 619
Continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), 45
Control algorithms, 381
45/45 conveying element, 245
Coolers, 335
Cooling, 583
Cooling channel locations, 278
Coplanar barrier discharge (CBD), 453
Copolymers, 722
Copper chromium arsenate (CCA), 686
Copper phalocyanine (CPC), 494
Core-and-skirt, 148
Core-back technology, 204
Cornea tissue, 148
Corona discharges, 447, 455, 581
Corona treater, 457
Corotating screws defining location, 239
Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE)
standards, 651
Corrosion resistance, 702
Cost coefficients, 629
Cost-effective mass production
processes, 686
Cost estimation, 628–631
Cotton and cellulose fibers, 497
Council of American Building Officials
(CABO), 714
Coupling agents, 498, 508–516, 555, 564
acid-functionalized polymers, 515–516
aluminates, 514
amounts to use and surface
coverage, 512
anchoring the inclusion, 510
bridging two together, 511
chartwell adhesion promoters, 515
chromium salts, 514
coupling to polymer, 510–511
differences between dispersion and
coupling, 508–509
history, 509–510
organosilanes, 513–514
other organo-metallics, 514
practical use considerations, 511
precoating, 511
principles, 510
in situ treatment, 512
terminology, 508
titanates, 515
types of, 512–513
unsaturated acids, 515
Coupling, to filler/inclusion, 502
Coupling to polymer, 510–511
Cracking, 28
propagation, 399
Creep, 523
behavior, 40
Crosslinked polyethylene (PEX), 34, 645,
699–700, 708
pipe, 697
pipe and fittings manufacturing,
706–708
piping systems, 699
Cross-linker system, 570
Cross-linking chemical methods, 699
Cross-linking reactions, 707
Cross-linking technologies, 699–700
Cryogenic grinding, 328
Crystalline polymers, 491746 Index
Crystallinity, polyethylene terephthalate
blow molding, 722–724
Crystal melting temperatures, 99
C3 sources, 29
Cured-in-place pipe (CIPP), 703
Curing, 582
Cushioned vinyl flooring, 548
Custom molds, 617
Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid esters, 542
1,4-Cyclohexanedimethanol (CHDM), 11
polyester, structure of, 11
Cyclohexanoate esters, 543
Cyclohexylenedimethylene terephthalate
copolyesters (CTC), 171
Cycloolefin (COC), 367
D
Daoplas process, 707
DE19720916C5, 252
Decabromodiphenyl ether (DECA), 493
Decking, 646
Decks/decking, 678–682
Deck-stiffening systems, 676
Defense Advanced Research Projects
Agency (DARPA), 683
Defense bridges. See also Bridges
Deflection temperature under load
(DTUL), 489
Deformed piping, 704
Dehalogenation, with zinc, 56
Dense fillers, 531
Density separation techniques, 181
Department of Energy (DOE), 714
Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
Transportation Security Administration
(TSA) of, 714
Deposition techniques, 464
Designed experiment (DOE), 391
Design for manufacturing and assembly
(DFMA) guidelines, 606
Deterioration processes, 725
Diaminopropyltrimethoxysilane, 563
Dibasic acid esters, 541
Dibenzoate ester plasticizers, 537
Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), 533
use of, 537
Dibutyl terephthalate (DBTP), 541
Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD)
configuration, 448
Die shaping, 274
Die swell, 257
Diethylene glycol dibenzoate
(DEGDB), 537
Di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA), 536, 541
Di-2-ethylhexyl azelate (DEHZ), 541
Di-2-ethylhexyl cyclohexanedicarboxylic
acid ester (DC8CH), 543
Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)
plasticized system, 534
Di-2-ethylhexyl succinate (DEHS), 541
Differential scanning calorimetry
(DSC), 528
Difluoroethane, 59
Diisodecyl adipate (DIDA), 541
Diisononyl adipate (DINA), 541
Diisononyl cyclohexanediacid esters
(DC9CH), 552
Diisononyl phthalate (DINP), 534
DINP-based plastisol, 547
Diisooctyl phthalate, 550
Diluents, 550
Dimethyl terephthalate
transesterification of, 541
N,N-Dimethyl-p-toluidine, 150
Di-n-octyl phthalate, 533
Dinonyl phthalate (DNP), 499
Dioctyl phthalate (DOP), 499
Dioxin, 89
Diphenylmethane 4, 4′-diisocyanate
(MDI), 97
Dipropylene glycol dibenzoate
(DPGDB), 537
Dispersants
acid-functionalized polymers, 506
basic principles, 501–502
bond strengths, 502–504
compatibility with polymer, 504–505
coupling to the filler/inclusion, 502
general structure of, 501
organosilanes, 505–506
practical use considerations, 505
amounts to use and surface
coverage, 505
precoating, 505
in situ treatment, 505
property effects, 506–508
flow/processability, 506
gloss, 508
impact resistance, 506–508
tail length, 505
terminology, 501
titanates, 506
types of, 505–506
unsaturated acids, 506
Dispersions, 400, 519
Dispersive mixer designs, 235
Distance velocity lag (DT), 380
Distribution, 519
Ditridecyl phthalate (DTDP), 537
DMA analysis, 534
Dolomite, 503
door panels, 659–661
Doors, 642–644
Double blow processes, 738
Dow Corning, 473
Downstream feeding, of filler, 250
3D printing processes, 617–623
fused deposition modeling (FDM),
620–621
polyjet modeling (PJM), 621–622
selective laser sintering (SLS), 619–620
stereolithography (SLA), 618–619
Draft angles, 372
Drain-waste-and-vent (DWV) plumbing
pipe, 697, 701
Droplet-based 3D printing processes, 622
Drying, to eliminate moisture, 261
3D test, CT scans of, 624
DuPont, 5
Durability, fiber-reinforced polymer
composites, 691–693
Dynamic exchange process, 535
Dynamic mechanical analysis
use of, 547
Dynamic vulcanizates, 94
E
E-glass, 51
Elastic collisions, 444
Elastic modulus, 594
vs. yield stress, 595
Elastomers, 526, 549
Electrically conductive fillers, 523
Electrical voltage (EMF), 382
Electrical wiring insulation, 640–642
Electric-hydraulic compression
press, 296
Electro discharge machining (EDM)
methods, 252
Electrofusion coupler, 587
Electrofusion couplings, 705
Electrofusion welding, 587
Electromagnetic and radio frequency
interference (EMI/RFI), 23
Electromagnetic internal heating
methods, 584
Electron beam, 35
Electrostatic forces, 558
Elongation to break, 522
Emulsion polymerization, 62
End-of-Life Vehicles (ELV), 182
Energy efficient buildings, 689–691
Engel process, 707
Engineered fiber-reinforced molding
compounds, 312
Engineering plastic materials, 701–702
Engineering thermoplastics (ETP), 3
global consumption, 3
physical properties, comparison of,
18–20
processing, 24
trends in, 20
additives, 22–24
blends and alloys, 21–22
copolymers, 20–21
Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA), 651
Environmental stress cracking
(ESC), 712
EP0340407A2, of planetary roller
extruder, 253
Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), 541
Epoxy-functionalized, 180
Epoxy liners, 704
Epoxy lining process, 704
Epoxy plasticizers, 541–542
consumption of, 541Index 747
Epoxy resin
curing mechanism of, 558
quartz filler, 567
ESO-plasticized PVC materials, 541
Ethylene, block copolymers of, 97
Ethylene chloro-trifluoroethylene
(ECTFE), 701
Ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene
copolymer (ECTFE), 55
polymerization and finishing, 62
Ethylene glycol (EG), 720
Ethylene-propylene copolymer, 110
Ethylene propylene diene monomer
(EPDM), 93, 638
synthetic rubbers, 705
Ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR), 37
Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer
(ETFE), 55
polymerization and finishing, 62
Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene
terpolymers, 65
Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), 128
carbon monoxide products, 543
copolymer, 700
Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer
(EVOH), 398
Ethylene with tetrafluoroethylene
(ETFE), 56
European commission, 551
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), 664
Exothermic heat, 29
Exothermic reaction, 637
Expandable microspheres, 531
Expanded polystyrene (EPS), 637
Expanded PS (EPS), 174
Expanded PTFE (ePTFE), 151
Extracorporeal artificial organs
polymeric biomaterials, 155–156
Extra phase effects, 528–529
Extrudate cooling, 260
Extrudate swell, 257
Extruded film, 400
Extruded plastic sidings, 635
Extruded polypropylene (XPP), 635
Extruded polystyrene (XPS), 637
Extruder showing principle
components, 218
Extrusion, 585–586
Extrusion blow molding, 266, 739
Extrusion coating, 260
Extrusion-orientation process, 719
Extrusion processes, 217, 598
downstream feeding, 250
extrusion laminations/coatings, 260
melt conveying, 248
mixing, 248–249
planetary roller extruders (PRE),
250–252
discharge of melt, 254
coextrusion, 259
die/adaptor, 254–256
feeding, 253
melting and mixing, 254
plasticating and melting, 247–248
single-screw designs, 234
mixing, 234–236
single-screw extruder mechanisms,
219–220
extrusion model, 233–234
melting mechanism, 224–227
metering mechanism, 228–233
solid feeding, 221
solids conveying, 221–224
single-screw extruders, 218–219
solidification/cooling, 260–261
drying, 261
hazards associated with an extruder,
262–263
twin-screw
screw, barrel, heating, and cooling,
243–247
twin-screw extruder equipment,
236–243
Extrusion technology, 191
Extrusion welder, 586
F
Fabricated sheet metal mold, 331
Fast crystallization, 491
Fasteners, 575–577
Fastening, 607–610
types of, 607
Faster Engel manufacturing process, 707
Fast-fusing plasticizers, 537, 544
Fatigue, 693
Federal-aid projects, 675
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
(FERC), 714
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard
(FMVSS), 655, 657–659,
661, 662
Fencing, 646
Fiberglass
applications of, 564
based roofing shingles, 564
polyamide composite crash
boxes, 666
reinforced epoxy composite
formulation, 564
reinforced phenolic laminate strength
test, 563
reinforced polyesters, 562
reinforced polyimide, 560
reinforced thermoset, 702–703
surface treatment of, 562–564
miscellaneous fiberglass
applications, 564
printed circuit board applications, 564
for reinforced plastics, 563–564
Fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP), 702
Fiberglass-reinforced thermoset piping
(FRP), 708, 716
manufacturing, 708–712
ductile-to-brittle transition, 712
failure mechanisms, 712
long-term hydrostatic strength,
710–711
long-term strength testing, 712
PE pipe materials, popelar shift
function calculations for,
711–712
polyethylene pipe materials,
validation of, 711
Fiberglass-reinforced thermosetting
resin pipe
applications of, 716
Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP)
composites
blast-resistant structures, 688–689
bridges, 675–676
superstructures, 676–678
decks, 678–682
defense applications, 683–685
durability, 691–693
energy efficient buildings, 689–691
fire-resistant structures, 688–689
highway structural components,
675–676
infrastructure applications, 675–691
pavements, 678–682
pipes, 687
platforms, 691
poles, 686–687
products, 675–691
structures, 686–691
substructures, 682
towers, 691
turbine blades, 687–688
unique bridges, 682–683
Fibers, 528
Fibrous blend, 399
Fibrous fillers, 520
Filament winding, 691
Filled resin systems
electrical properties of, 566
Fillers, 494–496, 526
abrasion, 525–526
amorphous polymers, 521
aspect ratio, 519
barrier properties, 526
basics, 517–518
coefficient of friction (COF), 525
coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE),
524–525
color, 527
concentration, 518
conductivity, 523–524
creep, 523
debonds, 506
dense fillers, 531
dispersion, 519
distribution, 519
elongation to break, 522
expandable microspheres, 531
extra phase effects, 528–529
flame retardant fillers, 529–530
functional, 517–531
gloss, 527748 Index
hardness, 525
heat distortion temperature, 521
impact resistance, 522–523
interphase, 529
market, 518
mechanical properties, 519–520
modulus, 520
molecular fillers, 531
nanofillers, 531
natural and renewable fillers, 530–531
nucleation, 528–529
optical properties, 526–527
particle shape, 519
particle size and size distribution,
518–519
permeability, 526
polymer systems, 502
popular fillers, 529
processing, 527–528
properties, 51
scratch resistance, 525
semicrystalline polymers, 521–522
specialty fillers, 529–531
specific heat capacity, 524
thermal and electrical properties, 523–525
transcrystallinity, 529
transparency/opacity, 526–527
vicat temperature, 521
voids/foams, 529
wear, 525–526
yield strength, 520–521
zeolites, 531
Film adhesives, 582
Film-forming polymer, 563
Fine fillers, 522
Fine talc, 528
Finite element analysis, 688
geometrical meshing, 315
Finite element analysis (FEA)
methods, 730
Finite element method (FEA) analysis, 578
Fire-resistant structures, 688–689
Fittings materials, 698–699
Flame retardants, 493–494
fillers, 529–530
halogen free, 493
halogen systems, 493–494
inorganic flame retardants, 493
Flame treatment, 460, 581
Flammability, 399
Flash mold closure designs, 300, 301
Flat die coextrusion system, 259
Flat heaters, 361
Flatness tolerances, recommended, 343
Flexible polyvinyl chloride, 545–548
Flexible thermoplastic polyolefin (FPO)
membranes, 638
Flexural modulus, 52
Flexural rigidity, 399
Float-sink segregation, 176
Fluid catalytic cracking, liquefied
petroleum gas (FCC LPG), 34
Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP),
62, 701
Fluoroadditives, 61
Fluoropolymers, 67, 327, 697, 701
classification, 55
monomer properties
chlorotrifluoroethylene, 60
hexafluoropropylene, 60
perfluoroalkylvinylethers, 60
tetrafluoroethylene, 59
vinyl fluoride, 60
vinylidene fluoride, 60
monomer synthesis, 56
chlorotrifluoroethylene, synthesis of,
57–58
hexafluoropropylene, synthesis of, 57
perfluoroalkylvinylethers (PAVEs),
synthesis of, 57
tetrafluoroethylene, synthesis of,
56–57
vinyl fluoride, synthesis of, 59
vinylidene fluoride, synthesis of,
58–59
overview of, 55
products, 56
Fly ash, 495
Fold and form systems, 704
Food Contact Articles, 739
Food packaging, 526
Formed-in-place liner (FIPL), 704
Four-arm turret machine, 337
Four-head Uniloy blow molding machine,
HDPE milk containers, 268
Free flowing powder, 330
Free radical mechanism, 31
Free radical polymerization, 29
Friedel-Crafts reaction, of biphenyl-4,
4′-disulfonyl chloride, 8
FRP modular panels
advantages of, 681
Fuel spillage
FMVSS 301 Standards for, 665
Fuel tanks, 664–665
Functional fillers, 517–531
Functionalized thermoplastics (FTPs), 21
Fused deposition modeling (FDM),
620–621, 623
enabling feature of, 620
process, 627
Fused deposition modeling process, 623
Fusion bonding, 575, 582
Fusion-welded polyethylene pipe, 716
G
Galata Chemicals, 544
1320-gal HDPE tank, 269
Gas combustion heaters, 361
Gas diffusion barrier coatings, 469
Gas phase reactors, 46
Gaussian distribution function, 113
Gear mixers, 249
Gel theory, 535
General-purpose (GP) plasticizer, 536, 537
Geometric design, in three-dimensional
printing, 622–626
Glass fiber, 7, 13, 562
epoxy composite, 666
Glass-fiber-reinforced (GFR) pipe, 702
Glass-fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP),
651, 702
Glass-fiber reinforced polyester (GFRP),
636, 642
Glass mat-reinforced compounds, 304
Glass mat-reinforced sheets, 311
Glass-mat-reinforced thermoplastic
(GMT), 653
Glass-reinforced plastic (GRP), 702
Glass-reinforced polyethylene (PE-GF)
piping products, 702
Glass spheres, 495
Glass transition, 99
Glazing, 642–644
thermal insulation property of, 642
Gloss, 527
Gloss 60˚, 53
Gloucester Engineering introduced control
loops, 387
Glyceryl methacrylate (GMA), 146
Glycolide, 155
Glycolide-l-lactide, 155
Good bumper system, 653
GPC Z-N vs. SSC
molecular weight distribution, 43
Granular PTFE, 61
Graphite, 497
Green building design, plastic applications
in, 646–647
Grilamid, 5
H
Halogenated polymers, 494
Halogen-containing polymers, 101
HA(L)S stabilizers, 408
Hardness, 525
Hard polymer-elastomer combinations,
94, 105
HBA/biphenol/TTA based LCP, 12
structure of, 12
Hdrogen shift, 400
Hdroperoxides, decomposition of, 401
Hdroxybenzophenones, 404
Head injury criteria (HIC), 661
Headlight systems, 655
Head/rear light housing and lenses,
655–657
Heat deflection temperature (HDT), 11,
521, 596, 627
HDT-A, 53
median values for, 596
Heating/cooling systems, 636
Heat resistance factor, 636
Heat transfer, 640
Heavy assault bridge system, 684
Helical coil, 576
Fillers (cont.)Index 749
Hercules Chemical Company, 544
Heterophasic polypropylene
rubber particle size of, 38
Heterophasic PP, 38
Hexafluoroisopropyl methacrylate
(HFIM), 145
Hexafluoropropylene (HFP), 55, 60
synthesis of, 57
Hexene, 33
High density polyethylene (HDPE), 18, 32,
86, 128, 406, 490, 645, 687, 711
bottles, 270
fuel tanks, 665
milk containers, 270
Semicrystalline polymers, properties
of, 19
High-density thermoplastic foam
sheet, 370
High heat deflection temperature
(HDT), 18
High impact polystyrene (HIPS),
19, 21, 522
High melt processing temperatures, 494
High-performance adhesives, 582
High-performance epoxy resins, 564
High-performance polymer
composites, 508
High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering
(HIPIMS), 474
High-pressure glass-fiber-reinforced
thermoset piping, 703
High pressure resistant, 676
High-strength steels, 653
High-temperature sulfone polymers
(HTS), 9
structure of, 9
Highway structural components, 675–676
Hi-Lo screw, 576
Hindered amine light stabilizers
(HALS), 492
Hole size, on part surface, 279
Homopolymer, 699
Horizontal directional drilling (HDD), 716
Hot air/cold staking, steps for, 580
Hot and cold plumbing pipe, 699
Hot fill bottle, 719
Hot filled packages, 732
Hot gas, 585
welding, 585
Hot plate cycle, 584–585
House wraps, 639–640
Howick’s analysis, 536
Hubcaps, 654
Human health aspects, 550–551
Husky Index system, 735
Hydraulic machine, 196
Hydraulic press, 297, 298
Hydrogen fluoride, 66
Hydrogen peroxide gas plasma
(HPGP), 445
Hydrolyzes, in organosilicate-polymer
systems, 117
Hydrophobic silane, 559
Hydrostatic design basis (HDB), 698, 710,
712
Hydrostatic design strength (HDS), 698
Hydrostatic design stress (HDS), 712
Hydroxyapatite (HA), 150
2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate
(HEMA), 145
Hydroxylamines, 401
6-Hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (HNA), 12
Hysteresis, in stress-strain isotherms, 113
I
IKV ProFoam plasticizing unit, 212
Impact modification, 497–498, 526
Impact PP structure, 37
Impact resistance, 522–523
Implant induction, 586
Implant resistance, 587
welding, 587
Important gas-phase reactive species, 461
Independent arm machine layouts, 337
Induction welding, 585
Industrial corona treaters, 456
Industrial polyolefin processes, 45
Industrial smart blender, 397
Industry and utility
adhesion promoters, 562–570
fiberglass, surface treatment of,
562–564
minerals in plastics, surface treatment
of, 564–567
PICA (paints, inks, coatings, and
adhesives), 568–570
In-floor heating systems, 699
Infrared (IR), 590
Infra-red data collection (IRT), 339
Infra red dryer (IRD), 735
drying crystallizing system, 737
Infrared heaters, 362
Infrared/laser staking, 580
Infrared spectroscopy, 536
Infrastructure applications, fiber-reinforced
polymer composites, 675–691
Initiated CVD (iCVD), 464
Injection blow molding, 283
advantages and disadvantages of, 282
process, 281
Injection molding, 84, 527, 599–600,
735–736
cooling, 735–736
drying, 735
Injection molding machine (IMM),
191, 192
screw configurations, 202
Injection molding pressures, 496
Injection molding process, 627
Injection molding technology, 191
limitations, 191
mold shrinkage, 200
polyetheretherketone(PEEK), 198
pressure versus time curve, 193
screw, 201–202
sizing injection molding machines, 196
stress generation and stress
retention, 198
typical clamping section, 191
Injection stretch blow molding
(ISBM), 727
In-machine trimming, 354
In-plant recycling, 739
In situ treatment, 512
Institute of Plastics Processing
(IKV), 210
Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries
(ISRI), 185
Instrument panel/dashboard, 658–659
Insulated concrete forms (ICFs), 637
Insulation, 636–638
Intake manifolds, 664
Integral blending, 566
Interference-fit. See Press-fit
Intermeshing conical twin-screw
extruder, 237
Intermeshing/nonintermeshing twin-screw
extruders, 238
Intermeshing twin-screw extruders, 240
Intermittent (manual) closed loop control
block diagram, 379
Intermolecular diffusion, 583
Internal joint sealingnly, 705
Internal protective coating (IPC), 703
International Agency for Research into
Cancer (IARC) agency, 550
International Association of Plumbing
and Mechanical Officials
(IAPMO), 713
International Code Council (ICC), 714
International Conference of Building
Officials (ICBO), 714
International Energy Conservation Code
(IECC), 646
International Organization for
Standardization (ISO), 708, 713
evaluation system, 698
International Society of Beverage
Technologies (ISBT), 735
International Union of Pure and Applied
Chemistry (IUPAC), 533
Interpenetrating network theory, 558
Interpenetrating polymer networks
(IPNs), 557
Interphase, 529
Intimate contact, 580
Intraocular lenses (IOLs), 145
Intrinsic viscosity (IV), 720
Isocyanates, 637
Isotropic fillers, 520–522
J
Joining, piping, 713
K
Kanmonkyo bridge, 677
Kaolin clay, 567750 Index
Kautex, in line head, 269
Kenics Static Mixer, polymer flow
distributive mixing mechanism
of, 237
Kevlar, 497
Kleine Emme bridge, 680
Kneading blocks, 246
narrow kneading blocks, 249
neutral kneading blocks, 249
wider kneading blocks, 249
45/5/30 kneading element, 246
L
Lactones, 492
Lambert-Beer’s law, 404
Laminar flame profile, 458
Laser, 590
Laurel Lick Bridge, 683
Lead-based compounds, 81
Leadership in Energy and Environmental
Design (LEED), 647
Leaf springs, 666–667
“Leap-frog” technologies, 688
Left ventricular assist devices
(LVADs), 151
Leveling system, 621
Levulinic acid, 544
Lewis acid-base interactions, 502
Life cycle analysis (LCA), 88, 531
Light duty composite tower, 692
Light interactive characteristics, 399
Limiting oxygen index (LOI), 18
Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE),
33, 173, 399
molecular diagram, 33
Linear phthalate esters, 548
Linear regression analysis, 710
Linear vibration welding, 588
Line of communication (LOC), 685
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
industry, 714
Liquid crystalline polymers, 11
Liquid nylons, 326
Living polymer, 95
Load, type of, 575
Long chain branching (LCB), 33
Long-term heat aging (LTHA), 395
Long-term hydrostatic strength (LTHS),
698, 711
values, 712
Low-density polyethylene (LDPE), 128,
645, 653
blend morphologies, 397
Low-molecular-weight additives, 529
Low-molecular-weight oxidized materials
(LMWOM), 455
formation, 461
Low pressure gas (LPG), 27
Low-temperature hydrogen peroxide
gas plasma sterilization
(LTHPGP), 445
Low-temperature plasticizers, 537
Low-volatility plasticizers, 537
Lysine diisocyanate, 151
M
Maddock mixer, 235
Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2),
493, 529
form of, 529
Magnetostrictive linear displacement
transducers, 383
Maleated polyolefin adhesion
promoters, 571
Maleated polypropylene, 570
Maleic anhydride (MA), 128
Maleic anhydride terminated polyolefins
(PP-MA), 180
Manual-hydraulic compression press, 295
Manufacturing strategy, 627–632
classification, 618
comparison, 618
Materials
electrical properties, 596
mechanical properties, 594–596
processing properties, 596–597
selection, 593–598
thermal properties, 596
in three-dimensional printing, 627
Materials recovery facilities (MRFs), 176
Mechanical fasteners, 607
Mechanical joining, in plastics joining,
575–580
fasteners, 575–577
press-fit, 579
snap-fit, 577–579
staking, 579–580
swaging, 579–580
Mechanical properties, fillers, 519–520
Medical tubing, 388
Medium-density polyethylene (MDPE)
piping, 645, 711
Medium Girder Bridge (MGB), 685
Melamine-phenolic molding
compound, 305
Melt elasticity, 254
Melt flow index (MFI), 64, 173, 197, 200
Melt flow properties, 52
Melt flow rate (MFR), 64, 707
Melting mechanism, 234
Melting system, mathematical analysis
of, 224
Melt, in metering section, 229
Melt temperature
and fill rates, 208
“Melt to resin” (MTR), 722
Metallic behemoth, 651
Metallocene catalyst structure, 42
Metering screw, 229
Methacrylate/butadiene/styrene (MBS)
modifiers, 82
Methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, 570
Methylene diphenyldiisocyanate
(MDI), 131
Methyl methacrylate (MMA), 145
MgCl2-supported catalysts, 44
Mica, 495
Microcellular extrusion, 207
Microcellular foaming, 214
Microcellular injection molding
background, 204–205
best target applications, 213
challenging situations, 213
commercial examples, 214
discussion of, 207–208
foam injection, equipment requirements
for, 209–210
foam processing, general discussion of,
205–206
future trends, 214
limitations of, 213
overview of, 203
physical foaming techniques, 210
ErgoCell system from Demag, 212
ProFoam, 212
sulzer optifoam, 210
processing of, 206–207
monitoring and control methods,
208–209
sampling of, 215
related trexel patents, 215
related US patents, 215
thermoplastic foams, 203
Trexel’s MuCell® technology, 210
typical objectives
cycle time reduction, 213
less molded-in stress, 213
uniform shrinkage, 213
weight reduction, 212
Microlayered, scanning electron
microscope images, 398
Microwave, 589–590
Microwave welding, 590
Mineral fibers, 497
Mineral-filled composite, 565
Mineral-filled rubber formulations, 568
Mineral fillers, 523, 564, 565
applications, 565
in rubber reinforcement, 567–568
rubber tire applications, 567–568
wire and cable applications, 568
Mineral-reinforced rubber, 568
Minerals in plastics
surface treatment of, 564–567
methods of applying silanes, 566
mineral-filled composites, effect of
silanes on properties of, 566–567
nature of bonding to minerals, 564
Mississippi Polymer Technologies
(MPT), 17
Modulus, 520
Molar mass (MM), 35
Molar mass distribution (MMD), 35
Mold, 626–627
Mold cavity temperatures, 304
Mold changeover, 358
Molding cycle, 626Index 751
Molding, photographic, 299
Molding techniques, 528
Mold parting line venting system, 278
Mold release agents, 499–500
Mold shrinkage, 196
Molecular fillers, 531
Molecular modeling calculations, 536
Molecular sieves. See Zeolites
Monobenzoate esters, 542
Monomeric plasticizers, 536
Monomeric silicon chemicals, 556
MonoSil process, 707
Mooney-Rivlin constants, 113
Motor Vehicle Suspension, 666
Move-compiler, 620
MuCell process, 209
MuCell screw, 211
Multiblock copolymers, 104
Multilayer and composite plastic piping
applications of, 716
Multilayer materials, 702
Multilayer spiral dies, 259
Multiple cavity coextrusion die, 260
Multizone circulating reactor (MZCR), 47
N N
-alkyl pyrrolidones (NAP), 544
Nanocalcium carbonate, 507
Nanoclay, 530
Nanofillers, 527, 531
Nanoparticles, 519
Naphtha, 27
Naphthalene based LCPs
structure of, 12
Naphthalene-2, 6-dicarboxylic acid, 10
Naphthalene, structure of, 12
National Association for PET Container
Resources (NAPCOR), 184
National Association of Plumbing,
Heating and Cooling Contractors
(NAPHCC), 714
National Center for Electronics Recycling
(NCER), 184
National Fire Protection Association
(NFPA), 75
National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration (NHTSA)
standard, 652, 664
National Toxicology Program (NTP), 550
Natural and renewable fillers, 530–531
Natural fibers, 530
Natural gas transmission systems, 687
Natural polymers, 127
Natural product-based materials, 533
Neck crystallization, 724
Neck pinch-off insert, 277
Negative feedback, 380
Nerve regeneration, polymeric
biomaterials, 156–157
Net shape manufacturing processes, 627
Net shape processes, 617
Newtonian models, 232
N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm), 148
Nitinol, 153
Nitrogen containing plasmas, 445
Noise, vibration, and harshness
(NVH), 664
Noncontact hot plate welding, 585
Noncrystallizable, 114
Nonintermeshing twin-screw
extruders, 239
Nonplastic piping systems, 644
Non-silane adhesion promoters, 570
No objection letter (NOL), 739
Notched impact resistance, 523
Nucleating agents, 491
Nucleation, 528–529
Nylons, 325, 549, 697, 701
based on w-aminocarboxylic acids, 4
MXD6, 726
nylon-6, 153
O
Objet Technologies Ltd., 621
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA), 88
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
(OTEC), 682
cold water pipe for, 683
3-Octanoylthio-1-
propyltriethoxysilane, 568
Octene, 33
Olefin polymerization, catalysts for, 41
hydrogen effect, 43
ethylene, 44
propylene, 43
temperature, 44
ethylene, 44
propylene, 44
industrial reactors, 44
gas phase reactors, 45
polypropylene production, 45
borstar process, 46–47
spheripol process, 47
spherizone process, 47
slurry reactors, 44
metallocene catalysts, 42–43
catalyst effect on melting point, 43
Phillips catalysts, 42
Ziegler-Natta (Z-N) catalysts, 41
performance of, 41–42
Oligomeric adhesion promoter, 555
Open-cut excavation method, 715
Open-cut installation, 715–716
Operating extruder, 220
Operation Green Fence (OGF), 183
Ophthalmology, polymeric
biomaterials, 145
polymeric artificial cornea, 148–149
polymeric contact lens, 145
polymeric intraocular lens, 146–147
Optical properties, 526–527
Organofunctional silane coupling
agents, 568
Organosilanes, 505–506, 513–514, 557
applications, 562
classification, 557
coupling agents, 555
Orientation, polyethylene terephthalate
blow molding, 722–724
Orthopedic biomaterials, 149
Orthopedics, polymeric biomaterials, 149
natural polymers, 150
polyacrylates, 150
polyethylene, 149
Oxidative CVD (oCVD), 464, 466
Oxidizing radical species, 459
4,4′-Oxydianiline (ODA), 13
P
Packaging, 717–740
applications, 84
materials, permeation factor of, 719
Paints, inks, coatings, and adhesives
(PICA), 568
applications, 569
PA66/PPE, 23
chopped glass and long glass fiber, 23
Parallel twin-screw extruder, 238
Parison programming, 274
Particles agglomerate, 507
Particle shape, 519
Particle size, 518–519
Particle size distribution (PSD), 329
Particulate-filled thermoplastic
polyolefins, 369
Particulate fillers, 566
Parylene-coating system, 465, 467, 469
Parylene polymers, 467
chemical structure, 468
PASSAGE/COMPRESSION, 316
Paste rheology, 85
Pavements, 678–682
PB1 crystalline states, 39
PB-1, tensile behavior of, 41
PC/ABS alloys, 22
Pentaerythritol ester, 544
Percolation threshold, 524
Perfluorinated ethylene-propylene
copolymer (FEP)
polymerization and finishing, 61
Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA), 61, 701
Perfluoroalkoxy polymer (PFA), 55
polymerization and finishing, 61
Perfluoro-2-alkoxy-propionyl fluoride, 57
Perfluoroalkylvinylethers (PAVEs), 58, 60
synthesis of, 57
Perfluoropropylvinylether (PPVE), 55
Peripheral nervous system (PNS), 156
Permanent/nonpermanent joints, 575
Permeability, 526
Permeation
characterization, 725
factor, 725
Peroxide crosslinking, 707
Peroxide method, 34752 Index
PEX. See Crosslinked polyethylene (PEX)
Phase change materials (PCMs), 647
Phenolic antioxidants, 399, 403, 406
Phenolic resins, 303, 310, 558
Phenyl-substituted
p-hydroxybenzoates, 405
Phenyltrimethoxysilane blends, 560
Phosphate esters, 543
Phosphates, 533
Phosphazene polymers, 118
Photodegradation, 405
Photo-Fries reaction, 397, 405
Photopolymers, 621, 627
Photovoltaic solar panels, 690
Phthalate esters, 539–541
European Union CMR classification
of, 551
Phthalate plasticizers, 537
Phthalates, 80, 174, 533
PICA (paints, inks, coatings, and
adhesives)
adhesion promoters for, 568–570
addition of silane directly to
coating, 569
application as primer, 569
choice of, 569
corrosion protection of metals, 570
silane coupling agents in
dentistry, 570
Pin movement, 273
Pin position, 271
Pipe bursting, 716
Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety
Administration (PHMSA),
714, 716
Pipes/piping, 644–646, 687
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
(ABS), 701
azo cross-linking, 706
chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
(CPVC), 699
codes, 713–714
composites, 702
crosslinked polyethylene, 699–700
cured-in-place piping (CIPP), 703
engineering plastic materials, 701–702
fiberglass-reinforced thermoset,
702–703
pipe manufacturing, 708–712
fittings materials, 698–699
fluoropolymers, 701
horizontal directional drilling, 716
industry applications, 697–716
joining, 713
manufacturing processes, 705–708
multilayer materials, 702
nylons, 701
open-cut installation, 715–716
peroxide crosslinking, 707
pipe bursting, 716
plastic systems, design of, 712–713
polybutylene, 700
polyethylene, 698–699
polypropylene, 700
polyvinyl chloride, 698
radiation crosslinking, 708
regulatory matters, 714–715
rehabilitation, 703–705
silane crosslinking, 707
specifications, 713–714
standards, 713–714
thermoplastic pipe, 698–699
Planetary roller extruder (PRE), 217,
250, 251
Planetary spindle types, 252
Plant oil, typical structure of, 137
Plasma-solid interactions, 444
Plasma treatment, 444, 581
Plastic-based fuel tanks, 665
Plastic fuel tanks, European Standards for,
665
Plastic glazing materials, advantage of,
642
Plastic glazing sheets, 643
Plasticization, 534
explanation of, 535
lubricating theory of, 534
Plasticized polyvinyl butyral
(PVB), 549
Plasticizers, 499, 533–552
with acrylic polymers, 549
alcohol structure effects on
performance, 540
benzoate esters, 542
citrate esters, 543–544
classifications, 537
cyclohexanoate esters, 543
dibasic acid esters, 541
efficiency, 545
epoxy plasticizers, 541–542
flexible, performance in, 540
flexible polyvinyl chloride, 545–548
future, 551–552
human health aspects, 550–551
manufacturer, 533
mechanisms, 534–536
molecular weight, 540
molecules, 536
other plasticizers, 544–545
for other polymers, 549–550
performance, 540
phosphate esters, 543
phthalate esters, 539–541
plasticizer interactions, 535
polymeric plasticizers, 543
primary plasticizers, 536
properties, 538
secondary plasticizers, 536
selection, 548
selections, 548–549
technology, 533
terephthalate esters, 541
trimellitate esters, 542
types, 536–539
volatility, 546
Plastic lumber (PL), 185, 646
Plastic material, versatility of, 613
Plastic parts design, 593–614
for manufacturing and assembly,
606–613
assembly, 606–607
fastening, 607–610
risk mitigation, 611–613
tolerances, 610–611
material selection, 593–598
process selection, 598–602
structural design, 602–606
Plastic pipes and fittings, 697
Plastic recycling, 182
Plastics
advantages, 593, 601
automotive applications of, 651–668
in buildings and construction industry,
635–647
disadvantages, 601
exterior components, 652–658
body-in-white (BiW), 657–658
bumpers, 652–653
head/rear light housing and lenses,
655–657
wheel covers, 653–655
extrusion, 598
future outlook, 667–668
interior components, 658–663
A and B pillar covers, 661–662
door panels, 659–661
instrument panel/dashboard, 658–659
seats and associated parts, 662–663
manufacturers, 627
manufacturing systems, 598
optical properties of, 657
processing properties of, 597
product designers, 632
thermal properties of, 596
under-the-hood components, 663–667
crash applications, 665–666
fuel tanks, 664–665
intake manifolds, 664
leaf springs, 666–667
use of, 651
instrument panels/dashboards, 660
roofing systems, 638
Plastics additives, 489–500
antioxidants, 491–492
biocides, 499
color and colorants, 494
coupling agents, 498
fillers, 494–496
flame retardants, 493–494
impact modification, 497–498
mold release agents, 499–500
nucleating agents, 491
overview, 489–490
plasticizers, 499
reinforcements, 496–497
surface modifiers, 498–499
thermal stabilizers, 490–491
overview, 490
polyolefins, 490–491Index 753
polyoxymethylenes (POM
polyacetals), 491
PVC, 490
wetting agents, 499
Plastics extrusion, 705
Plastics identification, 176
Plastics joining, 573–591
adhesive bonding, 580–582
application, 582
curing, 582
joint design, 582
surface preparation, 581
mechanical joining, 575–580
fasteners, 575–577
press-fit, 579
snap-fit, 577–579
staking, 579–580
swaging, 579–580
welding, 582–591
extrusion, 585–586
hot gas, 585
hot plate, 584–585
implant induction, 586
implant resistance, 587
infrared (IR), 590
laser, 590
microwave, 589–590
radio-frequency, 589–590
spin, 589
steps, 582–584
ultrasonic, 587
vibration, 588–589
Plastics manufacturers, 613
Plastic systems, design of, 712–713
Plastic welding methods, 584
Plastisols, 86, 549
processing, 547
Platforms, 691
Platy fillers, 520
Plunger machine, 192
Poles, 686–687
Poly (butylene terephthalate), 9
structure of, 9
Poly (phenylene ether), 7–8
Polyacetals, 5–6
Polyacrylonitrile, 156
Polyamide 6
structure of, 4
Polyamide (PA), 156, 398
polyesters, 153
Semicrystalline polymers, properties
of, 19
Polyamide imides, 14
structure of, 14
Polyamide 66, structure of, 4
Polyamide 9T (PA9T), 5
structure of, 5
Polyamide 6T, structure of, 5
Polyarylates (PARs), 15
structure of, 15
Polyarylsulfones, 8
structure of, 8
Polybenzimidazole, 17–18
Poly(2,5-benzimidazole), 18
structure of, 18
Poly(1,4-benzoate), 12
structure of, 12
Polybutene-1 (PB-1), 39, 40
mechanical properties, 49
physical properties, 49
structure, 39
Polybutene, processing temperatures, 49
Polybutylene (PB), 645, 700
Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephalate)
(PBAT)
chemical structure of, 137
Poly(butylene naphthalene-2,
6-dicarboxylate)
structure of, 10
Poly(butylene naphthalene-2,
6-dicarboxylate) (PBN), 10
Polybutylene piping, 700
Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), 127
synthesis and structure, 136
Poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate)
(PBSA), 127
Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 153
Polycaprolactone (PCL), 127
synthesis and structure, 135
Polycarbonate (PC), 6–7, 197, 452, 653
structure of, 6
Poly-carboxylic acid-based modifier
(Phytagel), 130
Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, 89
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE), 56
polymerization and finishing, 62
Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1, 4-phenylene ether),
structure of, 7
Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS),
110, 149
networks, 115
Poly-p-dioxanone (PDS), 155
Poly(dl-lactide) (PDLLA), 133
Polyesters, 717
liquid crystalline polymers, 11–12
semicrystalline polymers, properties
of, 19
Polyether ether ketone (PEEK), 15, 198,
497, 702
structure of, 15
Polyetherimide (PEI), 13, 656
structure of, 13
Polyetherketone, 15
Polyetherketoneketone, 15
structure of, 15
Polyethersulfone, 156
structure of, 8
Poly(ethyl acrylate), 110
Polyethylene (PE), 34, 497, 503, 567,
697–699
crosslinking of, 34
mechanical properties of, 48
physical properties of, 48
processing properties, 48
slit-type failure mechanism for, 709
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), 149
Poly(ethylene naphthalene-2,
6-dicarboxylate) (PEN), 10
structure of, 10
Polyethylene oxide (PEO), 136
Polyethylene piping materials, 698
Poly(ethylene-propylene) midsegments
(S-EP-S), 92
Polyethylene raised-temperature materials
(PE-RT), 699
Polyethylenes (PE)
pipe and fittings manufacturing, 706
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 86, 167,
273, 663
blow molding, 717–740
blow pressure curve, 736–737
caps, 734–735
commercial manufacturing processes,
726–728
container and preform design
fundamentals, 728–735
cooling, 735–736
critical design areas, 731–734
development, 717–719
double blow processes, 738
drying, 735
finishes, 734–735
injection blow molding, 735–736.
See also Injection molding
internal cooling (hot fill bottles), 738
morphology, 722–724
orientation, 722–724
packaging material, 719
permeation and barrier, 724–726
processing, 735
profiling preforms, 731
recycling, 739
regulatory issues, 739–740
rigid packaging, 717–740
structure and manufacturing, 720–722
sustainability, 739
wide mouth jars and cans, 738–739
depolymerization of, 172
dynamic modulus for, 724
equilibrium moisture, 736
half life crystallization time of, 721
indium-tin oxide (ITO) substrates, 473
injection, 288
injection stretch blow molding
(ISBM), 727
manufacturing routes, 721
moisture regain rate for, 736
monomer, 720
morphology, 719, 720
orientation, 722–724
polymerization, 720
production of, 720
properties, 719
recycled postconsumer processing, 740
reheat stretch blow molding, 727
stretch blow, disadvantage of
single-stage, 286
stretch ratios design domain for, 731
Polyethylmethacrylate (PEMA), 150754 Index
Poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), 153
Polyhedral oligomeric
silsesquioxanes, 531
Polyhydroxybutyrate, 369
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)
heat distortion temperature (HDT), 135
thermal and mechanical properties, 134
Poly(3- hydroxybutyrate-co-3-
hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)
PHBV8-g-MA, 130
thermal and mechanical properties, 134
Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)
(PHEMA), 146
Polyhydroxyvalerate, 369
Polyimides, 13–14
Polyisobutylene (PIB), 39, 96
Polyisocyanurate (PIR), 636
Polyjet modeling (PJM), 621–622
Polylactic acid (PLA) Synthesis, 132, 153
Polymer
based building materials, 635
blend, 21
business worldwide, 28
matrix, 534
Polymeric biomaterials
in cardiovascular, 151
expanded PTFE, 152
polyethylene terephthalate, 152
polyurethanes, 151
in extracorporeal artificial organs,
155–156
nerve regeneration, 156–157
in ophthalmology, 145
polymeric artificial cornea, 148–149
polymeric contact lens, 145
polymeric intraocular lens, 146–147
in orthopedics, 149
natural polymers, 150
polyacrylates, 150
polyethylene, 149
overview of, 145
for wound closure, 153–155
Polymeric house wraps, 640
Polymeric plasticizers, 536, 543, 546
class of, 543
Polymeric sheets, 638
Polymeric wire insulation materials, 642
Polymerization, 76, 307, 720
polyethylene terephthalate, 720
polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 699
surfactant, 67
Polymer matrix, 497
Polymer melting
energy balance in melt film, 226
Polymer mixing flows, 235
Polymer-polymer interactions, 534
Polymer resins, 619
Polymers, 596
compounding of, 489
in properties, 517
Polymer stabilization, 395
chemical structure, CAS number, 409
degradation chemistry, 396
degradation mechanisms, 398
HA(L)S, 402
hydrolysis, 398
photolysis, 397
photooxidation, 397
primary antioxidants, 399–401
quenchers, 405
secondary antioxidants, 401–402
stabilizers, 398
thermal degradation, 396
thermooxidative degradation, 396
UV absorbers, 404
overview of, 395
stabilizers, performance of, 405
chemical resistance stabilizers, 409
choice of stabilizers, 408
interactions with other additives,
408
physical factors, 408
color and discoloration, 409
indirect food contact approval, 409
long-term heat stability, 406–407
processing stability, 405–406
toxicity and dosability, 409
UV stability, 407
Polymer structure, 43
Polymer surface, chemical modification
of, 555
Polymer systems, 535, 549
Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), 145,
500, 597, 656
matrix, 404
Poly[2,2-(m-phenylene)-5,
5-bibenzimidazole], 18
Poly2,2′-(m-phenylene)-5, 5′-bibenzimidazole, 17
Poly[2,2-(m-phenylene)-5,
5-bibenzimidazole], structure
of, 18
Poly (m-phenyleneisophthalamide)
(MPIA), 5
structure of, 5
Polyolefin, 29, 51, 405, 490–491, 567, 719
antiacids, 408
based wood composites, 646
calcium carbonate, 51
carbon fiber loadings, 51
classes of, 29
copolymers, 37
impact copolymers, 37
mechanical properties, 38
morphology, determination of, 37
production, 38
random copolymers, 37
rubber particle composition,
influence of, 38
rubber particle size, influence
of, 38
high-density polyethylene
(HDPE), 32
average molecular weight, 33
linear low-density polyethylene
(LLDPE), 33
comonomer-type product
properties, 34
crosslinked polyethylene (PEX), 34
crystallinity/morphology of
polypropylene, 36
peroxide method, 34
polyethylene comonomers, 33
polypropylene, 35
polypropylene homopolymer, 35
polypropylene production route, 36
radiation, 35
Silane method, 34
low-density polyethylene, 29
autoclave reactor, 31
free radical reaction mechanism, 31
heat control, 29
tubular reactor, 29–31
fillers for, 51
mechanical performance, 52
glass fibers, 51
global demand, 28
global overview, 27
industrial production, processes for, 27
materials, 709
olefins source, 27
polybutene-1 (PB-1), 39
crystallization behavior, 39
melt properties, 40
strain resistance, 40
production, 27
steam cracking, 27–29
talc, 51
Polyolefine
polybutene-1, 47
polyethylene, 47
polypropelene, 47
properties, 47
Polyol esters, 544
Polyoxymethylene (POM), 5, 701
copolymer, structure of, 6
polyacetals, 491
Poly (butylene terephthalate) (PBT), 9
Poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS), 12–13, 656
polymers, 702
structure of, 12
Polyphenylsulfone, structure of, 8
Poly(p-phenylene), 16
Poly (p-phenyleneterephthalamide)
(PPTA), 5
structure of, 5
Polypropylene (PP), 18, 93, 153, 352, 397,
567, 653, 700
automotive industry, 49
hollow fibers, 156
materials in laundry appliances, 50
mechanical properties, 49
physical properties, 48
processing properties, 49
product families, 35
production route, 36
weld strength, 463
Poly(p-xylylene) (PPX), 17
structure of, 17Index 755
Poly(pyromellitimde-1,4-diphenyl
ether), 13
structure of, 13
Poly(pyromellitimde-1,4-diphenyl ether)
(PDMA-ODA), 13
Poly (ethylene terephthalate), structure
of, 9
Polystyrene (PS), 21, 452
Polysulfone, 156
Polytetrafluoroethylen (PTFE), 55, 148,
581, 585, 701
applications, 66
disadvantages of, 701
economics, 68
ECTFE properties, 65–66
ETFE properties, 65
fabrication techniques, 66
FEP properties, 65
PCTFE properties, 65
PE, structure-property relationship, 63
PFA properties, 64–65
polymerization
and finishing, 60–61
surfactant, 67–68
polymer properties of, 63–64
PVDF properties, 66
PVF properties, 66
safety, 67
Poly(tetramethylene adipate-coterephthalate) (PTAT), 131
Polyurethane (PUR), 653, 662
Polyurethane foam, 327
insulation, 635
Polyurethane (PUR) matrix resin, 667
Polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) emulsion
polymers, 549
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 73, 237, 490,
644, 661, 687, 698
applications, 79
blending resin, 85
compounding large particle size, 82
extrusion, 84
mixing, 83
pelletizating, 83
compounding/processing small-particle,
84, 86
additives, 85
air release, 85
brookfield viscometer, 85
dipping, 86
formulation/handling, 84–85
gelation/fusion, 85
rotational molding, 86
severs viscometer, 85
slush molding, 86
markets, 74
pipe and fittings manufacturing, 706
piping, used for, 715
plasticizers, 533, 543
polymer, 534, 545
polymerization, 77
processing/applications, 79
additives, 80
impact modifier, 82
lubricants, 81–82
plasticizers, 80
adipates, 80
azelates, 80
phthalates, 80
sebacates, 80
trimellitates, 80
processing aids, 82
stabilizers, 80–81
recycling. See Recycling PVC
resin applicability, 73–75
resin synthesis/characterization, 76–77
emulsion/microsuspension
polymerization, 77
mass polymerization, 78
molecular weight, 78
particle internal morphology, 78–79
suspension polymerization, 77–78
rigid/flexible, 73
sidings, 635
stabilizer market, 541
thermal stabilization of, 490
typical material flow diagram, 74
vinyl chloride, synthesis of, 75
balanced process, 75
carbide process, 76
Polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), 55
polymerization and finishing, 63
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF),
635, 701
polymerization and finishing, 62
Pont-à-Mousson method, 707
Popular fillers, 529
Portland cement, 496
Positive closure compression mold, 301
Posphites, with quinone methide, 402
Postconsumer plastic, 169
Postconsumer recycling (PCR), 739
Posterior capsular opacification
(PCO), 147
Postprocessing, 626
Powerflex bottles, 734
PP configuration, 36
PPE-based resins, 7
PPE/HIPS ratio, 7
PPE.PS blends, 20
properties of, 20
PP/LDPE blend, 398
practical use considerations, 505
amounts to use and surface
coverage, 505
precoating, 505
in situ treatment, 505
Precise localized pretreatment, 453
Precoating, 511
Prehardened P20 steel, 363
Press-fit, 579
Press-in fasteners, 576
Pressing, 583
Pressure gradient, impact of, 231
Printed circuit board industry, 564
Processing, 504, 527–528, 600–602
blow molding, 598–599
extrusion, 598
injection molding, 599–600
polyethylene terephthalate blow
molding, 735
selection, 598–602
thermoforming, 600
Process monitoring/control technologies
applications overview, 386
blown film systems, 387
gloucester engineering introduced
control loops, 387
pipe extrusion and ultrasonic gauging,
388
web processes, 387
blow molding parison programming,
388
data acquisition systems, 384
resolution, 384
sampling rate, 384
extrusion vs. injection molding, 384
feed rates, 385
flow rates, 385
pressure, 385
shaping, 385
temperature, 384
historical factors affecting/
development, 377
closed-loop controls, 379
computers, globalization, and higher
material costs, 378
control algorithms, 381
digital controls provide, 377
distance velocity lag (DT), 380
open-loop and closed-loop
controls, 379
powerful computers, 378
servo control, 381
set point control, 380
statistical process controls, 377
time constants, 381
injection molding, 389–391
process development tools, 391–393
transducers, used in plastics
processes, 382
infrared sensors, 382
linear variable differential
transformers, 383
magnetostrictive linear displacement
transducers, 383
optical encoders, 383
piezoelectric sensors, 383
position transducers, 383
pressure transducers, 382
rectilinear potentiometers, 383
resistance temperature detector, 382
thermocouple, 382
thickness measurements, 383
Products, fiber-reinforced polymer
composites, 675–691
Programming die head, 273
Progressive structure development, 396
Propagation, 32756 Index
Properties
effects, 506–508
flow/processability, 506
gloss, 508
impact resistance, 506–508
polyethylene terephthalate, 719
Propionate-based phenolic
antioxidants, 400
Prototyping, 617
PVD processes, target/cathode
ions/atoms, 476
Pyromellitic anhydride (PMDA), 13
R
Radiation crosslinking, 708
Radio-frequency, 589–590
Radio frequency glow discharge
(RFGD), 146
Railing, 646
Rail road Commission (RRC), 714
Ram accumulator blow molding
machine, 268
Raman spectroscopic techniques, 176
Random copolymers, 37
Rapid pressure drop yields nucleation
sites, 205
Rate constant, 710
Reaction injection-molded (RIM)
pigmented urethane, 659
Reactive adhesion promoters
types of, 555
Reactive plasticizers, 550
Real-time process, 378
Rear-lamp lenses, 657
Rectangular block, 318
Recycled materials, 496
Recycling, of plastics
challenges, 180
additives, 180
chain scission, 180
coatings/adhesives, 181
contamination, 182
discoloring, 181–182
complexities of, 170
definitions of, 169
economic issues, 184
industries and industry organizations,
184–185
mixed plastics, 175
plastic resins, separation of, 176
density, 176
electrostatic, 177
manual, 176
optical sensors, 176
spectroscopic, 176
overview of, 167
plastic resins, compatibilization of,
177–180
political issues, 182
China, 183
Europe, 182–183
United States, 182
products, 185
single resins, 170–171
polyethylene (PE), 173
polyethylene terephthalate (PET),
171–173
polypropylene (PP), 174
polystyrene (PS), 174–175
polyvinyl chloride (PVc), 173–174
thermoplastics, 175
thermosets, 175
Recycling polyethylene terephthalate, 739
Recycling PVC, 86
bottles, 86–87
flexible materials, 87–88
packaging, 87
rigid profiles, 87
sustainability and energy efficiency, 88
Recycling single resin plastics, 170
Reformed piping, 704
Regenerated cellulose, 131
Rehabilitation, 703–705
piping applications, 703–705
Reheat stretch blow molding (RSBM),
727, 728
Reinforced plastics, 560
Reinforced thermoplastic piping
(RTP), 702
Reinforced thermosetting mortar pipe
(RTMP), 702
Reinforced thermosetting resin pipe
(RTRP), 702
Reinforcements, 496–497
Reinforcing fibers, 496
Residual stresses, 610
Resins
PE, 706
PVC, 706
systems, 564
Resin transfer molding (RTM), 667
Reynolds number, 276
Ribbon blenders, 83
Rigid gas-permeable (RGP) contact, 145
Rigid packaging, 717–740
Rim rolling, 374
Risk mitigation, 611–613
Rivets, 609
Rock and roll rotation, 335
Rod heaters, 361
Roofing, 638–639
systems, 638
Rotational molding, 321, 339, 340
advantages and limitations, 323–324
basic steps, 322
common materials, 324–325
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS),
326
fluoropolymers, 327
foamed materials, 327
nylon, 325–326
polycarbonate, 326
polyethylene, 325
polypropylene, 325
PVC-liquid, 326
PVC-powder, 326
core cross-section, 341
design for, 339
draft angles, 341
tolerances/shrinkage, 341–342
wall thickness, 340
warpage/flatness, 342–343
desirable characteristics, 324
ideal non-tank applications, 322
machinery for, 334
machine styles, 335–337
process control, 338–339
rotation mechanisms, 335
material preparation, 327
bulk density, 329
cryogenic grinding, 328
dry flow, 329
grinding process, 328
particle shape, 328
particle size distribution (PSD), 329
powder quality and assessment, 328
mold design considerations, 330
appearance of product, 332
complexity of form, 332
mold elements and features, 333
mold release systems, 334
physical size, 331
quantity of molds, 332
process of, 322
four basic steps, 322–323
typical applications, 321–322
Rotocasting. See Rotational molding
Rotolog, 339
Rotomolding. See Rotational molding
RotoTEC-X system, 457
Roughening, 581
Rubber IV material properties, 38
Russell mechanism, 397
S
SAE J576 standard, 655
SAE J576 testing, 656
“Safe Room” system, 689
SBD electrode arrangements, 453
Scanning electron microscopy
(SEM), 37, 623
Scavenger system, advantage of, 726
Scratch resistance, 525
Screw assembly, 245
Screw channel, 232
Screw feed section, 221
Seating systems, standards for, 662
Seats and associated parts, 662–663
Selections, 548–549
of plasticizers, 548–549
process, 598–602
Selective laser sintering (SLS),
619–620, 623
Self-cleaning mechanisms, 676
Self-reinforcing polyphenylene, 16
structure of, 16
Self-weight-induced stresses, 678Index 757
Semiaromatic polyamides, 5
Semicrystalline polymers, 19
high-performance, 19
properties of, 19
polyamides, properties of, 19
Semicrystalline thermoplastics, 18
Semicystalline polymers, 521–522
Set point control, 380
Sheet molding compound (SMC), 653
Shore A hardness, 545
Short-chain dispersants, 505
Short-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, 369
Shrinkage tolerances, recommended, 342
Sidel’s ACTIS-coating process, 470
Siding forms, 635–636
Silane
benefits of, 569
blends, 560
Silane adhesion promoters, 570
noncoupling benefits of, 563
Silane coupling agents, 566, 570
interaction of, 558
structure of, 556
Silane cross-linking, 707
reaction, 707
Silane filler treatment
beneficial effect of, 566
Silane method, 34
Silane-modified tackifying resins, 559
Silane organic group, 559
Silanes, 555–557
coupling agent, 561–562
mechanism with adhesion promoters,
557–561
bonding to the inorganic
substrate, 558
bonding to the organic polymer,
558–559
interphase region, 557
optimizing coupling agent
performance, 559–561
silane chemistry, 556–557
silane coupling agents, 555–556
substituents, 556
Silanols, condensation of, 558
Silica-filled epoxy molding
compounds, 566
Silica-filled tires, 568
Silicon-based chemical, 555
Siloxane cross-linking, 561
Siloxane process, 707
Single-ply roofing membranes, 638
Single-screw extruders, 218, 219
Single-screw mixing element design, 236
Single-stage blow molding machines, 287
Single wall nanotubes (SWNT), 495
Sioplas process, 707
SIPA ESC Integrated System
machines, 728
Size distribution, 518–519
Sliplining, 704
Slow crack growth (SCG), 711
Smart blenders, 395, 396, 407
Snap-fit, 575, 577–579
concepts, 610
Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE), 168
Society of the Plastics Industry (SPI), 170
Solid polymer, 523
Solid state polymerization (SSP), 720
Solid-wall pipe, manufacture of, 705
Solvent cleaning, 443
Southern Building Code Congress
International (SBCCI), 714
Soyate plasticizers, 542
Special blowing processes, 738–739
double blow. See Double blow processes
wide mouth jars and cans, 738–739
Specialty fillers, 529–531
Specialty plasticizers, 539
Specifications, 713–714
specific heat capacity, 524
Speripol process, 47
Spherizone process, 47
Spin, 589
Spiral dies, multilayer, 259
Spiral-wound steel-reinforced drainage
pipes, 702
Sprayed-in-place pipe (SIPP) lining, 704
Spray polyurethane foam (SPF), 637
Spread coating, 86
SPS, semicrystalline polymers, properties
of, 19
Square pitch/general purpose screw design,
234
Square screen weave, 255
Stainless steel, 153
Staking, 575, 579–580
principle of, 579
Standards, 713–714
material systems, 621
polymer tests, 525
Standards-developing organizations
(SDOs), 713
Starch, 128
chemical structure, 128
Starch-glycerol-water blends, 128
Statistical process control (SPC) methods,
377
Stearic acid, 502
coated calcium carbonate, 507
Stereolithography (SLA), 618–619
Steric stabilization, 501, 504
Sterrad 100NX large chamber, 446
Sterrad 100NX sterilization cycles, 446
Strain-induced crystallization (SIC), 723
Stratasys’ polyjet modeling process, 621
Stress concentrations, 518, 604
Stress-elongation curve, 112
Stress-strain isotherm, 112
Stretch blow molding, 285
Stretch ratio (SR), 730
Structural design, for plastic parts, 602–606
design for stiffness, 602–603
design for strength, 603–606
Structural reaction injection-molded
(SRIM), 662
Structure insulated panels (SIPs), 637
Structures, fiber-reinforced polymer
composites, 686–691
Styrene-acrylic polymers, 180
Styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN), 646
Styrene-butadiene casting, 566
Styrene-butadiene copolymer, 110
Styrene maleic anhydride (SMA), 175
Styrenic block copolymers, 100, 103
Styrenic thermoplastic elastomers, 98
Substructures, bridges, 682
Sulfone polymer, 9
Sulfone polymers, 702
Sulfur-containing polymers, 697
Sulzer OptiFoam nozzle delivers, 211
Superstructures, bridges, 676–678
Supply chain issues, 631–632
Surface-area fillers, 566
Surface modification, of plastics, 443
coatings by atmospheric-pressure
plasma jet, 473–474
industrial applications, 470–471
inorganic transparent barrier coatings,
478–479
overview of techniques, 443
activation, 443
aging phenomena in surface
oxidation, 459–461
corona treatment, 455–457
flame treatment, 457–459
plasma treatment, 444
AC corona discharge, 447
at atmospheric pressure, 447
atmospheric-pressure glow
discharge, 449
atmospheric-pressure plasma jets,
451–453
dielectric barrier discharge,
448–449
diffuse coplanar surface barrier
discharge (DCSBD), 453–454
fundamentals and effects, 444–445
at low pressure, 445–446
surface dielectric barrier
discharge, 453
UV-excimer laser treatment, 462
physical vapor deposition processes, 474
plasma-deposited coatings at
atmospheric pressure, 472–473
plastic films
vacuum deposition of barrier
coatings, 477–478
PVD coatings on plastics, 475–477
surface-coating deposition
techniques, 464
chemical vapor deposition, 464–465
parylene-coating deposition, 465–468
plasma-deposited coatings at low
pressure, 469–470
plasma enhanced chemical vapor
deposition, 468
Surface modifiers, 498–499
Surface treatment, 565758 Index
Surfx Technologies, 474
Sustainability
polyethylene terephthalate blow
molding, 739
Swaging, 579–580
principle of, 579
Syndiotactic polystyrene, 16
structure of, 16
Synthetic polymers, 490
T
Tail length, 505
Talc, 495
as nucleating agent, 36
Tantec, 456
Temperature profiles, of preform wall, 289
Tensile bar, with voidage defects, 318
Tensile testing, 519
Terephthalate esters, 541
Terephthalic acid (TPA), 720
Termination, 32
reactions, 395, 427
Testing protocol, 708
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin
(TCDD), 89
Tetraethoxysilane, 474
Tetrafluoroethylene, 59
synthesis of, 56–57
2,4,4-Tetramethyl-1, 3-cyclobutanediol
(TMCD), 11
polyester, structure of, 11
TFE, oxygen content of, 59
Thermal and electrical properties, 523–525
Thermal crystallization, 723
Thermal insulation, 639
Thermally stable vinylbenzylaminosilane,
560
Thermal stability, 399, 561
Thermal stabilizers, 490–491
overview, 490
polyolefins, 490–491
polyoxymethylenes (POM polyacetals),
491
PVC, 490
systems, 490
Thermoelasticity, 109
Thermoforming, 345
biobased plastics, 368
characteristics, 345–346
concept, 346–351
corner, 373
coupled extrusion, 360
dimensional tolerance, 373
draft angles, 372
electric plate heaters, 361
electric rod heaters, 361
filled and reinforced plastics, 369
foamed plastics, 370
gas combustion heaters, 361–362
heaters, 361
machinery, 351
matched-mold forming, 360
mold design, 364–365
mold features, 366
mold materials, 363
multilayer products, 370
operational aspects, 374
machine set up, 374
mold set up, 374
safety prior to machine transfer, 374
plastic materials, 366
plug materials, 365–366
process of, 345, 374, 600
types of, 600
product characteristics, 346
product design, 370–372
production mold materials, 363
prototype mold materials, 363–364
rigid form-fill-and-seal, 359
semicrystalline plastics, 367
shrinkage, 372
thermal characteristics of plastics, 370
thermoforming window, 367
thick-gauge thermoforming, 355–359
thin-gauge thermoforming, 352
forming press, 353
machinery, 352
oven, 352–353
trimming, 353–355
wheel machines, 360
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 530
Thermoplastic elastomers, 102, 559. See
also Engineering thermoplastics;
Thermoplastics
applications, 100
economic aspects and trade names, 101
hard polymer-elastomer
combinations, 101
multiblock polymers with crystalline
hard segments, 101
styrenic thermoplastic elastomers,
100–101
classification and structure, 91
core-shell morphologies, 95
graft copolymers, 95
hard polymer-elastomer combinations,
93–94, 97–98
ionomers, 95
multiblock copolymers, 92–93, 96–97
overview of, 91
stiffness of, 98
structure-property relationships, 98
hard phase, 98
hard/soft phase ratio, 99
soft elastomer phase, 98
styrenic, 91–92
styrenic thermoplastic elastomers,
95–96
Thermoplastic foam, low-density, 360
Thermoplastic imide, 13
structure of, 13
Thermoplastic nanocomposites
(TPNCs), 24
Thermoplastic olefin (TPO)
membranes, 638
Thermoplastic pipe, 698–699
Thermoplastic plastic piping
applications of, 715
Thermoplastic polyesters, 9–11
resins, 559
Thermoplastic polymers, 559
Thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO), 570,
653, 654
Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)
films, 663
Thermoplastics, 178, 517, 575, 580
manufacturing pipes and fittings,
705–706
physical properties of, 645
Thermoplastic starch (TPS), 128
time-dependent properties, 128
Thermoset elastomers
basic concepts, 109
current problems/future trends, 118
deformation, 116
biaxial extension, 116
shear, 116
swelling, 116
torsion, 116
filler-reinforced elastomers/elastomermodified ceramics, 116–118
historical high points, 109–110
mechanical properties, 111
multimodal chain-length
distributions, 114
networks, at very high deformations
nonGaussian effects, 113–114
ultimate properties, 114
network structure, control of, 113
optical and spectroscopic properties, 112
preparation of networks, 110–111
rubber-like materials, 110
scattering, 112
swelling, 111–112
typical nonbiological applications, 111
typical stress-strain behavior, 112–113
Thermoset polymer, 558, 575
Thermoset recycling, 175
Thermosetting materials, 697
epoxies, 697
polyesters, 697
polyurethanes, 697
vinyl esters, 697
Thermosetting resins, 305
Thick-gauge thermoforming, 355
forming press, 358
machinery, 355–358
oven, 358
trimming, 359
Thick-gauge twin-sheet forming, 349
Thoracic Trauma Index (TTI), 659
Thread-cutting screws, 576
Thread forming screws, 576
Three-arm turret machine, 336
Three-dimensional printing
design with, 622–627
geometric design, 622–626
materials, 627Index 759
mold, 626–627
overview, 622
tolerances, 622–626
tooling, 626–627
3D printing processes, 617–622
fused deposition modeling (FDM),
620–621
polyjet modeling (PJM), 621–622
selective laser sintering (SLS),
619–620
stereolithography (SLA), 618–619
future outlook, 632–633
manufacturing strategy, 627–632
cost estimation, 628–631
supply chain issues, 631–632
time estimation, 628–631
of plastics, 617–633
Tight fit systems, piping, 704
Time estimation, 628–631
Tin stabilizers, 81
Titanates, 506, 515
T joints, 585
DL-α−Tocopherol. See Vitamin E
Tolerances, 610–611, 622–626
of plastic parts, 610–611
by process, 611
requirements, 602
2,4 Toluene-diisocyanate (TDI), 97
Tooling, 626–627
Top-down approach, 607
Torque-limited drivers, 607
Towers, 691
Transcrystallinity, 529
Transient operating mode, 397
Transmission laser welding (TTLW),
590, 591
Transparency/opacity, 526–527
Trexel’s MuCell SCF delivery, 210
Trialkoxy alkyl silanes, 502
Trialkoxysilanes, 558
1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane
(TCTFE), 57, 58
2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl methacrylate
(TFEMA), 145
Triglycerides
carbon-carbon double bond
functionalization, 138
several typical compounds, 138
Trimellitate esters, 542
Trimellitate ester tri-2-ethylhexyl
trimellitate (TEHTM), 542
2,2,4/2,4,4-trimethylhexamethylenediamines (PA6-3-T), 4
Tris(trimethylsiloxy silane) (TRIS), 145
Truck hood
computerized simulation, 317
Tubular reactor, 30
temperature profile, 30
Tubular (three-layer) spiral die, 258
Turbine blades, 687–688
Twin-screw conveying elements, 248
Twin-screw extruder, 217, 241, 242
Twin screw profile, 248
Two-lobe conveying element, 241
Two-position hydraulic screen
changer, 256
U
UHMWPE fiber/epoxy resin interfacial
shear strength (IFSS), 463
UHMWPE fibers, 497
Ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene
(UHMWPE), 149
Ultrasonic staking, 580, 587
stud design for, 580
Ultrasonic welding power supplies, 588
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, 698
Union Carbide, 8
Union Carbide Chemical Corporation, 542
Unique bridges, 682–683
United States Environmental Protection
Agency (USEPA), 167
United States Plastics generation, 168
Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (U-PVC),
698, 708
Unsaturated acids, 506, 515
Unwound screw channel, 230
US Consumer Product Safety
Improvement Act (CPSIA), 550
US Department of Transportation (DOT),
714, 716
US Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA), 665
US Green Building Council
(USGBC), 647
US Patent 4268176, 253
UV-absorbing chromophore, 147
UV-excimer laser irradiation, 462
UV stabilizers, 639
V
Vacuum forming process, 600
van der Waals attractive forces, 534
van der Waals forces, 534
van der Waals interaction, 502
Vapor-phase polymerization (VPP), 465
Vehicle-pole collision scenario, 686
Vehicle Recycling Partnership
(VRP), 184
Velocity to transfer pressure (VPT), 193
Vestolen BT, 39
Vibration, 588–589
Vibration welding, 589
Vicat temperature, 521
Vinylbenzylaminosilane, 564
coupling agent, 564
Vinyl chloride
and health, 88–89
manufacturing, 76
Vinyl fluoride (VF), 59, 60
synthesis of, 59
Vinylidene fluoride (VF2), 55, 58, 60, 62
synthesis of, 58–59
Vinylsilane oligomers, 568
Virgin polyethylene, 173
Viscosity changes
with shear rate, 197
Viscosity-control additives, 313
Vitamin E, 492
Voids/foams, 529
Volatile organic constituent (VOC) silanes,
513
Volatilization, 546
W
Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment
(WEEE), 183
Waterproofing membrane, 638
Weak bonds, 502
Wear resistance, 525–526
Weather-resistance barriers, 638
installation, 641
Weather-resistive barriers (WRBs), 639
Weizmann fermentation process, 552
Welding, 582–591
extrusion, 585–586
hot gas, 585
hot plate, 584–585
implant induction, 586
implant resistance, 587
infrared (IR), 590
laser, 590
microwave, 589–590
radio-frequency, 589–590
spin, 589
steps, 582–584
ultrasonic, 587
vibration, 588–589
Well-dispersed nanoparticles, 527
Western European Injection Molding
Markets, 50
West Virginia Highway System, 679
Wet strength, 559
Wetting agents, 499, 570
Wheel covers, 653–655
Wheel machines, 360
Windows, 642–644
Wire and cable (W&C) formulations, 493
Wollastonite, 495
Wood and nut shell flours, 495
Wound closure
polymeric biomaterials, 153–155
X
XeCl laser-treated UHMWPE (ultrahighmolecular-weight- PE)
fibers, 463
X-ray diffraction, 723
Xylene soluble fraction (XS), 37
Y
Yield strength, 520–521
Z
Zeolites, 531
Ziegler-Natta catalyst, 700
vs. metallocene catalysts, 43

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