Theories, Methods and Numerical Technology of Sheet Metal Cold and Hot Forming

Theories, Methods and Numerical Technology of Sheet Metal Cold and Hot Forming
اسم المؤلف
Ping Hu , Ning Ma , Li-zhong Liu , Yi-guo Zhu
التاريخ
8 أبريل 2023
المشاهدات
267
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Theories, Methods and Numerical Technology of Sheet Metal Cold and Hot Forming
Analysis, Simulation and Engineering Applications
Ping Hu , Ning Ma , Li-zhong Liu , Yi-guo Zhu
Contents
1 The Introduction of Sheet Metal Forming Technology . 1
1.1 The Development of Stamping Technology 1
1.2 The Current Status of Stamping Technology . 4
1.2.1 The Application of Tailor Welded Blanks . 4
1.2.2 The Application of High Strength Sheet Steel 5
1.2.3 Internal High Pressure Forming 5
1.2.4 Finite Element Analysis of Formability
and Forming Technology . 6
1.2.5 Manufacturing of Stamping Mold . 7
1.2.6 Stamping Equipments . 8
1.3 The Introduction of Hot Stamping Technology . 8
1.3.1 The Research Status of Hot Forming Material 9
1.3.2 The Research Status of Hot Forming Technology 10
1.3.3 The Analysis of the Vitality of Hot Forming
Technology 12
References . 12
2 The Basics and Equipments of Sheet Metal Forming 15
2.1 Fundamentals of Cold Stamping 16
2.1.1 The Process of Cold Stamping . 16
2.1.2 The Dies of Cold Stamping . 16
2.1.3 The Production Process of Stampings 18
2.2 Materials for Cold Stamping and Its Formability 18
2.2.1 Requirements on Materials for Cold Stamping 18
2.2.2 The Formability of Materials 20
2.3 Cold Stamping Equipments . 25
2.4 Brief Introduction of Key Equipments and Production Lines
in Hot Forming . 27
2.4.1 Continuous Ring Heating Furnace 27
ix2.4.2 High-Temperature Resistant Robot Arm
and Automatic Transfer Device for Loading
and Unloading 29
2.4.3 Key Technologies for Design and Manufacture
of Hot Forming Dies 30
2.4.4 High Speed Hydraulic Press for Hot Forming 31
2.4.5 Subsequent Shot Blasting, Trimming
and Punching Equipment . 33
References . 34
3 Hot Forming Process . 35
3.1 Direct Hot Forming Process . 35
3.2 Indirect Hot Forming Process 39
3.3 The Key Parameters and Optimal Control
in Hot Forming process 42
3.3.1 The Heating Temperature, Holding Time
and Optimization Control 43
3.3.2 Transfer Time of High Temperature Sheet . 44
3.3.3 Hot Forming Rate, Cooling Rate in Die
and the Control of Them . 44
References . 44
4 The Basic Mechanical Properties and Experimental
Verification for Hot Forming Steel . 47
4.1 The Plasticity and Deformation Resistance of Metal Induced
by Thermal Deformation and Their Influencing Factors . 47
4.2 The Concepts of Plastic Deformation, Plasticity
and Deformation Resistance . 47
4.3 Factors Influencing Plasticity and Deformation Resistance
of Hot Forming Steel . 48
4.3.1 Chemical Composition 48
4.3.2 Metallic Structure 49
4.3.3 Deformation Temperature and Work Hardening . 50
4.3.4 Deformation Rate 51
4.3.5 Cooling Rate . 53
4.3.6 Deformation Degree 53
4.3.7 Size Factor 54
4.4 Typical Type of High Strength Steel and Its Basic Mechanics
Experiment in Hot Forming Process . 54
4.4.1 Typical Types of High-Strength Steel 54
4.4.2 Basic Mechanical Properties of High Strength Steel
at Room Temperature . 57
x Contents4.4.3 Uniaxial Tensile Experiment of High Strength Steel
Under Elevated Temperature 57
4.4.4 Effects of Directional Anisotropy on Formability 61
4.5 Constitutive Laws of High Strength Steel . 65
References . 66
5 The Basic Theory and Constitutive Equation of High-Strength
Steel for Hot Forming 69
5.1 Multi-Field Coupled Relationship Among Heat, Stress,
and Phase Transformation 69
5.1.1 Theoretical Analysis 69
5.1.2 The Determination of the Parameters 70
5.1.3 The Analysis and Discussion
on the Experiment Results 74
5.1.4 Thermal–Mechanical Transformation Coupled
Constitutive Model . 76
5.2 Hot Forming Stress and Strain Analysis 78
5.2.1 Mixed Law 78
5.2.2 Strain Analysis 79
5.2.3 Stress Analysis 80
5.3 Constitutive Model of Hot Forming . 81
5.3.1 Hot Forming Constitutive Relation
of Total Strain Theory 81
5.3.2 Hot Forming Constitutive Relation
of Incremental Theory . 82
References . 82
6 Microscopic Constitutive Models of Single
Crystal and Polycrystal 85
6.1 Crystallography and Crystal Structure 85
6.1.1 Lattice Geometry 85
6.1.2 Crystal Direction Indice and Crystal Plane Indice 87
6.1.3 Crystal Structure of Simple Metals 90
6.1.4 Lattice Defects 92
6.2 Plastic Deformation of Single Crystal 94
6.2.1 Slip of Single Crystal . 94
6.2.2 Kinematics of Single Crystal’s Finite Deformation . 96
6.2.3 Elastic–Plastic Constitutive Equations
for Single Crystals . 99
6.2.4 A Thermo-Elasto-Viscoplastic Model
for Single Crystal 100
Contents xi6.3 Polycrystal Plasticity Theory 107
6.3.1 Taylor-Bishop-Hill Analysis 108
6.3.2 Eshelby Inclusion Model . 109
6.3.3 Self-Consistent Scheme 109
References . 111
7 Hot Forming Simulation Algorithms of High-Strength Steels 113
7.1 Basic Descriptions of the Hot Forming Simulation . 113
7.2 Several Key Points in Numerical Simulation
of Hot Forming . 116
7.2.1 Key Technology of Multi-Field Coupled 116
7.2.2 Problems of High Temperature Contact Friction . 117
7.2.3 The Technology of Simulation
of Temperature Field . 118
7.2.4 The Basic Formula of Heat Transfer
in Hot Forming Process 119
7.3 The Model Building and Simulation of Temperature Field
in Hot Forming . 121
7.3.1 Theoretical Model of the Latent Heat 121
7.3.2 The Basic Equation of Temperature
Shell Elements 123
7.3.3 Weak Form of Equivalent Integral for Weighted
Residual Method for Shell Transient
Temperature Field Problem . 125
7.3.4 Finite Element Formulation of Shell
Temperature Element . 127
7.3.5 Discreteness of Space Domain and Time Domain
in Shell Transient Temperature Field 129
7.4 Static Explicit Algorithm for Hot Forming Multi-Field
Coupled Numerical Simulation . 130
7.4.1 Hot Forming Multi-Field Coupled Constitutive
Equation Based on Sustained Equilibrium
Equations . 130
7.4.2 Finite Element Formula of Large Deformation 133
7.5 Dynamic Explicit Finite Element Formulation of Multi-Filed
Coupled Hot Forming Simulation . 137
7.5.1 Dynamic Equation of Single Degree of Freedom
Damped System . 137
7.5.2 Central Difference Solving Format of Discrete
Dynamic Equilibrium Equation 139
7.5.3 Explicit Finite Element Algorithm of Large
Deformation Dynamic in Continuum 142
7.5.4 Internal Stress Calculation of Hot Forming 146
7.5.5 Contact and Friction Models 147
References . 149
xii Contents8 Numerical Simulation of High Strength Steel Plate’s
Hot Forming . 153
8.1 The Static Explicit Simulation of Temperature Field
and Martensite Transformation for Hot Forming
for U-Shaped Steel . 153
8.2 Dynamic Explicit Simulation of Hot Forming for
Door Reinforced Beam 160
8.3 Numerical Simulation Result and Experimental Comparison
of Hot Forming by Static Explicit Algorithm . 167
8.4 Summary 169
References . 171
9 Features of Hot Forming Graded Composite Material
and Its Experiment and Simulation . 173
9.1 Layered Hot Forming Composite Material and Parts 174
9.1.1 Experimental and Microscopic Organizational
Analysis of Layered Hot Forming Composite
Material and parts 174
9.1.2 Three-Point Bending Test and Finite Element
Analysis of Metal Composite Material . 175
9.1.3 An Analysis of Crash Impact and Energy Absorption
of Thickness Direction Gradient Composite 178
9.2 Continuous Gradient Hot Forming Composite Part . 179
9.2.1 The Manufacturing Process of Continuous Gradient
Hot Forming Composite Part 179
9.2.2 Investigation of Microstructure and Mechanical
Properties of Continuous Gradient Hot Forming
Composite Parts . 180
9.2.3 Investigation of Impact Energy Absorption
Performance of Continuous Gradient Hot Forming
Composite Parts . 181
References . 188
10 Simulation and Optimization on Service Performance
of Hot Forming Parts . 189
10.1 The Application Analysis of Hot Forming Parts
in Body Lightweighting 189
10.2 The Engineering Application of Hot Forming Gradient
Composite Parts . 193
10.2.1 Optimization of Hot Forming Gradient Composite
Case 1: B Pillar . 193
10.2.2 The Design of Hot Forming Gradient Composite
Case 2-S beam 198
Contents xiii10.3 The Case of Hot Forming Parts Applied
in the Automotive Body Design 201
10.3.1 The Design of Hot Forming Parts in the Vehicle
Body Design . 201
10.3.2 The Functional Design of Hot Forming Parts
in the Body Design . 202
References . 206
Index 207
Index
A
Aerosol, 71
Anti-bend ability, 177
Anti-oxidation coating, 27
Austenite-martensite
transformation rate, 69
Automatic transfer device, 29
Axial resistance, 200
B
Bainite, 44, 49, 55, 56, 79
Bending, 11, 16, 17, 22, 24, 118, 175, 176,
178, 179, 186, 190, 198, 200
Bending moment, 200
Blanking, 16, 17
Body design, 114, 189, 201, 202, 205
B-pillar, 4, 198, 201
Bt shell element, 181
Bulging, 16, 21–23, 55
C
Cauchy stress, 99, 100, 134, 143, 146
Central difference method, 141
Change continuously, 181
Chemical composition, 49, 56, 72
C-ncap score, 205
Cold stamping, 1, 8, 9, 12, 15, 16, 18, 27, 31,
33, 43, 116, 175, 176
Complex shape, 16, 35, 39, 55, 193
Consistent mass matrix, 144
Constitutive equation, 70, 81, 82, 99, 100, 111,
112, 130, 133, 134, 146, 170, 171
Constitutive model, 76, 85, 99, 101, 108, 116,
163, 165–168, 170, 171
Contact force control coefficient, 149
Continuous equilibrium equation, 116, 130,
131, 133, 134, 171
Continuous ring heating
furnace, 27, 28
Cooling channel, 153, 154, 159
Cooling contraction, 115
Corresponding boundary constraint, 194
Crash impact, 178
Crystal structure, 85, 90–92, 94
D
Damping matrix, 144
Deep drawing, 16, 17, 22, 23, 35, 39, 40
Defect, 42, 48, 50, 54, 92, 93, 108, 113, 200
Deformation degree, 20
Deformation gradient, 97, 100, 103, 106
Deformation rate, 48, 50–52, 99, 100, 108,
109, 134, 143, 146
Deformation resistance, 23, 47, 48, 50, 52, 54
Deformation temperature, 47, 48, 50, 52
Die design, 17, 18
Direct hot forming process, 35
Direct hot stamping, 12
Directional anisotropy, 61
Distortion, 16, 49, 63, 81, 100
DFT element, 168
Dynamic equilibrium equation, 138, 139,
143, 148
Dynamic explicit finite element
formulation, 137
E
Elastic modulus, 20, 23, 78, 80, 199
Elastoplastic deformation, 97
Elongation, 23, 24, 48, 51, 54–56, 178
Energy absorption, 12, 55, 178, 179, 181,
184–187, 200
Equivalent material property, 78
Equivalent thermal expansion
coefficient, 79, 80
F
Feasibility, 173, 178, 187
Ferritic-pearlitic microstructure, 36
Finite deformation, 96, 99, 100, 108, 111, 112
Finite element, 6, 7, 31, 42, 113, 115, 116,
119, 120, 121, 127, 128, 129, 130, 133,
137, 142, 144, 147, 160, 168, 170, 175,
181, 186, 190, 193, 195, 198, 201
Flanging, 16, 21, 23, 39, 50, 55
Flow standards, 116
Formability, 5–8, 15, 18, 20, 22, 24, 43,
51, 56, 61
Forming limit, 20, 23, 50, 57
Forming performance, 39, 43, 57
Forming quality, 20
Forming rate, 44
Fourier heat conduction differential
equation, 119
Fraction of martensitic
transformation, 69
Front bumper crossbeam, 190
G
Geometry, 40, 85, 91, 113, 123
Gibbs free energy, 75
Green strain, 101, 147
H
Hardening exponent, 24, 51, 64, 65
Hardness distribution, 174
Heat conduction, convection, radiation, 115
Heat exchange coefficient, 11, 116, 160
Heat friction, 115
Heat preservation, 70
Heating control function, 180
Heating furnace, 27–29
Heating temperature, 43, 180, 187
HFS body, 205
High nonlinear, 113
High speed hydraulic press, 27, 31
High speed hydropress, 44
High strength steel, 8–10, 42, 44, 48, 49, 54,
55, 57, 61, 63, 65, 113, 186, 190, 191
High-strength steel, 4, 11, 15, 27, 55, 69, 70,
78, 81, 190, 201, 113, 130, 147, 148
High temperature contact, 115, 117
Homogenization of austenite phase, 115
Hot forming, 9–12, 15, 27–31, 33, 35, 36,
39–42, 44, 48, 49, 51–54, 56, 57, 59,
60, 63, 65, 69, 70, 75, 78, 79, 81, 96,
100, 106, 111, 113, 114, 116–118, 119,
121, 129, 130, 131, 133, 137, 146, 153,
154, 157, 159, 160, 161, 163, 165–170,
173–176, 179–181, 184, 186, 187,
189–191, 193–195, 198, 199, 201–205
Hot forming mold, 35, 63
Hot stamping, 1, 8–11, 15, 27, 31, 33, 44, 49,
56, 69, 70, 113, 119, 121–123, 178
Hydraulic press, 6, 25, 31
I
Ilyushin, 81
Impact force, 178, 179, 184–186, 200, 205
Impact resistance, 8, 12, 17, 189, 190, 204
Impact velocity crashworthiness, 190
Incision, 16
Incremental theory, 82, 130
Indirect hot forming process, 39–41
Indirect hot stamping, 12
Interfacial free energy, 75
Internal high pressure forming, 4, 5
J
Jaumann derivative tensor, 134
K
Kmas (king-mesh analysis system), 11
KMAS (King-Mesh Analysis System), 116,
153, 167, 169–171
L
Large plastic deformation, 23, 76, 113
Laser cutting equipment, 35, 40
Latent heat of phase transformation, 116
Layered hot forming composite material, 174
Lightweight, 5, 8, 9, 189, 191
Light-weighting, 200
208 IndexM
Martensite nucleation, 75, 76
Martensite transformation rate, 70, 76, 173
Martensite transformation’s beginning
temperature, 69
Martensite, 9, 39, 43, 44, 53–56, 69, 70,
74–77, 79, 96, 122, 159–161, 165, 168,
173, 174, 179, 180, 186, 187
Material distribution, 184, 187
Mechanical press, 25, 31
Mechanical property, 1, 25, 60, 92
Metallic structure, 49
Metallographical structure, 36
Microscopic organizational analysis, 174
Microstructure, 30, 31, 35, 39, 41, 48, 57, 89,
116, 118, 161, 165, 168, 173–175, 180,
181, 187
Mixed heat transfer, 119
Mixed law, 78
Modulus of elasticity, 116
Moving velocity, 197
Multi field coupled, 116
Multi-phase composite, 79
Multi-phase particles, 78
N
Necking, 16, 21, 23, 24
Nucleation, 75
Nucleation, 49
O
Optimal control, 42
Optimization, 27, 43, 121, 189, 193, 195
P
Pearlite, 9, 48, 49, 56, 57, 79, 180, 187
Phase transformation plastic coefficient, 70
Phase transformation plastic strain, 70, 147
Phase transformation plasticity, 78
Phase transformation volume
coefficient, 69
Phase transformation volume strain, 170
Piercing, 16, 33
Piola stress, 134
Piola-kirchhoff stress, 101, 103
Plane orientation, 20, 24, 25
Plasticity, 1, 20, 21, 22, 47, 48–55, 76, 78, 107,
115, 147, 152, 175
Polar decomposition, 100
Polycrystal, 85, 107, 108, 110, 111
Press machine, 8
Process design, 7, 18, 165, 166, 168
Punch stroke, 17, 160, 168
Punching, 2, 17, 25, 33, 39, 160
Q
Quality stability, 42
Quasi-static numerical simulation, 178
Quenching u-shaped component, 159
R
Reinforced beam, 33, 36, 160, 161, 163,
170, 171
Rockwell hardness (hrc), 38
S
Separating process, 16
Service performance of hot forming parts, 189
Shaping process, 16
Sheet metal forming, 1, 2, 6, 7, 23, 43, 52, 70,
113, 144
Shot blasting, 27, 33, 56
Side crash, 201
Simulation algorithm, 113
Simulation of temperature field and martensite
transformation, 153
Single crystal, 49, 85, 94–97, 99, 100, 104,
106–108, 110–112
Single-phase material, 78, 184, 186
Size factor, 54
Slice, 16
Slip systems, 50, 95, 102, 108, 109
S-shaped rail, 198, 200
Stamping formability, 7, 20
Stamping line, 3
Stamping mold, 7, 15, 17
Stamping speed, 117
Static explicit algorithm, 130, 143, 167
Surface quality, 16, 20, 21, 33, 56
T
Tailor welded blank, 4
Temperature distribution, 27, 28, 122, 153,
154, 157–159, 161, 168
Temperature shell element, 119, 123
Tensile strength, 5, 9, 22, 23, 36, 41, 48, 54,
56, 57, 59, 63, 65, 82, 70, 181, 187
Index 209T (cont.)
Tensile test, 175, 187
The Application of Tailor Welded Blank, 4
Thermal deformation, 47, 65, 104, 106
Thermal fatigue durability, 28, 42
Thermal kinematics, 100
Thermal–mechanical-transformation coupled
constitutive model, 78
Thermometer, 43
Thickness direction coefficient, 24
Thickness distribution, 161, 165, 168
Thickness tolerance, 20
Thin-walled hat structure, 181
Three-point bending test, 175
Time-varying boundary, 198
Total strain theory, 81
Transformation plastic stress, 81
Transformation volume strain, 80, 81
Transient temperature field, 119, 121, 125,
129, 130
Trimming, 33, 39, 40
U
Uniaxial tensile experiment, 57
V
Vehicle body design, 206
Virtual power equation, 116, 130, 171
Volume of the core, 75
W
Weak form of equivalent integral, 125
Work hardening, 21, 50
Y
Yield ratio, 23, 54

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