3D Printing, Instrumentation, and Control Arduino IV – DIY Robots

3D Printing, Instrumentation, and Control Arduino IV – DIY Robots
اسم المؤلف
Tyler Kerr , Steven Barrett
التاريخ
28 فبراير 2023
المشاهدات
438
التقييم
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3D Printing, Instrumentation, and Control Arduino IV – DIY Robots
Synthesis Lectures on Digital Circuits & Systems
Tyler Kerr , Steven Barrett
Contents
1 Getting Started 1
1.1 Overview 1
1.2 The Big Picture . 2
1.3 Arduino Quickstart 4
1.3.1 Quick Start Guide . 4
1.3.2 Arduino Development Environment Overview . 5
1.3.3 Sketchbook Concept . 5
1.3.4 Arduino Software, Libraries, and Language References . 6
1.3.5 Writing an Arduino Sketch . 7
1.4 Application: Robot IR Sensor . 14
1.5 Application: External Interrupts . 16
1.6 Arduino UNO R3 Processing Board . 19
1.7 Advanced: Arduino UNO R3 Host Processor–The ATmega328 . 20
1.7.1 Arduino UNO R3/ATmega328 Hardware Features . 20
1.7.2 ATmega328 Memory . 21
1.7.3 ATmega328 Port System . 23
1.7.4 ATmega328 Internal Systems . 23
1.8 Arduino UNO R3 Open Source Schematic . 27
1.9 Arduino Mega 2560 R3 Processing Board 27
1.10 Advanced: Arduino Mega 2560 Host Processor–The ATmega2560 29
1.10.1 Arduino Mega 2560 /ATmega2560 Hardware Features . 29
1.10.2 ATmega2560 Memory 31
1.10.3 ATmega2560 Port System 33
1.10.4 ATmega2560 Internal Systems 34
1.11 Arduino Mega 2560 Open Source Schematic . 37
1.12 Extending the Hardware Features of the Arduino Platform . 37
1.13 Application: Dagu Rover 5 Robot . 38
1.13.1 Requirements . 39
1.13.2 Circuit Diagram–Arduino UNO . 41
1.13.3 Structure Chart 42
ixx Contents
1.13.4 UML Activity Diagrams 42
1.13.5 Microcontroller Code–Arduino UNO . 42
1.14 Application: Tinkerkit Braccio 46
1.15 Summary 49
1.16 Problems . 49
References . 50
2 Introduction to Low-Cost 3D Printing 51
2.1 3D Printing 101 . 52
2.1.1 Overview . 52
2.1.2 What Is 3D Printing? 52
2.1.3 Common Categories of 3D Printing 53
2.1.4 Best Uses of 3D Printing . 58
2.2 FDM 3D Printing . 61
2.2.1 How FDM 3D Print Works . 61
2.2.2 Variations in FDM 3D Printer Designs . 62
2.2.3 Common Cartesian Printer Anatomy . 67
2.3 Affordable Desktop 3D Printers . 69
2.3.1 Popular Brands 69
2.3.2 Getting Started with Prusa 70
2.4 Materials . 75
2.4.1 PLA (Polylactic Acid) 75
2.4.2 ABS (Acetonitrile Butadiene Styrene) 75
2.4.3 PETG (Glycol Modified Polyethylene Terephthalate) . 76
2.4.4 TPU (Thermoplastic Polyurethane) . 76
2.4.5 Exotics/Specialty Filaments and Their Applications 76
2.5 Slicers . 77
2.5.1 What Are Slicers? . 77
2.5.2 Where to Find 3D Models 78
2.5.3 CAD Models 78
2.5.4 Popular Slicers and How to Get Started 79
2.5.5 Common Slicer Settings 82
2.6 Preparing to Print . 88
2.6.1 General Overview . 88
2.6.2 Best Practices . 93
2.7 Application: 3D Printed Arduino Robot 94
2.7.1 3D Printing the Otto robot.stl Files 94
2.7.2 Assembling and Coding Otto 96
2.8 Summary 98
2.9 Problems . 99
Additional Resources 99Contents xi
3 Robotic Concepts and Sensors . 101
3.1 Overview 101
3.2 GPS: Robot Localization on the Earth’s Surface . 102
3.2.1 GPS Logger Shield 103
3.3 Steering and Odometry 105
3.3.1 Steering 106
3.4 Motor Direction and Speed Control . 110
3.5 Odometry 110
3.5.1 Single Channel Odometry 112
3.5.2 Dual–Channel, Quadrature Odometry 116
3.6 Vision and Obstacle Avoidance . 123
3.6.1 Infrared Sensor 123
3.6.2 Ultrasound Sensor . 124
3.6.3 LIDAR . 126
3.7 Aside: TFT Display . 129
3.8 Robot Status 138
3.8.1 Advanced: Quaternions . 144
3.9 Environmental Sensors . 144
3.10 Application: Dagu Rover 5–2, Two Motors, Two Encoders,
with Wheels 149
3.10.1 Microcontroller Code–Arduino UNO . 149
3.11 Summary 157
3.12 Problems . 157
References . 158
4 Motor Control and Actuators . 161
4.1 Overview Concepts 161
4.2 DC Motor 163
4.2.1 DC Motor Ratings . 163
4.2.2 Unidirectional DC Motor Control 164
4.2.3 DC Motor Speed Control–Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) . 168
4.2.4 Bidirectional Motor Control with an H–bridge . 168
4.3 Servo Motor Control 173
4.4 Stepper Motor Control . 175
4.5 Linear Motor/Actuator . 181
4.6 Application–4WD Platform with H–bridge . 183
4.7 Summary 187
4.8 Problems . 187
References . 187xii Contents
5 Power Sources . 189
5.1 Overview 189
5.2 Project Requirements 189
5.3 Battery Basics 190
5.3.1 Ratings . 190
5.3.2 Types 192
5.4 Voltage Regulators 193
5.5 Power Supply System Design . 195
5.5.1 Arduino Power Requirements . 195
5.5.2 AC Operation via an Umbilical Cable 195
5.5.3 Powering the Arduino from Batteries . 196
5.5.4 Robot Payload Power Sources . 196
5.6 Application . 198
5.7 Summary 200
5.8 Problems . 200
References . 200
6 Applications . 201
6.1 Overview 201
6.2 Mountain Maze Navigating Robot . 201
6.2.1 Description . 202
6.2.2 Requirements . 202
6.2.3 Circuit Diagram . 202
6.2.4 Structure Chart 202
6.2.5 UML Activity Diagrams 204
6.2.6 Robot Construction 204
6.2.7 Robot Chassis–Earth Roamer . 221
6.2.8 Mountain Maze . 225
6.2.9 Project Extensions . 228
6.3 Summary 229
6.4 Problems . 229
Index . 23
Index
A
American Wire Gauge (AWG), 191
Analog–to–Digital (ADC), 26
Arduino Development Environment, 2
Arduino Mega 2560, 27
Arduino schematic, 27, 37
Arduino shield, 37
Arduino team, 1
B
Battery capacity, 191
Battery pack, 190, 196
Battery ratings, 190
Bidirectional motor control, 168
Braccio, 46
Byte–addressable EEPROM, 21, 32
C
Charge pump, 166
D
Dagu 5 robot, 38, 149
Darlington configuration, 164
3D Cartesian FDM printer, 67
DC motor, 161, 163
DC motor ratings, 163
Detector, smoke, 147
3D FDM printing, 55
3D FDM process, 63
DF robot, 202
3D material jetting, 57
3D print applications, 58
3D printers, 69
3D printing, 52
3D printing CAD models, 78
3D printing categories, 53
3D printing materials, 75
3D printing slicers, 79
3D printing Y-H-T rule, 85
DRV8829, 169
3D SLA printing, 55
3D SLS printing, 56
F
Flash EEPROM, 21, 32
G
GFX Graphics Library, 130
Global Positioning Systems (GPS), 102
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), 102
H
H-bridge, 110, 168, 169, 172
I
Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), 138
Interrupts, 16
Interrupt Service Routine (ISR), 16, 26
IR sensors, 14, 38, 123
L
Laser light show, 173
LCD, serial, 206
LIDAR ranging, 126
Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR), 126
Linear actuator, 162, 181, 199
Liquid Crystal Cisplay (LCD), 206
M
Mecanum wheels, 106
Memory, ATmega328, 21
Memory, ATmega2560, 31
Microchip ATmega328, 20
Microchip ATmega2560, 29
MOSFET, power, 165
Motor operating parameters, 168
Mountain maze, 201, 225
MQ sensors, 144
N
NMEA messages, 102
O
Obstacle avoidance, 123
Odometry, 110
Odometry, quadrature, 116
Odometry, single channel, 112
Optical interface, 166
Optical isolator, 168, 198, 199
P
Pan and tilt, 126
PhotoMOS, 168
Pixel, 129
Port system, 23, 33
Power supply, 4, 189, 195
Primary battery, 191
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), 25, 110, 168
Q
Quarternion, 144
R
Random Access Memory (RAM), 23, 33
Regulator, 191
Regulator, adjustable, 195
Robot platform, 38
S
Secondary battery, 191
Sensors, environmental, 144
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI), 26
Servo motor, 162, 173
Sketch, 6
Sketchbook, 5
Solid state relay, 166
Sonar, 130
Steering, 106
Stepper, 175
Stepper motor, 162, 175
T
TFT display, 129
Time base, 24, 35
Tracked robots, 106
Two–Wire Serial Interface (TWI), 26
U
Ultrasonic sensor, 124
Umbilical cable, 195
Unidirectional DC motor control, 164
Universal Coordinated Time (UTC), 102
Universal Synchronous and Asynchronous
Serial Receiver and Transmitter
(USART), 26
USB-to-serial converter, 19, 27
V
Vision, 123
Volatile, 23, 33
Voltage regulator, 193
W
4WD platform, 183

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