Workplace Safety – Volume 4 of the Safety at Work Series

Workplace Safety – Volume 4 of the Safety at Work Series
اسم المؤلف
John Ridley and John Channing
التاريخ
13 نوفمبر 2023
المشاهدات
200
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Workplace Safety – Volume 4 of the Safety at Work Series
Edited by
John Ridley and John Channing
Contents
Foreword ix
Preface xi
List of contributors xiii
Introduction 4.1
1 Science in engineering safety J. R. Ridley 4.3
1.1 Introduction 4.3
1.2 Structure of matter 4.3
1.3 Properties of chemicals 4.5
1.4 Physical properties 4.9
1.5 Energy and work 4.15
1.6 Mechanics 4.16
1.7 Strength of materials 4.17
1.8 Modes of failure 4.19
1.9 Testing 4.20
1.10 Hydraulics 4.20
1.11 Summary 4.21
2 Fire precautions P. Waterhouse and revised by Ray Chalklen 4.23
2.1 Introduction 4.23
2.2 Basic combustion chemistry 4.23
2.3 The combustion process 4.27
2.4 Classification of fires 4.29
2.5 Ignition sources and their control 4.30
2.6 Protection against fire 4.38
2.7 Extinction 4.42
2.8 Firefighting 4.46
2.9 Fire risk 4.55
2.10 Means of escape in case of fire 4.55
2.11 Legal requirements 4.60
2.12 Liaison with the fire brigade 4.643 Safe use of machinery J. R. Ridley 4.68
3.1 Introduction 4.68
3.2 Strategy for selecting safeguards 4.68
3.3 Safeguarding techniques 4.78
3.4 Powered trucks 4.79
3.5 Lifting equipment 4.95
3.6 Pressure systems and gas containers 4.100
3.7 Conclusion 4.104
4 Electricity E. G. Hooper and revised by Chris Buck 4.107
4.1 Alternating and direct currents 4.107
4.2 Electricity supply 4.108
4.3 Statutory requirements 4.110
4.4 Voltage levels 4.111
4.5 Electrical accidents 4.111
4.6 The basic electrical circuit 4.112
4.7 Dangers from electricity 4.113
4.8 Protective means 4.116
4.9 Competency 4.118
4.10 Permits-to-work 4.120
4.11 Static electricity 4.120
4.12 Use of electricity in adverse or hazardous environments 4.123
4.13 Electrical equipment in flammable atmospheres 4.123
4.14 Portable tools 4.126
4.15 Residual current devices 4.127
4.16 Maintenance 4.127
4.17 Conclusion 4.128
5 Statutory examination of plant and equipment J. McMullen 4.130
5.1 Introduction 4.130
5.2 Legislation 4.131
5.3 Pressure systems 4.131
5.4 Lifting and handling plant 4.139
5.5 Power presses and press brakes 4.148
5.6 Local exhaust ventilation 4.149
5.7 Electrical equipment and installations 4.152
5.8 Other considerations 4.153
5.9 Conclusions 4.156
6 Safety on construction sites R. Hudson 4.161
6.1 Construction accidents 4.161
6.2 Safe working in the industry 4.162
6.3 Site hazards 4.171
6.4 Access 4.176
6.5 The Construction (Lifting Operations) Regulations 1961 4.178
6.6 Welfare facilities 4.184
6.7 Other relevant legislation 4.185
vi Contents7 Managing chemicals safely John Adamson 4.192
7.1 Introduction 4.192
7.2 Chemical data 4.192
7.3 Source of information 4.193
7.4 Risk assessments 4.194
7.5 The management of risk 4.198
7.6 Legislative requirements 4.202
7.7 Storage of substances 4.212
7.8 Transport 4.216
7.9 Plant and process design 4.217
7.10 Further safety studies 4.226
7.11 Plant modifications 4.226
7.12 Safe systems of work 4.226
7.13 Laboratories 4.228
7.14 Emergency procedures 4.230
7.15 Conclusions 4.231
8 The environment – issues, law and management
J. E. Channing 4.234
8.1 Introduction 4.234
8.2 Major environmental issues 4.234
8.3 Environmental regulation 4.248
8.4 Environmental management systems 4.245
8.5 Conclusion 4.247
Appendix 1 Institution of Occupational Safety and Health 4.249
Appendix 2 Reading for Part 1 of the NEBOSH Diploma
examination 4.250
Appendix 3 List of Abbreviations 4.251
Appendix 4 Organizations providing safety information 4.257
Appendix 5 List of Statutes, Regulations and Orders 4.259
Appendix 6 List of Cases 4.267
Appendix 7 Safety at Work Series – Index 4.272
Appendix 7
Series Index
Note: This index covers all four volumes of the Series. Entries and page
numbers in bold are entries specific to this volume. The prefix number
indicates the volume and the suffix number the page in that volume.
Abatement notices, chemicals nuisances,
4.212
ACAS (Advisory, Conciliation and
Arbitration Service), advisory
handbook, 1.99-1.101
Accident control systems, 2.44
Accident costing/cost management,
2.47-2.49, 2.52-2.53
Accident investigations:
information collection:
interviewing for, 2.81-2.84
what happened, 2.80-2.84
why it happened, 2.84-2.88
purpose, 2.79-2.80
report writing, 2.88-2.90
Accident prevention:
Accident Prevention Advisory Unit
(APAU), 2.51
economic reasons for, 2.18-2.19
humanitarian reasons, 2.17-2.18
legal reasons, 2.17
Accident/incident data:
accident statistics, 2.23
accident triangles, 2.59-2.61
checking non-reporting, 2.63-2.64
collection of, 2.61-2.65
ensuring reporting of, 2.62-2.63
epidemiological analysis, 2.78-2.79
frequency/severity relationship,
2.59-2.60
recording details, 2.64
for risk measurement, 2.77
trend analysis, 2.69-2.77
types of, 2.57-2.61
use of, 2.69-2.77
Accidents:
causation models, 2.14-2.16
definition, 2.3-2.4, 2.57
electrical, 4.111-4.112
failure modes, 2.16
fatal, 1.160-1.161
fault tree analysis, 2.16
and incidents, 2.3-2.4
inevitable, 1.139
modelling, 2.36
multiple causation theory, 2.15-2.16
prevention of, 2.3-2.4
sex/ethnic differences in liability, 2.131
susceptibility with change, 2.131-2.132
UK notification requirements, 2.65-2.69
use of data on, 2.44-2.45
at work, benefits available, 1.134-1.136
zero tolerance to, 2.143-2.144
see also Incident
Accommodation, of eye, 3.164
Acid rain, 4.236
Acids and bases, 4.7-4.8
Acne, 3.34
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
(AIDS), 3.66
Activity centres, young persons, 1.58 Acts
of Parliament, 1.29-1.30 Actus reus, 1.37
Administrative law, 1.5-1.7 Adopted
legislation, 1.31-1.33 Adrenaline, 3.23
Adversary law system, 1.18 Advertising:
Advertising Standards Authority, 1.127
broadcast, 1.128
misleading, 1.127-1.128
truth in, 1.120-1.121
Advisory Committee of Toxic Substances
(ACTS), 3.88
Advisory services, health, 3.6
Affidavits, 1.22
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency
syndrome), 3.66
Air, composition, 4.9 Air
pollution/sampling/control:
air pollution control (APC), 4.240
atomic absorption spectrometry, 3.81
breathing apparatus, 3.101
control measures, 3.94-3.103
direct monitoring, 3.82-3.84
dust, 3.74, 3.81, 3.82, 3.83-3.84, 3.96,
3.150-3.152
environmental legislation, 4.242-4.243
4.272fibre monitoring, 3.81-3.82
fibres, 3,81, 3.83-3.84
gas chromatography, 3.80
gases and vapours, measurement,
3.75-3.78, 3.82-3.83, 3.153 grab, 3.75-3.78
hygrometry, 3.85-3.86
Inspectorate of Pollution, 1.56
Integrated Pollution Control (IPC), 1.56,
4.240
international standards, 3.93
limit changes, 3.93-3.94
long-term, 3.78-3.82
Maximum Exposure Limits (MELs),
3.87-3.88
mixtures, 3.90
neurophysiological changes, 3.93
Occupational Exposure Standards
(OESs), 3.87-3.88, 3.89
oxygen analysers, 3.84-3.85
personal protective equipment (PPE),
3.97-3.98
planned strategies, 3.78
reduced time exposure, 3.96
respirators, 3,99
safety specification, 3.94
segregation, 3.95
stain detector tubes, 3.75-3.80
Threshold Limit Values (TLV), 3.87,
3.92-3.93
Time Weighted Average concentrations
(TWA), 3.89
time weighted average (TWA), 3.89,
3.150, 3.155
toxic substance substitution, 3.94-3.95
UK exposure limits, 3.87-3.90
ventilation:
dilution, 3.96, 3.149
local extract, 3.95, 3.149
Air receivers see Steam and air receivers
Air velocity measurement, 3.158-3.161
Alkyl mercury, disease from, 3.44
All England Reports (All ER), 1.18
Alpha radiation, 3.106
Alternative dispute resolution, 1.22
Alveolitis, extrinsic allergic, 3.41-3.42
American Conference of Governmental
and Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH),
3.87, 3.155
American Industrial Hygiene Association,
3.74
Ammonia, effects of, 3.53
Anatomy see Human body, structure and
functions
Angiosarcoma, 3.57
Animal handler’s lung, 3.42
Antecedent/behaviour/consequence
(ABC) model, 2.146-2.148
Anthrax, 3.67-3.68
Anthropometry, 3.183-3.184
Aplasia, 3.25
Appeal, right of, 1.101
Appellate Committee, 1.23
Appellate jurisdiction, 1.7
Approved codes, status of, 1.50
Approved Codes of Practice (ACOP), 1.67
ventilation, 3.156
Aptitude tests, 2.107
Arc welding, fumes from, 3.95
Arsenic, skin cancer from, 3.45
Arsine, diseases from, 3.45 Arthritis, 3.190
Artificial respiration, 3.16
Asbestos:
construction sites, 4.189
disposal legislation, 4.189, 4.245
Asbestos dust control, and local exhaust
ventilation (LEV), 4.150-4.151
Asbestosis, 3.27-3.28, 3.39
Asphyxia, simple and toxic, 3.52
Association of British Insurers, 1.85
Astigmatism, 3.164
Atkinson, J.W., 2.101
Atomic absorption spectrometry, 3.81
Atomic numbers, 4.4
Attendance Allowance, 1.135 Attitudes,
2.129-2.130
and behaviour, 2.143-2.144
Attorney General, 1.4,1.23,1.24
Audits, independent, 2.22-2.23
Back problems, 3.188-3.190
Bagassosis, 3.42
Barometer, mercury, 4.10
Barrier creams, 3.34, 3.102-3.103
Barristers, and representation, 1.8
Bases and acids, 4.7-4.8
Basle Convention, 4.238-4.239
Behaviour see Human function and
behaviour
Behavioural science:
aims of, 2.96
and health and safety, 2.97-2.98
Bends, 3.16
Benzene, toxic effects, 3.51
Beryllium dust, Pneumoconiosis from, 3.37
Best available techniques not entailing
excessive costs (BATNEEC),
4.240-4.241
Best practical environmental option
(BPEO), 4.241
Beta radiation, 3.106-3.107
Bills, House of Commons, 1.29-1.30
Binet, A., 2.107
Biological agents, as hazards, 3.91-3.92
Biological danger, immediate/long-term,
2.14
Bird fancier’s lung, 3.42
Bird, F.E., 2.9, 2.10, 2.15, 2.32, 2,38, 2.44,
2.52, 2.55
Bladder, and cancer, 3.71
Series Index 4.273Blindness, temporary, 3.164
Blood cells, red and white, 3.18
Boilers:
competent persons, 4.155
defects, typical, 4.136-4.137
definition, 4.134
examinations, 4.135-4.136, 4.155
patent and latent defects, 4.154-4.155
reports, 4.155-4.156
safe operating limits, 4.134
safety valves, 4.134
sound material, 4.155
Bone, osteolysis and necrosis, 3.71
Brain, 3.20
brain damage, 3.16
narcosis and encephalopathy, 3.71
Brainstorming, 2.136
Breach of statutory duty, 1.38,1.39
Breathing apparatus, types of, 3.100, 3.101
Bremsstrahlung radiation, 3.106, 3.107
British Occupational Hygiene Society, 3.8,
3.74, 3.87
British Standard Specifications, and
regulations, 1.49
British Standards:
BS 1025, 4.225
BS 1042, 4.20
BS 2769, 4.127
BS 4142, 3.136
BS 4275, 3.101
BS 4293, 4.127
BS 5228, 3.135
BS 5304, 4.74, 4.171
BS 5306, 4.46, 4.51
BS 5345, 4.124
BS 5378, 4.58
BS 5499, 4.58
BS 5501, 4.124
BS 5588, 4.56
BS 5744, 4.101, 4.184
BS 5750, 2.12, 2.42
BS 5958, 4.120
BS 5973, 4.176, 4.177, 4.179
BS 6100, 3.165
BS 7071, 4.127
BS 7121, 4.184
BS 7355, 3.98
BS 7375, 4.123
BS 7430, 4.116, 4.123
BS 7671, 4.116, 4.152
BS 7750, 2.12, 2.42
BS 7863, 4.64
BS CP 3010, 4.184
BS CP 6031, 4.167, 4.168, 4.169
BS EN 3, 4.46
BS EN 81, 4.141
BS EN 292, 4.77, 4.79
BS EN 294, 3.184, 4.75, 4.90
BS EN 349, 3.184, 4.75, 4.99
BS EN 574, 4.89
BS EN 614, 3.184
BS EN 811, 4.90
BS EN 953, 4.74
BS EN 999, 3.184, 4.75, 4.88
BS EN 1050, 4.78, 4.224
BS EN 1088, 4.74, 4.80
BS EN 1400, 2.42
BS EN 8800, 2.42
BS EN 9000, 2.160
BS EN 9001, 2.12, 2.42, 2.160
BS EN 14001, 2.12, 2.42, 2.160
BS EN 24869, 3.99
BS EN 45004, 4.154
BS EN 60079, 4.124
BS EN 60529, 4.123
BS EN 60825, 3.120
Broadcast advertising, 1.128
Bronchial asthma, 3.40-3.41, 3.54
Building materials, and fires, 4.36-4.37
Building site safety see Construction site
safety
Burden of proof, 1.21,1.25,1.37
Burns, electrical, 4.115
Business interruption, 2.12-2.13
Cadmium, illness and diseases from, 3.46
Cancer, 3.25-3.26
and bladder, 3.71
carcinogen classification, 3.56
carcinogenicity tests, 3.30-3.31
causes of, 3.56
from coal tar and pitch, 3.35-3.36
occupational, 3.55-3.57
and pneumonia, 3.55
and radiation, 3.108
of scrotum, 3.34-3.35
Candela, 3.165
Capability, of employees, 1.103
Carbohydrates, 3.11
Carbon, and organic compounds, 4.5
Carbon dioxide, effects of, 3.53
Carbon disulphide, toxic effects, 3.51
Carbon monoxide, dangers of, 3.52
Carbon tetrachloride:
harmful effects, 3.50
and ozone depletion, 4.236
uses and metabolism, 3.50
ventilation for, 3.94
Carcinogens see Cancer
Cardiovascular, illnesses with causes of,
3.71
Carpal tunnel syndrome, 3.186-3.187
Carter R.L., 2.44
Case law interpretation, 1.38
Cattell’s trait theory/personality factors,
2.130
Causal networks, 2.121-2.122
CE mark, 1.47
Central nervous system, 3.20
Cerebellum, 3.20
Chancery, 1.11
4.274 AppendicesChange, causes and effects:
and accident susceptibility, 2.131-2.132
by environmental change, 2.134
cultural factors, 2.129
from environmental factors, 2.128-2.129
from learned characteristics, 2.128-2.129
from learning and training, 2.134-2.136
genetic factors, 2.128
goals and objectives, 2.134
maladaptation, 2.134
methods of, 2.133-2.134
personality and attitudes, 2.129-2.130
situational factors, 2.129
stimuli and resistance to, 2.133
Chartered Institution of Building Services
Engineers (CIBSE), 3.168-3.169
Chemical Industries Association (CIA),
4.231, 4.245
Chemicals:
chemical reactions, 4.5
Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC),
4.194
COSHH regulations, 4.192
emergency procedures, 4.230-4.231
exposure monitoring, 4.201-4.202
exposure prevention:
enclosure, 4.199
local exhaust ventilation (LEV), 4.199
personal protective equipment (PPE),
4.199-4.201
quantity minimising, 4.199
respiratory protective equipment
(RPE), 4.200
substitution, 4.198-4.199
hazardous substance lists, 4.192
hazards, types of, 4.193
immediate/long-term dangers, 2.14
laboratories, 4.228-4.230
legislation, 4.202-4.212
carriage requirements, 4.204
Coshh regulations, 4.206-4.208
environmental protection, 4.208-4.212
hazardous site control, 4.203-4.204
information and packaging,
4.204-4.206
installation notification, 4.202-4.203
labelling, 4.204-4.206
pollution control, 4.208-4.211
statutory nuisances, 4.212
supply requirements, 4.204
waste disposal, 4.211
new substances, 4.193-4.194
plant/process design, 4.217-4.226
computer control systems, 4.221-4.222
functional safety life cycle
management (FSLCM), 4.225-4.226
Hazard and Operability Studies
(HAZOP), 4.219-4.220
modification procedures, 4.226
plant control systems, 4.221-4.222
risk assessment, 4.222-4.225
safety, 4,218-4.221
properties, 4.5-4,9
risk, 2.26
risk management, 4.198-4.202
risk/hazard assessment, 4.194-4.198
COSHH, 4.195-4.197
definitions, 4.194
forms for, 4.196-4.197
manual handling, 4.197
process of, 4.195
safe systems of work, 4.226-4.228
instruction documentation,
4.226-4.227
permits to work, 4.227-4.228
training, 4.227
safety information, 4.193-4.194
safety monitoring, 4.201
safety records, 4.201
safety training, 4.201
storage, 4.212-4.216
drum compounds, 4.212-4.215
gas cylinders, 4.216
storage tanks, 4.212-4.215
underground tanks, 4.215
warehousing, 4.215-4.216
tanker off-loading, 4.215
transport, 4.216-4.217
Chlorine, illness from, 3.52
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and ozone
depletion, 4.236
Chromium, skin problems from, 3.45
Circadian rhythm, 2.110-2.111
Circuit judges, 1.23
Circulatory system, 3.16-3.18
Civil actions:
applications, 1.5
burden of proof for, 1.5
defences to, 1.41
for injury, 1.3-1.4
time limits for, 1.41
Civil law, 1.4-1.5
Civil liability, 1.147-1.161
claim defences, 1.156-1.158
the common law, 1.147
damage assessment, 1.159-1.160
employer’s liability, 1.153-1.155
fatal accidents, 1.160-1.161
health and safety at work, 1.156
no fault liability, 1.161
occupier’s liability, 1.151-1.152
supply of goods, 1.152-1.153
time limitations, 1.158-1.159
tort, law of, 1.148-1.151
volenti non fit injuria, 1.158
Clean air see Air
pollution/sampling/control
Cleanliness of premises and equipment,
1.58
Clerk to the Justices, 1.23
Clothing, protective, 3.101-3.102
Series Index 4.275Coal tar, cancer from, 3.35-3.36
Cobalt, pneumoconiosis from, 3.37
Code for Interior Lighting (CIBSE),
3.168-3.169
Codes of practice:
HSW definition, 1.53
and trade descriptions, 1.119
Collective agreements, 1.82
Colour blindness, 3.164
Combustion see Fire(s)
Committe European de Normalisation
Electrotechnique (CENELEC), 1.70,
1.71
Committee on Consumer Protection report
(Cmnd 1781), 1.114
Committee on Product Safety Emergencies
(EU), 1.124
Common law, the, 1.147, 2.157
Communication, face to
face/written/visual, 2.136-2.138
Compensation:
and contracts, 1.80
and dismissal, 1.110
for injury, 1.3
see also Insurance cover and
compensation
Competent persons, 4.153-4.154
Complete Health and Safety Evaluation
(CHASE), 2.53
Complex man, 2.101-2.102
Compressed air, on construction sites,
4.176
Computers, use of:
alphanumeric data, 2.92-2.93
choosing software, 2.94
free format text programs, 2.91-2.92
hardware and software, 2.90
numeric data, 2.94
programs, nature of, 2.90-2.91
question/answer programs, 2.93
Concept learning, 2.135-2.136
Conditional fee agreements, 1.22
Conditioning, and stimulus response
learning, 2.135 Conjunctivitis, 3.164
Consideration, and contracts, 1.78
Constant Attendance Allowance, 1.135
Constitutional law, 1.5-1.7
Construction site safety, 4.161-4.189
accident rates, 4.161
asbestos legislation, 4.189
cold and wet conditions, 4.173
compressed air hazards, 4.176
drinking water, 4.185
dusty conditions, 4.174
electrocution dangers, 4.172
eye protection, 4.185
fire, 4.173
fire certificates, 4.186-4.187
fire legislation, 4.186-4.187
first aid boxes, 4.184-4.185
food legislation, 4.188
fumes, 4.174
glare problems, 4.173
head protection, 4.185-4.186
hot conditions, 4.174
industrial dermatitis, 4.174-4.175
ionising radiations, 4.175
lasers on, 4.176
mines, 4.188-4.189
non-destructive weld testing, 4.175
notification of work, 4.164-4.165
personal protective equipment (PPE), 4.185
petroleum spirit legislation, 4.188
planning supervisors, 4.162
principal contractor responsibilities,
4.162, 4.163-4.164
quarries, 4.188-4.189
sewers, 4.175
vibration white finger (VWF), 4.175
washing facilities, 4.188
Well’s disease, 4.175
welfare facilities, 4.184-4.185
see also Excavation site safety
Consumer contracts, 1.129-1.130
Consumer credit advertising, 1.120-1.121
Consumer protection:
consumer redress, 1.130-1.131
exclusion clauses, 1.128-1.130
fair contract conditions, 1.114-1.121
fair quality of goods, 1.121-1.122
fair quality of services, 1.122
misleading advertising, 1.127-1.128
product liability, 1.126-1.127
product safety, 1.122-1.124
Consumer redress, 1.130-1.131
Consumer Safety Unit (DTI), 1.126
Contaminated land, 4.237
Contracts/contract law, 1.5,1.78-1.87
consumer contracts, 1.129-1.130
contract formation, 1.78-1.79
employment, 1.39-1.40, 1.81-1.84
fair conditions of, 1.114-1.121
faults in, 1.79-1.80
insurance, 1.85
law of sale, 1.84-1.86
and occupational safety advisers,
1.86-1.87
remedies, 1.80-1.81
of service and services, 1.81
unfair contracts, 1.85
Contributory negligence, 1.146
defence, 1.143,1.157
Control of Substances Hazardous to
Health Regulations (COSHH) see
Appendix 6
Controlled Waste, 1.56
Cooper, M.D. et al, 2.150
Corporate killing proposals, 1.22
Corporate liability, 1.37
Corrected Effective Temperature (CET)
index, 3.154
4.276 AppendicesCortisone, 3.23
Cost benefit analysis, risk, 2.50
Costs, insured/uninsured, 2.18
Coughing, 3.14, 3.26
Courts:
of Appeal, 1.9,1.10,1.11,1.13,1.14,1.15,
1.16,1.20,1.23
appellate jurisdiction, 1.7
of Auditors (EU), 1.27,1.69
Civil:
England, 1.7-1.11
Northern Ireland, 1.14-1.16
Scotland, 1.12-1.14
County, 1.9
Court of First Instance (EU), 1.27
Court of Justice (EU), 1.26-1.27
Criminal:
England, 1.8,1.9,1.10,1.11
Northern Island, 1.14, 1.16
Scotland, 1.13-1.14
Crown, 1.10,1.11,1.20,1.23
District, 1.13
first instance jurisdiction, 1.7
High Court, 1.9,1.10,1.11,1.14,1.15
High Court of Justiciary, 1.13,1.14
Inferior courts, 1.7-1.8
Magistrates Courts, 1.10,1.11,1.14,1.15
personnel:
England, 1.22-1.24
Northern Ireland, 1.24
Scotland, 1.24
procedures, 1.18-1.22
Sheriff Court, 1.13
Superior courts, 1.7-1.8
Supreme Court of Judicature, 1.11
see also European courts
Cramp, from heat, 3.64
Cranes:
access, 4.100
bare conductors, 4.99
checklists, 4.180-4.182
controls, 4.99
definition, 4.95
emergency escape, 4.99
hand signals, 4.100, 4.101
inspection, 4.98
load indicators, 4.99, 4.181
overtravel switches, 4.99
passengers, 4.100
safe use, 4.99-4.100, 4.180-4.182
safe working load, 4.100
safety catches, 4.99
see also Lifts/hoists/lifting equipment
Credit and hire advertising, truth in,
1.120-1.121 Crimes, definition, 1.4
Criminal cases:
burden of proof for, 1.4
proceedings for, 1.20
rules of evidence for, 1.5
where held, 1.4
Criminal law, 1.4-1.7
Criminal liability, 1.7
Criminal offences away from work, 1.106,
1.107
Criminal proceedings, 1.8
Crown immunity, 1.58-1.59
Crown Notices, 1.58
Crown premises, legislation for, 1.58-1.59
Crown Prosecution Service, 1.4
Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD), 3.186
Current Law, abbreviation list, 1.18
Customs officers, powers of, 1.51
Cyclones, 3.151
Damage:
from negligence, 1.150-1.151
laws of, 1.144-1.146
Damage control, 2.10
reporting/investigating/costing,
2.46-2.47
Damages:
assessment of, 1.159-1.160
and contracts, 1.80
provisional damage, 1.159
special damage, 1.159
Danger:
action plans, 2.127
action plans for, 2.127
assessment of, 2.126
choice to expose to, 2.123-2.124
definition, 2.5
forseeability of, 2.125
and personal control, 2.124
prediction, 2.116-2.117, 2.119-2.121
probability assessment, 2.126
reactions to, 2.122-2.126
reactions to perceived risk, 2.122-2.126
responsibility for action, 2.126-2.127
see also Hazards
Dangerous goods, carriage of, 1.57
Dangerous occurrences, UK notification
requirements, 2.65-2.66
de Quervam’s disease, 3.187
Deafness, occupational, 3.64, 3.190
Debris, fire danger from, 4.33
Decibel, 3.125-3.126
Decision making and intelligence,
2.107-2.108
Defences, to civil action, 1.41,1.156-1.158
Dehydration, 3.64
Delegated legislation, 1.29-1.30
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 3.107-3.108
Dermatitis, non-infective, 3.33-3.34
Design:
health and safety in, 2.40-2.42
influence on behaviour, 2.138-2.139
for safety, 2.116
Development risks defence, 1.127
Digestive system, 3.12-3.13
Directives, European Union (EU), 1.32-1.34
Series Index 4.277Director disqualification, 1.36
Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP), 1.4,
1.24
Disabilities:
disability discrimination laws, 1.95-1.96,
3.190, 3.193
and ergonomics, 3.190-3.191
Disabled people, fire escape, 4.56
Disciplinary procedures, 1.99-1.101
AC AS Code of Practice, 1.99
Disciplinary rules, 1.82, 1.100
Disclaimers, and false descriptions, 1.118
Discrimination see Disabilities; Race
discrimination; Sex discrimination;
Young persons
Diseases:
de Quervain’s disease, 3.187
Legionnaire’s disease, 3.67
from metals, 3.42-3.46
from micro-organisms, 3.65-3.69
from pesticides, 3.46-3.47
respiratory, 3.36-3.42
skin, 3.33-3.36, 3.70
from solvents, 3.47-3.51
UK notification requirements, 2.68
Weil’s disease, 4.175
see also occupational diseases
Dismissal, 1.102-1.105
and capability of employees, 1.103
and compensation, 1.110
and continuing absences, 1.104
for contravention of an enactment, 1.109
effective date of termination, 1.102
fair/unfair reasons, 1.83, 1.102-1.103,
1.109-1.110
and ill-health, 1.103-1.104
for lack of skill, 1.104-1.105
Display screens, 3.180-3.181
legal requirements, 3.192
Diurnal rhythm, 2.110-2.111
Domestic premises, HSW definition, 1.53
Domino theory, 2.85-2.88
Domino theory of accidents, 2.14-2.15
Doors:
for fire escape, 4.57
and fire prevention, 4.39
Double vision, 3.164
Douglas H.M., 2.55
Draeger tube, 3.153
Due diligence defence, false trade
descriptions, 1.116
DuPont Safety Training Observation
Programme (STOP), 2.152
Dust:
air pollution/sampling/control, 3.74,
3.81, 3.82, 3.83-3.84, 3.96,
3.150-3.152
airborne dust lamps, 3.83-3.84
asbestos dust control, 4.150-4.151
fire danger from, 4.35
flammable, 4.28, 4.29
Duty:
practicable, 1.37
standards of, 1.37-1.38
Duty of care, 1.38-1.39
by employers, 1.39-1.40
environmental, 4.241
and negligence, 1.149-1.150
Ear-muffs, 3.98-3.99, 3.144
Ear-plugs, 3.98-3.99, 3.144
Ears, 3.21-3.22
inner ear, 3.21-3.22
working of, 3.133
see also Hearing
Eczema, 3.34
Electricity:
accidents, 4.111-4.112
in adverse/hazardous environments,
4.123
alternating current, 4.107
burns from, 4.115
cable fires, 4.39
circuit breakers, 4.118
circuits, 4.112-4.113
competency for working, 4.118-4.119
construction site fires, 4.173
construction site safety, 4.172
direct current, 4.107-4.108
earth leakage circuit breaker, 4.118,
4.119
earthing, 4.116
electric discharge lamps, 3.166
electric fields, 3.121-3.122
electric shock, 3.18, 4.113-4.115
in explosive atmospheres, 4.123-4.124
as a fire danger, 4.31
fires from, 4.30, 4.115-4.116
fittings, 4.125
flameproof equipment, 4.126
in flammable atmospheres, 4.123-4.124
fuses, 4.117-4.118
hazardous areas classification,
4.124-4.125
impedance, 4.113
inspection and test of equipment,
4.152-4.153
insulation, 4.117
intrinsically safe systems, 4.125
maintenance of equipment, 4.127-4.128
Ohm’s law, 4.112
overhead lines, HSE notes, 4.118
permits to work (PTW), 4.116, 4.120,
4.121-4.122
personal protective equipment (PPE),
4.117
portable tools, 4.126-4.127
pressurising, 4.125
purging, 4.125
residual current devices (RCDs), 4.127
static, 4.120, 4.123
statutory requirements, 4.110-4.111
4.278 Appendicessupply, 4.108-4.110
type ‘n’ and V equipment, 4,125
underground cables, HSE notes, 4.118
voltage, 4.108, 4.111
work precautions, 4.116-4.117
Electrons, 3.105-3.106, 4.3-4.4
Emissions, control of, 1.46
Employee, HSW definition, 1.53
Employee dismissal see Dismissal
Employee responsibility for H&S, 74 and
legislation, 1.82
Employee rights, 1.91-1.92
Employee suspension, 1.82-1.83
Employers:
and blatant disregard of H&S proposals,
1.22
civil liability of, 1.153-1.156
for fellow employee selection, 1.155
for place of work, 1.154
for plant and equipment, 1.154-1.155,
1.156
for supervision/instruction, 1.155
for system of work, 1.153-1.154
and vicarious liability, 1.153
duty of care, 1.39-1.40, 1.46
duty legislation, 1.82, 1.138
general duties on, 1.46-1.48
HSW requirements, 1.49-1.50
liability insurance, 1.136-1.141
responsibility to observe legislation, 1.45
Employment:
contracts for, 1.81
documents and agreements, 1.92
Employment Appeal Tribunal, 1.25
Employment Medical Advisory Service,
1.53
law, 1.90-1.92
legislation, 1.81-1.84
see also Dismissal
Encephalopathy, 3.43
Endothermic reactions, 4.5
Energy, work and power, 4.15-4.16
Enforcement notices, environmental,
4.240-4,241
Engines, as a fire danger, 4.31-4.32
Environment, change to, 2.134
Environmental Agency (EA), 4.244
Environmental issues/legislation,
4.234-4.238, 4.238-4.245
acid rain, 4.236
air pollution control (APC), 4.240
Basle Convention, 4.238-4.239
chemicals, protection from, 4.208-4.212
clean air legislation, 4.242-4.243
contaminated land, 4.237
controlled waste legislation, 1.56, 4.242
duty of care legislation, 4.241
Environmental Agencies, 1.56
global warming, 4.234-4.235
Inspectorate of Pollution, 1.56
integrated pollution control (IPC), 4.240
Montreal Protocol, 4.240, 4.238
noise legislation, 4.243
noise and nuisance, 4.238
ozone depletion, 4.235-4.236
photochemical smog, 4.236
protection legislation, 4.239-4.241
resource depletion, 4.238
special waste legislation, 4.243-4.244
waste classification, 4.239
waste disposal, 4.237, 4.240
waste management legislation,
4.243-4.244
water pollution, 4.237
water resources legislation, 4.241-4.242
see also Pollution
Environmental management systems,
4.245-4.247
BS EN ISO 1400 series of standards,
4.245-4.247
objectives, 4.247
Epicondylitis, 3.186
Epidemiological analysis:
with limited data, 2.79
purpose of, 2.78
single/multi-dimensional, 2.78-2.79
techniques for, 2.78-2.79
Epidemiology, 3.32-3,33
Equal opportunities see Disabilities; Race
discrimination; Sex discrimination;
Young persons
Equal pay legislation, 1.96
Equipment:
food, cleanliness, 1.58
see also Plant
Ergonomics, 3.176-3.194
allocation of function, 3.183
anthropometry, 3.183-3.184
and back problems, 3.188-3.190
by design, 3.179
controls, 3.182-3.183
definition, 3.176-3.177
and the disabled, 3.190-3.191
displays, 3.180-3.181
and error, 3.184-3.185
history of, 3.177-3.179
human-machine interface, 3.180
legal requirements, 3.191-3.193
text clarity, 3.181-3.182
unstability, 3.179-3.180
and work related upper limb disorders
(WRULD), 3.185-3.188
in the workplace, 3.185
Errors:
causes of, 2.112-2.116, 2.121
and ergonomics, 3.184-3.185
quantification of, 2.121
Erythema, 3.119
European Agency for Health and Safety at
Work, 1.33,1.69
European Committee for Electrotechnical
Standardisation (CENELEC), 4.124
European courts, 1.9, 1.11, 1.12, 1.15 mobile machinery on, 4.167-4.168,
Series Index 4.279European community courts (ECJ),
1.25-1.28
European Court of Human Rights,
1.27-1.28
European Court of Justice, and judicial
precedent, 1.18 European Union (EU):
Court of Auditors, 1,27,1.69
Court of Justice, 1.69
European Parliament, 1.33, 1.68, 1.69
European standards, 1.70-1.71
European Union (EU):
Commission, 1.68
Committee of Permanent
Representatives, 1.68
Council of, 1.67
Decisions and Recommendations of,
1.69
Directives, 1.32-1.34,1.69
Economic and Social Committee
(EcoSoc), 1.68
and employer employee relationships,
1.71-1.72
influence on HSW legislation, 1.36-1.37
legislation, 1.31-1.33,1.69-1.70
applied to individuals, 1.33
machinery directives, 4.69-4.73
and product information exchange,
1.123-1.124
Regulations of, 1.69
Examination of plant and equipment:
boilers, 4.134-4.137
competent persons, 4.153-4.154
cranes and lifting machines, 4.141-4.144
defects, latent and patent, 4.154-4.155
electrical equipment and installations,
4.152-4.153
gas containers, 4.131-4.134
history of, 4.130-4.131
legislation, 4.131
lifting and handling equipment,
4.139-4.148
operations regulations, 4.147-4.148
records of tests regulations,
4.146-4.147
lifting tackle, 4.145-4.146
lifts and hoists, 4.139-4.141
power presses and press brakes,
4.148-4.149
pressure systems, 4.131-4.139
process of, 4.155
reporting, statutory requirements,
4.155-4.156
steam and air receivers, 4.137-4.139
ventilation, 4.149-4.151
Excavation site safety, 4.165-4.171
battering the sides, 4.165, 4.166
benching the sides, 4.165, 4.166
flooding risks, 4.166
guardrails and barriers, 4.166
4.170, 4.171
overhead cables, 4.168
portable tools, 4.171
pre-planning, 4.170-4.171
public access, 4.167
steel trench sheet runners, 4.169
underground cables, 4.168-4.170
walling poling frames, 4.168
see also Construction site safety
Exchange and barter, 1.84
Exclusion clauses, 1.128-1.130
Excretion, 3.13
Expert witnesses/evidence, 1.22
Explosive material, 1.55
Exposure limits, air contamination see Air
pollution/ sampling/control
Extinction, management technique, 2.145
Extinguishers see Firefighting
Extremely low frequency fields (ELF),
3.121-3.122
Extrinsic allergic alveolitis, 3.41-3.42
Eyes, 3.20-3.21
burns of, 3.21
cataracts, 3.21
conditions/disorders, 3.164-3.165
eye strain, 3.164
illnesses with causes of, 3.70
protection, 3.101
protection on construction sites, 4.185
Facilities, and false descriptions,
1.116-1.117
Factories, early safety legislation, 1.34-1.35
Facts, and the law, 1.7
Failure modes, accidents, 2.16
Fairbairn, Sir W., 4.130
False trade descriptions:
code of practice for, 1.119
disclaimers, 1.118
due diligence defence, 1.116,1.119
list of descriptions, 1.115-1.116
penalties, 1.118,1.120
price indications, 1.120
pricing offences, 1.118-1.120
reckless statements, 1.117-1.118
services, facilities and accommodation,
1.116-1.118
strict liability offence, 1.116
truth in lending, 1.120-1.121
Farmer’s lung, 3.41-3.42
Fatal accidents, 1.160-1.161
fatal accident frequency rates (FAFRs),
2.39-2.40
Fatalities, UK notification requirements,
2.67
Fatigue, muscular and mental, 2.109-2.110
Fault tree analysis:
accidents, 2.16
risk, 2.37-2.38
4.280 AppendicesFeedback, of discussions, 2.22
Fibres, sampling for, 3.81, 3.83-3.84
Financial accountability, for risk
management, 2.51
Fire(s):
alarms, 4.40-4.41
and building materials, 4.36-4.37
chemistry of, 4.23-4.27
class A, solid organic materials, 4.29
class B, liquids and liquifiable solids,
4.29
class C, gases, 4.30
class D, flammable metals, 4.30
combustion process, 4.27-4.29
combustion products, 4.35
on construction sites, 4.173
construction sites, 4.186-4.187
detectors, 4.41-4.42
dusts, flammable, 4.28, 4.29
electrical, 4.30, 4.115-4.116
extinction methods, 4.42-4.46
cooling, 4.45
fuel starvation, 4.43-4.44
with halons, 4.45-4.46
smothering, 4.44-4.45
extinguishing agents, 4.30
Fire point temperature, 4.26
Fire triangle, 4.24-4.25
flameproof electrical equipment, 4.126
flammable substances, 4.27
flash point temperature, 4.26
fuel for, 4.25
ignition/ignition temperature, 4.25, 4.26
liquids, flammable, 4.28
lower flammable (explosive) limit, 4.26
and oxygen, 4.25
risk levels, 4.55
smoke, 4.28
solids, flammable, 4.28
spontaneous combustion, 4.28-4.29
spread of, 4.35-4.36
structural precautions, 4.38-4.40
upper flammable (explosive) limit, 4.26
see also Fire escape; Fire legal
requirements; Firefighting;
Flammable substances, control and
storage; Ignition sources
Fire Authority, 1.55
Fire certificates, 1.54-1.56
construction sites, 4.186-4.187
improvement and prohibition notices,
1.55
Fire escape:
disabled people, 4.56
doors, 4.57-4.58
emergency plans, 4.58-4.59
exits, 4.56
gangways, 4.57
instruction and training, 4.59-4.60
lighting, 4.58
maintenance and record keeping, 4.60
notices, 4.58
panic bolts and latches, 4.57-4.58
passages, 4.57
principals of, 4.55-4.56
signs, 4.58
stairways, 4.57
travel distances, 4.36, 4.57
Fire legal requirements, 1.54-1.56,
4.60-4.64
appeals and offences, 4.62
designated premises, 4.61
fire authority duties, 4.60
fire authority powers, 4.62-4.63
fire certificates, 4.61-4.63
regulations, 1.50
risk assessments, 4.63
Fire precautions/prevention, 4.23-4.67
loss control, 2.10-2.11
Firefighting, 4.46-4.55
fixed equipment:
automatic sprinklers, 4.52-4.55
carbon dioxide systems, 4.54
drencher systems, 4.54
dry pipe sprinklers, 4.53
fixed foam systems, 4.54
halon systems, 4.54
hose reels, 4.51
pre-action sprinklers, 4.54
rising mains, 4.51-4.52
wet pipe sprinklers, 4.53
liaison with fire brigade, 4.64
portable extinguishers, 4.46-4.51
carbon dioxide type, 4.48
dry powder type, 4.49
foam type, 4.49 operation, 4.46-4.50
provision, location and maintenance,
4.50-4.51
water type, 4,47, 4.48
First aid boxes, 3.10
construction sites, 4.184-4.185
First aid/first aiders at work, 3.9-3.10
First instance jurisdiction, 1.7
Fitness for purpose, 1.121-1.122
Fitts, P.M., 3.183
Flame detectors, 4.42
Flameproof electrical equipment, 4.126
Flammable material, 1.55
Flammable substances, control and
storage
dusts, 4.34-4.35
gases, 4.33-4.35
liquids, 4.34-4.35
waste, debris and spillage, 4.33
Fletcher, J.A., 2.55
Floors, and fire prevention, 4.39
Fluids:
compressible see Gases
incompressible see Liquids
Fluorescent lights, 3.167
Series Index 4.281Fog Index, Gunning, 3.181-3.182
Food:
building site legislation, 4.188
safety regulations, 1.126
Foodstuffs, 3.11-3.12
Force, work and power, 4.15-4.16
Forfeiture Orders, goods, 1.125
Forseeability of danger, 2.125
Frequency rates, 2.75
Freudian psychology, 2.130
Friction:
as a fire danger, 4.31
static and sliding, 4.16-4.17
Fuel, 4.25
Fumes, noxious or offensive, 1.47
Functional safety life cycle management
(FSLCM), chemical plants,
4.225-4.226
Gamma-rays, 3.107
Ganglions, 3.187
Gangways, for fire escape, 4.57
Gas chromatography, 3.80
Gas containers:
regulations for, 4.100-4.102
transportable
definition, 4.102
safe usage, 4.103-4.104
Gas cylinders, storage, 4.216
Gases:
compression of, 4.20
fire danger from, 4.33-4.35
flow measurement, 4.20-4.21
General Gas Law, 4.11
physical properties, 4.11-4.12
sampling for see Air
pollution/sampling/control
specific gravity, 4.12
Gassing:
accidents from, 3.51-3.53
see also named gases
Germain, G.L., 2.10
Gilbreth, F.B, 3.178
Glare, 3.170-3.171
glare index, 3.171
protection from, 3.171
Glendon, A.I., 2.98, 2.116
Global warming, 4.234-4.235
Gloves:
neoprene, 3.101
polyvinyl alcohol, 3.102
Goal setting, 1.66-1.67
Goods:
fair quality, 1.121-1.122
forfeiture orders, 1.125
notices to warn, 1.125
and product liability, 1.126-1.127
Prohibition Notices, 1.125
Suspension Notices, 1.125
Gordon, J.E., 2.16
Grab sampling, 3.75-3.78
Green Papers, 1.31
Greenhouse effect, 4.235
Greenhow, Dr E.H., 3.4
Grievance procedure, 1.82
Gross misconduct, 1.101
Guards and interlocks, 3.191
adjustable guards, 4.80
distance guards, 4.79
fixed enclosing guards, 4.80
fixed guards, 4.79
hazard identification, 4.76-4.77
interlocked guards:
automatic, 4.88
cam-operated, 4.81-4.85
captive key, 4.85
control guards, 4.89
direct manual, 4.81
features and choice, 4.80-4.81
limit switches, 4.83-4.85
magnetic switch, 4.86
mechanical, 4.81, 4.82
mechanical scotches, 4.86-4.87
time delayed, 4.86-4.87
trapped key, 4.83-4.85
trip devices, 4.88
two-hand control, 4.88
materials for, 4.89-4.90
openings, 4.90
reaching over, 4.90
risk assessment, 4.77-4.78
selection and monitoring, 4.77-4.78
tunnel guards, 4.79
Guilty plea, 1.21
Gunning Fog Index, 3.181-3.182
Hale, A.R., 2.84, 2.98, 2.116
Hale, M., 2.84
Halons, and ozone depletion, 4.236
Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS),
3.57-3.58
Hands/arms, illnesses with causes of, 3.70
Hazards:
definition, 2.4
degrees of, 2.13-2.14
hazard analysis (HAZAN), 2.39
hazard and operability (HAZOP)
studies/techniques, 2.23, 2.38,
2.119-2.120
chemical plant, 4.219-4.220
Hazard and Risk Explained HSE leaflet,
2.4-2.5
inspections for, 2.119
prediction techniques, 2.119-2.121
and risk, 2.4-2.5
routine detection, 2.118-2.119
warnings of, 2.118-2.119
see also Danger; Health hazards; Risk
4.282 AppendicesHead protection, construction sites,
4.185-4.186
Health, dismissal for ill-health, 1.103-1.104
Health assessments, 3.6
Health hazards, classes of, 3.75
Health promotion, 2.124-2.125
Health and safety, in design and planning,
2.40-2.42
Health and safety at work legislation,
1.44-1.59
administration of 1974 act, 1.48-1.49
definitions of 1974 act, 1.53-1.54
Employment Medical Advisory Service,
3.194
enforcement, 1.50-1.51
extensions to act, 1.52
formal risk assessment, 2.161
framework for, 1.64-1.65
general duties on employers and others,
1.46-1.48
goal setting for, 1.66-1.67
offences, 1.51-1.52
post 1974, 1.45-1.46
pre 1974, 1.44-1.45
regulations and codes of practice, 1.49-1.50
see also Construction site safety;
Occupational health, hygiene and
safety
Health and Safety Commission (HSC),
1.46, 1.63-1.64 ‘
duties of, 1.48
Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
duties of, 1.48-1.49
Occupational Exposure Limits (OEL),
3.155
operation of, 1.63-1.64
Hearing:
audiogram, 3.63, 3.133
deafness and noise, 3.70
ear sensitivity, 3.61
hearing protectors, 3.99
mechanism of, 3.61
noise exposure limits, 3.62-3.63
noise induced loss claims, 1.140-1.141
occupational deafness, 3.64, 3.134
protection for, 3.63, 3.98-3.99, 3.137
titnnitus, 3.134
see also Ear
Heart, 3.16-3.18
Heat, as a form of energy, 4.15
Heat detectors, 4.41-4.42
Heat Stress Index (HSI), 3.154
Heat stroke, 3.64
Heated environment see Thermal
environment
Heating systems, as a fire danger, 4.31
Heinrich, H.W., 2.14, 2.15, 2.22
Hepatitis A/B/C, 3.65-3.66
Herbicides, dangers of, 3.47
Hire and credit advertising, truth in,
1.120-1.121
Hire-purchase agreements, 1.87
HIV +ve, 3.66
Hoists see Lifts/hoists/lifting equipment
Hooke’s Laws, 4.17
Hormones, 3.23-3.24
Houldsworth, H., 4.130
House of Lords, 1.8,1.9,1.10,1.11,1.12,
1.14
Human body, structure and functions,
3.3-3.28
anatomy and physiology, 3.10-3.25
cancer, 3.25-3.26
central nervous system, 3.20
circulatory system, 3.16-3.18
defence mechanisms, 3.26-3.27
digestion, 3.12-3.13
ear, 3.21-3.22
excretion, 3.13
eye, 3.20-3.21
heart, 3.18
history, 3.3-3.5
hormones, 3.23-3.24
muscles, 3.19
poisons, effects of, 3.27-3.28
respiratory system, 3.13-3.16
skin, 3.24-3.25
smell and taste, 3.22-3.23
special senses, 3.20
Human factor and health and safety,
2.96-2.142
behaviour modification, 2.144-2.152
human being as a system, 2.98-2.99
and performance management,
2.145-2.150
Human function and behaviour
aptitude tests, 2.107
attitude, 2.132-2.133, 2.143
behaviour intervention process,
2.149-2.150
behaviour observation and counselling,
2.151-2.152
behavioural analysis, 2.147
behavioural process, future for,
2.152-2.155
and communication, 2.136-2.138
complex man, 2.101-2.102
decision making and intelligence,
2.107-2.108
design, influence of, 2.138-2.139
diurnal and arcadian rhythm,
2.110-2.111
environmental effects, 2.108-2.109
error quantification, 2.121
errors, causes of, 2.112-2.116, 2.121
expectancy, 2.104-2.105
fatigue, muscular and mental,
2.109-2.110
goals, objectives and motivation,
2.100-2.102
human actions, 2.108
intelligence quotient (IQ), 2.107
Series Index 4.283Human function and behaviour – continued
Maslow A.H. and Self Actualising Man,
2.101
Mayo E. and Social man, 2.100-2.101
memory, short/long-term, 2.105-2.106
performance degradation causes,
2.109-2.110
routines and skills, 2.106-2.107
sense organs, 2.102-2.103
stress, 2.111-2.112, 3.23, 3.69-3.70, 3.187
switching/attention mechanisms,
2.103-2.104
Taylor F.W. and Economic Man, 2.100
see also Behavioural science; Change;
Danger
Humidifier fever, 3.68
Hydraulics, 4.20-4.21
hydraulic power transmission,
4.13-4.14
Hydrochloric acid, illness from, 3.52
Hydrogen sulphide, effects of, 3.53
Hygiene standards, 3.86-3.87
see also Air pollution/sampling/control
Hygrometry/hygrometers, 3.85-3.86, 3.154
Hypermetropia, 3.164
Hyperplasia, 3.25
Ignition sources:
electricity, 4.31
engines, 4.31
friction, 431
heating systems, 4.31
hot surfaces, 4.31
smoking, 431
tools, 4.31
Ignition/ignition temperature, 4.25, 4.26
Ill health, and dismissal, 1.103-1.104
Illuminance, 3.165
see also Lighting
Immune system, body, 3.26-3.27
Impairment assessment, 1.134
Implied terms/conditions
in contracts, 1.83-1.84
in sales, 1.84-1.86
Improvement Notices, 1.51
fire, 1.55
Incandescent lamps, 3.165, 3.167
Incapacity benefit, 1.135
Incident, at Hazards Ltd, 1.3-1.4,1.5,1.20
Incident recall technique, and loss control,
2.10
Incidents, 2.3-2.4
and accidents, 2.3-2.4
definition, 2.57
incidence rates, 2.74
possible legal proceedings from,
1.18-1.21
UK notification requirements, 2.65-2-69
see also Accidents
Independent audits, 2.22-2.23
Induction lamp, 3.166, 3.167
Industrial dermatitis, on construction
sites, 4.174-4.175
Industrial Injuries Disablement Benefit,
1.134
Industrial relations law, 1.7,1.90-1.112
disciplinary procedures, 1.99-1.101
discrimination, 1.92-1.99
dismissal, 1.102-1.105
and employment law, 1.90-1.92
and enactment contravention, 1.109
misconduct, 1.105-1.107
redundancy, 1.107-1.109
unfair dismissal, 1.109-1.112
Industrial Tribunals, 1.24-1.25
and accidents, 1.4
and Improvement/Prohibition notices,
1.51
Inevitable accidents, 1.139
Information exchange on products, EU
requirements, 1.123-1.124
Infrared radiation, 3.120
Injuries, UK notification requirements,
2.65-2.69
Injury prevention, 2.10
Inorganic compounds, 4.6-4.7
Insecticides, illnesses from, 3.46-3.47
Inspection, for hazards, 2.119
Inspections techniques, for reports, 2.63
Inspectorate of Pollution, 1.56
Inspectors, 1.18
of accidents, 1.3
powers of, 1.50-1.51
Instruction, employer’s liability for,
1.154-1.155
Insulin, 3.23
Insurance contracts, 1.85,1.85-1.86
Insurance cover and compensation,
1.133-1.146
Employers liability insurance,
1.136-1.141
investigation, negotiation and the
quantum of damage, 1.143-1.146
Public Liability insurance, 1.142-1.143
State insurance scheme, 1.133-1.136
Workmen’s Compensation scheme,
1.133-1.136
Integrated Pollution Control (IPC), 1.56,
4.240
Intelligence and decision making,
2.107-2.108
Intelligence quotient (IQ), 2.107
Intention, and contracts, 1.78-1.79
International Atomic Energy Agency, 3.118
International Commission on Radiological
Protection (ICRP), 3.109, 3.110, 3.118
International Safety Rating System, 2.169
International Safety Rating System (ISRS),
2.53
Interviews, for reports, 2.63, 2.81-2.84
Investigation, for insurance, 1.143-1.146
Ionising radiation see Radiation
4.284 AppendicesJastrzebowski, W., 3.179
Job safety (Hazard) analysis, 2.23,
2.148-2.150, 2.174-2.175
analysis chart, 2.27-2.28
job breakdown, 2.29-2.30
procedure, 2.26-2.30
safe systems of work, 2.31
safety instructions, 2.30
Joint consultation, 1.98-1.99
Joint tortfeasors, 1.157-1.158
Judges, 1.22-1.23
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council,
1.17
Judicial precedent, 1.17-1.18, 1.147
and European Union, 1.26
Justices of the Peace, 1.23
Kidneys, toxicity and infection, 3.71
Kirwan, B., 2.121
Knowledge-based work, errors during,
2.115-2.116 Komaki, J. et al, 2.145
Krause, T.R. et al, 2.145
Lamps see Lighting
Land-fill:
legislation for, 4.244
waste disposal, 4.211
Landlords, duties of, 1.47
Laser nephelometer, 3.84
Laser radiation, 3.121
Lasers, on construction sites, 4.176
Law, sources of, 1.28
Law making, power delegation for,
1.63-1.64
Lead, diseases from:
biological monitoring, 3.43
fume or dust hazard, 3.42, 4.151
inorganic lead, 3.42-3.43
organic lead, 3.43
Learning, psychological principles,
2.134-2.136
Legal aid, targeting proposals, 1.22
Legal reform proposals, 1.22
Legge, T., 3.4-3.5
Legionnaire’s disease, 3.67
Legislation:
Acts of Parliament, 1.29-1.30
adopted, 1.31-1.33
asbestos, 4.189, 4.202-4.212, 4.245
Crown premises, 1.58-1.59
enforcement, 1.50-1.51
equal pay, 1.96
European Union (EU), 1.31-1.34
mines, 1.35, 1.56, 4.188-4.189
noise, 4.243
petroleum spirit, 1.58
pollution, 1.56
quarries, 1.35,1.56
statutory interpretation, 1.30-1.31
water, 4.241-4.242
White/Green Papers, 1.31
see also Chemicals, legislation;
Environmental issues/legislation;
Health and safety at work
legislation; Safety legislation; Waste
legislation
Lending, truth when, 1.120-1.121
Leptospirosis, 3.67
Liability, 1.126-1.127
absolute and strict, 1.37
corporate, 1.37
see also Product liability; Public liability;
Third party liability
Lifts/hoists/lifting equipment, 4.95-4.100,
4.139-4.148
adequate strength, 4.155
approved codes of practice, 4.98
checklists, 4.182-4.184
definitions, 4.95, 4.140, 4.141
dock regulations, 4.141
examinations/inspections/reports, 4.98,
4.140, 4.142-4.144, 4.180
fishing vessel regulations, 4.141
in-service requirements, 4.140
load radius indicators, 4.143
miscellaneous equipment, 4.145-4.146
acceptable damage, 4.146
passenger, safety, 4.141
patent and latent defects, 4.154-4.155
record requirements, 4.146-4.147
regulations, 4.96-4.97, 4.139,
4.147-4.148, 4.178-4.184
reports, 4.155-4.156
safe use, 4.97-4.99
safe working loads (SWL), 4.143
sound material, 4.155
types of, 4.139
working load limit (SWL), 4.143
see also Cranes
Liftshafts, and fire prevention, 4.39
Lighting, 3.163-3.174
Code for Interior Lighting, by CIBSE,
3.168-3.169
colour, 3.172-3.173
for fire escape, 4.58
glare, 3.170-3.171
light meters, 3.173-3.174
maintenance of, 3.169
quality, 3.170
shadow, 3.171
stroboscopic effect, 3.171-3.172
types of, 3.166, 3.167-3.168
Liquids:
flammable, 4.28, 4.34-4.35
heats of vaporisation and fusion, 4.13
in hydraulic power transmission,
4.13-4.14, 4.21
physical properties, 4.12-4.14
Liver:
hepatitis and cancer, 3.71
poison damage, 3.13
Series Index 4.285Local authorities, powers of for public
health, 1.57-1.58
Local exhaust ventilation (LEV), 3.95,
3.149, 3.156, 4.149-4.151
asbestos dust control, 4.150-4.151
chemicals, 4.199
components of, 4.149-4.150
examination for need of, 4.150
purpose, 4.149
Tyndall (dust) lamp, 4.151
Local Procurator-Fiscal, 1.20
Loftus, R.G., 2.9, 2.10, 2.15, 2.32, 2.38
Lord Advocate, 1.4, 1.24
Lord Chancellor, 1.23, 1.24
Lord Justices of Appeal, 1.23
Los Alfaques Camping Site disaster, 4.13
Loss control:
and business interruption, 2.12-2.13
damage control, 2.10
fire prevention, 2.10-2.11
incident recall, 2.10
injury prevention, 2.10
management in practice, 2.13
and occupational health and hygiene,
2.11-2.12
and pollution control/environmental
protection, 2.12
principle of, 2.9-2.10
and product liability, 2.12
profiling, 2.53-2.54
security, 2.11
Losses, pecuniary/non-pecuniary,
1.145-1.146
Lower flammable (explosive) limit, 4.26
Lumen, 3.165 Luminaire, 3.166-3.167
Luminance, 3.165 Lungs, 3.13-3.16
illnesses of, 3.70
Maastricht Treaty, 1.26, 1.33
McClelland, D., 2.101
Machinery, safe use of
existing machinery, regulations,
4.73-4.76
hazard identification, 4.76-4.77
hazard reduction, 4.77
legislative arrangements, 4.68-4.69
Machinery Directives, 4.68-4.69, 4.69
new machinery, regulations, 4.69-4.73
operator training, 4.78
residual risk assessment, 4.77-4.78
see also Guards and interlocks;
Lifts/hoists /lifting equipment;
Powered trucks; Pressure systems
Magnetic fields, 3.121-3.122
Maintenance systems, and risk
management, 2.45-2.46
Maladaptation, 2.134
Malt worker’s lung, 3.42
Man-made mineral fibres, pneumoconiosis
from, 3.37
Management control, lack of, 2.87-2.88
Management/worker discussions, 2.22
Manchester Steam Users’ Association,
4.130
Manganese, diseases from, 3.46
Manometers, 3.161, 4.10
Manufacturers, civil liability of, 1.152
Maslow, A.H., 2.51
and Self Actualising Man, 2.101 Mason
hygrometer, 3.86
Materials:
failures in, 4.19
strength of, 4.17-4.19
Matter:
changes of state, 4.11
structure, 4.3-4.5
Maximum Exposure Limits (MELs), 3.155,
4.150
air sampling, 3.87-3.88
Trichloroethylene, 3.50
Maximum potential loss (MPL), 2.24-2.25
Mayo, E. and Social man, 2.100-2.101
Mechanics, 4.16-4.17
Medical grounds suspension, 1.82
Medicines, safety regulations, 1.126
Memory, short/long-term, 2.105-2.106
Mens rea, 1.37
Merchantable quality, 1.121
Merchantable/unmerchantable goods, 1.85
Mercury lamps, 3.166
Mercury, poisoning and diseases from,
3.44-3.45
health surveillance for, 3.44-3.45
Mesothelioma, 3.40
Metal halide lamp, 3.166, 3.167
Metals:
diseases from, 3.42-3.46
metal fume fever, 3.45
properties, 4.5-4.6
see also named metals
Metaplasia, 3.25 Micro-organisms:
diseases from, 3.65-3.69
see also named diseases from
Mineral fibres, and pneumoconiosis, 3.37
Mines:
early safety legislation, 1.35
legislation, 1.56, 4.188-4.189
Misconduct, 1.105-1.107
Misrepresentation, and contracts, 1.79
Mistake, and contracts, 1.79
Mobile towers, 4.178, 4.179
Mobility Allowance, 1.135
Molecular formulae, 4.4-4.5
Monday morning fever, 3.68
Montreal Protocol 1987, 4.238
Motivational theory, 2.51-2.52
Multiple accident causation theory,
2.15-2.16
4.286 AppendicesMunitions factories, 3.5
Murrell, K.F.H., 3.179
Muscle cramp, from heat, 3.64
Muscles, 3.19
Mutagenesis, 3.26
Myopia, 3.164
National Disability Council, 1.95
National Insurance schemes see State
insurance schemes
National Radiological Protection Board
(NRPB), 3.118, 3.119
Negative reinforcement, management
technique, 2.145
Negligence, 1.39,1.40
and breach of duty, 1.150
contributory, 1.146,1.157
and duty of care, 1.149-1.150
and resultant damage, 1.150-1.151
Negotiation, for insurance, 1.143-1.146
Neoplasia, 3.26
Nerves, illnesses with causes of, 3.71
Neutrons, 3.105, 3.107, 4.3-4.4
Nickel and nickel carbonyl, illness and
diseases from, 3.46
Night working, 2.111
Nitrous fumes, effects of, 3.53
No fault liability, 1.76,1.161
Noise, 3.124-3.145
absorbent materials, 3.140
absorption coefficients, 3.140
absorption treatment, 3.142-3.143
acoustic enclosures, 3-140
community noise levels, 3.135-3.136
control techniques, 3.137-3.145
damping, 3.142
dosimeter, 3.135, 3.136
enclosure protection, 3.138-3.140
environmental legislation, 4.243
equivalent noise level, 3.134-3.135
lagging, 3.142
limits of exposure, 3.62-3.63
neighbourhood noise assessment, 3.136
noise cancelling, 3.145
noise induced hearing loss claims,
1.140-1.141
noise rating curves, 3.128
Noise and the Worker pamphlet,
1.140-1.141
and nuisance, 4.238
personnel protection, 3.144
reduction techniques, 3.144-3.145
screens, 3.142
sources/paths/receivers, 3.137-3.144
statistical analyser, 3.135
work area levels, 3.136-3.137
see also Hearing; Sound
Northern Ireland Judgements Bulletin
(NIJB), 1.18
Northern Ireland Law Reports (NI), 1.18
Nose, illnesses with causes of, 371
Nova causa, 1.151
Novus actus interveniens, 1.151
Nuisance, and civil liability, 1.148
Nurses, in occupational health
departments, 3.6
Nystagmus, 3.164
Obiter dicta, 1.17,1.28
Occupational diseases, 3.29-3.71
cancer, occupational, 3.55-3.57
deafness, 3.64, 3.190
from heat, 3.64
from metals, 3.42-3.46
from micro-organisms, 3.65-3.69
gassing, 3.51-3.53
hearing, 3.61-3.64, 3.98-3.99
oxygen deficiency, 3.53-3.55
pesticides, 3.46-3.47
physical, 3.57-3.58
psycho-social/stress, 3.69-3.70
radiation, 3.58-3.61
respiratory system, 3.36-3.42
skin, 3.33-3.36
solvents, 3.47-3.51
target organs, 3.70-3.71
toxicology, 3.29-3.33
work related upper limb disorders
(WRULD), 3.64-3.65
Occupational Exposure Limits (OEL), 3.155
Occupational Exposure Standards (OESs),
3.155, 4.150
air sampling, 3.87-3.88, 3.89
Occupational health departments functions
of, 3.6
overseas developments, 3.6-3.7
Occupational health, hygiene and safety,
2.11-2.12, 3.8-3.9, 3.74-3.103
biological agents, 3.91-3.92
carcinogens, 3.91
classes of health hazard, 3.75
control measures, 3.94-3.103
control standards, 3.98
direct monitoring instruments, 3.82-3.84
exposure limits, 3.87-3.94
grab sampling, 3.75-3.78
hygiene standards, 3.86-3.87
hygrometry, 3.85-3.86
long-term sampling, 3.78-3.82
oxygen analysers, 3.84-3.85
personal hygiene, 3.96
personal protective equipment (PPE),
3.97-3.98
physical factors, 3.90-3.91
sensitisation, 3.91
skin absorption, 3.91
strategy for protection, 3.102
see also Air pollution/sampling/control;
Health and safety at work
legislation
Series Index 4.287Occupiers:
and civil liability, 1.151-1.152
liability of, 1.40,1.86-1.87
and suppliers of articles to, 1.87
Office of Fair Trading (OFT), 1.127-1.128,
1.130
Offices, early safety legislation, 1.35
Ohm’s law, 4.112 Orders (subpoenas), 1.20
Organic compounds, 4.7, 4.8
Organic dusts, pneumoconiosis from, 3.37
Organic vapour analyser, 3.83
Own branding, 1.127
Owners, duties of, 1.47
Oxygen:
effects of starvation, 3.13-3.14
and fire, 4.25
normal requirements, 3.53-3.54
oxygen analyser, 3.84-3.85
response to deficiency, 3.55
Ozone depletion, 4.235-4.236
Pacemakers, 3.19
Pancreas, 3.23
Passages, for fire escape, 4.57
Passive smoking, 1.40
Pearson Commission, 1.76
Pecuniary/non-pecuniary losses,
1.145-1.146
Per curium, 1.18 Per incuriam, 1.18
Performance evaluation and appraisal,
risk, 2.51-2.53
Performance management, 2.145-2.150
structural feedback approach,
2.150-2.151 Personal hygiene, 3.96
Personal injury, HSW definition, 1.53
Personal protective equipment (PPE),
3.97-3.98
chemicals, 4.199-4,201
construction sites, 4.185
for electricity, 4.117
legal requirements, 3.192
Personality, 2.129-2.130
Persuasive decisions, 1.17
Pesticides, diseases from, 3.46-3.47
Peterson, D.C., 2.16
Petroleum spirit
construction sites, 4.188
legislation for, 1.58
Phon, 3.127
Photochemical smog, 4.236
Photokeratitis, 3.119
Physical danger, immediate/long-term,
2.13
Pitch, cancer from, 3.35-3.36
Pitot-static tubes, 3.161
Planned maintenance, and risk
management, 2.45-2.46
Planning:
for health and safety, 2.40-2.42
for safety, 2.116
Plant:
employer’s liability for, 1.154-1.155,
1.156
fire prevention for, 4.39
HSW definition, 1.53 Pleading guilty, 1.21
Pneumoconiosis, 3.36-3.38, 3,54
Pneumonia, and cancer, 3.55
Poisons:
in body, 3.13, 3.27-3.28
see also Occupational diseases;
Toxicology; also named poisons
Political influences, 1.73-1.74
Pollution:
control of chemicals, 4.208-4.211
control and environmental protection;
2.12
legislation for, 1.56
see also Air pollution/sampling/control;
Water V
Polytetrafluoroethylene(ptfe) fumes, 3.45
Pontiac fever, 3.67
Positive reinforcement, management
technique, 2.145 Powell P.I. et al, 2.131
Power presses see Presses and press brakes
Powered trucks:
HSE guidance booklet, 4.93
operator training, 4.90-4.91
safe operating conditions, 4.91-4.94
Precedent see Judicial precedent Predicted
four hour sweat rate (P4SR),
3.154
Premises:
for food, cleanliness, 1.58
HSW definition, 1.53
Prescribed Industrial Diseases/Benefits,
1.134,1.135
claims for, 1.141
Presses and press brakes, 4.148-4.149
examination and testing, 4.148-4.149
power press regulations, 4.148
setting and adjusting, 4.149
Pressure, 4.10, 4.16
Pressure systems:
codes of practice and guidance notes,
4.134
and competent persons, 4.154
definition, 4.133
regulations for safe use, 4.100-4.103,
4.131, 4.132
relevant fluids, 4.133-4.134
reporting requirements, 4.133-4.134
see also Boilers
Pricing offences, 1.118-1.120
Private nuisance, 1.148
Privileged/not privileged documents, 1.20
Problem solving, 2.136
4.288 AppendicesProcurators-fiscal, 1.4
Product liability, 1.126-1.127
and loss control, 2.12
Product recall, product safety, 1.124
Product safety:
EU information exchange, 1.123-1.124
food and medicines, 1.126
producer/distributor obligations,
1.122-1.123
product recall, 1.124
regulations for, 1.126
safe, definition of, 1.123
Prohibition Notices, 1.51, 2.5
environment, 4.240-4.241
fire, 1.55
goods, 1.125
Project design/commissioning, for health
and safety, 2.41
Proportionality, principal of, 1.27
Protective clothing, 3.101-3.102
Proteins, 3.11
Protons, 3.105, 4.3-4.4
Psycho-social disorders see Stress
Psychological danger
immediate/long-term, 2.14
Psychology, 2.130
Public expectations, 1.72-1.73
Public law, 1.5-1.7
Public Liability insurance, 1.142-1.143
Public nuisance, 1.148
Punishment, as a management technique,
2.145
Purposive interpretations, 1.30-1.31
Quality, goods and services, 1.121-1.122
Quality culture, 1.75-1.76
Quality, environment, safety and health
(QUENSH) management systems,
2.42-2.44
Quality and safety, 2.43-2.44
Quality systems, and BSI EN ISO 9001,
2.42-2.43
Quantum of damage, 1.144
Quantum meruit, and contracts, 1.80-1.89
Quarries, 4.188-4.189
early safety legislation, 1.35
legislation for, 1.56
Quarterly moving means, 2.70-2.72
Queen’s Bench, 1.11
Quota hopping, 1.26
Race discrimination laws, 1.94-1.95
exceptions, 1.95
Radiation, 3.105-3.122
absorbed dose, 3.109
activity of a radionuclide, 3.109
acute radiation syndrome, 3.60
approved dosimetry service (ADS), 3.115
and cancer, 3.108
contamination meters, 3.114
control principles, 3.61
dose limits, 3.60, 3.114-3.117
dose rate meters, 3.114
effective dose, 3.109
effects of, 3.59
equivalent dose, 3.109
from fires, 4.28
incidents and emergencies, 3.118-3.119
infrared, 3.120
internal, 3.60
ionising, 3.106-3.107
biological effects, 3.107-3.108
lasers, 3.121
legal requirements, 3.114-3.118
long term effects, 3.60
monitoring, 3.112-3.114
National Arrangements for Incidents
involving Radioactivity (NAIR),
3.119
non-ionising, 3.119-3.122
optical, 3.119-3.121
pregnant women, 3.114
protection:
from internal radiation, 3.111-3.112
principles, 3.110-3.111
quantities and units, 3.108-3.110
Radiation Protection Advisers (RPAs),
3.115, 3.118
Radiation Protection Supervisor (RPS),
3.116-3.117
radioactivity, 3.106
tissue sensitivity, 3.59
transport regulations, 3.117-3.118
types of, 3.58-3.59
ultraviolet, 3.119-3.120
Radioactivity, 3.106
Radiotherapy, 3.107
Ramazzini, 3.4
Rasmussen, J., 2.113, 2.121
Ratio decidendi, 1.17,1.28,1.147
Reason, J.T., 2.113, 2.121
Reasonableness, test of, 1.101
Reasonably practical, meaning of, 2.157
Redundancy, 1.107-1.109
for other substantial reasons, 1.109
Reflectance factor, 3.165
Repair, contracts for, 1.84
Repetitive strain industry (RSI) see Work
related upper limb disorders
(WRULD)
Reports, writing, accidents, 2.88-2.89
Representation, 1.8
Res ipsa loquitur:
as a defence, 1.139
and negligence, 1.150
Residual current devices (RCDs), 4.127
Resource depletion, and the environment,
4.238
Series Index 4.289Respirators, types of, 3.99, 3.100
Respiratory diseases, 3.36-3.42
see also named respiratory diseases
Respiratory protective equipment (RPE),
chemicals, 4.200
Respiratory system, 3.13-3.16
Restraint clauses, contracts, 1.80
Right to silence, 1.21
Risk assessment/management
by accident costing, 2.47-2.49
checklist method, 4.224
chemical plants, 4.222-4.225
control assessment, 2.26
control strategies for, 2.7-2.9
cost benefit analysis, 2.50
cost effectiveness of, 2.47-2.50
and damage control, 2.46-2.47
decisions concerning, 2.122-2.123
definition, 2.4-2.5
Dow-Mond index, 4.224
failure-mode and effects analysis
(FMEA), 4.225
fault tree analysis, 2.37-2.38
fault tree analysis (FTA), 4.225
by financial accountability, 2.51-2.52
fire levels of, 4.55
legal considerations, 2.7
by loss control profiling, 2.53-2.54
magnitude of, 2.24
and maintenance systems, 2.45-2.46
mechanical, 2.26
motivational theory, 2.51-2.52
performance evaluation and appraisal,
2.51-2.53
and planned maintenance, 2.45-2.46
probabilistic risk assessment, 2.38-2.40
public perception of, 1.73
pure and speculative, 2.6
risk assessment, 2.23-2.25
risk avoidance, 2.7
risk evaluation, 2.7
risk identification, 2.7, 2.21-2.23
risk probability, 2.25
risk rating, 2.24, 2.25
risk reduction/loss control, 2.8-2.9
risk retention, 2.7-2.8
risk transfer, 2.8
role and process, 2.6-2.7
safe systems of work, 2.31
for safety management, 2.161
short/long term, 2.26
societal, 2.39
‘what-if’ method, 4.224
see also Chemicals; Danger; Hazards; Job
safety (hazard) analysis; Loss
control
Road traffic legislation, 1.57 Robens
Committee/Report, 1.35-1.36,1.45,
1.62-1.63
Roofs, and fire prevention, 4.39 Routine
work, errors during, 2.113-2.115
Routines and skills, 2.105-2.106
Royal Assent, 1.30
Rule learning, 2.135-2.136
Rule-based work, errors during, 2.115
Rules, reliance on for safety, 2.139-2.140
Safe place approach, 2.22
Safe working loads (SWLs), lifting
equipment, 4.143
Safety:
reliance on rules, 2.139-2.140
see also Product safety; Safety legislation;
Safety management; System safety
Safety advisers, 2.18, 2.19, 2.162,
2.167-2.168, 2.170-2.171
Safety committees, 1.47, 2.167-2.168,
2.171-2.172
Safety culture, 1.74-1.75
Safety legislation:
before Health and Safety at Work Act,
1.34-1.35
EU influence, 1.36-1.37
Health and Safety at Work Act, 1.35-1.36
standards of duty, 1.37-1.38
Safety management:
assessment techniques, 2.165-2.169
audit questions, 2.166-2.167
benchmarking, 2.170-2.171
and common law, 2.157
conflict avoidance, 2.173-2.174
culture creation, 2.172-2.173
defining responsibility, 2.158-2.159
employee involvement, 2.171-2.174
good housekeeping for, 2.164-2.165
HSE management model, 2.159-2.160
International Safety Rating System, 2.169
legal obligations, 2.156-2.159
monitoring implementation of
regulations, 2.162-2.164
proprietary audit systems, 2.169-2.170
regulation implementation, 2.161-2.164
safety committees, 2.171-2.172
Safety Management Audit Programme,
DuPont, 2.152
Safety management systems, 2.160
and safety policy, 2.158-2.159
specialists, role of, 2.174-2.175
and statute law, 2.158 Safety
representatives, 1.98
Sales:
by sample, 1.84
implied terms, 1.84-1.86
laws of, 1.84-1.86
Sampling see Air
pollution/sampling/control
Scaffolding, 4.176-4.178
British Code of Practice, 4.176
decking, 4.177
guard rails, 4.177
ladders, 4.177
4.290 AppendicesScots Law Times (SLT), 1.18
Scrotum, cancer of, 3.34-3.35
Security, and loss control, 2.11
Self-employed person, HSW definition,
1.53
Self-regulation, 1.65-1.66
Sense organs, 2.102-2.103
Sensitisers, 3.34
Services:
fair quality, 1.121-1.122
and false descriptions, 1.116-1.117
Sessions Cases (SC), 1.18
Severe Disablement Allowance, 1.135
Severity rate, 2.77
Sewers, safety with, 4.175
Sex discrimination laws, 1.92-1.94
and equal opportunities, 1.93
occupational exceptions, 1.93-1.94
pregnancy and maternity, 1.94
Sex glands, 3.24
Shaftesbury, Earl, humanitarian legislation,
3.4
Shift patterns, 2.111
Silicosis, 3.38 Singleton, W.T., 3.183
Skill-based behaviour, errors with,
2.113-2.115
Skill-based behaviour and errors,
2.113-2.115
Skills and routines, 2.105-2.106
Skin, 3.24-3.25
barrier creams, 3.102-3.103
illnesses /diseases, 3.33-3.36, 3.70
see also named skin diseases
Skinner, B.E, 2.144
Sling Psychrometer, 3.154
Smell, 3.22-3.23
Smoke, 4.28
Smoke control, for fire prevention, 4.39
Smoke detectors, 4.41
Smoke tubes, 3.160
Smoking, 3.27, 3.57
as a fire danger, 4.32-4.33
Sneezing, 3.26
Social expectations, 1.72
Society of Industrial Emergency Services
Officers (SIESO), 4.231
Sodium lamps, 3.166, 3.167
Solicitor General, 1.24
Solicitors, and representation, 1.8
Solids:
expansion, 4.14
flammable, 4.28
latent heat of fusion, 4.14
physical properties, 4.14-4.15
Solvents
diseases from, 3.47-3.51
see also named solvents
Sound:
amplitude, 3.125-3.127
decibel, 3.129-3.130
frequency, 3.127
level meters, 3.131-3.132
loudness, 3.127-3.128
octave bounds, 3.129
power levels, 3.130-3.131
pressure levels, 3.126
transmission, 3.131
weighting curves, 3.129-3.130
see also Hearing; Noise
Specialists, role of, 2.174-2.175
Specific Performance, and contracts, 1.81
Spillage, fire danger from, 4.33
Spontaneous combustion, 4.28-4.29
SREDIM principle, 2.27
Stain detector tubes, 3.75-3.80
Stairways:
for fire escape, 4.57
and fire prevention, 4.39
Stallen, P-J., 2.124
Standards
European, 1.70-1.71
harmonisation in Europe, 1.70-1.71
Standards of duty, 1.37
Stare decesis, 1.17
State of the art, as a defence, 1.143
State industrial benefit, 1.3
State insurance schemes, 1.134-1.137
Static electricity, 4.120, 4.123
Statute law, 2.158
Statutory accident book, 3.9
Statutory enactments, contravention of,
1.109
Statutory examination of plant and
equipment see Examination of plant
and equipment
Statutory interpretation, 1,30-1.31
Statutory nuisances, 1.57
chemicals, 4.212
Statutory Sick Pay, 1.134
Steam and air receivers
definitions, 4.137-4.138
drain plugs, 4.138
reducing valves, 4.138
reports on, 4.138
safe operating limits, 4.138
safety valves, 4.138
vessel thinning, 4.138-4.139
Steam boilers see Boilers
Stimulus response learning, 2.135
Stipendiary magistrates, 1.23
Stress, in people, 2.111-2.112, 3.23,
3.69-3.70, 3.187
Stress, tensile, compressive, shear,
bending, 4.17-4.19
Strict liability offence, 1.116
Structure of matter, 4.3-4.5
Subsidiarity, principal of, 1.27
Substance, HSW definition, 1.53
Substances:
dangerous, 1.46
duties on suppliers of, 1.48
Series Index 4.291Successful Health and Safety Management
(HSE), 2.42
Sulphur dioxide, effects of, 3.53
Supervision, employer’s liability for,
1.154-1.155
Suspension
employee, 1.82-1.83
on medical grounds, 1.82
Suspension Notices, Goods, 1.125
Suspraspinatus tendinitis, 3.187
Suzler-Azaroff, B., 2.145
Svenson, O., 2.124
System safety:
engineering, 2.37
management, 2.37
methods of analysis, 2.33
principles, 2.31-2.32
system conceptual phase, 2.32
system design/engineering phase, 2.32
system disposal phase, 2.32
system operational phase, 2.32
systems diagrams, 2.34-2.35
systems theory and design, 2.34-2.36
Talc, pneumoconiosis from, 3.37
Tankers, chemical, off-loading, 4.215
Taste, 3.22-3.23
Taylor, F.W., 3.178
and Economic Man, 2.100
Teeth, illnesses with causes of, 3.71
Temperature, 4.9-4.10
Tendinitis, 3.186
Tenosynovitis, 3.64, 3.186
Teratogenesis, 3.26
Testing, plant and machinery, 4.20
Tetrachloroethylene, toxic effects, 3.51
Thackrah, Dr C.T., 3.4
Thermal environment:
measurement, 3.153-3.154
working in, 3.64
see also Air pollution/sampling/control
Third parties on site, duty to, 1.40
Third party liability, 1.143
Threshold Limit Values (TLV), 3.155
air sampling, 3.87
derivation of, 3.92-3.93
Thyroid gland, 3.23
Time Weighted Average (TWA), air
pollution, 3.89, 3.150, 3.155
Toluene, toxic effects, 3.51
Tools, as a fire danger, 4.32
Tort:
of breach of statutory duty, 1.39
definition, 1.5-1.7
of negligence, 1.38-1.39,1.40
negligence, 1.149-1.151
nuisance, 1.148
and strict liability, 1.37
trespass, 1.148
Toxicology:
acute effects tests, 3.30
carcinogeniciry tests, 3.30-3.31
chronic effect tests, 3.30
effects, 3.31
epidemiology, 3.32-3.33
excretion, 3.31-3.32
factors affecting, 3.32
metabolism, 3.31
no-adverse-effect level, 3.32
portals of entry, 3.31
and solvents, 3.48
Trade descriptions, false see False trade
descriptions
Trade Unions, 1.45
Tragedy, vividness, dreadfulness and
severity, 2.125
Training, psychological principles,
2.134-2.136
Transport, chemicals, 4.216-4.217
Transportable gas containers see Gas
containers
Treaty of European Union 1991,1.26,1.33
Treaty of Rome, 1.31
Trend analysis:
accident/incident data, 2.69-2.77
for data comparisons, 2.75-2.77
with steady state, 2.70
with variable conditions, 2.74-2.75
Trespass:
by children, 1.142
and civil liability, 1.148
Trichloroethane, and ozone depletion,
4.236
Trichloroethylene:
harmful effects, 3.49
Maximum Exposure Limit (MEL), 3.50
properties and metabolism, 3.48-3.50
risk prevention, 3.50 Tuberculosis, 3.68
Tungsten halogen lights, 3.167
Tyndall (dust) lamp, 4.151
UK exposure limits, air sampling,
3.87-3.90
Ultraviolet radiation, 3.119-3.120
Unfair terms, 1.129-1.130
Unions, and safety representatives,
1.98-1.99
Upper flammable (explosive) limit, 4.26
Vagus nerve, 3.17
Vanadium, illness and diseases from, 3.46
Vane anemometer, 3.159-3.160
Vapours, sampling for see Air
pollution/sampling/control
Vehicle safety legislation, 1.57
4.292 AppendicesVentilation:
dilution, 3.96, 3.149, 3.157-3.158
performance assessment, 3.158-3.161
see also Local exhaust ventilation
Vibration, 3.145-3.147
effects of, 3.146
machinery isolation, 3.146-3.147
vibration white finger (VWF), 3.58,
3.146, 4.175
damage claims for, 1.141
Vicarious liability, 1.138
Vinyl chloride monomer, 3.57
Visual display terminals (vdts), 3.165
Visual display units, 3.180-3.181
Visual impairment, 3.191
Vlek, C, 2.124
Volenti non fit injuria, 1.41
as a defence, 1.139,1.158
Volume, 4.10
Walls, and fire prevention, 4.39
Warnings, and disciplinary procedures,
1.101
Warnings of hazards, 2.118-2.119
Washing facilities, construction sites,
4.188
Waste:
controlled waste, 4.240, 4.242
fire danger from, 4.33
legislation for, 4.242
management licensing legislation,
4.243-4.244
special wastes, 4.211, 4.240
legislation for, 4.244-4.245
Waste disposal:
chemicals, 4.211
classification of, 4.239
and the environment, 4.237
land-fill, 4.211
transporters, 4.211
Water:
on fires, 4.9
in humanbody, 3.11
legislation for, 4.241-4.242
pollution of, 4.237
Weekly Law Reports (WLR), 1.18
Weil’s disease, 4.175
Welfare facilities, construction sites,
4.184-4.185
Whirling hygrometer, 3.86, 3.154
White Papers, 1.31
Whitworth, Sir J., 4.130
Wind chill index, 3.154
Witnesses, 1.21-1.22
Woolf Report on Access to Justice, 1.22
Work:
energy and power, 4.15-4.16
first aid at, 3.9-3.10
health risks at, 3.7
HSW definition, 1.53
Work related upper limb disorders
(WRULD), 3.64-3.65, 3.185-3.188
from display screen equipment,
3.187-3.188, 3.190
physiology of, 3.186-3.187
Working environment see Air
pollution/sampling/control
Working Group on the Assessment of
Toxic Chemicals (WATCH), 3.88
Working load limits (WLLs), lifting
equipment, 4.143
Working time of 48 hours, 1.99
Working Time Directive (EC), 1.27, 1.99
Workmen’s compensation scheme, 1.133
Workplace inspections, 2.22
Workplace pollution see Air
pollution/sampling/control
Writer’s cramp, 3.64
Written safety policy, 1.47
X-rays, 3.106
Young persons:
employment of, 1.97
and industrial relations law, 1.96-1.97
Young’s modulus, 4.17
Zero tolerance to accidents, 2.143-2.144
Zinc fume fever, 3.45

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