Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook – Volume VIII – Plastic Part Manufacturing

Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook – Volume VIII – Plastic Part Manufacturing
اسم المؤلف
Philip E. Mitchell
التاريخ
27 يونيو 2022
المشاهدات
415
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
Loading...

Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook – Volume VIII – Plastic Part Manufacturing
FOURTH EDITION
A reference bookf or manufacturing engineers, managers, and technicians
Philip E. Mitchell,CMfgT
Handbook Editor
Produced under the supervision of the SME PublicationsResources Committee
VOLUME VIII-PLASTIC PART MANUFACTURING
Symbols and Abbreviations . xi
Design for Manufacturability .
Material Selection –
Selection of Manufacturing Methods –
Dies, MoldsandTooling . –
Extrusion Equipment and Processing Techniques .
InjectionMolding . –
BlowMolding . –
Thermoforming –
Lamination –
RotationalMolding . –
Casting . –
Foamprocessing . –
Compression and Transfer Molding
Fiber Reinforced Processing –
DipMolding . –
Finishing. Fabrication and Assembly –
Quality Control. Assurance and Improvement . –
Plant Engineering and Maintenance –
Management . –
Appendix A.-Professional Organizations and Resources . A-
AppendixB.-Glossary B-
Index . – A-B
ABA Acrylonitrile-butadiene-acrylate
ABFA Azobisformamide
ABS Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
ABS/PVC Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/polyvinyl
chloride (blend)
AC Alternating current
ACS Acrylonitrile, chlorinated polyethylene,
and styrene
ADC Allyl diglycol carbonate
AEC Atomic Energy Commission
AFC Automatic frequency control
AMMA Acrylonitrile/methyl methacrylate
AN Acrylonitrile
ANSI American National Standards Institute
APPSS Amorphous polyphenylene sulphide sulfone
ASA Acrylic-styrene-acrylonitrile
ASR Automotive shredder residue
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
ATBN Amine terminated nitrile rubber
ATH Aluminum trihydrate
AVP Added-value polymers
BA Butyl acrylate
BCB Bisbenzocyclobutene (monomers)
BDO Butanediol
BeCu Beryllium copper
BMC Bulk molding compound
BMI Bismaleimide
BOPE Biaxially oriented polyethylene
BOPP Biaxially oriented polypropylene
BOPS Biaxially oriented polystyrene
BPO Benzoyl peroxide
Br Bromine
BR Butadiene rubber
Btu British thermal unit
BUR Blowup ratio
C-D-E
C Carbon, Celsius
C-PET Crystallized polyethylene terephthalate
CA Cellulose acetate
CAB Cellulose acetate butyrate
CaCO Calcium carbonate
CAD Computer-aided design
CAD/CAM Computer-aided design/computer-aided
manufacturing
CAE Computer-aided engineering
CAFE Corporate average fuel economy
CAID Computer-aided industrial design
CAM Computer-aided manufacturing
CAP Cellulose acetate propionate
CAS Chemical abstract service
CASING Cross-linking by Activated Species of
Inert Gases
CB Carbon black
CBA Chemical blowing agent
cc Cubic centimeter
CE Concurrent engineering
CEF Controlled environment foaming
CF Cresol-formaldehyde
CFC Chlorofluorocarbons
CIM Computer-integrated manufacturing
Cl Chlorine
CLTE Coefficient of linear thermal expansion
cm Centimeter
CMC Carboxymethyl cellulose
CMMS Computerized maintenance management
system
CN Cellulose nitrate (celluloid)
CNC Computer numerical control
COE Coefficient of expansion
COF Coefficient of friction
CP Cellulose propionate
CPE Chlorinated polyethylene
CPET Crystalline polyethylene terephthalate
CPVC Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
CR Chloroprene rubber
CS Casein
CSA Canadian Standards Association
CSG Constructive solid geometry approach
CSM Chopped-strand mat
CTA Cellulose triacetate
CTBN Carboxyl-terminated nitrile rubber
CTFE Chlorotrifluoroethylene
Cu Copper
CVD Chemical vapor deposition
D Derivative
DAC Diallyl chlorendate
DAF Diallyl fumarate
DAIP Diallyl isophthalate
DAM Diallyl maleate
DAOP Diallyl orthophthalate
DAP Diallyl phthalate
DBP Dibutyl phthalate
DC Direct current
DCF Directed-chopped fiber
DCP Dicapryl phthalate
DEHP Di ( -ethylhexyl) phthalate
DFM Design for manufacturability
DFMEA Design failure mode and effects analysis
DGEBA Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A
DIBK Diisobutyl ketone
DIDA Diisodecyl adipate
DIDP Diisodecyl phthalate
DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung
DINP Diisononyl phthalate
DIOA Diisooctyl adipate
DIOP Diisooctyl phthalate
DMDI Diphenylmethane diisocyanate
DMT Dimethyl terephthalate
DNP Dinonyl phthalate
xi
SYMBOLS AND
ABBREVIATIONS
The following is a list of symbols and abbreviations in general use throughout this volume. Supplementary and/or derived units, symbols,
and abbreviations that are peculiar to specific subject matter are listed within chapters.DOA Dioctyl adipate
DoD Department of Defense
DOE Design of experiments
DOI Gloss, distinctness of image
DOP Dioctyl phthalate
DOS Dioctyl sebacate
DOT Department of Transportation
DOZ Dioctyl azelate
DPCF Diphenyl cresyl phosphate
DPG Diphenylguanidine
DPM Discrete polymer modifier
DPOF Diphenyl -ethylhexyl phosphate
DSC Differential scanning calorimetry
DTUL Deflection temperature under load
DWV Drain, waste, and vent
EA Ethylene acid (copolymer)
EAA Ethylene-acrylic acid
EAU Energy-absorbing unit
EB Electron beam
EBA Ethylene butyl acrylate
E-beam Electron beam
EBXL Electron beam cross-linking
EC Ethyl cellulose
ECTFE Ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene
EDD Engineering design database
EDM Electrical discharge machining
E/E Electronic/electrical
EEA Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymer
EG Ethylene glycol
EHA Ethylhexyl acrylate
EMA Ethylene methacrylate acid, electromagnetic
(bonding)
EMAA Ethylene methacrylic acid
EMAC Ethylene methacrylic copolymer
EMF Electromotive force
EMI Electromagnetic interference,
-ethyl- -Methylimidazole
EnBA Ethylene n-butyl acrylate
EP Epoxy resin or epoxide
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
EPC Ethylene propylene copolymer
EPDM Ethylene-propylene-diene rubber
EPM/EPDM Ethylene-propylene monomer/ethylene
propylene diene monomer
EPR Ethylene-propylene rubber
EPS Expanded polystyrene
ESCA Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis
ESCR Environmental stress crack resistance
ESD Electrostatic discharge
ESR Electroslag remelt, electron-spin resonance
spectroscopy
ETE Engineering thermoplastic elastomer
ETFE Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene
EtO Ethylene oxide
EV Efficient vulcanization
EVA Ethylene-vinyl acetate
EVOH Ethylene-vinyl alcohol
F-G-H-I-J-K
F Fluorine
FAA Federal Aviation Administration
FDA (U.S.) Federal Drug Administration
FDM Fused deposition modeling
Fe Iron
FEA Failure effect analysis
FEP Fluorinated ethylene-propylene or
perfluoro(ethylene-propylene) copolymer
FF Furan formaldehyde
FIM Full indicator movement
FMA Failure mode analysis
FMEA Failure mode and effect analysis
FN Flexible nylon
fpm Feet per minute
FR Flame (or fire) retardant; fiber-reinforced
FRE Fiberglass-reinforced epoxy
FRP Fiber-reinforced plastic
FSE Fracture surface energy
ft Foot (measure)
FTC First time capability
g Gram
gal Gallon
Ge Germanium
GIM Gas-injection molding
GMT Glass mat thermoplastic
GOP Grille opening panel
GPC Gel-permeation chromatography
GR&R Gage repeatability and reproducibility
GRE Glass-reinforced epoxy
GRP Glass-reinforced plastic
GRS Gamma radiation sterilization
h Hour
H Hydrogen
HALS Hindered amine light stabilizers
HAO Higher alpha olefin
HC Hydrocarbons
HCFC Halogenated chlorofluorocarbons,
hydrochlorofluorocarbons
HCL Hydrochloric acid or hydrogen chloride
HDPE High-density polyethylene
HDT Heat distortion temperature
He Helium
HFC Hydrofluorocarbon
HIPS High-impact polystyrene
HLMI High-load melt index
HMW High-molecular weight
HMW/HDPE High-molecular weight/high-density
polyethylene
HP High performance, horsepower
HPIM High-pressure impingement mixing
HPLC High-performance liquid chromatography
HPO Hydrogen peroxide
HQEE Hydroquinone di (beta-hydroxyethyl) ether
HR High resilience
HTS High-temperature superconducting
HVAC Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning
HVLP High volume low pressure
Hz Hertz
I Iodine
I/O Input/output
IGES Initial graphics exchange standard
IM Injection molding
IMFS Injection molding flow simulation
in. Inch
in. Square inch
xiiin. Cubic inch
IR Infrared
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ISTA International Special Tooling Association
J Joule
kg Kilogram
kPa Kilopascal
L-M-N
LC Liquid chromatography
LCB Long-chain branching
LCM Liquid-composite molding
LCP Liquid-crystal polymer
L/D Length-to-diameter ratio
LDPE Low-density polyethylene
Li Lithium
LIM Liquid-injection molding
LLDPE Linear low-density polyethylene
LLE Liquid-liquid extraction
LMMS Laser microprobe mass spectroscopy
LOI Limiting oxygen index
LOM Laminated-object manufacturing
LP Low pressure
LPA Low-profile additive
LPE Linear polyethylene
LPG Liquified petroleum gas
LPMC Low-pressure sheet molding compound
m Meter
m Cubic meter
MAPS Measurement assurance programs
MBS Methacrylate-butadiene styrene
MDA Methacrylate dianiline
MDI Diphenylomethane- , ’-diipocyanate
MDPE Medium-density polyethylene
MEK Methyl ethyl ketone
MEKP Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide
MF Melamine-formaldehyde
MFR Melt flow rate
MH Mooney high (viscosity)
MI Melt index
MIBK Methyl isobutyl ketone
ML Mooney low (viscosity)
MMA Methyl methacrylate
MMW Medium-molecular weight
MN MegaNewton
MOMBE Metal organic molecular beam epitaxial
MoS Molybdenum disulfide
MPIF Metal Powder Industries Federation
MPR Melt-processable rubber
MPS Mean particle size
MRF Materials recovery facility
MRP Material requirement planning
MSDS Material safety data sheets
MUD Master unit die
MVA/SME Machine Vision Association of SME
MW Molecular weight
MWD Molecular weight distribution
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NBR Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber
NC Numerical control
NCO Nitrogen-carbon oxygen
NIR Near-infrared
NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology
NO Nitric oxide
NURBS Nonuniform rational B splines
O-P-Q-R
O Oxygen
OBPA Oxybisphenoxarsine
OBSH , ´-oxybis (benzenesulfonylhydrazide)
OD Outside diameter
OEE Overall equipment effectiveness
OEM Original engineering manufacturer
OPP Oriented polypropylene
OPS Oriented polystyrene
OSA Olefin-modified styrene acrylonitrile
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration
PA Polyamide (nylon)
PAA Polyacrylic acid
PAEK Polyaryletherketone
PAI Polyamide-imide
PAK Polyester alkyd
PAN Polyacrylonitrile (fibers)
PAR Polyarylate
PAS Polyaryl sulfone
PB Poly- -butene, polybutylene resin
PBA Physical blowing agent
PBAN Polybutadiene-acrylonitrile
PBS Polybutadiene-styrene
PBT Polybutylene terephthalate (polyester)
PC Polycarbonate
PC/ABS Polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
(alloy)
PCBN Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride
PCDP Polydicyclopentadiene
PC/PBT Polycarbonate/polybutylene terephthalate
(alloy)
PCR Postconsumer resins
PCTFE Polymonochlorotrifluoroethylene or
polychlorotrifluoroethylene
PE Polyethylene
PEBA Polyether block amide
PEEK Polyetheretherketone
PEI Polyetherimide or polyester imide
PEK Polyetherketone
PEKK Polyetherketoneketone
PEL Permissible exposure limits
PELS Polymer exposure limit standards
PEO Polyethylene oxide
PE/PS / polyethylene/polystyrene
PES Polyethersulfone and polyestersulfone
PET Polyethylene terephthalate (polyester)
PETG Polyethylene terephthalate glycol
PEVA Polyethylene-vinyl alcohol
PF Phenol-formaldehyde
PFA Perfluoroalkoxy resin
PFF Phenol-furfural
PFMEA Process failure mode and effects analysis
PGE Planetary gear extruder
PHDF Polyhalogenated dibenzofurans
PHDP Polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins
PI trans- , -type of Polyisoprene (Polyimide)
xiiiPIB Polyisobutylene
PID Proportional integral derivative
PI/PAI Polyimide/polyamide imide
PITA Polymer inflation thinning analysis
PL Parting line
PLC Programmable logic controller
PLI Pounds per lineal inch of web
PM Preventive maintenance
PMA Phosphomolybdate acid
PMCA Poly(methyl—chloroacrylate)
PMMA Polymethyl methacrylate (acrylic)
PMP Polymethyl pentane or poly( -methylpentene- )
POM Polyoxymethylene (polyacetal)
PP Polypropylene
PPE Polyphenylene ether
PPE/PPO Polyphenylene ether/polyphenylene oxide
PPH Parts per hour
PPI Polymeric polyisocyanate
ppm Parts per million
PPO Polyphenylene oxide
PPO/E Polyphenylene oxide/ether
PPO-EPS Polyphenylene oxide-expanded polystyrene
PPO/PS Polyphenylene oxide/polystyrene
PPOX Polypropylene oxide
PPS Polyphenylene sulfide
PPSU Poly(p-phenylene sulfone)
PRI Plasticity retention index
PS Polystyrene
PSA Pressure sensitive adhesives
PSU Polysulfone
PTA Phosphotungstic acid
PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene
PTMEG Polytetramethylene glycol
PU Polyurethane
PUR Polyurethane
PVA Polyvinyl alcohol
PVAC Polyvinyl acetate
PVC Polyvinyl chloride
PVCA Polyvinyl-chloride acetate
PVD Physical vapor deposition, polyvinyl dichloride
PVDC Polyvinylidene chloride
PVDF Polyvinylidene fluoride
PVF Polyvinyl fluoride
PVFM Polyvinyl formal
PVK Poly(n-vinylcarbazole)
PVP Poly( -vinylpyrrolidone)
PWDS Programmable wall thickness distribution
QA Quality assurance
QC Quality control
QC/QA Quality control/quality assurance
QFD Quality function deployment
QMC Quick mold changing
R&D Research and Development
RBU Roll buildup
RC or RC Rockwell C
RCF Refractory ceramic fiber
Re Reynolds number
RF Radio frequency
RFI Radio frequency interference
RH Relative humidity
RIM Reaction injection molding
RM Raw materials
RMS Root mean square, runnerless molding system
RP Reinforced plastic, rapid prototyping
RPBT Reinforced polybutylene terephthalate
RP/C Reinforced plastics/composites
RPET Reinforced polyethylene terephthalate
rpm Revolutions per minute
RPVC Polyvinyl chloride, rigid
RRIM Reinforced reaction injection molding
RTC Room temperature curing
RTD Resistance temperature detector
RTM Resin-transfer molding
RTP Reinforced thermoplastic
RTV Room temperature vulcanizing
RVP Reid vapor pressure
S-T-U-V
SAN Styrene-acrylonitrile
SAX Small angle x-ray
SB Styrene butadiene
SBR/BR Styrene-butadiene rubber/butadiene rubber
SBS Styrene-butadiene styrene
SCR Silicon-controlled rectifier
SEBS Styrene-ethylene/butene-styrene
sec Second (time)
SEC Size exclusion chromatography
SEM Scanning electron microscope
SF Structural foam
SFMEA Systems failure mode and effects analysis
SFPM Surface feet per minute
Si Silicon
SIC Standard industrial classification
SLA Stereolithography
SMA Styrene maleic anhydride
SMC Sheet molding compound
SMS Styrene/-methylstyrene
SPC Statistical process control
SPI The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc.
SPPF Solid phase pressure forming
SQC Statistical quality control
SRIM Structural reaction injection molding
SRP Styrene-rubber polystyrene
SSIMS Static secondary ion mass spectroscopy
SSSE Solid state shear extrusion
STAT Sheet thinning analysis (for) thermoforming
STEL Short-term exposure limits
STPE Styrenic thermoplastic elastomer
TAC Triallyl cyanurate
TCE Trichloroethylene
TCEF Trichloroethyl phosphate
TCP Tricresyl phosphate
TCPP Trichlorolethylene
TDI Toluene diisocyanate
TEEE Thermoplastics elastomer, ether-ether
TEO Thermoplastics elastomer, olefinic
TES Thermoplastics elastomer, styrenic
TFE Tetrafluoroethylene
Tg Glass-transition temperature
TGA Thermogravimetric analysis
TGC Tool and gun cleaner
THF Tetrahydrofuran
TiN Titanium nitride
TIR Total indicator reading
xivTLV Threshold limit value
TMA Thermomechanical analysis
TMC Thick molding compound
TOF Trioctyl phosphate
TPA Terephthalic acid
TPE Thermoplastic elastomer
TPES Thermoplastic elastomers, styrenic
TPM Total productive maintenance
TPO Thermoplastic polyolefin (elastomers)
TPP Triphenyl phosphate
TPPE Thermoplastic polyester
TPR Timed pressure release
TPU Thermoplastic urethane
TPUR Thermoplastic polyurethane
TPV Thermoplastic vulcanizate
TPX Poly( -methylpentene- )
TQC Total quality control
TQM Total quality management
TQP Total quality philosophy
TREF Temperature rising elution fractionation
TSSC (P-)toluenesulfonyl semicarbazide
TTE Tooth-to-tooth error
TWA Time-weighed averages
UF Urea-formaldehyde
UHF Ultra-high frequency
UHMW-PE Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene
UL Underwriters’ Laboratories
ULDPE Ultra low-density polyethylene
UP Unsaturated polyester
UPC Uniform plumbing code
USDA United States Department of Agriculture
UV Ultraviolet
UVA UV absorbers
V Volt
VA Vinyl acetate
VAE Vinyl acetate-ethylene (copolymers)
VCM Vinyl chloride monomer
VDC Vinylidene chloride
VLDPE Very-low-density polyethylene
VOC Volatile organic compound
VPF Variable-pressure foaming
W-X-Y-Z
WAXS Wide angle x-ray scattering
WBL Weak boundary layer
WEDM Wire EDM
WR Woven roving
XLPE Cross-linked polyethylene
XPS X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
yd Cubic yard
yr Year
SYMBOLS
Å Angstrom
INDEX
A
A-stage, –
Abbreviations, (see front section of book)
Abrasion resistance testing, –
Accelerating, –
Accountability, –
Accumulator, –
Accumulator head, – (Fig. – )
Acetate, –
Acid copper bath, –
Acronyms (see Appendix B)
Acrylic, – , – , –
Adapter (extrusion), –
Addition reactions, –
Adhesion, –
Adhesion and paintability, – (Table – ), –
Adhesion layers, –
Adhesives, –
Aerospace, –
Aftermixer, – , – (Fig. – )
Aging, –
Air blower for conveying raw materials, –
(Fig. – )
Air blowerivacuum pump for conveying raw
materials, – (Fig. – )
Air blow-off, –
Air knife, –
Air ring, –
Air stripper, –
Alarm outputs, –
Aliasing, –
Aliasing patterns, – (Table – )
Allophanate, – (eq. )
Alloys by supplier, trade name, and key properties, – (Table – )
Aluminum for sonic horns, –
Aluminum molds, –
Amine, –
Amount of consumed plastics, – (Table – )
Analytical process development, –
Angel hair, – , – (Fig. – )
Anisotropy, –
Annealed, –
Annealing, –
Annular breaker plate, –
Annular snap, – (Fig. – )
Antifog coatings, –
Antiglare coatings, –
Antistatic coatings, –
Apparentibulk density, –
Apparent modulus, –
Appearance, –
Applications in the automotive industry, –
Applications of plastics to product types, –
ABS, –
Alloys, –
(Table – )
markets, –
construction, –
consumer products, –
electricalielectronic, –
packaging, –
transportation, –
polymers, –
electromagnetic welding, –
design considerations, –
design freedom, –
Assembly, –
Assembly (cont.)
joint design, –
materials for work coils, –
process, –
types of work coils, –
work coil design, –
bolt-nut combination, –
fasteners for composite materials, –
mechanical fasteners, –
acceptance testhuyoff procedure, –
application, –
environmental issues, –
inspection benefits, –
machine interfaces, –
material handling, –
operator interface, –
other responsibilities, –
other system issues/requirements, –
part inspection, –
production process, –
system reliability/availability, –
ultrasonic welding, –
alternative methods, –
basic rules, –
decorative patterns, –
maintenance, –
microprocessor, –
operation, –
pitfalls, –
reasons to use, –
safety, –
troubleshooting, –
ultrasonic applications, –
hand welding, –
inspecting, testing, and evaluating welds,
instructions for specific materials, –
speed welding, –
tacking, –
types, –
welding flexible thermoplastics and
fasteners, –
requirements checklist, –
welding, –


  • tank-lining materials, –
    welds, –
    basic rules, –
    equipment, –
    related equipment and accessories, –
    Assembly techniques, – , – (Fig. – )
    ASTM electroplating standards, – (Table
    ASTM tests, – (Table – )
    Atomic model, – (Fig. – )
    Atomic weight, –
    Attrition grinders, –
    Automatic tuning, –
    Automotive, –
    Autoseal tip, –
    Auxiliary equipment (Dip Molding), –
    Auxiliary equipment (Extrusion), –
  • )
    general equipment, –
    blender, –
    dryer, –
    gravimetric feed system, –
    grinder, –
    melt pump, –
    scrap reclaimers, –
    screen changer, –
    Auxiliary equipment (Extrusion) (cont.)
    static mixer, –
    textured rolls, –
    process control, –
    control panel, –
    Auxiliary equipment (Injection Molding), –
    barrel temperature controllers and replaceimproving barrel temperature control,
    new materials, –
    cavity pressure sensors, –
    closed-loop control, –
    control equipment selection, –
    interfacing controls to the machine, –
    monitoring equipment selection, –
    sensor selection, –
    insulator sheets, –
    cost effectiveness, –
    selection, –
    uniform thickness, –
    controlling temperature, –
    power controllers, –
    variety of unique currents, –
    ment, –

  • runnerless temperature control systems, –
    B
    B-spline andNURBS curves, – (Fig. – )
    B-stage, – , –
    B-type mix head, – (Fig. – ), –
    Back pressure, – , –
    Baldrige award, –
    Ball milling, –
    Ball-type nonreturn mechanism, – , – pig.
    Band saw, –
    Barrel – , –
    Barrel temperature, –
    Barrier coatings, –
    Barrier ridge in Maddock section, – (Fig. – )
    Barrier screw, – (Fig. – )
    Barrier screw for metallocenes, – (Fig. – )
    Basecoats for deposition, –
    Batch process, –
    Bend-back test (pipe), –
    Bending test, –
    Bibliography
    pig. – )
  • )
    blow molding, –
    casting, –
    compression and transfer molding, –
    design for manufacturability, –
    dies, molds, and tooling, –
    extrusion equipment and processing techfiber reinforced processing, –
    finishing, fabrication, and assembly, –
    foam processing, –
    injection molding, –
    lamination, –
    management, –
    material selection, –
    quality control, assurance, and improvement,
    selection of manufacturing methods, –
    niques, –

  • Binder, – , –
  • INDEX
    Biocompatibility, –
    Biodurabilityhiodegradability, –
    Biological environment, – (Table – )
    Biomaterials, –
    Biomedical polymers, –
    classifications, –
    class I, –
    class , –
    class , –
    Blade horn, –
    Blemishes, –
    Blending and mixing, –
    Blends, –
    Blinded (screen clogged), –
    Block copolymers, –
    Block foam machine, – (Fig. – )
    Blood components, – (Table – )
    Blow mold assembly, – (Fig. – )
    Blow mold layout, – (Fig. – )
    Blow-mold neck ring, –
    Blow mold venting details, – (Fig. – )
    Blow mold wall and draft angle, – (Fig.
    Blow-molded car seat, – (Fig. – )
    Blow-moldeddrum fitting, – (Fig. – )
    Blow-molded parts with hinges, – (Fig. – )
    Blow molder size and capacity, – (Table – )
    Blow molding, – , – to –
    design considerations, –
    extrusion blow molding, –
    machine types, –
    extrusion equipment, –
    extrusion stretch blow molding, –
    designs, – (Fig. – )
    additives, –
    Block, –

    )
    single-stage process, –
    two-stage process, –
    history, –
    injection blow molding, –
    injection blow-molding equipment, –
    applications, –
    process characteristics of injection blow
    molding, –
    types of injection blow-molding machining, –
    introduction, –
    manufacturing considerations, –
    materials, –
    new developments, –
    terms, –
    types, –
    Blow-molding characteristics of various materiBlow needle, –
    Blow pin, –
    Blow ratio, – , –
    Blowing agents, –
    Blown-film die, – (Fig. – )
    Blown-film die for metallocenes, – (Fig.
    Blown-film equipment and operating cost, –
    als, – (Table – )
  • )
    a-frame assembly, –
    air ring, –
    blowup ratio, –
    coextrusion dies, –
    cooling ring, –
    corona discharge, –
    processing metallocene resins, –
    Blown-film equipment and operating cost (cont.)
    die and adapter, –
    die assembly, –
    internal bubble cooling, –
    monolayer dies, –
    heat zones, –
    relaxation plenum, –
    slitting and winding, –
    system operation, –
    Blown-film extrusion, – , – , – (Fig.
    Blown-film line, – (Fig. – )
    Blowup ratio, –
    Blushing, –
    Body-in-white, –
    Boiling water adhesion test, –
    Bond properties, – (Table – )
    Boost or gate break, –
    Booster, –
    Booster time, –
    Booster unit mounted, – (Fig. – )
    Boss types, typical and tall, – (Fig. – )
    Bottom plug, –
    Branched polymers, –
    Breakdown segments, –
    Breaker plate, – , –
    Breaker platehcreen pack, –
    Brittle, –
    Bubble, –
    Building spire, – (Fig. – )
    Building utilities, –
    Bulk molding compound, – (Fig. – )
    Bulk properties, –
    Bull’s-eye effect, –
    Bumpless transfer, –
    Buns, –
    Burst drilfing, – (Fig. – )
    Burst test, –
    Butadiene, – (Fig. – )
    Butt, edge, and corner welds, – , –
    Button mold pressure sensor, – (Fig. – )
  • )
    BON, –
    C
    Cpand C p k , – (eq. I), – (eqs. , )
    Cpkwhen the distribution is shifted, – (Fig.
    C-stage, –
    Calculating colorant ratios, –
    Calculating process potential, –
  • )
    computing c p k , –
    summary, –
    Calendering process, – , – (Fig. – )
    Cam bars, –
    Cantilever snap, – (Fig. – )
    Carcinogenicity, –
    Carousel machines, –
    Carpet underlay, –
    bonded foam, –
    prime foam, –
    CASING process, –
    Cast dies, –
    Cast film and sheet, –
    direct backing, –
    advantages and disadvantages, –
    chill rolls, –
    Cast-film extrusion system, – (Fig. – )
    Cast film line, – , (Fig. – )
    Casting, – , – to –
    acronyms, –
    acrylics, –
    autoclaves, –
    casting now, –
    making an acrylic sheet, –
    old method, –
    polishing, –
    tubes and rods, –
    epoxy, –
    foams, –
    glossary, –
    molds, –
    phenolics, –
    polyester, –
    polystyrene, –
    polyurethanes, –
    process, –
    silicones, –
    synthetic stone, –
    Casting materials, – (Table – )
    Casting mold assembly, – (Fig. – )
    Casting molds, –
    mold materials, –
    aluminum, –
    brass, –
    electroformed metal molds, –
    glass, –
    low fusing eutectic alloys, –
    melamine formaldehyde, –
    paper and cardboard, –
    plaster, –
    steel, –
    wax, –
    wood, –
    positive mold making, –
    hydrocolloids, –
    plastic sheets, –
    reinforced polyester, –
    RTV silastics, –
    synthetic latex, –
    vacuum-formed molds, –
    Casting process, – , –
    Catalyst, – , – , –
    Catenoidal horn, –
    Cause-and-effect diagram, – (Fig. – )
    Causes of cycles, – (Table – )
    Causes of grouping, – (Table – )
    Causes of mixtures, – (Table – )
    Causes of strays, – (Table – )
    Cavities, surface areas comparison, – (Fig.
    Cavity and forces, –
    Cavity pressure curve, – (Fig. – )
    CDC pumping system, – (Fig. – )
    Center turret winders, – (Fig. – )
    Chain alignment, – (Fig. – )
    Chain conveyers, –
    Chart
  • )
    c, – (Fig. – )
    np, – (Fig. – )
    p , – (Fig. – )
    u, – (Fig. – )
    X-bar and R, – (Fig. – )
    Chase, –
    Chemical reactions resulting in stepwise polymers, – (Table – )INDEX
    Chemical recycling of polyurethanes, –
    Chemical resistance, –
    Chemical tests, –
    Chemistry, – , –
    (Table – )
    amorphous or crystalline, –
    atomic structure, –
    basic chemistry, –
    biodegradability, –
    causes of hardness in the water supply,
    compounds in chemistry, –
    temperature, –
    zinc, –

  • pH, –
    corrosion, –
    covalent bonds, –
    environmental considerations, –
    ionic bonds, –
    metallic bonds, –
    molecular weight, –
    nylon, –
    periodic table, –
    polycarbonate, –
    polyethylene, –
    polyethylene terephthalate, –
    polyethylene-vinyl alcohol, –
    polymer reactions, –
    polypropylene, –
    polystyrene, –
    polyurethane, –
    polyvinyl chloride, –
    polyvinylidene chloride, –
    recycling, –
    chemical modification of mixed plastic
    identification and separation, –
    other plastics, –
    polyester, –
    rules of bonding, –
    secondary bonds, –
    toxic and hazardous materials identification,
    treatment and disposal of spent acid and
    wastes, –

  • neutralizing solutions, –
    acid solutions, –
    alkali (base) solutions, –
    Chopped-fiber part fabrication, – (Fig.
    Chopped-strand mat, – (Fig. – )
    Chroma, –
    Chromic acid pretreatment on polypropylene,
    Chromium plating bath, –
    Clamp force, – , – (Fig. – )
    Clamp pressure, –
    Clamp system in closed position, – (Fig.
    Clamp system in open position, – (Fig. – )
    Clamp tonnage, –
    Clarity versus barrier performance, – (Fig.
    Class-A surface, –
    Classification of polymers and end use, –
    Classifying polymer processes, – (Table – )
    Cleaning of materials, – , –
    Cleaning, preservation, and storage of metal
    molds and mold parts, –
  • )
  • (Fig. – )
  • )
  • )
    (Table – )
    Cleaning, preservation, and storage of metal
    molds and mold parts (cont.)
    equipment maintenance, –
    government standards for waste discharge,
    life cycle of plastics, –
    mechanics of corrosion, –
    corrosion data, –
    preventing corrosion, –
    storage considerations, –
    types of corrosion and causes, –
    methods for cleaning steel mold parts, –
    cleaning a mold’s water circuit, –
    cleaning small mold parts, –
    ferrous steels, –
    mixing instructions for mold cleaner
    solution, –
    stainless steel and nonferrous metals,
    washing mold plates, –
    water system pressure test, –

    • Cleavage line pattern, – pig. – )
      Climb milling, – (Fig. – )
      Cloth mat process, – (Fig. – )
      COzlaser cavity, – (Fig. – )
      Coat hanger dies, –
      Coating of parts, – , – (Tables – to
      Coatings, – , – (Table – )
  • )
    adhesion, –
    basic principles, –
    difision theory, –
    adhesion promoters, –
    cleaning plastics, –
    aqueous stages, –
    types, –
    nature of substrate surface, –
    molding conditions, –
    stress measurements, –
    coating SMC, –
    conductivity, –
    elimination of surface defects, –
    predicting pits and porosity, –
    chemical, –
    mechanical, –
    summary, –
    base, –
    clear, –
    cross-linking technologies, –
    electron beam and ultraviolet curing,
    environmental constraints (selecting
    compliant coatings), –
    nonpolluting coatings, –
    one- and two-component systems, –
    powder coatings, –
    primers, –
    supercritical carbon dioxide-based coatings, –
    Coefficient of h e a r thermal expansion (CLTE),
    Coextruded products, –
    Coextrusion feedblock, –
    reasons, –
    surface pretreatments, –
    types, –

    • Cold Cut, –
      Cold flow, –
      Cold molding, –
      Cold slug well, –
      CollapsingA-frame assembly, –
      Collapsing frame, –
      Collecting performance data, –
      Collecting with multiuser system, –
      Color, –
      calculating for colorant ratios, –
      cost factors, –
      factors in choosing a colorant, –
      characteristics, –
      concentration, –
      food packaging, –
      product end use, –
      resins and processing, –
      resistance characteristics, –
      glossary, –
      methods, –
      concentrates, –
      dry, –
      extrusion, –
      liquid thermosets, –
      powdered thermosets, –
      dispersions and agglomerates, –
      blacks and browns, –
      inorganic reds, –
      inorganic violets, blues, and greens, –
      inorganic yellows and oranges, –
      organic reds, –
      organic violets, blues, and greens, –
      organic yellows and oranges, –
      whites, –
      selection, –
      types, –
      Colorant ratios, – (eqs. to )
      Combination hodcold-runner system, –
      Combination material, – pig. – )
      Commodity plastics, –
      Common mistakes (DFM), –
      color variance, –
      creep, –
      gate marks, –
      inadequate draft, –
      shrinkage, –
      sink marks, –
      stress, –
      applied stress, –
      hostile environment, –
      molded-in stress, –
      summary, –
      unanticipated use, –
      Common packaging applications, – (Table
      Comparison
  • )
    Capital costs and production rates, –
    (Table – )
    materials, – (Fig. – )
    metal-removal processes, – (Fig.
    RIM and injection molding, –
    sheet-metal and RTM parts, – (Fig.
    SMC compositions with steel, –
    thermoplastic composite properties,
    Competitive process comparison, – (Table
    Components identification, –
  • )
    (Table – )
  • )
    (Table – )
  • (Table – )
  • )
  • INDEX
    Components of pultrusion machine, – (Fig.
    Composite, –
    Composite process considerations, – (Table
    Composition
  • )
  • )
    low-profile SMC, – (Table – )
    plastic waste, – (Table – )
    Compound, – , –
    Compressed air for conveying raw materials,
  • (Fig. – )
    Compression molding, –
    parameters, – (Table – )
    troubleshooting, –
    compression molding, – , –
    auxiliary equipment, –
    mold construction, –
    molding conditions, –
    molding equipment, –
    molding process, –
    compression molding, – , –
    other methods of molding, –
    transfer molding, – , –
    conditions, –
    methods, –
    Compression/transfermolding, – to –
    molding process comparison, –
    principles of molding, –
    thermoset plastics molding, –
    transfer molding, – , –
    conditions, –
    design, –
    equipment, –
    pellets, –
    processes, –
    Compression versus transfer molding, –
    Computers as management tools, –
    (Table – )
    characteristics, –
    conclusions, –
    process, –
    analyzing data, –
    inputs, –
    multiuser outputs, –
    process control system, –
    cell reporting, –
    garbage control, –
    integrating cell inputs, –
    justification of cell controllers, –
    processing cell control data, –
    inputs, –
    production systems, –
    Outputs, –
    Computer-supervised system, –
    Concrete lining, –
    Concurrent engineering flow path, – (Fig. – )
    Condensation, – , –
    Conditions on a test plaque, – (Table – )
    Cone created with stereolithography, – (Fig.
    Confirmation run test parameters, – (Table
    Conforming anodes, –
    Conical tack-offs, – (Fig. – )
    Conservative design, –
    Consumer products, –
    Contact heat pressure-forming machine, –
  • )
  • )
    (Fig. – )
    Contact heat thermoforming process, – pig.
    Contact heating, –
    Continuous chip formation
  • )
    chip, –
    chip with a built-up edge, –
    process, –
    screeners, –
    approach for improvement, –
    definitions and tools for continuous imgeneral continuous improvement, –
    features, –
    Continuous quality improvement outline, –
    provement, –
    Continuous roll-fed process, –
    factors affecting accurate trimming, –
    heating, –
    unwind systems, –
    web transport, –
    how die choice dictates the equipment used,

  • economic implications, –
    scrap ratio, –
    trim quality, –
    secondary operations, –
    blister sealing, –
    decorative parts, –
    heat sealing, –
    post-trimming, –
    printing, –
    rim rolling, –
    additional topics, –
    mold-related topics, –
    techniques for special applications, –
    Control technique guidelines, –
    Control unit, –
    Convection and radiation heat loss values for
    Converging and diverging dies, – , – (Fig.
    Conveying systems, –
    Coolant rates for turbulent flow, – (Table
    Cooling, –
    Cooling paths for temperature control, –
    (Fig. – )
    Cooling time, –
    Copolymerization components of ABS, –
    Copolymers, –
    Copper-nickelalloy, –
    Core match speed, –
    Core rods, – , – (Fig. – )
    Core speed, –
    Core travel, – (Fig. – )
    Cored-out cross-sections, – (Fig. – )
    Coring environmental conditions, –
    Coring for nominal wall thickness, – (Fig.
    Coring wall sections, – (Fig. – )
    Corner radii, – (Fig. – )
    Corner strip weld, –
    Corona discharge plasma, –
    Corotating and counterrotating twin screws, –
    Cost of milling for mold finishing, – (Fig.
    Cost structure in mold manufacturing, –
    steel, – (Table – )
  • )
  • )
    (Fig. – )
  • )
    (Fig. – )
  • )
    (Table – )
    Costs of design, –
    Countersunk holes for rivet installation, –
    (Fig. – )
    Coupling distance of a single-turn coil, –
    (Fig. – )
    Creaming, –
    Creams, –
    Creep, –
    Critical path equipment, –
    Cross-link, – , –
    Crosshead dies, –
    Crushed core, –
    Crystal structures, –
    Crystalline surface characteristics, –
    Crystallize, –
    Crystals in plastics, – (Fig. – )
    Cull, –
    Cure, curing, – , – , –
    Cure versus appearance for rotationally molded
    parts, – (Table – )
    Cushion, –
    Cushion cylinder, –
    Customer and molder relationship, – (Fig.
  • ), – (Fig. – )
    Cutter, –
    Cutting, –
    Cutting speeds, – (eq. I , )
    Cycle efficiency, –
    Cycle preparation, – (Fig. – )
    Cycle time, –
    Cycle time adjustments, –
    Cycle time and cost estimation (Dip Molding),
    Cycles, – , – (Fig. – )

  • cost estimation (Dip Molding), –
    cycle times (Injection Molding), – (Table
    efficiency, –
    preparation, – (Fig. – )
    time, –
    time adjustments, –
    Cylinder metering units, –
    Cylindrical horn, –
  • ), –
    D
    D dimension, –
    Damage by environment, –
    Deckling, –
    Deep-draw blow molding, – (Fig. – )
    Defects per unit, – (Table – )
    Deformation under load, –
    Degating, –
    Degrees, – (Table – )
    Deming method, –
    Dental waxes, –
    Design considerations (Blow Molding), –
    blow ratio and thickness variation, –
    round parts, –
    dimensional control, –
    mounting tabs, inserts, hinges, and internonsymmetrical parts or details on parts,
    parting line and draft angle, –
    structural and cosmetic considerations, –
    locks, –

  • Design considerations (DFM), – (Table -I),
    • INDEX
      Design considerations (DFM) (cont.)
      bosses, –
      holes and impressions, –
      mass production, –
      positioning, –
      snap design, –
      various snap designs, –
      shaping the part, –
      draft factors, –
      judging the radius, –
      surface factors, –
      the rib, –
      dimensions, –
      wall thickness, –
      coring, –
      the thinner, the better, –
      Design considerations (Dip Molding), –
      Design considerations (Extrusion), –
      tolerances, –
      gear pumps, –
      grooved feed compared to smooth bore, –
      Design costs, –
      Design for manufacturability, – to –
      approaches, –
      conservative, –
      fastest-to-market, –
      highest-risk, –
      business environment, –
      common mistakes, –
      concurrent engineering defined, –
      considerations, –
      cost control factors, –
      DFM inputs, –
      early supplier involvement, –
      cradle-to-grave costs, –
      information sources, –
      molder and customer interface with
      CAD/CAM, –
      multifunctional teams, –
      problems without DFM, –
      project management, –
      rapid prototyping, –
      rules and guidelines, –
      software, –
      technology tools, –
      CAD/CAM technology, –
      CAD data transfer, –
      CAD modeling methods, –
      CAE, –
      CAM, –
      history of surfacing, –
      modelmaking methods, –
      NURBS-based surfaces, –
      solid modeling, –
      D wireframe, –
      D wireframe, –
      time-based program management, –
      one-stop-shop concept, –
      time-to-market issues, –
      competitive advantages, –
      traditional relationships, –
      positive trends, –
      Design generators, –
      Design guidelines (Rotational Molding), –
      angles, –
      corners, –
      drafts, –
      flatness, –
      holes, –
      Design guidelines (Rotational Molding) (cont.)
      inserts, –
      multi-wall parts, –
      ribshosses, –
      textured surfaces, –
      threads, –
      tolerances, –
      undercuts, –
      wall thickness, –
      Design influence on manufacturing cost, –
      Design methodology, – (Fig. – )
      Design of experiments, –
      (Fig. – )
      types, –
      center points, –
      effects and resolution, –
      replication and randomization, –
      two-level fractional factorial designs,
      two-level full factorial designs, –

  • Design ofparison head, – (Fig. – )
    Design of rib base, – (Fig. – )
    Design resolution, –
    Design to production process, – (Table – )
    Designing with software, –
    environmental design, –
    part design optimization, –
    optimization methodology, –
    stereolithography models, –
    appearance, –
    assembly, –
    decorating, –
    moldability, –
    part features, –
    part function, –
    simplification, –
    part features, –
    appearance, –
    assembly, –
    decorating, –
    DFM checklist, –
    moldability, –
    simplification, –
    part factors, –
    part function, –
    technology tools, I –
    benefits, –
    D plastic analysis, –
    gas flow analysis, –
    heat transfer analysis, –
    process optimization, –
    shrinkage analysis, –
    structural analysis, –
    warpage analysis, –
    Diagnostic evaluation, –
    Die, – , – , –
    Die body, –
    Die comparisons, – (Table – )
    Die design (Extrusion), –
    Die gap and land profile for metallocenes, –
    Die position to prevent parison bending, –
    Die swell/effects, – (Table – )
    Dies, molds, and tooling, – to –
    (Fig. – )
    (Fig. – )
    design basics, –
    design for manufacturability, –
    hot sprue bushings, –
    inserts, –
    Dies, molds, and tooling (cont.)
    material path, –
    number of cavities, –
    parting line, –
    runners and gates, –
    shrinkage, –
    side actions, –
    slides, –
    sprue bushing, –
    three-plate mold, –
    two-plate mold, –
    vents, –
    water lines, –
    design considerations, –
    flow analysis, –
    heat transfer, –
    cooling methods, –
    heating methods, –
    material, –
    metallurgical aspects, –
    aluminum, –
    carbon, –
    chromium, –
    cobalt, –
    manganese, –
    molybdenum, –
    nickel, –
    production mold materials, –
    prototype mold materials, –
    silicon, –
    sulfur, –
    steels for mold frames, –
    titanium, –
    tool materials and applications, –
    vanadium, –
    mold improvements, –
    mold operation and optimization, –
    mold plating, –
    other considerations, –
    ejection system, –
    hand-loaded inserts, –
    unscrewing molds, –
    part design, –
    bosses, –
    material, –
    other features, –
    radii, –
    ribs, –
    tolerances, –
    walls, –
    press information, –
    clamping force, –
    knockout-bar spacing, –
    minimum and maximum mold thickness,
    platen size and clamping hole pattern,
    shot size, –
    tie bar spacing, –
    preventive maintenance, –
    qualification, –
    record keeping, –
    Diffusion pump, – (Fig. – )
    Dimensional stability, –
    Dimensions, –
    Dimer, –
    Dip mold process using manual steps, – (Fig.
    Dip molding, – to –
  • )INDEX
    Dip molding (cont.)
    applications, –
    auxiliary equipment, –
    cycle time and cost estimation, –
    design considerations, –
    improvements and developments, –
    machine controls, –
    maintenance, –
    materials, –
    material requirements, –
    metal tools, –
    order of operations, –
    process, –
    production equipment, –
    safety, –
    selection criteria, –
    troubleshooting, –
    Dip molding automated equipment (side view),
    Dip molding automated equipment (top view),
    Dip molding compared to injection molding,
    Dippers, –
    Dipping, –
    Dipping mandrel for use with molten eutectic
    alloys, – (Fig. I – )
    Direct drive extruders, –
    Direct-positive-type compression mold, – ,
    Directed-chopped-fiber, – (Fig. – ),
    Discharge time of treated plastics, – (Fig.
    Discoloration, –
    Distributedpower patterning, –
    Divergent die, –
    Doctor blade, –
    Doctor box, –
    Double-endedovens, – , – (Fig. – )
    Double-flighted barrier screw, – (Fig. – )
    Double-flighted screws, –
    Draft angles, – (Fig. – and Fig. – ),
    Drape vacuum forming, –
    Drawdown, –
    Dressing and repairing welds, –
    Drill characteristics, – (Fig. – )
    Drilling, –
    Drop weight impact test, – (Fig. – )
    Dry-off, –
    Dry powder laminating line, – (Fig. – )
    Drying, – , –
    Dual-lip air ring for metallocenes, – (Fig.
    Ductile, –
    Dynamic mixers, –
  • (Fig. – )
  • (Fig. – )
  • (Table – )
  • (Fig. – )
  • (Fig. – )
  • )
  • , –
  • )
    E
    E-beam, electron beam, –
    Economics, –
    Effluent limitations, – (Table – )
    Ejection distance, –
    Ejection time, –
    Ejector blade, –
    Ejector pin placed at a protrusion, – (Fig.
    Elastic modulus equals slope, – (Fig. – )
    Electrical and electronic applications, –
    Electrical heating, –
    Electrically operated forming press, – (Fig.
    Electroless plating, –
    Electromagnetic induction heating, – (Fig.
    Electromagnetic welding process, – , –
    Electronic applications of vacuum-deposited
    Electrostrictivetransducers, –
    Elevating EMA temperature, –
    Embedment, –
    Emulsion polymerization, –
    Encapsulated, –
    End milling-slotting, – (Table – )
    Energy consumption of processes, – (Fig.
    Energy director, – (Fig. – )
    Energy director versus shear joint, –
    Energy required to heat a mold, – (eq. )
    Energy requirements, – (eq. )
    Engineered plastics, –
    Engineering properties, –
    Environmental changes, – (Table – )
    Environmental stress cracking, –
    Epoxide resins, –
    Epoxy castings, –
    case study, –
    blending, –
    cross-linking, –
    diluent effects, –
    features, –
    hardeners, –
    types, –
    Equipment, –
    drying, –
    grinding, –
    lubrication, –
  • )
    (Table – )
  • )
  • )
    (Fig. – )
    metals, – (Table – )
  • )
    EPOXY, –
    examples, –
    removal and recycling, –
    reuse and additives, –
    status indicators, –
    survey, –
    use of codes, –
    material loading, –
    mixing, –
    Equipment analysis, –
    Equipment maintenance, –
    developing the task, –
    considerations, –
    task ownership, –
    diagnostic tool needs, –
    lubrication, –
    organizing equipment, –
    critical areas, –
    equipment inventory, –
    planning preventive maintenance, –
    auditing the process, –
    determining the objectives, –
    equipment analysis, –
    the plan, –
    program evaluation, –
    Equipment maintenance (cont.)
    records control, –
    tracking the system, –
    developmentof routes, –
    guidelines, –
    types of routes, –
    Equipment operation and maintenance (Extrusion), –
    barrel, –
    base, –
    cleaning small parts, –
    dies, –
    head, –
    heatingicooling, –
    initial start-up stage, –
    motor, –
    records, –
    reduction gear, –
    screws, –
    spare parts, –
    system shutdown, –
    with purging compound, –
    without purging compound, –
    take-offs, –
    thrust bearing, –
    warm-up, –
    reset zones, –
    Equipment selection and material handling,

  • equipment size, –
    location, accessibility, and serviceability,

  • material handling, recycling, –
    granulating runners, sprues, and gates,
    mixing regrind, –
    pellets, –
    removal of finished product, –
    robotics, –
    secondary operations and packing, –
    storing, shipping, and identifying finmechanical, electrical, and building services,
    miscellaneous equipment, –
    process- and production-monitoring sysprocess changes, –

  • ished product, –

  • tems, –
    changing molds, –
    cleaning equipment, –
    reducing maintenance costs, –
    cost of repair personnel, –
    financial considerations, –
    safety and environmental considerations,
    service equipment, –

  • Equivalent flows, –
    Etching, –
    Eutectic alloys, –
    Exotherm, – , –
    Expanded design options, –
    Exponential cone horn, –
    Exterior-weathering coatings, –
    External sizing systems, – (Fig. – )
    Externally heated runnerless molding, – (Fig.
    Extruded films and sheets, –
    Extruder screw, –
    Extruders, –
  • )
  • INDEX
    Extruding sheet, – pig. – )
    Extruding sheets and film, – (Fig. – )
    Extrusion blow-molding equipment, –
    auxiliary equipment, –
    blowing section, –
    head tooling size, –
    machine types, –
    maintenance, –
    mold design and construction, –
    parison-forming section, –
    screw design, –
    trimming section, –
    process control, –
    Extrusion blow-molding process, – (Fig. – )
    Extrusion coating, –
    Extrusion equipment and processing techniques,
  • to –
    auxiliary equipment, –
    barrel, –
    blown film equipment and operating cost,
    blown-film process, –
    cast film sheet, –
    drive and motor, –
    extruder description, –
    extrusion dies, –
    feed throat, –
    film winders, –
    gearbox, –
    grooved-feed extruder, –
    head zone, –

  • avoiding contamination, –
    coextrusion feedblock, –
    gates, –
    gear pump, –
    melt pressure, –
    mixers, –
    temperature measurement, –
    valve, –
    material considerations, –
    new developments, –
    operation and maintenance, –
    principles of extrusion, –
    process design considerations, –
    profile, –
    safety, –
    screw, –
    troubleshooting, –
    special screw designs, –
    Extrusion line (profile view), – (Fig. – )
    Extrusion line (top view), – (Fig. – )
    Extrusion principles, –
    Extrusion stretch blow molding, –
    Extrusion welding, –
    F
    Fabric, –
    Fabricated fittings, –
    Face milling, – (Table – )
    Facility layout, –
    buildings, –
    conformance to needs, –
    blow molding, –
    calendering, –
    casting, –
    cold forming, –
    cold molding, –
    Facility layout (cont.)
    compounding, –
    compression and transfer molding, –
    extrusion, –
    injection molding, –
    rotational molding, –
    thermoforming, –
    plant requirements, –
    product-handling equipment, –
    raw material storage and handling, –
    support areas, –
    Factorial experiment, – (Table – )
    Falling dart test, – (Fig. – )
    Fan gate, – (Fig. – )
    Fastener for composite materials, – (Fig.
    Feed, – , – (eg. , )
    Feed screw, –
    Feed zone, –
    Feeding the rod, –
    Female mold, – (Fig. – )
    Female mold-billow plug assist, –
    Female mold-billow snap back, – (Fig. – )
    Female mold-plug assist, – , – (Fig. – )
    Female mold plugs, –
    FEP fluorocarbon, – , –
    Fiber changes during braiding, – (Fig.
    Fiber-reinforced plastic, – , –
    Fiber-reinforced processing, – , – to –
  • )
  • )
    autoclave molding, –
    centrifugal casting, –
    filament winding, –
    glossary of terms, –
    hand lay-up, –
    methods, –
    pressure bag molding, –
    property design, –
    pulforming, –
    pultrusion, – , –
    reinforced plastics, –
    resin transfer molding, –
    spray-up, –
    structural reaction injection molding, –
    vacuum bag molding, –
    Filament winding process, – (Fig. – )
    Filler, – , – , –
    Fillet welds, –
    Fillets and ramps, – (Fig. – )
    Film, –
    Film blocking, –
    Film width and thickness control, – , –
    Film winders, –
    center-type, –
    greater horsepower, –
    lay-on roll, –
    predetermining counter, –
    roll diameter limits, –
    design considerations, –
    drive calculations, –
    electronic controllers and feedback loops, –
    haul-off assemblies, –
    other terms, –
    surface winder, –

achieving tension, –
film blocking, –
film overfeed, –
uneven winding, –
Film winders (cont.)
tension control, –
constant tension, –
microprocessor-controlled, –
self-centering dancers, –
taper winding, –
Films and resin cost of metallocene, –
Film’s bubble and die diameters (blowup ratio),
Final mold base size, – (Fig. – )
Final set points (extrusion), – (Table – )
Finishing, fabrication, and assembly, – to

  • (Fig. – }

  • assembly, –
    basics, –
    buffing plastics, –
    chip formation, –
    coolants, –
    drilling, –
    laminates, –
    milling, turning, routing, and planing, –
    processing, –
    sawing, –
    stereolithography, –
    tapping and threading, –
    thermoplastics, –
    thermosets differ from thermoplastics, –
    thermosetting, –
    tooling, –
    cutting with lasers, –
    electromagnetic welding, –
    fasteners, –
    machining plastics, –
    preparation and finishing, –
    requirement checklist, –
    ultrasonic welding, –
    welds, –

    Finishing the weld, –
    First-piece qualification, –
    Fisheyes, –
    Fixtures, –
    Flame polished, –
    Flame process, –
    Flash, – , – , –
    Flash-type compression mold, – (Fig. – )
    Flat film, –
    Flat sheet dies, –
    Flat-top bun modification, – (Fig. – )
    Flat-top foam, – (Fig. – )
    Flexural properties, – (Fig. – )
    Flexural strength, –
    Flow analysis, –
    Flow, –
    three-dimensional, –
    two-dimensional, –
    advantages, –
    steps, –
    Flow coating, –
    Flow distributor, –
    Flow manifold, –
    Fluorescent microscopy, –
    Fluorocarbons, –
    Foam equipment, – , – (Fig. – )
    metering units, –
    high-pressure machines, –
    low-pressure machines, –
    mix heads, – INDEX
    Foam equipment (cont.)
    high-pressure mixing, –
    low-pressure mixing, –
    process control systems, –
    raw material supply, –
    temperature control, –
    adhesive types, –
    Foam fabrication, –
    composite products, –
    flame bonding, –
    hot-melt systems, –
    latex adhesives, –
    powder, –
    solvent-based rubber or urethane systems, –
    thermoplastic urethane films, –
    dielectric sealing, –
    lamination, –
    trimming, slitting, and cutting, –
    bandknife slitters, –
    baumer slitters, –
    carousel slitters, –
    die cutters, –
    hot-wire cutters, –
    log peelers, –
    profile cutters, –
    routers, –
    Foam machines, –
    block foam machines, –
    foam configuration, –
    molded foam machines, –
    slab stock foam machines, –
    Foam molds, –
    crushing, –
    fixturing, –
    mold carriers, –
    mold releases, –
    mold temperature, –
    Foam processing, – to –
    basic chemistry, –
    carpet underlay, –
    chain extension, –
    conveying systems, –
    cross-linking, –
    filler usage, –
    foam equipment, –
    foam machines, –
    foam molds, –
    foam production methods, –
    gas formation, –
    introduction, –
    rigid foam laminate board lines, –
    troubleshooting, –
    closed pour, –
    open pour, –
    Foam production methods, –
    fioth, –
    Foam system, – (Fig. – )
    Foam types, –
    recycling foam, –
    automotive shredder residue, –
    chemical recycling, –
    filler usage, –
    rebond foam, –
    reticulated foam, –
    Foamed material, –
    Foams, –
    Forming methods, – pig. – )
    Forming press toggle moving platen, – (Fig.
    Formulas
  • )
    c chart, – (Table – )
    IndividualX and moving-range chart, –
    np chart, – (Table – )
    p chart, – (Table – )
    target X-bar and R chart, – (Table – )
    u chart, – (Table – )
    X-bar and R chart, – (Table – )
    X-bar plot point, – (Fig. – )
    (Table – )
    Four-station injection blow molding, – (Fig.
    Fractional factorial design, – (Table –
    Fragmented project team problem, – (Fig.
    Free-draw vacuum forming, – , – pig. – )
    Free pressure forming-heavy-gage sheet, –
    Frequency record, – (Table – )
    Frost line, – , –
    Froth carpet coating line, – (Fig. – )
    Full factorial experiment, – (Table – )
    Full-round versus trapezoidal runner, – (Fig.
    Functionality, –
    Fundamentals of plastics and polymers, –
    differences, –
    polyester, –
    butadiene, –
    polyethylene, –
    Fused deposition modeling, –
    Fuzzy logic, – , –
  • )
    and Table – )
  • )
    (Fig. – )
  • )
    G
    Gage bands, –
    Gage capability, –
    Gas and power control unit, –
    Gas-assist injection molding, –
    molding machine requirements, –
    process basics, –
    product applications, –
    product considerations, –
    reasons to use gas-assist, –
    spillovers, –
    tooling considerations, –
    Gas effects on epoxy coating adhesion, –
    Gas formation, – (eq. , )
    Gate, – , – , – pig. – ), –
    Gate close time, –
    Gate placement, – (Fig. – )
    Gate size, –
    Gating, –
    Gating and venting a cap, – (Fig. – )
    Gear pump, –
    Gel, –
    Gel coat, – , – , –
    Gelation, –
    Geometric patterns, – (Fig. – )
    Geometry of turning cutting tool, – (Table
    Glass-fiber cloth mat, – (Fig. – )
    Glass mat thermoplastic, –
    Glass transition temperature, –
    (Table – )
  • )
    Glass tubes, –
    Glitter, –
    Gloss meter, – (Fig. – )
    Glossary (see Appendix )
    Glow discharge plasma, –
    Grinder, –
    Grooved barrels, –
    Grooved-feed extruder, – pig. – )
    Glossy, –
    flight depths, –
    no added heat, –
    Grouping, –
    Grouping and strays, – (Fig. – )

Guillotine shear, – (Fig. – )

H

Hairpin coil, – (Fig. – )
Hand gun, – (Fig. – )
Hand welding flat and corner strip, –
Hanging conveyer, –
Hard coatings, –
Hardness, – , –
Hazardous wastes, –
Head, –
Heat deflection temperature, –
Heat losses, – (eq. and eq. )
Heat mold-die assembly, – (Fig. – )
Heat profile, – (Table – )
Heat removed from the mold, – (eq. )
Heat resistance, –
Heat-sealed package, – (Fig. – )
Heat sealing, –
Heat transfer constants, – (Table – )
Heated head, –
Heater ammeters, –
Heater bake-out, –
Heating methods, –
Hevea brasiliensis, –
High-impact polystyrene, –
High-pressure impingement mixing, –
High-pressure lance cylinder (RRIM) machine,
High-pressure (RIM) machine, – (Fig. – )
High-stalk bubble, –
High-temperature PVC, –
Histograms, – (Fig. – )
Hobbing, –
Hold time (cushion time), –
Holding (secondary) pressure, –
Hopper, –
Horizontal cleavage lines, – (Fig. – )
Horn materials, –
Hot-gas welding, – , –
Hours to build (molds), –
Hue, –
Hull cell, –
Humidity, –
Hydraulic clamp system, – pig. – )
Hydraulic system temperature control, –
Hydraulically operated mold carrier, – (Fig.
Hydrocolloid, –
Hydrogenation products, – (Fig. – )
Hydroquinone, –

  • (Fig. – )
    Hot Cut, –
  • )
  • INDEX
    I
    IGES transfer, – (Fig. – )
    Impact resistance loss, –
    Impact strength, –
    Impact test, – (Fig. – ), –
    In-line sputtering, –
    In-line trimming, – (Fig. – )
    In-mold coating, –
    In-plant compounding system for an injection
    Incorrect clamp force, –
    Indexing, –
    Indexing chain, – (Fig. – )
    Individual X and moving-range chart, –
    Industrial blow molding, –
    Information transfer, –
    Initial injection distance, –
    Initial injection time, –
    Initial pressure, –
    Injectionblow mold advantages, –
    Injection blow molding, – (Fig. – )
    Injection blow-molding equipment, –
    molder, – (Fig. – )
    (Fig. – ), – (Table – )
    tooling, –
    parison neck ring, –
    Injection cylinder with heating bands, – (Fig.
    Injection hold distance, –
    Injection hold time, –
    Injection manifold systems, –
    Injection-molded fittings, –
    Injection molding, – to –
    auxiliary equipment, –
    determining costs, –
    final part cost, –
    operational costs, –
    tooling costs, –
    evolutionof the industry, –
    comparison to other processes, –
    screw versus plunger, –
  • )
    industry overview, –
    machine, –
    pressure, –
    purpose, –
    screw, –
    screw output, –
    shear rate, –
    sizing the clamp unit, –
    sizing the injection unit, –
    amorphous versus crystalline, –
    cost versus performance, –
    fillers and reinforcements, –
    melt flow and processibility, –
    minimizing molded-in stress, –
    material selection, –
    mold design, –
    processing, –
    product design, –
    proper material use, –
    molding process parameters, –
    clamp unit, –
    distance, –
    identifying the parameters, –
    pressure, –
    pressure required, –
    temperature, –
    time, –
    nontraditional technologies, –
    Injection molding (cont.)
    reaction injection, –
    runnerless, –
    structural foam, –
    traditional injection molding, –
    troubleshooting, –
    Injection molding operation, – (Fig. – ))
    Injection molding parameters, – (Fig. – )
    Injection pressure and speed, –
    Injection screw, – (Fig, – )
    Injection stretch blow molding, –
    Innovation and creativity, –
    Inputs and computer systems, –
    Insert molding, – (Fig. – )
    Inserts, – (Fig. – )
    Insulated runner molds, –
    Insulated runner system, – (Fig. – )
    Insulation blanket, –
    Integral skin foams, –
    Intelligence, –
    Interaction effect, – (Table – )
    Interlockingparts, – (Fig. – )
    Intermittent blow molding, – (Fig. – )
    Intermittent process, –
    Internal bubble coating, –
    Inversion, –
    Ion, –
    Ion gun sputtering, –
    Ionic bonds, – (Fig. – )
    IS requirements, – Table – )
    IS standards, – (Table – )
    ISO-equivalent standards, – (Table – )
    Isocyanate, – (eq. )
    Isocyanate group, – (eq. )
    Isotope, –
    J
    Jackscrews and pullers, –
    Jig frame, –
    Joint configurations, – (Fig. – )
    Joint void ratios, – (Fig. – )
    Junk, –
    K
    Kaizen, –
    Kanban, –
    Kinematic viscosity of water, – (Table – )
    Kiss-offribbing, –
    Knife-like forged die, – (Fig. – )
    Knockout rods, –
    L
    L-type mix head, – (Fig. – )
    Labor charges, –
    Lamellae, –
    Lamellar injection molding, – , – (Fig.
  • )
    cost-performance benefits, –
    other considerations, –
    Laminar airflow, –
    Laminate, –
    Lamination and coatings, – to –
    coatings, –
    decoration, –
    hot stamping, –
    dies, –
    foils, –
    stamping presses, –
    tooling, –
    metal deposition, –
    multilayer processes, –
    painting plastics, –
    application procedures, –
    considerations, –
    application equipment, –
    conveyers, –
    final check, –
    off-load area, –
    on-load area, –
    ovens, –
    paint and paint mix area, –
    pretreatmenticleaning, –
    cleaning, –
    cures, –
    equipment, –
    formulations, –
    means of application, –
    potential disadvantages of coating systems, –
    substrates, –
    testing after curing, –
    testing before application, –
    types of coatings, –
    Lamination line for foam, – (Fig. – )
    Lance cylinder, – (Fig. – )
    Landed-positive-type compression mold, – ,
    Landfill composition, – (Fig. – )
    Landfill constituents, – (Table – )
    Lap and lap-strip welds, – , –
    Large- and low-blow ratio, – (Fig. – )
    Laser beam path, – (Fig. – )
    Laser disadvantages, –
    Laser machining, – (Fig. – )
    Laser processing advantages, –
    Latex, – , –
    Layered modeling methods, – (Table – )
    Lay-flat area, –
    Lay-flat width, –
    Lead-lag, –
    LIM process, – (Fig. – )
    Linear polymers, –
    Lining materials, –
    Liquid gas-assist injection molding, –
    Locating male mold cavities, – (Fig. – )
    Locked-up four-quadrant drive, –
    Long flow lengths, –
    Longitudinal roughness, – (Fig. – )
    Loss function, – , – (eqs. to )
    start-up checklist for paint spray lines, –
    transparent coatings, –
  • (Fig. – )
    derivation, –
    analyzing process capability, –
    assessment, –
    uses, –
    Low-pressure, –
    Low-pressure mix head stirrers, – (Fig. – )
    Low-pressure sheet molding compound, –
    Low-profile additive (LPA), –
    Luminous transmittance and haze, – INDEX
    Machine controls (Dip Molding), –
    Machine layout, – (Fig. – ), – (Fig.
    Machine rate costs, –
    Machine types (Rotational Molding), –
    clamshell, –
    open-flame, –
    rock and roll, –
    shuttle, –
    swing, –
    turret, –
    vertical wheel, –
  • )
    Maddock section, –
    Magnetostrictive transducers, –
    Magnetron sputtering, – (Fig. – )
    Main effect, –
    Maintenance (Dip Molding), –
    Maintenance sheet, – (Fig. – )
    Maintenance sheet-injection parameters, –
    Maintenance sheet-press parameters, –
    Making a product, – (Fig. – )
    Male mold, – (Fig. – )
    Male mold-billow plug, – (Fig. – )
    Male mold-snap back, – (Fig. – )
    Management, – to –
    computers as tools, –
    contract review, –
    corrective action, –
    design control, –
    (Fig. – )
    (Fig. – )
    concurrent engineering, –
    quality function deployment, –
    document control, –
    equipment selection and material handling,
    facility layout, –
    inspection and testing, –
    inspection, measuring, and equipment, –
    control of nonconforming product, –
    gage repeatability and reproducibility,
    inspection and test status, –

    • internal quality audits, –
      operations, –
      other programs, –
      packaging, storage, handling, and delivery,
      personnel skills, –
      process control, –
      product identification and traceability, –
      purchaser-supplied product, –
      purchasing and supplier quality, –
      quality records, –
      quality system, –
      responsibility and the cost of quality, –
      safety, –
      servicing, –
      statistical techniques, –
      IS , –

  • design of experiments and capability
    studies, –
    training, –
    Management and system issues, –
    Mandrel, –
    Manifold assembly, – (Fig. – )
    Manufacturing considerations (Blow Molding),

  • product cost, –
    safety, –
    Manufacturing cost, – (Fig. – )
    Manufacturing criteria, –
    color, –
    die swell, –
    measuring crystallinity, –
    molecular weight, –
    processibility, –
    properties, –
    raw materials and final product, –
    safety concerns, –
    summary, –
    cost, –
    mechanical properties, –
    Markoff prevention, – (Fig. – )
    Masking, –
    Mastication, –
    Mat, –
    Match metal trimming, – (Fig. – )
    Matched molds, – (Fig. – )
    Material considerations (Extrusion), –
    abrasive thermoplastics, –
    compounding and pelletizing, –
    corrosive polymers, –
    powder and pellets, –
    tolerances, –
    Material cost and weight comparison, –
    Material costs, –
    Material loading system, –
    Material requirements (Dip Molding), –
    Material selection, – to –
    (Table – )
    applications, –
    biomedical, –
    chemistry, –
    coatings, –
    considerations, –
    enhancements, –
    fundamentals, –
    introduction, –
    justification for use, –
    measuring properties, –
    overview, –
    selection criteria, –
    grades and reinforcers, –
    identify functions, –
    types and applications, –
    varied input, –
    summary, –
    synthetic procedures, –
    thermoplastics, –
    thermosets, –
    why use plastic?, –
    Material selection worksheet, – (Fig. – )
    Material thickness-tooth form, – (Table – )
    Materials, –
    additives, –
    antistatic agents, –
    colorants, –
    cross-linking agents, –
    fillers, –
    flame retardants, –
    flow modifiers, –
    foaming agents, –
    glass fibers, –
    heat stabilizers, –
    Materials (cont.)
    impact modifiers, –
    release agents, –
    UV stabilizers, –
    nylon, –
    polycarbonate, –
    polyethylenes, –
    copolymers, –
    cross-linked polyethylene, –
    HDPE, –
    LDPE, –
    LLDPE, –
    recycled polyethylene, –
    polypropylene, –
    vinyls, –
    Materials (B€owMolding), –
    Materials (Injection Blow Molding), – (Table
    Maturation, –
    Mean particle size, – (eq. )
    Measurement accuracy and repeatability, –
    Measurement for Gardner gloss meter, –
    Measurement scales and hardness ranges, –
    Measurements, –
    Measuring heat deflection temperature, –
    Measuring properties, –
  • )
    (Fig. – )
    (Fig. – )
    (Table – )
    (Fig. – )
    final product appearance, –
    key chemical properties, –
    aging and weathering, –
    environmental stress, –
    loss of additives, –
    key mechanical properties, –
    crazing and crystallization, –
    creep and warping, –
    ductility or brittleness, –
    testing, –
    key thermal properties, –
    material selection, –
    mechanical properties, –
    creep, –
    hardness, –
    impact strength, –
    tensile strength, –
    toughness, –
    other properties, –
    suppliers, –
    tests and their significance, –
    coefficient of linear thermal expansion,
    dart impact or falling dart test, –
    density, –
    flammability, –
    flexural properties, –
    gloss, Gardner gloss meter, –
    hardness tests, –
    izod impact method, –
    temperature tests, –
    tensile properties, –

  • Mechanical, –
    Mechanical clamp system, –
    Mechanical properties, – (Table – )
    Mechanical properties of composites, –
    Mechanical stops, –
    Medical applications, – (Table – ), –
    (Table – )
  • INDEX
    Melamine, –
    Melt, – , –
    Melt cross-sections at various screw locations,
  • (Fig. – )
    Melt index indicator, – (Fig. – )
    Melt pressure indicator, –
    Melt temperature, – (Table – ), –
    Melt temperature control, – , –
    Melt temperature indicator, –
    Melt thermocouple, –
    Melt viscosity, –
    Melt zone, –
    Merging melt fronts, – (Fig. – )
    Metal, –
    Metal deposition, –
    plating plastics, –
    plating cycle, –
    preplate cycle, –
    solution control and troubleshooting,

  • sputtering, –
    advantages and limitations, –
    applications, –
    methods, –
    process description, –
    vacuum-metallized plastics, –
    decorative coatings, –
    functional coatings, –
    vacuum pumps, –
    vacuum system, –
    Metal versus reinforced plastic, – (Table
    Metallic coatings, – (Table – )
    Metallocene running temperatures, – (Table
    Meter zone, –
    Metering pump systems, –
    Metering screw, –
    Metering section, –
    Microprocessors, –
    Mill test results, – (Table – )
    Mineral pigments, –
    Misusing system outputs, –
    Mix head, – (Fig. – ), – (Fig.
    Mix head for froth application, – (Fig. – ),
    Mixing pins, –
    Mixtures, – (Fig. – )
    Model for concurrent events, – (Fig. – )
    Modelmaking methods compared, – (Table
    Modulus of elasticity, –
    Mold arms, – (Fig. – )
    Mold carrier, –
    Mold cavity, –
    Mold cavity tolerances, – (Fig. – )
    Mold cleaning system, – (Fig. – )
    Mold close distance, –
    Mold close time, –
    Mold data sheet, – (Fig. – ), – , –
    Mold design, – , –
    Mold design-team review checklist, – pig.
    Mold filling, –
    Mold finish characteristics, – (Table – )
    Mold finish guide, – (Table – )
  • )
  • )
    MIL-Q- A, –
  • )
  • (Fig. – )
  • )
    (Fig. – )
  • )
    Mold making, –
    Mold material, –
    Mold open time, –
    Mold opening, – (Fig. – )
    Mold operation, – (Fig. – )
    Mold parting lines, –
    Mold plating, –
    chrome PTFE, –
    chromium, –
    electroless nickel, –
    electroless nickel chromium, –
    engineering nickel, –
    nickel PTFE, –
    tungsten nickel, –
    Mold prep activities, –
    Mold progress report, – (Fig. – )
    Mold release, –
    Mold seals, –
    Mold shrinkage, – (Table – )
    Mold spiders, – , – (Fig. – )
    Mold surface finish, –
    Mold temperature, – , –
    Mold temperature control, –
    Mold temperature control units, –
    Mold types, – , –
    Mold water system testedcleaner, – (Fig.
    Mold with glass cloth reinforcement, –
    Molded foam line, – (Fig. – ), –
    Molded-in stress, –
    Molded part with no draft angle, – (Fig.
    Molded product with one side open, – (Fig.
    Molders’ checklist to evaluate part designs, –
    Molding cycle times, – (Table – )
    Molding machine operating costs, – (Table
    Molding pressure, –
    Molding process comparison, – (Table – )
    Moldmaking improvements, –
  • )
    (Fig. – )
    (Fig. – ), – (Fig. – )
  • )
  • )
    (Fig. – )
  • )
    areas that need it, –
    cutting tool material and design, –
    high-speed milling, –
    spindle and machine tool requirements,

  • Molds (Rotational Molding), –
    construction, –
    cross-linked moldings, –
    decorations, –
    inserts, –
    multilayer molding, –
    Molds (see Dies, Molds, and Tooling)
    Molds for crystalline plastics, –
    Molds for porous materials, –
    Molecular weight distribution, – (eq. )
    Moment-arm, –
    Monomer, – , –
    Monomer,mer, and polymer, – (Fig. – )
    Monomers used with polymerizations, –
    Motor ammeter, –
    Mounting and retainer plates, –
    Multilayer accumulatorhead, – (Fig. – )
    Multilayer processes, –
    dry adhesive flat bed lamination, –
    (Table – )
    Multilayer processes (cont.)
    contact heat, –
    flame and other systems, –
    blown tubular extrusion, –
    calendering, –
    extrusion, –
    film and cell casting, –
    Multilayered sheets, – (Fig. – )
    Multiple outputs from single inputs, –
    Mushroom and flat-face tips (welding), –
    fiIm and sheet forming, –
    N
    Neat, –
    Neck finishes for injection blow-molded containers, – (Fig. – )
    Network polymers, –
    Neutral-density coating, –
    Neutralization graph, – (Fig. – )
    Neutralizing bath, –
    Nickel bath, –
    Nitrile rubber, –
    Nodal plunger, –
    Nodes, –
    Nominal hole diameter, – (Table – )
    Nominal wall thicknesses, – (Table – and
    Nondestructive tests, –
    Nonrecirculating heads, –
    Nonreturn valve, –
    Nozzle, – , – pig. – )
    Nozzle temperature, –
    Number of defective ball bearings (statistical
    NURBS and Bezier surfaces, – (Fig. – )
    Table – )
    example), – (Table – )

Oil heating, –
One frequency (welding), –
One mold-half mounting, – (Fig. – )
Open mold hand or spray lay-up, – (Fig.
Open mold with prepinched parison, – (Fig.
Operations management, –

  • )
  • )
    forecasting, –
    deterministic strategy, –
    symptomatic approach, –
    systematic forecasting, –
    just-in-time method, –
    inventory systems, –
    Optical clarity, – (Fig. – )
    Optical perfection, –
    Optimization methodology, –
    Optimum number of assignments, – (Fig.
    Optimum particle size, –
    Order of operations (Dip Molding), –
    automated systems, –
    process cycle time, –
    specifications, –
    Orders of stock, – (Table – )
    Organic compounds, –
  • )
  • INDEX
    Organizations (see AppendixA)
    Orientation line, – (Fig. – )
    Oscillating platen, – (Fig. – )
    Oscillator assembly, –
    Outside corner strip weld, –
    Oval rod, –
    Oven forming machine, – (Fig. – )
    Oven heater banks, – (Fig. – )
    Overload light, –
    Oxygen barrier performance, – (Fig. – )
    Oxygen barrier with LIM, – (Table – )
    Oxygen content of treated substrate, – (Table
  • )
    P
    Packaging equipment, –
    Pad in barrel, – (Fig. – )
    Paintability, –
    Parallel ribs, – (Fig. – )
    Parallels, –
    Parametrics, –
    Parison cavity, –
    Parison design, –
    Parison grabber, – (Fig. – )
    Parison mold assembly, – (Fig. – )
    Parison swell, –
    Parison wall thickness, – (Fig. – )
    Part cooled too quickly, – (Fig. – )
    Part cost comparison, – (Table – )
    Part removal time, –
    Part strength and rigidity, –
    Part versus process tolerance, – (Fig. – )
    Part volume, – (eq. , )
    Part wall thicker than web, – (Fig. – )
    Part weight, – (eq. , )
    Part with uniform wall thickness, – (Fig.
    Particle size analysis, –
    Parting line, – , –
    Parting line affects mold cost, – (Fig. – )
    Parting line location, – (Fig. – )
    Parts with ribs, tack-offs, or reinforcements,
  • (Fig. – )
    Paste concentrates, –
    Pattern waxes, –
    Patterns placed for mold making, – (Fig.
    Pay rates for blow molding, – (Table – )
    PCBN properties, – (Table – )
    Performance characteristics, –
    Performance for polycarbonate/polyester, –
    Periodic table, – (Table – )
    Peripheral hot stamping, – (Fig. – )
    Personnel skills, –
  • )
  • )
    (Table – )
    communication, –
    decision making, –
    delegation, –
    leadership, –
    measuring performance, –
    motivation, –
    planning and organization, –
    team building and empowerment, –
    time management, –
    PET degradation, – (Fig. – )
    Phenolic, – , – , –
    focusing on value-added activities, –
    Phenolic (cont.)
    Phenolic/aluminum/steel properties matrix,
    Photodegradation, – (Table – )
    Physical and chemical properties for dip molded
    components, – (Table – )
    PID control, –
    Piece price, – (eq. )
    Pilot, –
    Pin, –
    Pinch bars, –
    Pinch-off, –
    Pinch region of mold and restriction dam, –
    (Fig. – )
    Pinpoint gate, –
    Pipe-in-a-pipe technology, –
    Pipe sizing operation, –
    Plan-do-check-actioncycle, – (Fig. – )
    Planar diode sputtering, – (Fig. – )
    Planning, –
    cold molding, –
  • (Table – )
    businesdmarketing, –
    customer inputs, –
    design goals, –
    preliminary bill of material, –
    preliminary process flow chart, –
    productiprocess assumptions, –
    product/processbenchmark data, –
    product reliability studies, –
    reliability and quality goals, –
    special product and process characteristics, –
    management support, –
    product assurance plan, –
    voice of the customer, –
    historical warranty and quality informamarket research, –
    team experience, –
    tion, –
    Plant engineering and maintenance, – to
    Plant layout, – (Fig. – ]
    Plastic, –
    Plastic classifications, – (Table – )
    Plastic decorative panel, – (Fig. – )
    Plastic deformation, –
    Plastic injection unit, – (Fig. – )
    Plastic rivets, – (Table – )
    Plasticized PVC sheet, –
    Plasticizers, – , – , –
    Plastisol, –
    Plate cleaning station, – (Fig. – )
    Plate glass for casting mold, – (Fig. – )
    Platen, –
    Plating ABS, – (Fig. – )
    Plenum, –
    Plot point, np, – , u, –
    Plug in a female mold, – (Fig. – )
    Plunge and scan welding, –
    Plunger mold, –
    Plunger transfer, – , –
    Plunger-type transfer mold, – (Fig. – )
    Pneumatically operated mold carrier, –
    (Fig. – )
    Poka-yoke, –
    Polishing, –
    Polyacrylate, –
    Polycarbonate, –

  • Plugs, –
    Polycondensation, –
    Polyester, – , –
    Polyester castings, –
    calculate the weight, –
    catalysts, –
    catalysts and heat, –
    catalyzation considerations, –
    air entrapment, –
    color, –
    embedding biological specimens, –
    mineral oil for air inhibition and lube,
    odor, –
    cooling, –
    final finish, –
    molds and casting, –
    embedmenthasting case study, –
    design and prototype, –
    determining pour size, –
    final casting, –
    large casting, –
    preparing the tree, –
    stresses and shrinkage, –
    testing the method, –
    unpredicted results, –
    warp-free casting, –
    polyester casting case study, –
    finished prototype, –
    making the molds and casting, –
    results, –

  • corporate logo case study, –
    Polyester resins, –
    Polyethylene, – (Fig. – ), – (Fig. – ),

  • Polyethylene chains, – (Fig. – )
    Polyethylene coefficient of expansion, –
    Polymer, – , –
    Polymer classification, – (Table – )
    Polymer features, –
    Polymer processes according to cost, – (Table
    Polymer production amounts, – (Fig. – )
    Polymer sales, – (Table – )
    Polymer selection, – pig. – )
    Polymer structures affect properties, – (Fig.
    Polymerization, –
    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), –
    Polyols, –
    Polypropylene, –
    Polystyrene castings, –
    Polystyrene parts, – (Fig. – ),
    Polyurethane foams, –
    Polyurethanes, – , –
    applications, –
    curing, –
    types, –
    (Table – )
  • )
  • )
    Polyvinyl chloride, –
    Porosity, –
    Postcure, –
    Postmold shrinkage control, –
    Pot life, –
    Pot-type transfer, – , –
    Pot-type transfer mold, – (Fig. – )
    Pottings, –
    Pourability, –
    Powders, liquids, and veils, –
    Power meter, –
  • INDEX
    Power sequence, –
    Precleaning, –
    Preform (injectionblow molding), –
    Preformer, –
    Preforms (RTM), –
    Preparation for welding, –
    Preparing surfaces for lining, –
    Prepreg, –
    Preservation and storage of metal molds (see
    Cleaning)
    Press frames, –
    Press size, –
    Presses, – , –
    Pressure, –
    Pressure and vacuum forming, – (Fig. – )
    Pressure bag process, – (Fig. – )
    Pressure box forming-roll-fedthin-gage, –
    Pressure forming, –
    Pressure-forming station, – (Fig. – )
    Pressure plate or box forming-heavy-gage
    Pressure tests, –
    Pretreated polypropylene, – (Fig. – )
    Pretriggering, –
    Preventive maintenance, –
    Primary and secondary parameters, – (Table
    Primary axis, –
    Process capability, – (Fig. – ), –
    Process capability improvement, f – (Fig.
    Process control plan, – (Fig. – )
    Process factors, –
    cast aluminum molds, –
    design, –
    electroformed molds, –
    sheet-metal molds, –
    vapor formed molds, –
    clamping, –
    flanges, –
    control systems, –
    drop box, –
    inserts, –
    mold arms, –
    mold release agents, –
    mold rotation, –
    molds, –
    mounting, –
    sintering, –
    trimming, –
    venting, –
    sheet, –
  • )
    (Fig. – )
  • )
    Process fallout, – (Table – )
    Process fallout for values of C,, – (Table
    Process performance, –
    Process potential, –
    Process recorder, – (Fig. – )
    Process selection
  • )
    extruded products, – (Table – )
    fiber reinforced composites, – (Table
    films and sheeting, – (Table – )
    foamed products, – (Table – )
    liquid polymeric systems, – (Table – )
    molded parts, – (Table – )
  • )
    Process spread within specification limits, –
    Processing data, –
    (Fig. – )
    Processing liquid polymeric systems, –
    liquid polymers and prepolymers, –
    polymer solutions, –
    polymeric latexes and suspensions, –
    selection criteridalternate processes, –
    advantages and limitations, –
    vinyl dip molding process, –
    Processing temperature ranges for thermoplasProcessing thermoplastics, – (Table – )
    Processing thermosets, – , – (Table – )
    Processing variables, – (Table – )
    Product and process validation, –
    tics, – (Table – )
    calibration, –
    hequency, –
    gage records, –
    labels and status identification, –
    maintaining a master inventory list, –
    recall system, –
    equipment certification, –
    limited-use devices, –
    noncalibrated devices, –
    products inspected with out-of-tolerance
    storage and handling, –
    measurement systems evaluation, –
    packaging evaluation, –
    preliminary process capability study,
    production control plan, –
    production part approval, –
    production validation testing, –
    quality planning sign-off and manageequipment, –
    production trial run, –

  • ment support, –
    Product defects, – (Fig. – )
    Product design and development, –
    activity, –
    design for manufacturability and assemdrawing and specification changes, –
    engineering drawings, –
    engineering specifications, –
    failure mode and effects analysis
    material specifications, –
    prototype build control plan, –
    reviews, –
    verification, –
    bly, –
    (DFMEA), –
    information requirements, –
    outputs by product quality planning team,
    gageshesting equipment requirements,
    new equipment, tooling and facilities
    special product and process characteristeam feasibility, commitment, and manProduct development and launch, – (Fig. –
    Product development process, – (Fig. – and
    Product ejection, – (Fig. – )
    Production, –
    Production equipment (Dip Molding), –

    • requirements, –
      tics, –
      agement support, –
      and Fig. – ), – (Fig. – )
      Fig. I- )
      operating parameters, –
      Production equipment (Dip Molding) (coat.)
      cycle time, –
      dip length, –
      oven temperatures, –
      Profile cutter, – (Fig. – )
      Profile extrusion, – , – (Fig. – )
      polyethylene pipe and fittings, –
      fittings overview, –
      introduction, –
      pipe, –
      quality control/quality assurance testing,

  • tubing and hose, –
    cut or wind, –
    straight and crosshead dies, –
    two sizing methods, –
    wire coating and fiber-optic sheathing, –
    Programmable logic controller, –
    Programmedparison, –
    Project planning, –
    Projected area method, – (Fig. – )
    Prompted control strategies, –
    Proper description and methods, –
    Proper number of class intervals, – (Table
    Properties
  • )
    BMC containing granulated SMC, –
    BMC with SMC, – (Table – )
    changes, – (Table – )
    cured composites, – (Table – )
    glass-fiber-reinforced polyurethanes, –
    PE, PET, and PS, – (Table – )
    polyester panel, – (Table – )
    polymer concrete versus concrete, –
    pultruded parts, – (Table – )
    reinforced acrylamate composites, –
    reinforced RIM systems, – (Table – )
    RIM systems, – (Table – )
    SRIM and SMC, – (Table – )
    (Table – )
    (Table – )
    (Table – )
    (Table – )
    Properties of materials, – (Table – )
    Property design, –
    fillers and extenders, –
    calcium carbonate, –
    mica, –
    other additives, –
    spheres, –
    talc, –
    reactive reinforcing materials, –
    pulp, –
    sisal, –
    aramid fibers, –
    carbon fibers, –
    fiberglass, –
    graphite fibers, –
    reinforcing agents, –
    Property ranges for rotational molding materials, – (Table – )
    Protective devices, –
    Pulforming, – (Fig. – ), –
    Pullers, –
    Pultrusion, – , –
    composite selection, –
    continuous improvement, –
    cost estimating, –
    considerations, –
  • INDEX
    Pultrusion (cont.)
    various costs, –
    cycle time, –
    design considerations, –
    connections, –
    shape considerations, –
    thermal expansion, –
    new developments, –
    other raw materials, –
    initiators, –
    release agents, –
    ultraviolet inhibitors, –
    carbon fiber, –
    epoxy resin, –
    polyester cure properties, –
    polyester resins, –
    vinyl ester resins, –
    reinforcement, –
    resin, –
    safety, – , –
    the basic process, –
    tolerances, –
    straightness, –
    transverse reinforcement, –
    troubleshooting, –
    contamination, –
    improper alignment, –
    potential problems, –
    Pultrusion puller, – (Fig. – )
    Punch and die, – (Fig. – )
    Purchase order review, –
    Purging, –
    Q
    Quad inverter, –
    Quality control, assurance, and improvement,
  • to –
    calculating process potential, –
    chapter overview, –
    quality systems, –
    continuous improvement, –
    design of experiments, –
    dimensions, –
    incoming inspection, –
    controlling elements, –
    performance of incoming inspection,
    the supplier as a company member, –

  • introduction, –
    loss function, –
    measurement assurance, –
    gage variation study, –
    identifying the measurement process,

  • nonstatistical control, –
    wall thickness, –
    planning, –
    product and process validation, –
    product design and development, –
    statistical methods for describing data, –
    supplier selection, –
    what is quality?, –
    why improve quality?, –
    Quality loss and deviation from the target value
    Quality system development, – (Fig. – )
    m, – (Fig. – )
    Quenching, –
    Radiation-curable (radcure) coatings, –
    Radii improve part strength, – (Fig. – )
    Ram extrusion, –
    Random copolymers, –
    Range plot point, – , –
    Rapid prototyping (DFM), –
    CNC versus rapid prototyping, –
    types of RP systems, –
    fused deposition modeling, –
    laminated object manufacturing, –
    selective laser sintering, –
    solid ground curing, –
    stereolithography, –
    tabletop CNC machining, –
    Raw materials description, –
    Raw materials handling, –
    Reaction injection molding (RIM), – , –
    (Fig. – )
    advantages, –
    design freedom, –
    low capital investment, –
    low energy requirements, –
    low pressures, –
    low tooling costs, –
    limitations, –
    materials and applications, –
    epoxies, –
    nylon RIM, –
    polyesters, –
    reinforced, –
    urethane development, –
    areas of progress, –
    elements of the process, –
    mold considerations, –
    process, –
    Reactive maintenance, –
    Recipe number, –
    Reciprocating screw, – (Fig. – )
    Reciprocation, –
    Recirculating high-pressure mix head, – ,
  • (Fig. – )
    Recordkeeping, –
    Recycling (see also Chemistry), –
    quaternary recycling, –
    recycling materials, –
    recycling plastic materials, –
    secondary recycling, –
    source reduction, –
    sources of waste, –
    tertiary recycling, –
    waste as fillers, –
    Reduced cycle times, –
    Reduced part weight, –
    Reduced temperature control zones, – (Table
    References
  • )
    blow molding, –
    casting, –
    compression and transfer molding, –
    design for manufacturability, –
    dies, molds, and tooling, –
    extrusion equipment and processing techfiber reinforced processing, –
    niques, –
    References (cont.)
    finishing, fabrication, and assembly, –
    injection molding, –
    lamination, –
    management, –
    material selection, –
    plant engineering and maintenance, –
    quality control, assurance, and improvement,
    selection of manufacturing methods, –

  • Regional regulations, –
    Regrind, –
    Reinforced plastics, – , –
    amino resins, –
    automotive and construction applications,

  • filament winding, –
    bulk molding compounds, –
    compatibility with steel body assembly,
    composite selection, –
    cost estimating, –

  • considerations, –
    various costs, –
    cured-in-place, –
    design considerations, –
    connections, –
    shape considerations, –
    thermal expansion, –
    engineering phenolic composites, –
    epoxy resins, –
    hand lay-up, –
    phenolic resins, –
    polyester resins, –
    polymer concrete underground products,
    preform molding, –
    pultrusion profiles for materials construcrecycling of waste-reinforced plastic materi-

  • tion, –
    als, –
    amino plastics, –
    other reinforced thermoplastics, –
    phenolic plastics, –
    polyurethanes, –
    sheet molding compounds, –
    resin injection molding, –
    resin transfer molding, –
    semirigid and rigid polyurethanes, –
    sheet molding compound, –
    corrosion resistance, –
    mass savings, –
    part consolidation, –
    shorter tooling lead time, –
    spray-up, –
    thermoplastic composites, –
    high-quality finished parts, –
    impact strength and toughness, –
    mass savings, –
    modulus and strength, –
    thermoplastic injection molding compounds,
    thermoplastic nylon resins, –
    thermoplastic polyesters, –
    thermoplastic polyolefin resins, –
    thermoplastic reinforced, –
    ketone polymers, –
    polyamide-imide(PAI), –
    polyphenylene sulfides (PPS), –
    • INDEX
      Reinforced plastics (cont.)
      thick molding compound, –
      vacuum bag, pressure bag, and autoclave
      fabrication, –
      molding, –
      autoclave, –
      pressure bag, –
      vacuum bag, –
      vinyl ester resins, –
      Reinforced reaction injection molding (RRIM),
      Reinforcement, –
      Relationship between C, and Cpk, – (Fig.
      Relationship between stress and viscosity, –
      Relationship of draft angle, draw depth, and
      taper, – (Fig. – )
      Relaxation plenum, –
      Remote-control cutting device, – (Fig.
      Removal of the rod, –
      Repair, –
      Repair tube for pipe, – (Fig. – )
      Repeatability, –
      Reservoirs, –
      Residence time, –
      Resin, –
      Resin injection molding, – (Fig. – )
      Resin mix, –
      Resin mixing devices, – (Fig. – )
      Resin ports (RTM), –
      Resin transfer molding, –
    • )
      (eq. )
  • )
    advantages and limitations, –
    Cost, –
    custom resin systems, –
    part selection criteria, –
    tool handling challenges, –
    bushing and inserts can be molded in,
    complex shapes, –
    fiberhesin ratio control, –
    low-capital investment, –
    low-material cost, –
    low-part variability, –
    low-worker exposure, –
    minimal training, –
    no autoclave cycle, –
    surface finish, –
    design criteria, –
    characteristics, –

  • preform selection and fabrication, –
    process improvements and data collection,
    processing fundamentals, –
    cycle time reduction, –
    heating, –
    part removal, –
    resin injection and cure, –
    tool and preform loading, –
    tool preparations and plumbing, –
    vacuum leak-down test, –
    resin delivery systems, –
    resin selection and requirements, –
    processing requirements, –
    safety, –
    safety and maintenance, –
    summary, –

  • design for manufacturing, –
    Resin transfer molding (cont.)
    new developments and applications,

  • tool selection and design, –
    design criteria, –
    heating criteria, –
    materials, –
    other considerations, –
    troubleshooting, –
    injection process, –
    preform, –
    RTM part, –
    Resistance characteristics, –
    Resistance to migration, –
    Return on investment for a central system,
    Return on investment of a multiuser system,
    Reynolds number, – , – (eq. )
    RF sealing, –
    Ribs and bosses, – (Fig. – ), –
    Ribs on opposite side of a wall, – (Fig. – )
    Ridge forming, – , – (Fig. – )
    Rigid foam laminate board lines, – , –

    • (Fig. – )
      production cycle, –
      Rigid panel sizes, – (Table – )
      Rigid-rod polymers, –
      RIM machine blend tank, – (Fig. – )
      RIM processing parameters, – (Table – )
      Rim rolling cups, – (Fig. – )
      Ring line systems, –
      Rinsing, –
      Rising foam bun, – (Fig. – )
      Rock and roll machine, – (Fig. – )
      Roll buildup, – (eq. )
      Roll face width, –
      Roll hardness or packing, –
      Roll-on hot stamping, – (Fig. – )
      Roll sputtering, –
      Room temperature impact, –
      Rosette welds, –
      Rotary forming machine, – (Fig. – )
      Rotary piston vacuum pump, – (Fig. – )
      Rotary table or carousel, –
      Rotational molding, – to –
      advantages and limitations, –
      applications, –
      agriculture, –
      consumer products, –
      containers, –
      furniture, –
      industrial equipment, –
      lawdgarden, –
      marine, –
      materials handling, –
      medical, –
      roadhighway, –
      sporting equipment, –
      toys, –
      transportation, –
      design guidelines, –
      equipment, –
      machine types, –
      material testing and preparation, –
      materials, –
      molds and special considerations, –
      process, –
      process factors, –
      Rotational molding (cont.)
      secondary finishing, –
      troubleshooting, –
      Rotolining, –
      Round tip, –
      Roving, – , –
      RTM equipment, – (Fig. – )
      Rules and guidelines (DFM), –
      material and design considerations, –
      flow path, –
      porosity, –
      shrinkage, –
      sink marks and blemishes, –
      stress concentrations, –
      tolerances, –
      voids, –
      weld lines, –
      vendor contact, –
      Runner design, – (Fig. – ), – (Fig.
      Runner system, –
      Runnerless molding, – , – , – , – (Fig.
  • )
  • )
    categories, –
    externally heated, –
    insulated, –
    internally heated, –
    valve gate systems, –
    conclusions, –
    sprueless molding, –
    Runners, – (Fig. – )
    Running heat profile, –

Safety, – , – , – , –
dip molding, –
direct accident costs, –
effective program, –
electricity, –
fire brigade and first aid team, –
handbook, –
heat, –
inside the extruder, –
moving parts, –
outside the extruder, –
preparedness, prevention, and contingency
plan, –
pressure, –
procedures, –
proper handling methods, –
rules and regulations, –
survey, –
teadcommittee, –
weight, –
Sag, –
Sag control agents, –
Saw equipment and bundling, –
Scan welding, –
Scorching, –
SCR controller, –
Screen basket, –
Screen changer, – (Fig. – )
Screw, –
Screw clearance in barrel, –
Screw compression ratio, –
Screw extrusion, –
Screw output, – (eq. )

  • INDEX
    Screw return distance, –
    Screw return time, –
    Screw RPM meter, –
    Screw section equipped with a mixing element,
  • (Fig. – )
    Screw speed, –
    Screw tip, – (Fig. – )
    Sealed-boxassembly, – (Fig. – )
    Secondary finishing, –
    decoratinglpainting, –
    electron beam cross-linking, –
    foam filling, –
    machining, –
    welding, –
    electromagneticiinduction, –
    extrusion, –
    hot-gas, –
    hot-plate, –
    spin, –
    thermal, –
    Secondary manufacturing processes, –
    assembly, –
    calibration (or sizing), –
    cutting, –
    deflashing, –
    machining, –
    processes for altering material properties,
    slitting, –
    stretching, –
    surface finishes, –

  • Sections, –
    Segmented chip, –
    Selection of manufacturing methods, – to –
    blending and mixing, –
    chemical reactions, –
    preventing reactions, –
    promoting reactions, –
    fiber reinforced composites, –
    introduction, –
    polymer behavior, –
    processing liquid polymeric systems, –
    secondary manufacturing processes, –
    shaping polymeric materials, –
    Selection of molding method-compression or
    Self-optimization, –
    Self-retaining, positive-locking bolt-nut combination, – pig. – )
    Semibright nickel bath, -I
    Semipositive, horizontal-flash compression
    Semipositive, vertical-flash compression mold,
    Sensors, – pig. – ), –
    Shade, –
    Shape and size as ways of classifying polymer
    Shaped glass, –
    Shapedrod, –
    Shaping polymeric materials, –
    transfer, – (Table – )
    mold, – (Fig. – )
  • (Fig. – )
    processes, – (Table – )
    extrusion of pipe, tubing, and profiles, –
    films, sheets, and slabs, –
    calendering, –
    extrusion of flat goods, –
    foam processing, –
    molded parts, –
    blow molding, –
    compression molding, –
    Shaping polymeric materials (cont.)
    injection molding, –
    liquid resin molding, –
    reaction injection molding, –
    resin transfer molding, –
    rotational molding, –
    thermoforming, –
    transfer molding, –
    Shear, – , –
    Shearjoint, – (Fig. – )
    Shear plane, –
    Shear rate formula, – (eq. )
    Sheet, –
    Sheet extrusion assembly, – (Fig. – )
    Sheet-fed thermoforming, –
    part pricing parameters, –
    postoperations on vacuum-formed parts,
    secondary operations on pressure-formed

  • parts, –
    assembly considerations, –
    dual-station machine, –
    multiple-station machine, –
    oven controls, –
    single-station machine, –
    sheet-fed machinery, –
    Sheet molding compound, – , – (Fig.
    Sheet to rolls, – (Fig. – )
    Shelf life, –
    Shielding, –
    Shorted thermocouple detection, –
    Shot size, –
    Shot weight, –
    Shrinkage, –
    Shuttle machine
  • ), – (Fig. – )
    Shot, – , –
    blow molding, – (Fig. – )
    rotational molding, – (Fig. – )
    Side-actionmold, – (Fig. – )
    Side-by-side machine layout in one or more parallel rows, – (Fig. – )
    Sigh back, –
    Silicones, –
    characteristics, –
    uses, –
    Simple and complex manifolds, – (Fig. – )
    Simultaneous events, –
    Single-flightedscrew, – (Fig. – )
    Single-stage metering screw, –
    Single-station directed fiber machines, –
    Single-station machine with an oven (clamshell
    Single-statiodsingle-oven forming machine, –
    Single-turn coil, – , – (Fig. – )
    Sink marks, – , –
    Sintering, –
    Sketch of angel armature, – (Fig. – )
    Skin foams, –
    Skin packaging, –
    Skunk works, –
    Slab foam conveyer, – (Fig. – )
    Slab foam cross-section, – (Fig. – )
    Slab foam equipment, – (Fig. – )
    Slab foam rise profile, – (Fig. – )
    Slab foam schematic, – (Fig. – )
    Slab stock foam, –
    Slicer, –
    (Fig. – )
    machine), – (Fig. – )
    Slide-actionassembly, – (Fig. – )
    Slide mold pressure sensor, – (Fig. – )
    Sliding shutoff tooling, – pig. – )
    Slip forming, – , – (Fig. – )
    Smooth-bore extruder, – (Fig. – )
    barrel zones, –
    breaker plate, –
    cooling system, –
    extruder screw, –
    mixing element, –
    rupture disk, –
    screw compression ratio, –
    Solid geometry, –
    Solid ground curing, –
    Solids modeling basics, – (Fig. – )
    Solvent, –
    Solvent borne, –
    Solvent effects on sensitive plastics, – (Table
    Solvent penetration, –
    Solvent-popping, –
    Solvent resistance to hydrocarbons, – (Fig.
    Spacing mold cavities, –
    Specific gravity, –
    Speed control, –
    Speed control valves, –
    Speed welding flat and corner strip, –
    Speed-welding tip, –
    Speeds by drill size, – (Table – )
    Spherulites, –
    SPI protocol communications, –
    Spider, –
    Spider die, –
    Spiders, –
    Spillovers, –
    Spin welding, – , –
    Spiral die, – (Fig. – )
    Spiral flow channel configuration, – (Fig.
    Spiral mandrel dies, –
    Split coil, – , – (Fig. – )
    Spot welding, – , – (Fig. – )
    Spray machine, – (Fig. – )
    Spraying, –
    Sprue, –
    Sprue bushing, –
    Sprueless molding, – (Fig. – )
    Sputtering for coating glass, – (Fig. – )
    Sputtering operation, – (Fig. – )
    SRIM bumper beams, – (Table – )
    SRIM hydraulic press, – (Fig. – )
    SRIM mechanical properties, – (Tab e
    SRIM process, – (Fig. – )
    SRIM tooling types and properties, – (Table
    Staking operation, – , – (Fig. – )
    Staking posts, –
    Standard cycle weight, –
    Standard deviation, – (eq. )
    Standardization, –
    Standards and practices of molders, –
    Standby or idle heat, –
    Start-up conditions for molding phenolics,
    Starting a cold machine, –
    Starting the weld, – , –
    Static mixers, –
  • )
  • )
  • )
  • )
  • )
  • (Table – )
    ~~
  • INDEX
    Static versus planetary part rotation, – (Fig.
    Statistical control limits, –
    Statistical methods for describing data, –
  • )
    C, and Cpk, –
    characteristics and process capability, –
    assigning special causes of variation,
    continuous loss, –
    process fallout, –
    process in statistical control, –
    removing causes of variation, –
    variation and building to nominal, –
    control plan, –
    features, –
    process analysis, –
    statistical process control charting, –
    c chart, –
    cause-and-effect diagram, –
    histogram, –
    individual X and moving-range chart,
    np chart, –
    p chart, –
    target X-bar and R chart, –
    u chart, –
    unnatural patterns: assignable causes of
    X-bar and R chart, –

    • variation, –
      Steel for sonic horns, –
      Steel rule die, – (Fig. – )
      Steel rule die cutter, – (Fig. – )
      Steel-safe, –
      Steels for mold frames, –
      Step cylinder, –
      Stereolithography (SLA) machine, – (Fig.
      Sterilizability, –
      Storage of metal molds and mold parts (see
      Cleaning)
      Straightness, –
      Strain, –
      Strays, –
      Strengthening and enhancing plastics and polymers, –
  • ), – (Fig. – )
    alloys and blends, –
    chain alignment, –
    crystallization, –
    chain length, –
    copolymerization, –
    cross-linking, –
    fiber reinforcement, –
    other additives, –
    Stress, –
    Stress cracking, –
    Stress-strain curves for different polymers, –
    Stretch forming, – (Fig. – )
    Stretching, – (Fig. – )
    Stretching and distortion, –
    Stretching surface distance for three different
    Strike bath, –
    Strip heating, – (Fig. – )
    Strip welding, –
    Stripper plate, –
    Structural foam molding, –
    machines, –
    materials, –
    (Fig. – )
    radii, – (Fig. – )
    Structural foam molding (cont.)
    minimizing swirl patterns, –
    coinjection, –
    expanding molds, –
    heated molds, –
    mold counterpressure, –
    rapid injection, –
    Structural foam products, –
    Structural reaction injection molding (SRIM),

  • bindersladhesives, –
    comparison of cost, –
    comparison to other plastic processes, –
    continuous improvementhew developments,
    equipment, –
    features and design considerations, –
    impact resistance, –
    maintenance, –
    molding cycle, –
    molds, –
    preform equipment and processes, –
    process description, –
    slurry process, –
    SRIM application, –
    troubleshooting, –
    Subgatesand edge gates, –
    Sucker pin, –
    Sufficient power and frequency, –
    Supercritical carbon dioxide, –
    Superior machining capabilities, –
    Support equipment, –
    Support pillars, –
    Surface contact winders, – (Fig. – )
    Surface modeling versus solids modeling, –
    Surface morphology, –
    Surfacing techniques, –
    Surges, –
    Sustaining mold temperatures, – (Table – )
    Swing machine, – (Fig. – )
    Switch on a welding press, – (Fig. – )
    Symbols (see front section of book)
    Syntactic foam, – , –
    Synthetic procedures, –
    chain transfer, –
    emulsion polymerization, –
    increased polydispersity index, –
    ring-opening polymerization, –
    ziegler-natta polymerization, –

  • (Table – )
    addition polymerization, –
    condensation or stepwise polymerization,

  • reaction injection molding, –
    small-molecule by-product, –
    Synthetic stone (Casting), –
    adding fillers, –
    granites, –
    configurations, –
    production steps, –
    gel coat, –
    vibration, –
    warping, –
    reinforced polyester, –
    ment tasks, – (Table – )
    System characteristics by automated manageT
    Tab gate, –
    Taber abrader, –
    Tacking tip, –
    Tacticity, –
    Take-off equipment, –
    Tang, –
    Tank anodes, –
    Taper as a hnction of draft angle, – (Table
    Target X-bar and R chart, – (Table – ),
  • (Fig. – )
    Tear sealing, –
    Technology issues, –
    Technology tools, – (Table – )
    Telescoping, –
    Temperature control, –
    Temperature control system, –
    Temperature profiles reset, – (Table – )
    Ten attributes of an environmentally responsible
    Tensile properties, – (Fig, – )
    Tensile specimen ASTM standard, – (Fig.
    Tensile strength, –
    Tensile test, –
    Tensile test data, – (Fig. – )
    Tension, –
    Tension force, – (Fig. – )
    Test machining block set-up, – (Fig. – )
    Test methods for plastics, – (see also
  • )
    design, – (Table – )
  • )
    Measuring properties)
    bending, – , –
    test plaque, – (Table – )
    welds, –
  • (Table – )
    Test results for single-tooth ball-nose end mills,
    Test switch, –
    Testing for hardness, – (Fig. – )
    Tests (extrusion), –
    Text-based, –
    Thermal conductivities of metals, – (Table
    Thermal cure, –
    Thermal expansion, – (Fig. – )
    Thermal welding, –
    Thermocouple, –
    Thermocouple isolation, –
    Thermocouples account for variation, –
    Thermoformable coatings, –
    Thermoformed fittings, –
    Thermoforming, – , – to –
    foam products, –
    large parts, –
    layered products, –
    machinery, –
    physical properties, –
    pressure-formed parts, –
    small parts, –
    surface treatment, –
    tooling costs, –
  • )
    advantages, –
    basics, –
    continuous roll-fed process, –
    disadvantages, –
    materials, –
    methods, –
    mechanical forming, –
    pressure forming, –
    vacuum forming, –
    sheet-fed thermoforming, –
  • INDEX
    Thermoforming, (cont.)
    types of thermoplastics, –
    amorphous, –
    crystalline, –
    Thermoforming machine with optional equipThermoforming temperature ranges, – (Table
    Thermoplastic and thermosetting, –
    Thermoplastic composite molding, – Fig.
    Thermoplastic elastomers, –
    Thermoplastic polyolefins, –
    Thermoplastic welding data, – (Table
    Thermoplastics, – , – , – , – , –
    ment, – (Fig. – )
  • )
  • )
  • )
    blends, –
    block copolymers, –
    other types, –
    overview of commodity plastics, –
    polyethylene, –
    polypropylene, –
    polystyrene, –
    polyvinyl chloride, –
    rigid-rod polymers, –
    acetal polymers, –
    cellulosics, –
    nylons, –
    polycarbonates, –
    polyesters, –
    polymethyl methacrylate, –
    polytetrafluoroethylene, –
    advanced thermoplastics, –
    commodity, –
    engineering, –
    engineering and specialty, –
    intermediate, –
    Thermoset polyester, – (Fig. – )
    Thermosets, – , –
    as fillers and copolymers, –
    types, –
    ABS polymers, –
    improving impact properties, –
    particle size, –
    cross-linking methods, – , –
    different types of thermosets, –
    hard materials, –
    rubbery materials, –
    silicones, –
    Thermosetting coating, –
    Thick molding compound (TMC), – (Fig.
    Thick sections, – (Fig. – )
    Thickness and density of structural panels,
  • (Table – )
    Thief, –
    Thixotropic liquid, –
    Thread designation, – (eq. )
    Thread percentage, – (eq. )
    Three-layer coextrusion die and oscillator
    assembly, – (Fig. – )
    Three-plate mold runner passage (closed), –
    pig. – )
    Three-plate mold runner passage (opened), –
    (Fig. – )
    Three-stage cavity pressure controller, –
    Three-stage cavity pressure curve, – (Fig.
  • )
    (Fig. – )
  • )
    Three-station injection blow molding, – Fig.
    Three-stream recycle process, – (Fig.
    Throat, –
    Tie-bar, –
    Tie-coats, –
    Time lines, –
    Time-proportioning controls, –
    Timers, –
    Tint, –
    Tinted coatings, –
    Titanium, –
    Tolerance guidelines for blow molded parts,
    Tolerances, – (Table – )
    Tool life, – (Fig. – ), – (Fig. – )
    Tool surface enhancements, – , – , –

    )
  • )
  • (Table – )
    (Table – )
    reviewing the choices, –
    guidelines, –
    metallic platings, – , –
    modified tungsten disulfide, –
    nickel/phosphorous/PTFE codepositions,
    PTFE infused into metallic coatings,
    surface-hardening, –
    thin-film high-hardness coatings, –
    surface dilemma, –
    corrosion resistance, –
    hardness, –
    lubricity, –
    reduced cycle time, –
    special needs, –
    tool build-up or repair, –

    • vision and strategy for the future, –
      Tooling and equipment, –
      Tooling for molding the undercut of a cantilever
      Tooling options to solve a part design problem,
      Tooling parameters, – (Table – )
      Tooling (see Dies, Molds, and Tooling)
      Top nip, –
      Torsion snap, – (Fig. – )
      Total quality management, –
      Total quality management program, – (Fig.
      snap, – (Fig. – )
  • (Fig. – )
    TOPblock, –
  • )
    TOW, –
    Training, –
    training methods, –
    understanding plastics, –
    Training model, – Fig. – )
    Training program, – , – (Table – )
    Transactions, –
    Transducers, –
    Transfer molding, – , –
    principal transfer molding parameters, –
    troubleshooting, –
    Transition, –
    Transport through the thermoforming process,
  • (Fig. – )
    Transverse roughness, – (Fig. – )
    Trepanning, –
    Triangularrod, –
    Trick gate, –
    Trim die characteristics, – (Table – )
    Trim-in-mold design, –
    Trim-in-mold thermoforming machine, –
    Trim-in-mold tool, – (Fig. – )
    Trim press, – (Fig. – )
    Trimming costs, – (Table – )
    Trimming two cavity rows, – Fig. – )
    Triode sputtering, – (Fig. – )
    Tripoli, –
    Troubleshooting
    (Fig. – )
    composites, – , – , – (Table
    compression molded parts, – (Table –
    and Table – )
    cutting Off, – (Table – )
    dip molding, –
    drilling, – (Table – )
    extrusion, – to –
    foam processing, –
  • )
    flexible, – (Table – )
    slabstock, – , – (Table – )
    injection molding, – to –
    plating, – to – (Table – )
    pultrusion, –
    resin transer molding, –
    rotational molding, – to –
    transfer molding, – (Table – )
    turning and boring, – (Table – )
    Tube for a damaged pipe, – (Fig. – )
    Turning, – (Table – )
    Turning cutting tool features, – (Fig. – )
    Turning of cast iron, – (Fig. – )
    Turret machine, – (Fig. – )
    Twin-screw extruders, –
    Twin-sheet forming, – , – (Fig. – )
    Two-component, –
    Two plastics compared with different moduli,
    Two-platemold runner passage, – (Fig. – )
    Two-turn coils, – (Fig. – )
    Types of materials discarded, – (Table – )
  • (Fig. – )
    U
    Ultrasonic welding system, – Fig. – )
    Undercut molds, –
    Unidirectional roving, – (Fig. – )
    Unique quaIities for materials, –
    Unwind station, – (Fig. – )
    Urea-formaldehyde resins, –
    Urethane polymer, – (eq. )
    Uses of metallized plastics, – (Table – )
    UV and EB cure, –
    V
    __
    V-groove for sharper bends, – (Fig. – )
    Vacuum-assisted molding, –
    Vacuum bag process, – (Fig. – )
    Vacuum coater, – (Fig. – )
    Vacuum forming, – (Fig. – ), –
    Vacuum pump components, – (Fig. – )
    Vacuum pump method of conveyingraw materiVacuum sizing, –
    Valve, –
    als, – (Fig. – )
  • INDEX
    Valve ejector pin, –
    Valve-gated, externally heated runnerless molding, – (Fig. – )
    Variables and their influence on surface finish,
  • (Table – )
    Vehicle SMC components, – (Table – )
    Vendor rating, –
    Vendor survey, –
    Vent configuration, – (Fig. – )
    Vented (two-stage) extrusion, –
    Venting, – , – (Fig. – ), –
    Vents, –
    Vertical cleavage lines, – (Fig. – )
    Vertical hot stamping, – (Fig. – )
    Vertical plastifier, – (Fig. – )
    Vertical wheel machine, – (Fig. – )
    Vibration welding, –
    Vinyl ether, –
    Visual inspection, –
    Volume of polymers used, – (Table – )
    Vulcanization, –
    W
    Wall thickness, –
    Wall thickness change, – (Fig. – )
    Wall thickness guidelines for common materiWall thickness transition, – (Fig. – )
    Warpage, –
    Water-break-free condition, –
    Water connection for bubbler, – pig. – )
    Water requirements, – (eg. and eq. )
    Water-spreading coating, –
    Water-white, –
    Waterborne, –
    Weak boundary layer effect on joint adhesion,
  • (Fig. – )
    Weak boundary layers, –
    Weather resistance and lightfastness, –
    Web tension, – (eq. )
    Weld continuance, –
    Weld line, – (Fig. – )
    Weld tensile test, – (eq. )
    Weld testing, – , –
    Welding (general considerations), –
    Welding of vinyljoint strips, –
    Welding pipe fittings, –
    Welding procedures, –
    Welding rod angle, –
    Welding sheet, –
    Welds, –
    Wet-on-wet, –
    Wet out, – , –
    als, – (Table – )
    Wet preform process, – pig. – )
    Wettability calculations, –
    Wheel machines (blow molding), – (Fig. – )
    Why use plastic?, –
    Winder power requirements, – (eq. , )
    Winder speed range, – (eq. )
    Work limitations, –
    Working vent, –
    Workmanship, finish, and appearance, –
    Woven roving, – (Fig. – )
    Wood, –
    X
    X-bar plot point, –
    z
    Z-pin, –
    Zahn cup, –
    Ziegler-Natta polymerizations

كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.net
The Unzip Password : books-world.net

تحميل

يجب عليك التسجيل في الموقع لكي تتمكن من التحميل
تسجيل | تسجيل الدخول

التعليقات

اترك تعليقاً