Tufted Carpet – Textile Fibers, Dyes, Finishes, and Processes

Tufted Carpet – Textile Fibers, Dyes, Finishes, and Processes
اسم المؤلف
Von Moody
التاريخ
8 أبريل 2023
المشاهدات
321
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Tufted Carpet – Textile Fibers, Dyes, Finishes, and Processes
by
Von Moody
Manchester, Tennessee
Howard L. Needles, Ph.D.
Pebble Beach, California
Contents
Part 1: Introduction to Carpet Fiber
1 Fiber Theory and Formation . 3
1.1 FIBER CLASSIFICATION . 4
1.2 FIBER PROPERTIES 5
1.2.1 Primary Properties 6
1.2.2 Secondary Properties . 7
1.2.3 Primary Fiber Properties from an Engineering
Perspective 10
1.3 FIBER FORMATION AND MORPHOLOGY 11
1.3.1 Polymer Formation 11
1.3.2 Fiber Spinning 13
1.3.3 Fiber Drawing and Morphology 16
1.3.4 Bulking and Texturizing . 18
1.3.5 Staple Formation . 20
1.4 STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS . 21
2 Fiber Identification and Characterization . 23
2.1 FIBER IDENTIFICATION 23
2.1.1 Microscopic Identification . 23
2.1.2 Solubility 24
2.1.3 Heating and Burning Characteristics 24
2.1.4 Density or Specific Gravity . 24
2.1.5 Staining 24xii Contents
2.2 STRUCTURAL, PHYSICAL, AND CHEMICAL
CHARACTERIZATION 25
2.2.1 Optical and Electron Microscopy . 25
2.2.2 Elemental and End-Group Analysis . 25
2.2.3 Infrared Spectroscopy 26
2.2.4 Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy 26
2.2.5 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 26
2.2.6 X-Ray Diffraction . 27
2.2.7 Thermal Analysis 27
2.2.8 Molecular Weight Determination . 28
2.2.9 Mechanical and Tensile Property Measurements . 28
2.2.10 Specific Gravity 29
2.2.11 Environmental Properties . 29
2.2.12 Chemical Properties . 30
2.3 END-USE PROPERTY CHARACTERIZATION . 31
2.3.1 Characteristics Related to Identity, Aesthetics,
and Comfort 31
2.3.2 Characteristics Related to Durability and Wear . 33
2.3.3 Physical and Chemical Characteristics and
Response of Fiber to Its Environmental
Surroundings 33
3 Major Fibers and Their Properties . 35
3.1 NYLON 6 AND NYLON 6,6 FIBERS 35
3.1.1 Structural Properties . 36
3.1.2 Effect of Single-Step Versus Two-Step Production
of Nylon 37
3.1.3 Physical Properties . 38
3.1.4 Chemical Properties 39
3.1.5 Nylon End-Use Properties 39
3.2 POLYESTER FIBERS 40
3.2.1 Structural Properties . 40
3.2.2 Physical Properties . 42
3.2.3 Chemical Properties 42
3.2.4 Polyester End-Use Properties 42
3.3 ACRYLIC FIBERS . 43
3.3.1 Structural Properties . 44
3.3.2 Physical Properties . 44
3.3.3 Chemical Properties 44
3.3.4 Acrylic End-Use Properties 46Contents xiii
3.4 MODACRYLIC FIBERS . 47
3.4.1 Structural Properties . 47
3.4.2 Physical Properties . 47
3.4.3 Chemical Properties . 49
3.4.4 Modacrylic End-Use Properties 49
3.5 POLYOLEFIN FIBERS . 50
3.5.1 Polyethylene and Polypropylene 50
3.5.2 Structural Properties . 50
3.5.3 Physical Properties . 51
3.5.4 Chemical Properties . 52
3.5.5 Polyolefin End-Use Properties . 52
3.6 WOOL . 53
3.6.1 Structural Properties . 53
3.6.2 Physical Properties . 56
3.6.3 Chemical Properties . 57
3.6.4 Wool End-Use Properties . 58
Part 2: Carpet Making
4 Yarn Formation . 63
4.1 WOOLEN AND WORSTED SYSTEMS 64
4.2 STAPLE SYSTEMS . 65
4.3 FILAMENT SYSTEMS . 65
5 Primary and Secondary Backing Construction . 67
5.1 WOVEN . 67
5.1.1 Woven Primary or Secondary Backing Manufacture 68
5.1.2 Textile Substrate Formation . 69
5.1.3 Weaving 70
5.1.4 Shedding Mechanisms 72
5.1.5 Fill Insertion . 73
5.2 NONWOVEN 76
5.2.1 Nonwoven Primary or Secondary Backing
Formation 76
5.2.2 Mechanical Bonding or Entanglement of
Nonwovens . 78
5.2.3 Stitching or Stitch Bonding 79
5.2.4 Self Bonding 79
5.2.5 Adhesive Bonding 80
5.3 COMPOSITE FORMATION . 80
5.4 NEW TUFTING PRIMARY BACKINGS . 81xiv Contents
6 Carpet Construction . 83
6.1 DESCRIPTION OF LAYERS OF PILE CARPET . 83
6.1.1 Primary Backings . 83
6.1.2 Loop Pile Created by Tufting . 84
6.1.3 Shearing 89
6.1.4 Secondary Backing . 89
6.2 FINISHING 90
Part 3: Coatings, Raw Materials, and Their Processes
7 Latex Coatings 95
7.1 LATEX COMPOUNDS 95
7.1.1 Filler 98
7.1.2 Surfactants 98
7.1.3 Thickeners 99
7.1.4 Water . 99
7.1.5 Flame Retardants 99
7.1.6 Miscellaneous . 99
7.2 EXAMPLES OF LATEX COMPOUNDS 99
7.3 EFFECT OF FILLER ON LATEX-COATED
CARPET 101
7.4 EFFECT OF DENIER ON TUFTBIND 101
7.5 FLAME RETARDANCY . 103
7.6 SUMMARY 104
8 Polyurethane Coating . 105
8.1 POLYURETHANE RAW MATERIALS AND
BASIC CHEMISTRY 105
8.2 MECHANICALLY FROTHED POLYURETHANE 106
8.3 WATER-BLOWN POLYURETHANE . 107
9 Cushion 109
9.1 RESIDENTIAL 109
9.2 COMMERCIAL . 110
9.3 FOAM PERFORMANCE .111
9.4 CUSHIONS AND PADS . 112
10 Polyvinyl Chloride Plastisol Coating . 115
10.1 RAW MATERIALS 115
10.1.1 Dispersion Resin . 116
10.1.2 Blending Resin 116Contents xv
10.1.3 Plasticizer 116
10.1.4 Stabilizers 117
10.1.5 Thixotropic Agents . 117
10.1.6 Surfactants 117
10.1.7 Pigments . 117
10.1.8 Fillers 118
10.1.9 Lubricants . 118
10.1.10 Blowing Agents 118
10.1.11 Solvents or Diluents . 118
10.2 TROUBLESHOOTING . 118
10.3 FORMULATION . 121
10.4 DIMENSIONAL STABILITY . 121
10.5 FLEXIBILITY 122
10.6 INDENTATION . 123
10.7 CUTTING CARPET INTO TILE 123
10.8 IMPERMEABILITY 123
10.9 SUMMARY 123
11 Hot Melt Coating . 125
11.1 DISCUSSION OF HOT MELTS . 125
11.2 INGREDIENTS . 127
11.2.1 Polymers . 127
11.2.2 Resins 127
11.2.3 Wax . 127
11.2.4 Filler 127
11.2.5 Oils 128
11.2.6 Antioxidants 128
11.2.7 Flame Retardants 128
11.3 HOT MELT COATING PROCESS . 128
11.4 COMPOUNDING 130
11.5 EXAMPLES OF HOT MELT COATING
COMPOUNDS . 130
12 Extrusion Coating Technology . 133
12.1 EXTRUSION COATING PROCESS 133
12.2 THE EXTRUDER 134
12.3 EXTRUDER DIE . 134
12.4 DOWNSTREAM EQUIPMENT 135
12.5 POLYMERS AND COMPOUNDS 136
12.6 EXAMPLES OF EXTRUSION COATING
COMPOUNDS . 136xvi Contents
13 Carpet Tile Coatings and Reinforcements 139
13.1 COATING SYSTEMS FOR CARPET TILE . 140
13.1.1 Polyurethane . 140
13.1.2 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) 140
13.1.3 Hot Melt 140
13.1.4 Extrusion . 141
13.2 FIBERGLASS REINFORCEMENT 141
13.3 SUMMARY 141
Part 4: Carpet Enhancers
14 Antimicrobial Agents . 145
14.1 USE 145
14.2 BACTERIAL SOURCES AND CONDITIONS
FAVORABLE TO GROWTH 146
14.3 ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT SELECTION AND
CONSIDERATION . 147
14.4 RESIDENTIAL APPLICATIONS . 148
14.5 PROOF OF CLAIMS . 148
14.6 MICROORGANISM STRUCTURE . 149
14.7 TYPES OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS 149
14.8 VARIOUS ANTIMICROBIAL TREATMENTS 150
14.9 TESTING . 152
14.10 PLACEMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS 153
14.11 SUMMARY 153
15 Color, Dyes, Dyeing, and Printing . 155
15.1 COLOR THEORY . 155
15.1.1 The Munsell System . 159
15.1.2 Additive and Subtractive Systems . 160
15.1.3 Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage System 161
15.2 DYES AND DYE CLASSIFICATION 162
15.2.1 Dyes Containing Anionic Functional Groups 162
15.2.2 Dyes Containing Cationic Groups (Basic Dyes) 165
15.2.3 Special Colorant Classes 165
15.2.4 Dyeing of Blends 166
15.3 APPLICATION METHODS AND FACTORS
AFFECTING DYEING 167
15.3.1 Dyeing Methods 168
15.3.2 Printing Techniques 169
15.3.3 Physical Factors Affecting Dyeing . 172Contents xvii
15.3.4 Chemical Reagents . 172
15.4 DYES APPLIED TO FIBER CLASSES . 173
15.4.1 Dyes for Protein Fibers 173
15.4.2 Dyes for Polyamide Fibers . 173
15.4.3 Dyes for Polyester Fibers . 174
15.4.4 Dyes for Acrylic Fibers 174
15.4.5 Dyes for Polyolefin Fibers . 175
16 Stain Blockers and Fluorochemicals . 177
16.1 BACKGROUND 177
16.2 STAIN RESIST CHEMICALS FOR NYLON CARPET 178
16.3 TECHNOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY 179
16.4 FLUOROCHEMICALS . 180
16.5 STAIN RESISTANCE TECHNOLOGY 181
16.6 APPLICATION OF STAIN RESIST CHEMICALS . 183
16.6.1 Basic Information . 184
16.6.2 Development of the Foam Application 184
16.7 EXAMPLES OF STAIN RESISTANT
APPLICATIONS 188
16.7.1 Batch Exhaust . 188
16.7.2 Continuous Exhaust 188
16.7.3 Use in Drying Only . 188
16.7.4 Foam Application 189
16.7.5 Exhaustion of Stain Blocker on Nylon 189
16.8 PERFORMANCE TESTING . 191
Part 5: Performance, Cleaning, and Recycling
17 Performance Issues 195
17.1 STANDARDS AND TESTS 195
17.1.1 Standards and Tests for Carpets . 196
17.1.2 Standards and Tests for Backing 196
17.2 APPEARANCE RETENTION . 196
17.3 FLAMMABILITY 197
17.3.1 Pill Test . 199
17.3.2 Discussion of Pill Test Results . 200
17.3.3 Radiant Panel Test 204
17.4 SOUND ABSORPTION 207
17.4.1 Testing Terminology . 209
17.4.2 Testing of Carpet 209
17.4.3 Impact Sound Insulation 210xviii Contents
17.5 OTHER PERFORMANCE ISSUES 211
17.5.1 Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT) Yellowing . 211
17.5.2 Discoloration from Stain Blockers . 211
17.5.3 Pile Crush or Matting . 211
17.5.4 Shading . 211
17.5.5 Pilling 212
17.5.6 Fuzzing 212
17.5.7 Delamination or Backing Separation . 212
17.5.8 Indentation 213
17.5.9 Static . 213
17.5.10 Grinning 213
18 Maintenance and Cleaning . 215
18.1 CLEANING METHODS AND EQUIPMENT . 215
18.2 REMOVAL OF STAINS AND CLEANING HINTS . 216
18.3 CLEANING STAINS AND SPILLS . 217
18.3.1 Common Spill Removal . 217
19 Recycling 219
19.1 DISCUSSION 219
19.2 USES 220
19.2.1 Plastic Lumber 220
19.2.2 Concrete Reinforcement . 220
19.2.3 Asphalt Modification 221
19.2.4 Use in Soil . 221
19.3 RECOVERY PROCESSES 221
19.3.1 Individual Carpet Component Separation Through
Super Critical Fluid Separation . 222
19.3.2 Compatibilization of Carpet Components 222
19.3.3 Depolymerization 222
19.4 EXAMPLES OF CARPET RECYCLING 222
19.4.1 Carpet Used for Energy . 222
19.4.2 Company Specific Examples of Recycling 223
Appendix: Carpet Test Methods . 225
Glossary . 227
Bibliography 237
Index 239
239
Index
Index Terms Links
A
Abrasion resistance 8 9 50
Acid dyes 163
classifying 163
Acoustical applications 209
Acrylic
oxidizing and reducing agents 45
properties 46
structure 45
Acrylic fibers 43 44
chemical resistance 44
dyeing 174
tenacity 44
Acrylonitrile units 44
Additive color systems 160
Additives 99
mineral fillers 127
Adhesion
polymers 127
Adhesives 104 125
application 80
failure 81
hot melt 125
latex coating 95
replacement for latex 125
Aesthetic properties 43
Agar 152
bacteria placed 152
Air jets 78
Air-to-latex ratio 101
Airborne pathogens 147
Airless spray application systems 184
Alpha-substituted poly(acrylic acid) 183
Aluminum trihydrate 103
Antibacterial
Antimicrobial 148
effective 146
effectiveness of 149
finish 151
inhibition 152
topical 147
Antimicrobial agents 145 149 151240
Index Terms Links
applications 153
applying 147
leaches 146
reasons for using 146
testing 146
Antioxidants
powder form 128
Appearance retention
guide to predicting 196
Application
foam 187
Assembly of fibers 10
Atmospheric contaminants
fastness to 196
B
Backed carpet
unitary latex 95
Backing 67 141
flexibility of 137
weight 141
Bacteria
cell walls 149
gram negative 149 152
gram positive 149 152
Bacteria and fungi 146
Bacteriostats and fungistats
residential 148
Basic dyes 165
colorfastness 174
Beat-up 71
Bicomponent or biconstituent fibers 15
Biological agents 42
Blending resin 116
Blends
dyeing 166
Bonding a web 78
Breaking tenacity 6
Breathable fabric 8
Broadloom carpet 109
Burn length 200
C
Calcite 101
Calcium carbonate 98
Cam system 72241
Index Terms Links
Caprolactam 36
Carborization 65
Carpet
in area for public use 197
lightfastness 196
over wetting 216
protecting 146
protective coating to prevent stains 179
separating components 222
waste fibers 221
Carpet backing distortion 136
Carpet backing materials
polyvinyl chloride 115
Carpet cushion 109
selection 109
Carpet materials
recycling 219
Carpet Tile Coating Systems 142
comparison 142
Carpet tiles 115
stability 139
Carpet waste
processing 220
Carrier 168
Cationic dyes 165
Chemical blowing agents 118
Chemical characteristics
inherent 31
Chemical properties 25 30
Chemical reagents 172
Chemical resistance 33 34
Chemical structures
nylon 6,6 36
CIELAB 161
Claims
antibacterial protection 148
antimicrobial 148
bactericidal 148
mold or mildew resistant 148
Cleaning
easiest method 215
prevention 215
Cleaning agents
high pH 211
Co-application process 187
Coat hanger die 134
Coated substrates 81
Coating properties 126242
Index Terms Links
Coating textile 80
Coatings
oils 128
Color
defined 155 158
fading or change 157
measuring differences 160
observed 158
Color and color difference system 161
Color Index 162
Colorfastness 163 165
resistance to abrasion 196
Commercial carpet 110
Common filler 118
Common stabilizers 117
Composite plastics
forming 222
Compounding 97
Compression set test 111
Continuous dyeing 169
Covalent bonds 16
Covalent, ionic 16
Critical radiant flux 204
Crocking 34
Crystalline structure 197
Cushion
construction methods 112
HUD standards 112
Cut pile 86
Cut/loop 86
D
Degree of polymerization (DP) 4 44
Delamination 212
Denier 101
Density 9
Department of Housing and Urban
Development (HUD)
guidelines 109
standards 113
Die
coat hanger 134
operating pressure 135
T- 134
Diluents 118
Disperse dyes 166
dyeing techniques 168243
Index Terms Links
Dispersion resins 116
Dobby
attachment 71
mechanism 72
Dry cutting 13
Dye
determining concentration 161
light absorption
characteristics 156
Dyeability 34
Dyed carpet
differences in color 156
Dyeing
blends 166
carriers 169
characteristics 24
chemical reagents 172
colorfastness 173
hydrophobic thermoplastic
fibers 166
methods 167
rate of 172
Dyeing and stain resist treatment 178
Dyes
acid 163
classifying 162
water solubility 162
E
Edge abrasion 33
Electrophilic agents 149
Electrophilic compounds 150
Emulsion 13
End-use properties 32
End-use properties and characteristics 31
Environmental properties 29
Ethylene vinyl acetate-based compounds 137
Exhaustible process systems 185
External radiant flux 204
Extraction process 184
Extruder 134
Extrusion coating 133
cooling 136
laminating 135
properties of compounds 136
solidification and forming 135
viscosity 133244
Index Terms Links
with polymers/additives 136
Extrusion process 133
F
Fabrication 10
Face constructions
tested for flammability 205
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, &
Rodenticide Act 148
Felting of fiber web 78
Fiber
density 24
dyeing 168
formation 15 44
identification 23
morphology 11
resiliency 8
surface energy 180
uniformity 6
web 76
Fiberglass scrim 140
Fibers 4 89
acrylic 43 44
chemical changes 27
formation 10
gross morphology 25
keratin 43
light- and heat-induced chemical
changes 30
loose 89
man-made 4 31
modacrylic 43 47
natural 4 31
nylon 35
nylon 6 and 6,6
dry tenacity 38
physical changes 27
physical properties 25
polyester 40 41
polymeric ester 40
polyolefin 50
regenerated 4
removing loose 89
specific gravity 29
staple 65 89
structural properties 25
synthetic 4 63245
Index Terms Links
tensile properties 28
thermal and flammability
characteristics 10
vinyl 43
wool 53
Fibers by chemical class 4
Fibrils 16 56
Filament spinning systems 65
Filament yarn spinning 65
Filament yarns 71
Fill (weft) insertion 73
Fill yarn 70 71 73 75
Fillers 99 118
calcium carbonate 98
mineral 127
Flame retardancy
carpet 128
Flame retardant 99
ATH 103
Flammability
reduced 205
specification 199
tests 197
Flat abrasion 33
Flex abrasion 33
Flexible foam 105
Flexnip applicator 186 188
Fluid fill insertion systems 75
Fluid systems 74
Fluorocarbons
spray application 184
Fluorochemicals
application 181
availability for market 180
Foam applications 187
advantages 187
Foaming agent 187 189
Foot marking 212
Foot traffic 211
Formation 10
Fraying
minimize 90
Free radical emulsion
polymerization 44
Fuel source 199
Fungi cell walls 149
Fusion temperature 115 116
Fuzzing 95 212246
Index Terms Links
G
Gel bonding 80
Gilling 65
Glass 9
Gravimetric method 25
Grinning 213
Gripper system 75
H
Heat stability 10
Heat stabilizers 117
Heating affects
heating a fiber 30
reaction of fibers to heat 24
Homopolymers 11
Hot melt 126 127
adhesives 125
coated carpet 125
compounds 127 128
Hot melt coating
examples of 130
Hydrogen bond-breaking solvents
nylon 6,6 38
Hydrogen bonding 47
Hydrogen bonds 17
Hydrophobic (water-repelling) fibers 8
Hydrophobic fibers
dyeing 175
I
Impact Insulation Class (IIC) 209
Impact noise 210
Impact Noise Rating (INR) 209
Improve insulation 118
Indoor bacteria 146
Instrumental chemical methods 25
International System of Units (SI) 6
International Wool Secretariat 197
Ionic bonding 16
Isotactic placement 50247
Index Terms Links
J
Jacquard
mechanism 71
system 73
K
Keratin fibers 43
Knitting 69
Kuster Flexnip applicator 185
L
Latex
application 147
coated carpet 110
foam 111
materials 97
SBR 95 96 101
viscosity 101
Latex coating
raw materials 96
Latex compound 98 99
penetration 98
performance 97
Light
reflectance 156
Light absorbed by the fiber 30
Linear polyethylene 50
Linear polypropylene 50
Load deflection test 111
Loom functions 70
Loop pile 86
level loop 86
pattern loop 86
textured loop 86
Lubricants
fatty acids 118
wax 118
Luster 9
M
Man-made fibers 4 6 9 13 15
65248
Index Terms Links
Mechanical bonding 78 79
Mechanical measurements 28
Mechanical systems 74
Mechanically entangling 78
Mechanically frothed process 108
Melding 79
Melt 13
Membrane active chemicals 150
Membrane active compound 149 150
MI coating 141
Micelles 16
Microorganism
destroy 145
odors 145
prevention 147
removing 145
Mineral extender 97
Modacrylic
properties 49
structure 48
Modacrylic fiber 47 49
dry tenacity 47
dyeing 174
moisture regain 47
resistance to chemical agents 49
wet tenacity 47
Moisture regain 7
Molecular weight determination methods 28
Monomers 11
Mordant dyes 164
Mordanting 163
Multiphase gripper system 75
Munsell Book of Color 159
N
Natural fibers 6 9 13 16
Natural polymer fibers 4
Needle punching 78
Noise reduction coefficient (NRC) 209
Non-woven formation 69
Non-woven primary backings 76
Non-woven textile 76
Noncrystalline structure 37
Nylon
acidic stains 177
carbon atoms 35
properties 39249
Index Terms Links
Nylon 6 35 36
chemical structures 36
differences 36
drying 36
hydrogen bond-breaking solvents 38
phenols 38
polymerization 36
properties and structure 36
Nylon 6,6 35 36
differences 36
drying 36
properties and structure 36
Nylon fibers 37
single-step process 37
two-step process 37
O
Oakes mixer 106
Oil repellency 180
Oils
flexibility 128
resiliency 128
Open time 127
Optical microscopy 25
Ozone fading 196
P
Percentage moisture content 8
Performance
test results 195
Periodic phenylene groups 41
Physical and chemical characteristics 33
Physical effect of heating 29
Pigments 117
dispersing 117
Pile direction 212
Pile reversal 212
Pilling 95
Pills 212
Pirn 73
Plastic 9
Plastic lumber 220
Plasticizer absorption
increased 116
Plasticizers 116250
Index Terms Links
efficient 117
primary 117
secondary 117
Plastisol coating
polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 115
Plastisol viscosity
increased 116
Plastisols 115 121
advantageous 122
Poly-1,4-cyclohexylenedimethylene
terephthalate 40
Polyacrylate thickeners 99
Polyamides
dyeing 173
Polyester 9 40
dyeing 168 169 174
moisture regain 42
polyethylene terephthalate 40 42
properties 42
recovery 42
Polyester fibers 40 41
properties 40
Polyethylene
properties 51
Polymer 136
crystallinity of 136
Polymeric methylene di-paraphenylene
isocyanate 106
Polymerization
nylon 6,6 36
Polymethacrylic acid 181
Polyol compound 106
Polyolefin fibers 50
dyeing 175
Polyolefin film
splitting 78
Polyolefins
chemical and biological agents 52
chemical properties 52
hydrophobic 51
structure 51
Polypropylene 50
properties 51 52
specific gravities 51
stain resistance 178
Polypropylene fiber 10
Polystyrene/maleic anhydride
copolymer 181251
Index Terms Links
Polyurea hard segments 107
Polyurethane
chemistry 105
coating 140
mechanically frothed 106
raw materials 105
Polyurethane foam 111
backing 85
burning 200
guideline 110
Polyurethane-backed carpet 105
producing 105
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 140
Precoat 105
Prediction method
appearance retention 196
Primary and secondary properties 5
Primary backing 83
Prime pad 110
Printing 169
Processing speeds
improve 116
Properties 5
Protein fibers 4
dyeing 163 173
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 152
Pseudoplastic polymer 136
PVC
creep 123
crystallinity 123
flexibility 122
formulation 122
PVC plastisols
carpet backed with 123
static loads affect 123
Q
Quills 68
R
Radiant heat source 204
Rapid-bonding characteristics 125
Rapier systems 75
Raw materials 105
Recycling252
Index Terms Links
company examples 223
Recycling of carpet
difficulties 219
Reflectance color spectrum of the
fabric 158
Regenerated fibers 4
Residential
carpets 110
foam 110
Resiliency 29
Resin 127
and melt strength 127
Resistance
to chemicals 9
to staining and soiling 177
Resultant polymers 50
Rinse and extraction process 184
Roving form 65
S
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) 25
Scuff resistance 118
Secondary backing 89 90 95 103
application 89
force required to separate 196
Shading 211
Shearing machines 89
Shedding 70
Shuttle looms 70
Shuttle system 75
Shuttle weaving 68
Shuttleless systems 74
Side-by-side bicomponent or
biconstituent fibers 16
Silk 9
Sliver form 65
Soil removal 33
Soil resistance 181
Solubility characteristics 24
Solvent recovery processes 221
Solvents 118
Sound absorption
factors influencing 209
Sound Absorption of Acoustical
Materials ASTM C423 209
Sound transmission 207
Spill or stain253
Index Terms Links
most effective cleaning method 217
removal guide 217
Spinning
dry 43
emulsion 13
jet 13
melt 13
suspension 13
techniques 23
wet 13 43
Stain blockers
acids 188
exhaustion 189
first generation 185
penetration 189
phenol formaldehyde condensate
polymers 181
problems 181
second generation 186
testing 189
water solubility 183
Stain blocking chemistry 177
newest 182
Stain blocking treatments
fluorocarbons 180
Stain protection 216
Stain resist
application 179 186
chemistry 186
enhancing properties 178
technology 178
Stain resist chemical
applicator 187
applying 184
Stain resist chemical and
fluorochemical finishes
co-application 186
Stain resist technology
patents 181
Stain resistance
application procedures 183
effectiveness and durability 183
fiber types 178
performance 184
test standard 191
topical treatments 178
Stain resistant 37
Stain resistant chemicals 180254
Index Terms Links
newest 182
wear durability 182
yellowing 181
Stain-blocking performance 189
Stains
caused by liquids 177
Staple fibers 6
Staple spinning processes 64
Staple yarn formation 63
Staple yarns 71
Static electricity 213
Step growth polymerization 11
Stitching 79
Stock dyeing 168
Structure of the monomer 11
Sulfonated aromatic aldehyde
condensation (SAC) 178
Sulfonated novolacs 178
Syntans 178
Synthetic fibers 4 6 13
Synthetic polymers 11
Synthetic spinning systems 63
T Tdie 134
Tackifiers 127
Tackiness
reduce 118
Tear resistance 196
Tenacity 6
Tensile measurements 28
Tensile properties of fibers 8
Tensile strength 7
Tenter pins 91
Textile
color 158
fabrics 3
structures 33
substrates 69
yarns 3
Textile applications 50
polyethylene 50
Thermal and flammability
characteristics 10
Thermal bonding 76
Thermal mechanical analysis (TMA)
Thermoplastic fibers 24 33255
Index Terms Links
heat response 33
Thermoplastic polymers 133
Thermoplastics
affected by heat history 136
Thermosol dyeing 169
Thickeners 99
Thixotropic agents 117
Thixotropic thickeners 117
Time-to-flame extinction 200
Topical treatments 147
Traffic 109 111
Traffic lanes 215
Trafficking 212
Transmission electron microscopy
(TEM) 25
Troubleshooting 119
finished carpet 120
Tuftbind 95 101
minimum requirement 196
performance 101
Tufted carpet 140 141
Tufted loops 85
Tufting 69 84 86
machine 85
primaries 67
process 85 86
Tuftlock
minimum requirement 196
U
Unitary backing 90
Unitary formulation 101
Unraveling
minimizing 90
V Vshaped roller bar 89
Van der Waals interactions 17 44 47 50
Vegetable matter
removing 64
Vinyl foam 118
W
Warp beams 69256
Index Terms Links
Warp knitting 68
Warp yarn 69 70 73
Waste fibers 221
Water jet fill insertion method
disadvantage 75
Water jets 78
Water-blown polyurethane
method 107
Waxes 127
micro 127
paraffin 127
synthetic 127
Weaving 68 69
Wet cutting 13
Wet laying 78
Winding processes 68
Wool 9 53 56 57
amino acid 53
biological agents 58
chemical properties 57
grease 64
grease recovered 64
properties 58
reducing agents 57
specific gravities 57
stain resistance 178
static charge 57
stiffness 57
strength 56
top 65
worsted 53
Woolen spinning system 64
Woolen system 64
Woolen yarns 64
Worsted
system 64
yarns 64
Woven tufting 67
Wrinkle resistance 43
X Xray diffraction
crystalline polymeric materials 27
semicrystalline polymeric materials 27257
Index Terms Links
Y
Yarn 84
filament 71
fill 75
staple 71
used 84
Yarn denier 101
Yarn formation methods 63
Yellowing 181 211
upon exposure to UV light 181

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