3D Printing Third Edition

3D Printing Third Edition
اسم المؤلف
Christopher Barnatt
التاريخ
28 فبراير 2023
المشاهدات
519
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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3D Printing Third Edition
Christopher Barnatt
Contents
Preface: Beyond the Hype

  1. The Revolution Continues
  2. 3D Printing Technologies
  3. The 3D Printing Industry
  4. Direct Digital Manufacturing
  5. Personal Fabrication
  6. Bioprinting
  7. Brave New World?
    Glossary
    3D Printing Directory
    Further Reading
    Acknowledgements
    About the Author
    g Directory
    Note that a constantly-updated, online version of this directory can be accessed from
    explainingthefuture.com/3Dprinting
    INDUSTRIAL 3D PRINTER MANUFACTURERS
    3D SYSTEMS — 3dsystems.com
    3D Systems makes hardware based on a wide range of technologies, including vat photopolymerization
    (stereolithography), powder bed fusion (laser sintering and DMLS), binder jetting (ColorJet Printing), material jetting
    (MultiJet Printing) and material extrusion (PlasticJet Printing).
    3GEOMETRY — 3geometry.com
    3Geometry in India produces 3D printers for making sand cast molds and cores.
    ADDITIVE INDUSTRIES — additiveindustries.com
    Additive industries produces the MetalFab1 powder bed fusion 3D printer for making final components in metal.
    ADMATEC — admatec.nl/nl/
    ADMATEC produces 3D printers that fabricate highly detailed ceramic parts.
    AGILISTA — agilista.jp
    Agilista are a Japanese manufacturer of material jetting 3D printers.
    ARCAM — arcam.com
    Arcam produces 3D printers based on a powder bed fusion technology called electron beam melting.
    ASIGA — asiga.com
    Asiga produces desktop vat photopolymerization (stereolithographic) 3D printers.
    ASPECT — aspect.jpn.com
    Aspect are based in Japan and produce powder-bed fusion 3D printers.
    BEAM — beam-machines.fr
    BeAM is a French manufacturer of 3D printers based on the directed energy deposition process.
    BIGREP — bigrep.com
    BigRep produce a material extrusion 3D printer called the BigRep ONE that features a 1.3 cubic metre build volume.
    BLUEPRINTER — blueprinter.dk
    Blueprinter produces a desktop 3D printer that uses a powder bed fusion technology called selective heat sintering
    (SHS).
    CARMINA — carima.co.kr
    Carmina are a South Korean manufacturer of vat photopolymerization (DLP projection) 3D printing hardware.
    CMET — cmet.co.jp/eng
    CMET produce vat photopolymerization (stereolithographic) 3D printers in Japan.
    CONCEPT LASER — concept-laser.de
    Concept Laser produce 3D printers based on a powder bed fusion technology called laserCUSING.
    DWS SYSTEMS — dwssystems.com
    DWS Systems in Italy produce vat photopolymerization 3D printers for producing waxups.
    ENVISIONTEC — envisiontec.de
    EnvisionTEC produce a range of vat photopolymerization 3D printers based on DLP projection and 3SP (scan, spin and
    selectively photocure). The company also sells a 3D-Bioplotter for tissue engineering (bioprinting).EOS — eos.info
    EOS manufactures a range of powder bed fusion 3D printers based on selective laser sintering. Different models are
    dedicated to making things in metals, plastics or sand (for sand casting).
    EXONE — exone.com
    ExOne sells industrial 3D printers that use binder jetting to build objects in sand (to enable sand casting), as well as
    stainless steel, bronze, Inconel and glass.
    FABRISONIC — fabrisonic.com
    Fabrisonic produce sheet lamination 3D printers that create objects by ultrasonically welding together layers of metal
    tape using what they term ‘ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM).
    FARSOON — farsoon.com/english
    Farsoon is a Chinese manufacturer of powder bed fusion (laser sintering) 3D printers.
    HP INC. — http://www8.hp.com/us/en/printers/3d-printers.html
    HP Inc. manufacture industrial 3D printers based on their own, unique technology called multijet fusion (MJF).
    ILIOS — ilios3d.com/en/
    Ilios produce two photopolymerization-based 3D printers.
    INSSTEK — insstek.yehkwang.com
    InssTek is a Korean manufacturer of directed energy deposition 3D printers.
    LITHOZ — lithoz.com/en
    Lithoz is an Austrian manufacturer of 3D printers that are based on a process called lithography-based ceramic
    manufacturing (LCM).
    LUXEXCEL — luxexcel.com
    LUXeXceL have developed a material jetting technology called Printoptical that enables the 3D printing of functional
    lenses.
    MARKFORGED — markforged.com
    Markforged make material extrusion 3D printers called the Mark Two, the Mark X and the Mark X Enterprise that
    embed continuous strands of carbon fiber, fiberglass or Kevlar into their printouts.
    MATSURRA — lumex-matsuura.com/english/
    Matsurra produces a hybrid, direct metal 3D printer that incorporates both powder bed fusion and CNC milling
    technologies.
    MCOR TECHNOLOGIES — mcortechnologies.com
    Mcor Technologies makes 3D printers that use a sheet lamination process called selective deposition lamination (SDL)
    to produce full-colour printouts out of paper.
    NANOSCRIBE — nanoscribe.de/en
    Nanoscribe produce a nanolithograhic 3D printer that uses two photon polymerization (2PP) to create 3D objects on a
    nanoscale.
    OPTOMEC — optomec.com
    Optomec produces 3D printers based on a directed energy deposition technology called ‘laser engineered net shaping’,
    as well as ‘Aerosol Jet’ hardware that can print working electronics onto 3D surfaces.
    PRODWAYS — prodways.com/en
    Prodways are a Groupe Gorgé company who produce 3D printers based on a vat photopolymerization process called
    MOVINGLight.
    REALIZER — realizer.com/en
    Realizer produce powder bed fusion 3D printers based on selective laser melting.
    RENISHAW — renishaw.com
    Renishaw produce powder bed fusion 3D printers than additively manufacture metal objects.SLM SOLUTIONS — slm-solutions.com
    SLM Solutions produce a range of 3D printers based on a powder bed fusion technology called selective laser melting.
    SCIAKY — sciaky.com
    Sciaky produce 3D printers based on a direct-metal proccess that they term ‘electron beam additive manufacturing’
    (EBAM).
    SHAANXI HENGTONG — china-rpm.com/en
    Shaanxi Hengtong produce vat photopolymerization (stereolithographic) 3D printers.
    SHANGHAI UNION TECHNOLOGY — union-tek.com/en
    Shanghai Union Technology produce vat photopolymerization (stereolithographic) 3D printers.
    SINTERIT — sinterit.com
    Sinterit make a desktop laser sintering 3D printer called the Lisa.
    SINTRATEC — sintratec.com
    Sintratec produce low-cost desktop laser sintering 3D printers.
    STRATASYS — stratasys.com
    Stratasys makes 3D printers based on material extrusion (FDM) and material jetting (Polyjet and WDM) technologies.
    TIERTIME — tiertime.com/products/industrial_3d_printer
    Tiertime produces industrial 3D printers based on material extrusion, or what it terms ‘melted extrusion modeling’.
    TPM — trumpsystem.com/E_index.asp
    TPM in China produce powder bed fusion 3D printers.
    TRUMPF — trumpf-laser.com/en/products.html
    TRUMPF is a German manufacturer of powder bed fusion and directed energy desposition direct-metal 3D printers.
    VOXELJET — voxeljet.de/en
    voxeljet produces 3D printers that use binder jetting to produce plastic objects or 3D sand cast molds from powders. The
    company’s largest model, the VX4000, has a build volume of 4 x 2 x 1 metres.
    WUHAN BINHU MECHANICAL & ELECTRICAL CO — binhurp.com/en
    Wuhan Binhu Mechanical & Electrical Co makes 3D printers based on powder bed fusion and vat photopolymerization.
    PERSONAL 3D PRINTER MANUFACTURERS
    AFINIA — afinia.com
    Afinia sell rebranded Tiertime desktop material extrusion 3D printers in the United States.
    AIO ROBOTICS — zeus.aiorobotics.com
    AIO Robotics sell an all-in-one 3D printer and 3D scanner called the Zeus, which includes an integrated STL model
    editor.
    BEEVERYCREATIVE — beeverycreative.com
    BeeVeryCreative make a range of very stylish and easily portable material extrusion 3D printers.
    BOOTS INDUSTRIES — bootsindustries.com
    Boots Industries produce low-cost material extrusion 3D printers under the name Rostock.
    BUILDER — 3dprinter4u.com
    BUILDER make material extrusion 3D printers, including a model with a dual extruder that can mix two thermoplastics
    in the same build.
    BY FLOW — 3dbyflow.com
    By Flow produce a foldable, material extrusion 3D printer with interchangeable print heads, and which can 3D print
    food.CEL — robox.cel-uk.com
    CEL produce a material extrusion 3D printer called the Robox.
    DWS LAB — dwslab.com
    DWS Lab produce a desktop vat photopolymerization (stereolithographic) 3D printer called the XFAB.
    ECKERTECH — eckertech.com
    Ekertech makes a material extrusion 3D printer called the eksbot.
    EDISON — 3disonprinter.nl
    Edison sell material extrusion 3D printers that can print not just in thermoplastics, but also in chocolate, as well as a
    metal-clay paste.
    FLASHFORGE — flashforge.com
    FlashForge is a highly-regarded Chinese manufacturer of material extrusion 3D printers called the Finder, Dreamer and
    CreatorPro.
    FORMLABS — formlabs.com
    Formlabs produces desktop vat photopolymerization 3D printers called the Form 1+ and Form 2.
    FUSION3 DESIGN — fusion3design.com
    Fusion3 Design make desktop material extrusion 3D printers called the F400 and F306.
    GERMANREPRAP — germanreprap.com/en
    German RepRap produce material extrusion 3D printers called the Neo and X400.
    IONCORELTD — ioncoretechnology.com
    IonCoreLtd produce two material extrusion 3D printers called the Zinter and Zinter PRO.
    LEAPFROG 3D PRINTERS — lpfrg.com
    Leapfrog produces a range of material extrusion 3D printers, with several of its models offering the ability to extrude
    multiple materials.
    LEWIHE — lewihe.com/store
    Lewihe produce thermoplastic extrusion 3D printers called the Play, Sneaker and Sneaker XL.
    LULZBOT — lulzbot.com
    Lulzbot produce three highly regarded thermoplastic extrusion 3D printers called the Taz 5, the Taz 6 and the Taz Mini.
    M3D — printm3d.com/themicro/
    M3D produce a small, low cost thermoplastic extrusion 3D printer called the M3D Micro, and a bigger printer called the
    Micro Pro.
    MAKERBOT INDUSTRIES — makerbot.com
    MakerBot produce a range of MakerBot material extrusion 3D printers including the Replicator 2X and Replicator Fifth
    Generation.
    MAKEGEAR — makergear.com
    MakerGear sells its own M Series material extrusion 3D printers, as well as some RepRap open source hardware.
    PHOTOCENTRIC — photocentric3d.com
    Photocentic make low-cost vat photopolymerization 3D printers based on a process called daylight photopolymer
    printing (DPP).
    PORTABEE — portabee3dprinter.com
    The Portabee make a small, foldable material extrusion 3D printer called the Portabee Go.
    PRINTRBOT — printrbot.com
    PrintrBot produce low-cost material extrusion 3D printers called the Play, the Simple and the PrintrBot Plus.
    REPRAPUNIVERSE.COM — reprappro.comReprapUniverse.com sell kits for MendleMax and Prussa open source, material extrusion RepRap 3D printers.
    TIERTIME — tiertime.com/en
    Tiertime Corporation is a Chinese manufacturer of material extrusion 3D printers including the UP Mini, Up Plus 2 and
    the UP BOX.
    TINKERINE — tinkerine.com
    Tinkerine is a Canadian manufacturer of material extrusion 3D printers called the Litto, Ditto+ and Ditto Pro.
    ULTIMAKER — ultimaker.com
    Ultimaker produces very well respected material extrusion 3D printers called the Ultimaker 3, Ultimaker 3 Extended,
    Ultimaker2+, Ultimaker 2+ Extended, and the Ultimaker 2 Go.
    VSHAPER — vshaper.com/en/
    VShaper sell a range of material extrusion 3D printers.
    WEISTEK — ideawerk3dprinter.com
    Weistek produce the IdeaWerk and X-Master material extrusion 3D printers.
    ZMORPH — zmorph3d.com/3d-printers
    Zmorph sell a material extrusion 3D printer called the Zmorph 2.0.
    ZORTRAX — zortrax.com
    Zortrax produce a range of material extrusion 3D printers that include the M200, M300 and Inventure.
    XYZPRINTING — xyzprinting.com
    XYZprinting sell a range of low-cost material extrusion 3D printers under their Da Vinci brand, as well as a vat
    photopolymerization model called the Nobel 1.0.
    BIOPRINTING PIONEERS
    3D BIOPRINTING SOLUTIONS — bioprinting.ru/en/
    3D Bioprinting Solutions are a Russion bioprinting pioneer who have developed a bioprinter called the FABION.
    3DISON — en.3disonprinter.com/product-invivo.php
    3Dison sell a ‘hybrid bio 3D printer’ called the Rokit Invivo.
    BIOBOTS — biobots.io
    Biobots have developed a ‘fun to use’ bioprinter called the BioBots 1.
    CELLINK — cellink.eu
    Cyfuse have developed a bioprinter called the Inkredible.
    CYFUSE — cyfusebio.com/en/regenova.html
    Cyfuse have developed a bioprinter called the Regenova.
    ENVISIONTEC — envisiontec.com/3d-printers/3d-bioplotter/
    EnvisionTEC have developed a bioprinter system called the 3D-Bioplotter.
    ORGANOVO — organovo.com
    Organovo are a leading, publicly-traded bioprinting pioneer who have developed a bioprinter called the Novogen MMX.
    OZBOLAT LAB — personal.psu.edu/ito1/
    The Ozbolat Lab at the Penn State University focuses on developing cutting-edge bioprinting science and technology.
    REGENHU — regenhu.com
    RegenHU have developed bioprinters called the BioFactory and the 3DDiscovery.
    REGENOVO — regenovo.com/english/
    Regenovo in China has developed three bioprinters called the Bio-Printer-Lite, Bio-Printer-Pro and Bio-Printer-WS.
    WAKE FOREST INSTITUTE —wakehealth.edu/WFIRM/The Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine is a leading pioneer of bioprinting and tissue engineering.
    3D PRINTING SOFTWARE
    3D TRANSFORM — 3dtransform.com
    3D Transform is a free, online 3D object file converter.
    AUTOCAD — usa.autodesk.com/autocad-products
    AutoCAD is an industry leading CAD package from Autodesk.
    AUTODESK 123D — 123dapp.com
    Autodesk 123D is a range of free 3D printing design applications.
    BLENDER — blender.org
    Blender is a free, open-source 3D design package that includes modelling tools for 3D print.
    LEOPOLY — leopoly.com
    Leopoly is a sculpting package for creating models for 3D print. The free Leopoly.com runs in a web browser, while the
    more feature-rich LeopolyNEXT is downloadable via subscription.
    LIMITSTATE — print.limitstate.com
    LimitState is an application for fixing STL files prior to 3D printing.
    RHINO — rhino3d.com
    Rhino is an excellent mid-range CAD package for 3D modelling.
    SCULPTRIS — pixologic.com/sculptris
    Sculptris is a free-version of the ZBrush 3D sculpting package.
    SKETCHUP — sketchup.com
    SketchUp (formerly Google Sketchup) is a 3D modelling application from Trimble Navigation. There are two versions:
    SketchUp Make, which is free to download, and a paid professional edition.
    SOLIDWORKS — solidworks.com
    SolidWorks is a professional CAD package from Dassault Systèmes.
    TINKERCAD — tinkercad.com
    Tinkercad is free, browser-based 3D design package.
    TURBOCAD — turbocad.com
    TurboCAD is a popular, low-cost design package that can be used to create objects for 3D printout.
    Z BRUSH — pixologic.com/zbrush
    Z Brush is a really cool, high-end 3D sculpting package.
    3D PRINTING SERVICE BUREAU
    3BIGGG.com (France) — 3biggg.com/professionnels/en
    3D Creation Lab (UK) — 3dcreationlab.co.uk
    3D Hubs (whole planet network) — 3dhubs.com
    3D Material Technologies (US) — 3dmaterialtechnologies.com
    3D Print Bureau (UK) — 3dprintbureau.co.uk
    3DPhacktory (Canada) — 3dphacktory.com
    3D Print UK (UK) — 3dprint-uk.co.uk
    3DPrintus (Russia) — 3dprintus.ru
    3D ProParts (US) — 3dproparts.com
    3D Prototype Design (Canada) — 3dprototype.com3D Quick Printing (UK) — 3dquickprinting.com
    3T RPD Ltd (UK) — 3trpd.co.uk
    Axis Prototypes (Canada) — axisproto.com
    FIT Production (Germany) — fit-production.de
    Formwurx (UK) — formwurx.co.uk
    GROWit (US) — growit3d.com
    Halo Technologies (US) — halotechnologiesllc.com
    i.materialise (Belgium) — i.materialise.com
    IDC Models (UK) — idcmodels.com/services/sla
    Inition (UK) — inition.co.uk/3d-printing-and-scanning-services
    Industrial Plastic Fabrications Limited (UK) — ipfl.co.uk
    KAIAO Rapid Manfacturing (China) — kaiao-rprt.com
    Laser Prototypes Europe Limited (Ireland) — laserproto.com
    LGM Architectural Visualization (US) — lgmmodel.com
    Made For Me (US, Austrailia & New Zealand) — madefor.me
    Make Mode (US) — makemode.co
    Materialise OnSite (Belgium) — materialise-onsite.com
    Midwest Prototyping (US) — midwestproto.com
    Objex (Canada) — objexunlimited.com
    Ponoko (New Zealand, US, Germany, UK & Italy) — ponoko.com
    Print To 3D (US) — printo3d.com
    Proto3000 (Canada) — proto3000.com
    Purple Porcupine (US) — purpleporcupine.com
    Quickparts (US) — quickparts.com
    Rapid 3D (South Africa) — rapid3d.co.za
    Rapido3D (UK) — rapido3d.co.uk
    Sculpteo (US & France) — sculpteo.com
    Shapelize (France) — shapelize.com
    Shapeways (US & The Netherlands) — shapeways.com
    Stratasys Direct Express (US) — express.stratasysdirect.com
    Stratasys Direct Manufacturing (US) — stratasysdirect.com
    Tri Axis Art (US) — triaxisart.com
    Vivid 3D (Northen Ireland) — vivid3d.co.uk
    x3D Print (France) — x3d-print.com/en/
    Xometry (US) — xometry.com
    3D OBJECT REPOSITORIES
    3Dagogo — 3dagogo.com
    CGTrader — cgtrader.com
    Cuboyo — cuboyo.comCults3d — cults3d.com
    df3d — store.df3d.com/index.php/store.html
    Humster — humster3d.com/3d-printing-ready/
    Kraftwurx — kraftwurx.com
    MyMiniFactory — myminifactory.com
    Pinshape — pinshape.com
    Redpah — redpah.com
    Repables — repables.com
    Thingiverse — thingiverse.com
    Treatstock — treatstock.com
    YouMagine — youmagine.com
    XYZprinting Artist Collection — us.gallery.xyzprinting.com
    Glossary
    2PP — see two-photon polymerization
    3D MANUFACTURING FORMAT
    The 3D manufacturing format (3MF) is a standard for 3D files that is being developed by the 3MF Consortium. 3MF
    improves on the older STL format by including information on materials as well as geometry.
    3MF — see 3D manufacturing format
    3SP — see scan, spin and selectively photocure
    ABS — see acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
    ACRYLONITRILE BUTADIENE STYRENE
    Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) is a common thermoplastic that is often used as the build material or ‘filament’ in
    material extrusion.
    ACRYLONITRILE STYRENE ACRYLATE
    Acrylonitrile styrene acrylate (ASA) is a thermoplastic that can be 3D printed via material extrusion.
    ADDITIVE LAYER MANUFACTURING
    Additive layer manufacturing (ALM) is another term for additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing.
    ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING
    Additive manufacturing (AM) is the process of building objects by depositing material in layers. 3D printing is therefore
    an additive manufacturing process. Engineers often refer to 3D printing as additive manufacturing, although increasingly
    the two terms are used interchangeably.
    ADDITIVE METAL MANUFACTURING
    Additive metal manufacturing (AMM) refers to any 3D printing technology that builds up metal objects in layers. Such
    technologies include those based on powder bed fusion, such as direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), laserCUSING and
    electron beam melting (EBM). However, AMM can also encompass any form of directed energy deposition (DED), the
    fused deposition modelling of metals (FDMm), electron beam additive manufacturing (EBAM), wire and arc additive
    manufacturing (WAAM) and nanoparticle jetting (NPJ).
    ALM — see additive layer manufacturing
    ALUMIDE
    Alumide is a 3D printing material that is a two-part mix of nylon and aluminum powders. It is used in powder bed fusion
    3D printers to produce objects with a metal feel and sparkle at relatively low cost.
    AM — see additive manufacturing
    American Society for Testing and Materials
    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is a standards development organization that has worked with
    the International Standards Organization (ISO) to develop ISO/ASTM 52900.
    AMM — see additive metal manufacturing
    APD — see augmented polymer deposition
    APM — see atomically precise manufacturing
    ASA — see acrylonitrile styrene acrylate
    ASTM — see American Society for Testing and Materials
    ATOMICALLY PRECISE MANUFACTURE
    Atomically precise manufacture refers to ‘bottom-up’ nanotechnological processes, such as self-assembly, that allow
    items to be created without the intervention of conventional-scale production tools.
    AUGMENTED POLYMER DEPOSITIONAugmented polymer deposition (APD) is material extrusion technology invented by Rise Inc. It jets a ‘repelling ink’
    between an object and its support structures in order to facilitate the latter’s easy removal.
    BINDER JETTING
    Binder jetting is the generic term for all 3D printing technologies that spray a binder from an inkjet-style print head onto
    successive layers of powder. Binder jetting hardware from different manufacturers can currently build objects from a
    range of materials that include plastics, ceramics, gypsum-based powders, sand, and even metal nanoparticles held in
    liquid suspension.
    BIO-INK
    Bio-ink is a culture of living cells that is used as a build material in a bioprinter.
    BIO-PAPER
    Bio-paper is a support material used in bioprinting, and is usually a hydrogel, such as a water-collagen mix.
    BIOPRINTER
    A bioprinter is a 3D printer that outputs objects made of living cells, rather than plastics, metals or other inorganic
    materials.
    BREAKAWAY SUPPORT TECHNOLOGY
    Breakaway support technology (BST) is featured on 3D printers that add extra build material to an object during printout
    to hold in place upward sloping or orphan parts that would otherwise fall away.
    BST — see breakaway support technology
    CFF — see composite filament fabrication
    CLIP — see continuous liquid interface production
    CNC
    CNC stands for ‘computer numerical control’, and is used in reference to automated production tools such as CNC
    milling machines.
    COLORJET PRINTING
    ColorJet printing is 3D System’s implementation of binder jetting that can create full-colour 3D prints.
    COMPOSITE FILAMENT FABRICATION
    Composite filament fabrication is a term coined by Markforged to refer to their technology which adds continuous
    reinforcement strands to 3D printed objects during the process of material extrusion.
    CONCEPT MODEL
    A concept model is a representation of a final product that approximates its form, but which lacks its functionality.
    CONTINUOUS LIQUID INTERFACE PRODUCTION
    Continuous liquid interface production (CLIP) is an inverted vat photopolymerization 3D printing process created by
    Carbon3D.
    CONTOUR CRAFTING
    Contour crafting is another name for the material extrusion of concrete. The term was coined by Behrokh Khoshnevis,
    who describes it as a ‘mega scale layered fabrication process which builds large scale three-dimensional parts by
    depositing paste materials’.
    DAYLIGHT POLYMER PRINTING
    Daylight polymer printing (DPP) is a vat photopolymerization process created by PhotoCentric. It solidifies
    photopolymer layers using natural light wavelengths projected through an LCD panel.
    DDM — see direct digital manufacturing
    DIRECT DIGITAL MANUFACTURING
    Direct digital manufacturing (DDM) refers to the production of final products, or parts thereof, using a 3D printer.
    DIRECT METAL LASER SINTERING
    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is a form of powder bed fusion that uses a laser to selectively heat and so fuse
    together metal powders.DIRECTED ENERGY DEPOSITION
    Directed energy deposition is the generic name for any 3D printing technology that deposits metal powders that are
    fused into object layers using a laser or electron beam.
    DLP PROJECTION
    DLP projection is a vat photopolymerization technology in which a DLP or ‘digital light processing’ projector is used to
    solidify layers of a photopolymer, typically on the base of a UV-transparent vat.
    DMLS — see direct metal laser sintering
    DMP — see direct metal printing
    DPP — see daylight polymer printing
    DROP-ON-DEMAND — see wax deposition modelling
    EBAM — see electron beam additive manufacturing
    EBF3 — see electron beam melting
    EBM — see electron beam melting
    ELECTRON BEAM ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING
    Electron beam additive manufacturing is a 3D printing technology developed by Sciaky. It feeds two solid metal wire
    feedstocks into an electron beam that fuses them into potentially very large industrial parts.
    ELECTRON BEAM FREEFORM FABRICATION
    Electron beam freeform fabrication is another term for electron beam melting.
    ELECTRON BEAM MELTING
    Electron beam melting (EBM) is a powder bed fusion technology that builds up metal objects in a vacuum by using an
    electron beam to selectively melt and so fuse together successive layers of a metal powder.
    FAB@HOME
    Fab@Home was an open source 3D printer project started in 2006 by Hod Lipson & Evan Malone. Deemed a success, it
    was closed in 2012.
    FDC — see fused deposition of ceramics
    FDM — see fused deposition modelling
    FDMm — see fused deposition modelling of metals
    FFF — see fused filament fabrication
    FFM — see fused filament modelling
    FIGURE 4
    Figure 4 is a developmental vat photopolymerization and robotic 3D printing process created by 3D Systems. It employs
    modularization and new hybrid resins to offer high-speed industrial part production.
    FILAMENT
    Filament is used to 3D print objects via material extrusion, also commonly referred to as ‘fused deposition modelling’
    (FDM). Filament is typically a thermoplastic (such as ABS or PLA) that is fed to a print head as a solid, and then heated
    for extrusion from a nozzle. Filament is typically 1.75 mm or about 3 mm in diameter.
    FUNCTIONAL PROTOTYPE
    A functional prototype is a representation of a final product created to test its form, fit and function before committing to
    production.
    FUSED DEPOSITION MODELLING
    Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is a material extrusion 3D printing process that creates objects in layers by
    depositing a heated thermoplastic from a computer-controlled print head nozzle. FDM was invented by a company called
    Stratasys, which has trademarked the term. Other companies subsequently refer to this kind of material extrusion
    technology as ‘plastic jet printing’ (PJP), ‘fused filament modelling’ (FFM), ‘fused filament fabrication’ (FFF), the
    ‘fused deposition method’ and ‘melted and extruded modelling’ (MEM).
    FUSED DEPOSITION MODELLING OF METALSThe fused deposition modelling of metals (FDMm) is a form of material extrusion that deposits a molten metal to 3D
    print objects in successive layers. See also wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) and electron beam additive
    manufacturing (EBAM).
    FUSED DEPOSITION OF CERAMICS
    The fused deposition of ceramics (FDC) refers to the 3D printing of ceramic objects using multiphase jet solidification
    (MJS).
    FUSED FILAMENT FABRICATION
    Fused filament fabrication (FFF) is another term for material extrusion, also commonly referred to as fused deposition
    modelling (FDM).
    FUSED FILAMENT MODELLING
    Fused filament modelling (FFM) is another term for material extrusion, also commonly referred to as fused deposition
    modelling (FDM).
    GRANULAR MATERIALS BINDING
    Granular materials binding is a generic term for all forms of 3D printing that create objects by selectively sticking
    together the granules of a powder. Granular materials binding therefore encompasses binder jetting, powder bed fusion
    and directed energy deposition.
    HIPS
    HIPS stands for high impact polystyrene, and is a thermoplastic that can be used by some material extrusion 3D printers.
    HTPLA
    HTPLA stands for ‘high temperature PLA’, and is a stronger and more durable form of the traditional thermoplastic
    PLA.
    ISO/ASTM 52900
    ISO/ASTM 52900 categorizes most additive manufacturing (3D printing) technologies under the seven generic headings
    of material extrusion, vat photopolymerization, material jetting, binder jetting, powder bed fusion, directed energy
    deposition and sheet lamination
    LAMINATED OBJECT MANUFACTURE
    Laminated object manufacture (LOM) is a sheet lamination technology that builds up objects by adhering successive
    sheets of cut paper.
    LAMP — see large area maskless photopolymerization
    LARGE AREA MASKLESS PHOTOPOLYMERIZATION
    Large area maskless photopolymerization (LAMP) is a 3D printing technology developed by DDM Systems. It uses a
    moving DLP projector to solidify layers of a liquid and ceramic powder composite.
    LASER BEAM MELTING
    Laser beam melting (LBM) refers to all powder-bed fusion 3D printing technologies that use a laser beam to fuse
    together successive layers of a powdered build material. This distinguishes such technologies from those that use another
    heat source, such as an electron beam.
    LASER DIRECT-WRITING
    Laser direct-writing (LDR) uses laser energy to 3D print on the microscale or nanoscale. LDR includes techniques such
    as two-photon polymerization (2PP), as well as an experimental bioprinting technique that creates precise biological
    patterns using laser energy to transfer individual cells from a ‘donor slide’ to a ‘collector slide’.
    LASER ENGINEERED NET SHAPING
    Laser engineered net shaping (LENS) is a directed energy deposition 3D printing technology pioneered and trademarked
    by Optomec.
    LASER METAL DEPOSITION
    Laser metal deposition (LMD) is a form of directed energy deposition independently developed by BeAM, Toshiba and
    TRUMPF.
    LASER POWDER FORMING
    Laser powder forming is another term for directed energy depositionLASERCUSING
    LaserCUSING is a powder bed fusion technology that uses high power lasers to fuse together the granules of a metal
    build material.
    LBM — see laser beam melting
    LCM — see lithography-based ceramic manufacturing
    LDM — see local digital manufacturing
    LDR — see direct laser writing
    LENS — see laser engineered net shaping
    LITHOGRAPHY-BASED CERAMIC MANUFACTURING
    Lithography-based ceramic manufacturing (LCM) is a vat photopolymerization technology developed by Lithoz in
    Austria. The process selectively cures a photosensitive resin that contains ceramic particles.
    LMD — see laser metal deposition
    LOCAL DIGITAL MANUFACTURING
    Local digital manufacturing (LDM) uses digital technologies to make products on demand very close to the location of
    their final consumer.
    LOM — see laminated object manufacture
    LOW-TEMPERATURE DEPOSITION MODELLING
    Low-temperature deposition modelling is a form of material extrusion that works at low temperatures, and which has
    particular potential application in tissue engineering.
    LS — see selective laser sintering
    MATERIAL EXTRUSION
    Material extrusion is the generic term for all 3D printing technologies that build objects in layers by extruding a material
    – such as a molten thermoplastic – from a computer-controlled print head nozzle. Many people refer to material
    extrusion as fused deposition modelling (FDM), although this label is trademarked by Stratasys. Other terms for material
    extrusion include fused filament modelling (FFM), fused filament fabrication (FFF), thermoplastic extrusion, melted and
    extruded modelling (MEM), and plastic jet printing (PJP).
    MATERIAL JETTING
    Material jetting is the name for any 3D printing technology that emits a liquid from a print head. In most material jetting
    processes, the build material is a photopolymer that is set solid with UV light before the next layer is printed on top of it.
    Such ‘photopolymer material jetting’ is known via a variety of other names, including ‘PolyJet’ (short for ‘photopolymer
    jet’, the term used by Stratasys), ‘MultiJet Printing’ (MJP, the term used by 3D Systems), and ‘inkjet photopolymer
    printing’. See also wax deposition modelling and nanoparticle jetting.
    MELTED AND EXTRUDED MODELLING
    Melted and extruded modelling (MEM) is another term for those 3D printing technologies generically known as material
    extrusion.
    MEM — see melted and extruded modelling
    MICRO LASER SINTERING
    Micro laser sintering (MLS) is a powder bed fusion 3D printing technology that can achieve a minimum feature
    resolution of 1 μm (0.001 mm). It was developed by EOS e-Manufacturing Solutions and 3DMicromac in Germany.
    MICROFABRICATOR
    A microfabricator is the equivalent in manufacturing of a microprocessor in computing. Theoretically, 3D printing and
    related LDM technologies will one day allow the creation of such microscale and nanoscale machines that will use selfassembly techniques to manipulate physical matter, rather than bits of information.
    MJF — see multi jet fusion
    MJP — see multijet printing
    MJS — see multiphase jet solidificationMLS — see micro laser sintering
    MOVINGLIGHT
    MOVINGLight is a DLP vat photopolymerization technology created by Prodways. It works like standard DLP
    projection, but achieves a greater resolution by physically moving a top-mounted projector, rather than statically
    projecting each object layer onto the base of the photopolymer vat. See also DLP projection.
    MULTI JET FUSION
    Multi Jet Fusion is a 3D printing technology unique to HP. It lays down a layer of powder from one print carriage, before
    a second print head selectively sprays droplets of ‘fusing and detailing agents’ that are then fused solid using a heat
    source.
    MULTIJET PRINTING
    MultiJet Printing (MJP) is the name used by 3D Systems to refer to its material jetting 3D printers.
    MULTIPHASE JET SOLIDIFICATION
    Multiphase jet solidification (MJS) is a 3D printing process where a ceramic or metal powder is mixed with a binder so
    that it can be heated and extruded through a nozzle.
    NANOPARTICLE JETTING
    NanoParticle Jetting (NJP) is a material jetting 3D printing technology developed by XJet. It fabricates metal objects by
    jetting nanoparticles of metal that are initially held in a liquid suspension, before being fused with heat.
    NANOTECHNOLOGY
    Nanotechnology refers to measuring and manufacturing at a level of precision of between 1 and 100 nanometres.
    Specific technologies include nanolithography, the production of nanocomposites, and forms of organic and inorganic
    self-assembly.
    NPJ — see NanoParticle Jetting
    PA12
    PA12 is a polyamide that is commonly used for making plastic objects via powder bed fusion.
    PATTERN
    A pattern is a master version of an object that is created for the purposes of taking a mold.
    PC — see polycarbonate
    PC-ISO — see polycarbonate-ISO
    PETG — see polyethylene terephthalate glycol-modified
    PHA — see polyhydroxyalkanoate
    PHOTOPOLYMER
    Photopolymers are liquid plastic resins that solidify when exposed to light, and which are used as the build materials in
    vat photopolymerization and most material jetting 3D printers.
    PJP — see plastic jet printing
    PLA — see polylactic acid
    PLASTIC JET PRINTING
    Plastic jet printing (PJP) is the name used by 3D Systems for their 3D printing process that extrudes a molten
    thermoplastic. It is what Stratasys call fused deposition modelling (FDM). See also material extrusion.
    PMMA — see polymethylmethacrylate
    POLYAMIDE
    Polyamides, such as nylon, are semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymers, and may be used as both thermoplastic
    extrusion and powder bed fusion 3D printing build materials.
    POLYCARBONATE
    Polycarbonate (PC) is a thermoplastic that is sometimes used as the build material in material extrusion 3D printers.
    POLYCARBONATE-ISOPolycarbonate-ISO is a polycarbonate thermoplastic that can be sterilized with gamma radiation or ethylene oxide, and
    which offers good biocompatibility for the fabrication of 3D printed medical devices.
    POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE GLYCOL-MODIFIED
    Polyethylene terephthalate glycol-modified (PETG) is a thermoplastic that can be used as the build material in some
    material extrusion 3D printers.
    POLYHYDROXYALKANOATE
    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a bioplastic that is sometimes used as the build material in material extrusion 3D
    printing.
    POLYJET
    PolyJet – or PolyJet Matrix – is a Stratasys material jetting technology that can fabricate full-colour, multiple material
    objects.
    POLYLACTIC ACID
    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a bioplastic that can be used as the build material or ‘filament’ in many material extrusion 3D
    printers.
    POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE
    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is a clear thermoplastic that can be used as the filament in some material extrusion 3D
    printers.
    POLYPHENYLSULFONE
    Polyphenylsulfone is a thermoplastic that can be used to 3D print objects that require very high temperature and
    chemical resistance.
    POLYVINYL ACETATE
    Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) is a synthetic polymer that is sometimes used by material extrusion 3D printers to create soluble
    support structures.
    POWDER BED FUSION
    Powder bed fusion is the generic term for all 3D printing technologies that build objects in layers by using a heat source
    to selectively stick together successive layers of powder. It therefore encompasses laser sintering (LS), selective laser
    sintering (SLS), selective laser melting (SLM), selective heat sintering (SHS), direct metal laser sintering (DMLS),
    electron beam melting (EBM) and laserCUSING.
    PPSF — see polyphenylsulfone
    PRINTOPTICAL
    Printoptical is a material jetting technology created by LUXeXceL. It can 3D print functional lenses and other optical
    components.
    PVA — see polyvinyl acetate
    RAPID PLASMA DEPOSITION
    Rapid plasma deposition (RPD) is a direct-metal 3D printing process created by Norsk Titanium.
    RAPID PROTOTYPING
    Rapid prototyping (RP) refers to any technology used to create a prototype object from digital data using computercontrolled hardware. Rapid prototypers include, but are not limited to, 3D printers. ‘Rapid prototyping’ and ‘3D printing’
    are hence not interchangeable terms.
    REPRAP
    RepRaps – or ‘replicating rapid prototypers’ – are open source 3D printers capable of making many of their own parts.
    RP — see rapid prototyping
    RPD — see rapid plasma deposition
    SACRIFICIAL MOLD
    A sacrificial mold is a single-use mold, such as a sand cast mold, that is destroyed during the production process that
    utilizes it.
    SCAN, SPIN AND SELECTIVELY PHOTOCUREScan, spin and selectively photocure (3SP) is a vat photopolymerization 3D printing technology pioneered by
    EnvisionTEC.
    SDL — see selective deposition lamination
    SELECTIVE DEPOSITION LAMINATION
    Selective deposition lamination’ (SDL) is the name used by Mcor Technologies for its sheet lamination 3D printing
    process.
    SELECTIVE HEAT SINTERING
    Selective heat sintering (SHS) is a powder bed fusion technology created by a company called BluePrinter. The process
    is similar to selective laser sintering (SLS), but uses a thermal print head rather than a laser to selectively fuse together
    successive layers of a plastic powder.
    SELECTIVE LASER MELTING
    Selective laser melting (SLM) is a powder bed fusion 3D printing technology that uses a very high power laser to
    entirely melt metal powder granules in order to form object layers.
    SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a powder bed fusion 3D printing technology that uses a laser to selectively fuse or
    ‘sinter’ together the granules of successive layers of powder.
    SELF-ASSEMBLY
    Self-assembly is the process that allows living things, synthetic biological constructs, and bleeding-edge
    nanotechnologies, to assemble cells, inorganic polymers and potentially other nanoscale materials without the aid of
    production tools.
    SHEET LAMINATION
    Sheet lamination is the generic term for all 3D printing processes that build objects by adhering sheets of cut paper,
    plastic or metal foil.
    SHS — see selective heat sintering
    SLA — see stereolithography
    SLM — see selective laser melting
    SLS — see selective laser sintering
    SOLUBLE SUPPORT TECHNOLOGY
    Soluble support technology (SST) is featured on 3D printers that output a dissolvable material (such as PVA) to hold in
    place the upward sloping or potentially ‘orphan’ parts of an object that would otherwise fall away. As the name suggests,
    soluble supports are removed after printout using a liquid solvent, such as a water-based detergent.
    SST — see soluble support technology
    STEREOLITHOGRAPHY
    Stereolithography is a vat photopolymerization process that builds objects in layers using a StereoLithographic
    Apparatus (SLA). Objects are created by a laser beam that traces out and solidifies each successive layer on the surface
    or base of a vat of liquid photopolymer.
    STL
    STL is a computer file format widely used in 3D printing. Exactly what STL is an acronym for is debated, though most
    commonly it is taken to be short for ‘standard tessellation language’.
    SUPPORT STRUCTURE
    Support structures are additional parts that are added to objects during 3D printing to prevent overhanging or orphan
    parts falling away.
    SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY
    Synthetic biology (SynBio) is a digital manufacturing technology that breaks DNA into modular building blocks than
    can be re-arranged in a computer and chemically rendered as living matter.
    THERMOPLASTIC
    A thermoplastic is a plastic whose shape can be changed by heating it into a molten form and then allowing it to coolback into a solid. Thermoplastics are widely used as the build material in material extrusion and powder bed fusion 3D
    printers.
    THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMER
    A thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) is a material that can be used to create highly flexible parts in some material extrusion
    3D printers. Examples include thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs, also known as TPE-Us).
    THERMOPLASTIC POLYURETHANE
    Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU or TPE-U) is a thermoplastic elastomer that can be used in some material extrusion
    3D printers to create rubber-like parts.
    TISSUE ENGINEERING
    Tissue engineering refers to the creation or alteration of living matter, as may be achieved using a bioprinter.
    TPE — see thermoplastic elastomer
    TPU — see thermoplastic polyurethane
    TWO-PHOTON POLYMERIZATION
    Two-photon polymerization (2PP) is a vat photopolymerization 3D printing technology that uses a femtosecond pulsed
    laser to selectively solidify successive layers of a specially developed liquid photopolymer. This build material includes
    ‘initiator’ molecules that trigger monomer solidification when stuck by two photons. Two-photon polymerization can
    currently achieve a layer thickness and an X-Y axes accuracy down to 100 nanometres (0.0001 mm).
    UAM — see ultrasonic additive manufacturing
    ULTEM 9085
    ULTEM 9085 is a specialist thermoplastic 3D printing material from Stratasys that is certified for use in aviation.
    ULTRASONIC ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING
    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a sheet lamination 3D printing technology developed by Fabrisonic. It
    create objects by ultrasonically welding together layers of metal tape.
    VAT PHOTOPOLYMERIZATION
    Vat photopolymerization is the generic term for all 3D printing technologies in which a vat or tank of liquid
    photopolymer is selectively solidified using a laser beam or other light source. Vat photopolymerization processes
    currently include stereolithography, DLP projection, MOVINGLight, daylight polymer printing (DPP), scan, spin and
    selectively photocure (3SP), lithography-based ceramic manufacturing (LCM), continuous liquid interface production
    (CLIP), Figure 4, and two-photon polymerization (2PP).
    WAAM — see wire and arc additive manufacturing
    WAX DEPOSITION MODELLING
    Wax deposition modelling (WDM) is a Stratasys material jetting technology that creates sacrificial casting patterns by
    depositing layers of a special thermoplastic called TrueWax. WDM is also known as drop on demand (DOD).
    WDM — see wax deposition modelling
    WIRE AND ARC ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING
    Wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) is a 3D printing technology that feeds a thin titanium wire to the tip of an
    adapted arc fusion welding robot, where it is heated to a molten state for deposition into object layers.
    WOOD/POLYMER COMPOSITE
    A wood/polymer composite (WPC) is a filament used in material extrusion 3D printing that is made from a traditional
    thermoplastic (such as PLA) mixed with sawdust or other wood fibers.
    WPC — see wood/polymer composite3D Pr

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