Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook – Volume IX – Material and Part Handling in Manufacturing

Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook – Volume IX – Material and Part Handling in Manufacturing
اسم المؤلف
Philip E. Mitchell
التاريخ
27 يونيو 2022
المشاهدات
40
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Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook – Volume IX – Material and Part Handling in Manufacturing
FOURTH EDITION
A reference book for manufacturing engineers, managers, and technicians
Philip E. Mitchell, CMfgT
Handbook Editor
CONTENTS
VOLUME IX—MATERIAL AND PART HANDLING IN MANUFACTURING
Preface v
Symbols and Abbreviations . xvii
Chapter —Strategy Determination and Production Requirements
Introduction . –
Basic Manufacturing Concepts –
The Production Environment/Lead Times/Inventory Management/Push and Pull Manufacturing
Resource Planning and Scheduling Concepts . –
Serving the Customer/The Planner’s Tool Kit/Manufacturing Resource Planning/
Process Re-engineering
Process Planning and Flow Analysis –
Phase I—Planning/Phase II—Design/Phase III—Implementation/Define Material and Information
Flow/What to Change/Analysis: As-is Conditions/Define the Processes
Problem Definition . –
Constraints/Physical Material Flow/Information Flow/Quality/Resource Limitations/
Handling and Storage
Chapter —Material Handling Analysis
Principles and Economics of Material Handling . –
Overview/Labor Utilization/Inventory Turnover/Facility Utilization/Equipment Utilization/
Material Cost/Synergistic Effect of Integration/System Service Life and Flexibility
Potential Benefits of Material Handling Solutions . –
Automated Storage and Retrieval System (AS/RS)/Automated Transportation/Controls
Realizing Benefit Potential . –
Determine Objectives for the System/Define and Quantify Current Levels of Resource Functions/
Estimate Future Levels of Resource Functions/Value Economic Requirements/Prepare for
Meeting Economic Requirements/Prepare a Thorough Project Justification/Sell the Project to Top
Management/Manage Carefully Planned Procurement and Implementation/Track the
Savings Targets After Implementation/Summary
Analysis Tools and Methods –
Computer-based Analysis Tools/Computer-based Simulation/Work Simplification/Analyzing Load
Size/Analyzing Plant Layout
Requirements Definition –
Key Considerations/Data Collection/Flow Analysis/Data Analysis/Document Understanding/
Opportunities and Problems/Alternative Solutions
Project Management –
Overview/Planning and Analysis/Design and Development/Procurement/Implementation/Support
and Modification/Summary
Chapter —Product Identification and Tracking
Introduction . –
Identification of Ledgered Stock-keeping Units . –
Unique SKU/Engineering and Purchasing Responsibilities/Numbering Systems/Sizes of Stock Materials/Units of Measure/Nonledgered Parts/Tracing and Tracking/Controlling Changes by Part
Identification
Automated Data Capture (ADC) . –
Considerations for ADC/Linear Bar Codes/Two-dimensional Symbologies/Radio-frequency Data
Communications
iiiiv
Integrating Sensors and Control –
Sortation/Automatic Storage and Retrieval Systems/Automated Guided Vehicles
Data Storage and Postprocessing . –
Partially Automated Systems . –
Data Collection Points –
Product Data Management –
Chapter —Storage and Inventory Planning
Introduction . –
Key Storage Planning Phases –
Select a Storage Project Team/Phase I: Define General Storage Design Requirements/Phase II:
Define/Evaluate/Select Storage Strategy
Defining the Material Storage Environment . –
Survey Organization to Develop Goals/Identify Storage Plan Rules that “Must” be Satisfied/
Define Tangible Goals and Evaluation Criteria/Define Intangible Goals and Evaluation Criteria/
Kepner-TregoeTM (KT) Methodology
Storage Plan Goals and Criteria by Business Organization –
Evaluation Criteria
Business Computer Systems Criteria for Storage Functions . –
Computer Software Capabilities
Inventory Storage and Flow Characteristics . –
Inventory Put-away Unit of Measure (UOM)/Storage Capacity by Type/Special Storage
Environment Needs/Special Inventory Vendor and Owner Needs/Special Material Transportation
Needs/Inventory Pick Frequency/Inventory Handling
Calculate Storage Equipment Quantity and Floor Area –
Centralization versus Decentralization Strategies . –
Financial/Service and Transportation/Operations
Inventory Storage Method Alternatives –
Conventional Storage Methods/Bulk (Reserve) Inventory Storage Methods/Forward (Loose)
Inventory Storage Methods/Automated Storage Methods/Temporary Storage Methods/
Inventory Dating Systems (Storage Life)
Storage Planning Summary –
Chapter —Logistics
Introduction . –
Ordering and Receiving Processes –
Determining What, When, and How Much to Order/Placing Traditional Orders/Receiving/
Electronic Data Interchange for Ordering
Shipping to Meet Customer Expectations . –
Lean Manufacturing and JIT/Shipping/Supplier Responsibilities/Trading Partnerships
EDI Service Providers –
Inventory Management –
Conclusion –
Chapter —Maintaining Material Handling Systems and Equipment
Introduction . –
Maintenance Program Objectives/Maintenance Types
Equipment Condition and Performance Analysis –
Determining What Equipment Should be Inspected/Inspection Criteria/Inspection Frequency/Inspection Schedule
Maintenance Suggestions . –
Flexible Wheeled Handling Equipment/Conveyors/Overhead Handling and Lift Devices/Storage
Equipment/Transport Packaging/Automated Material Handling Systemsv
Chapter —Ergonomics and Manual Handling Systems
Introduction . –
Determining Physical Limits –
Psychophysical Assessment Methods/Biomechanical Assessment Methods/Physiological
Assessment Methods/Multidisciplinary Risk Assessment Methods
Reducing MMH Risks –
Administrative Control of Risk Factors/Engineering Control of Risk Factors
Solving MMH Ergonomic Issues –
Work Parameters and Indicators/Selection Guide/Database/Reducing Musculoskeletal Injury Hazard/Supplier Build and Prototype Buy-off/The Need for More Research/Manual Handling Systems
Model Application
Safety Aspects of MMH . –
Chapter —Flexible Wheeled Handling Equipment
The Industrial Fork Lift Truck –
Impact on Industry/Classes of Industrial Trucks
Counterbalanced Lift Trucks –
Typical Applications/Tires/Mast Types and Operations/Hydraulic System and Operation
Reach Trucks –
Attachments to Standard Lift Trucks
Special Lift Trucks . –
Sideloaders in Manufacturing . –
Special Features
Powering Fork Lift Trucks . –
Batteries/Gasoline/Propane/Dual-fuel Lift Trucks/Diesel/Compressed Natural Gas/Exhaust
Treatment/Power Comparison
Lift Truck Attachments . –
Attachments and Safety/Sideshifters/Clamps/Rotators/Load Pushes and Load Push/Pulls/Fork
Positioners/Load Stabilizers/Fork Rotators/Mechanical Attachments
Powered Walkie Lift Trucks –
Economics/Maintenance Factors/Types/Selection
Two-wheel Hand Trucks . –
Terminology/Hand Truck Types/Special Designs/Wheel Selection/Weight and Bearings/
Attachments/Worker Preferences
Hand Pallet Trucks –
Fork Dimensions/Wheels/Pallet Entry Devices/Maintenance/Applications
Floor Trucks . –
Running Gear/Wheel Selection/Frames/Decks/Size and Capacity
Fleet Management . –
Standardizing the Lift Truck Fleet/Tracking Fleet Maintenance Costs/When to Replace Trucks/Lift
Truck Selection/Maintenance/Conduct Operator Training
Purchasing Used Fork Lift Trucks –
Rebuilt Trucks/“As-is” Trucks/Reconditioned Trucks/Where to Buy/Warranties
Chapter —Conveyors for Unit Load Handling
Design Considerations . –
Nonpowered Conveyors . –
Skate Wheel/Gravity Roller/Ball Transfer Tables and Omnidirection Wheels
Powered Conveyors –
Powered Belt/Live Roller/Accumulation/Sortation Equipment
Powered Conveyors for Large Unit Loads –
Multiple Strand Chain/Slat/Flat Top/In-floor Towline/Inverted Power-and-free
Specialty In-floor Conveying Systems –
Inverted Automated Electrified Monorail/Spinning Tube/Walking Beam/Automated Guided
Vehicles/Linear Induction Motors
Software and Controls –
Equipment Control Devices/System Control Software/EmulationJustification –
Costs/Savings/Return on Investment/Dealing with Uncertainty
Conveyor Safety . –
Establishing a Safety Program/Common Hazards/Safety Devices/Training/Noise Considerations
Chapter —Overhead Handling and Lifting Devices
Introduction . –
Equipment Selection
Manual and Powered Overhead Cranes –
Bridge Crane Fundamentals/Major Types of Overhead Cranes/Comparison of Overhead Cranes
Overhead Trolley Conveyors . –
Overhead Trolley Conveyor Selection/Major Types of Overhead Trolley Conveyors/
Comparison of Overhead Trolley Conveyors
Overhead Power-and-free Conveyors –
Power-and-free Conveyor Selection/Major Types of Overhead Power-and-free Conveyors/
Comparison of Overhead Power-and-free Conveyors
Automated Electrified Monorails . –
Automated Electrified Monorail Selection/Aluminum-alloy Track Automated Electrified Monorails/
Comparison of Automated Electrified Monorails/Linear Induction Motor Systems
Drop/Lift Transfers –
Drop/Lift Transfer Selection/Major Types of Drop/Lift Transfers/Comparison of Drop/
Lift Transfers
Conclusion –
Chapter —Storage Equipment
Applications and Planning –
Guidelines . –
Selection Criteria/Layout Plans/Storage Specifications/Other Equipment Considerations
Fixtures and Holding Devices –
Specialty Frames/Baskets/Tubs and Skids with Crane Hairpins/Mobile Storage
Pallets and Racks –
Pallet Racks/High-density Storage Racks/Drive-in Racks/Drive-through Racks/Pushback Racks/Flow
Racks/Cantilever Racks/Steel Pallet Racks/Considerations for Pallet Moving Equipment
Chapter —Transport Packaging
Protective Packaging –
Loose Fill/Wrapping Materials/Fabricated Packaging/Molded Packaging/Selection Guidelines
Corrugated Cartons . –
Design Considerations/Recycled Corrugated Fiberboard/A Film Alternative
Returnable Containers –
Container Design/Application Guidelines/Maximizing the Return-on-investment (ROI)
The Unit Load Base –
Wood Pallets/Plastic Pallets/Corrugated Fiberboard Pallets/Slip-sheets/Pallet Design/Pallet
Standards/Handling without Pallets
Fire Protection and Packaging –
Product Identification . –
Label Requirements/Bar Code Printers/Weighing Systems
Unit Load Forming . –
Palletizing Methods/Load Protecting and Securing
Integrating the Packaging Function . –
Chapter —Automated Material Handling Equipment
Automated Guided Vehicle Systems –
Types of AGV Systems/Guidance Systems/AGV Controls/Battery Requirements/Selection
Criteria/System Sizing/Cost Estimating and Justification/Benefits/Safety Considerations/System
Maintenance/Future TrendsAutomated Storage and Retrieval Systems . –
Automated Storage and Retrieval System Types/Pallets/Control Systems/Selection Criteria/
System Sizing/Cycle Time/Cost Estimating and Justification/Benefits/Safety Considerations/
System Maintenance/Future Trends
High-density Dynamic Storage Systems . –
Types of Systems/Controls/Selection Criteria/System Sizing/Cost Estimating and Justification/Benefits/Safety Considerations and Maintenance/Future Trends
Carousel Storage and Retrieval Systems –
Types of Systems/Control Systems/System Sizing/Cycle Time/Cost Estimating and
Justification/Benefits/Safety Considerations and System Maintenance/Future Trends
Specialized Systems . –
Automatic Item Dispensers/Robotic Order-selection Systems/Tool-dispensing Systems/Controls/
System Sizing/Benefits/Safety Considerations and Maintenance
Industrial Robots –
Types of Robots/Benefits and Applications/Control Systems/System Sizing/Safety Considerations
and Maintenance/Future Trends
Automated Packaging Equipment . –
Types of Equipment
Chapter —Worker Productivity and Ergonomic Assists
Lifting Devices –
Reasons for Use/Lifting Tables/Balancers and Hoists/Manipulators/End Effectors and Tooling/Typical
Interfaces
Enclosed-track Workstation Cranes . –
Configuration/Application
Positioning Devices –
Lifter/Tilter and Dumper/Turntable/Lift and Tilter/Lift and Turntable/Load Leveler/Choosing the
Right Equipment
Chapter —Metalcutting
Introduction . –
Considerations for Automated Machine Loading/Automation Issues
Bandsawing . –
Automating Infeed and Outfeed/Application Examples
Bar Work –
Bar Feeding and Loading Systems/Cut Feeding/Bar Loading of Centerless Grinders
Chucking Work –
Gantry Loading/Gantry Applications for Horizontal Chucking/Gantry Applications Other than
Turning/Robot Loading/Simple Loaders for Lathes/Vertical Chucking
Prismatic Parts –
Pallets and Pallet Loading Systems/Small Pallets for Electrical Discharge Machining
and Other Uses
High-volume Systems . –
Synchronous Transfer Lines/Asynchronous Transfer Lines/Transfer Line Flexibility/Application: Simulating an Engine Plant
Cutting Tool Management –
Computerized Tool Management/Automatic Storage Equipment for Tools/Automated Tool
Delivery and Loading/Application: Machining Cell Tool Management
Chip Management . –
Rapid Accumulation of Chips/Stand-alone Primary Chip Handling/Chip Processing/Continuous
Chip Processing/Stand-alone Chip Wringers/Central Chip Handling Systems/Cold Briquetting
Coolant Filtration Management –
High-pressure Coolant Systems/Space Planning/Future Trends
Chapter —Metal Forming
Introduction . –
Stamping Plants . – Stackers . –
Destackers . –
Washers and Lubricators –
Coil Feeding –
Types of Coil Feeding/Accuracy Control/High-speed Feeding/Feeding Techniques
In-press Transfer Systems –
New Technology Advantages/Transfer Press Size Classification/Transfer Feed Technology/
Material Handling Considerations/Flexible Universal Stations/Press Construction/
Hydraulic Presses
Between-press Transfer Systems . –
Tandem Press Lines
In-die Transfer Systems . –
Design of a Three-axis Transfer Die
Robots . –
Robotic Shuttle Devices/Swing-arm Robot/Pendulum-arm Robot/Robot Selection for
Press-to-press Transfer
Automated Parts Racking –
Conveyors . –
Flexible Handling Systems –
Automation Economics/Automated Material Handling Benefits/Bulk Material Handling/
Just-in-Time/Sheet Metal Operation
Chapter —Plastic Manufacturing
Raw Material Storage and Handling . –
Manual Methods/Semi-automatic Material Conveyance Methods/Automatic and High-volume
Resin Handling Systems/Feeding and Blending Systems/Material Conditioning Systems
Handling of Molded Parts . –
Free-drop Systems for Molded Parts Handling/Conveying Systems for Part Handling/
Robotic Systems for Parts Orientation/Planning and Implementing an Automated Molding Cell
Chapter —Assembly
Introduction . –
Understanding the Application/Sizing the Equipment/Justifying the Automation Project/
Considerations for Parts
Automated Parts Supply Systems . –
Basic Hopper/Movable-wall Hoppers/Hopper-elevator Combination/Bulk Feeder Supply/
Coil Spring Hopper/Wire Form Hoppers/Portable Hoppers/Liners
Parts Orientation Equipment . –
Vibratory Bowl Feeders/Orienting on Linear Vibratory Conveyors/Linear Fiber Vibratory Feeders/
Horizontal Belt Feeders/Centrifugal Feeders/Hopper Elevators/Precision Rolls/
Drum Feeders/Sensing/Part Quality
Oriented Parts Transfer . –
Gravity Tracks/Linear Vibratory Feeders/Belts with Guides/Tube Transfer/Chain Transfer
Oriented Parts Placement . –
Gravity Tracks/Force Feeding into Pockets Using Linear Feeders/Reciprocating Plunger and Jaw
Combinations/Pick-and-place Mechanisms/Robots/Fastener Devices
Assembly Machines and Systems –
Qualification of Parts/Rate Comparisons for Assembly Systems/Operator-assisted Workstation/
Synchronous Assembly—Rotary Index Table/Synchronous Assembly—Carousel/Linear
Asynchronous Assembly/Asynchronous Pallet Loop Systems—Level One/Asynchronous Pallet Loop
Systems—Level Two/Summary
Pneumatic Devices for Automation –
Application Criteria/Grippers/Rotary Actuators/Multimotion Actuators/Powered Slides/Cylinders/
Escapements, Switches, and Sensors
Flexible Automation for Assembly . –
Flexible Parts Feeders/Flexible Assembly SystemsChapter —Finishing, Painting, and Coating
Design Elements –
Product and Carrier Relationship/Conveyance Equipment/Finishing Equipment Considerations/
System Layouts
Planning for an Integrated Paint System –
Chain Monorail System/Tow Chain Conveyor System
Summary . –
Chapter —Moving and Handling Scrap and Waste
Introduction . –
Types of Metal Scrap/Conveyor Utilization
Types of Metal Scrap Handling Conveyors –
Standard Drive Configuration Conveyors/Eccentric-driven Oscillating Conveyors/Rotary-driven
Screw Conveyors/Hydraulic Fluid-driven Conveyors/Pneumatic Conveyors/Hydraulic and Sluice
Fluid-motion Conveyors
Chuting and Distribution Systems –
Electrical Controls –
Application Examples . –
Single-unit Machined Chips and Turnings Collection/In-floor Systems for Machined Chips and
Turnings/Above-floor Stamping Scrap Collection/In-floor Stamping Systems/Die Cast Scrap
Handling Systems
Prepurchase Strategies . –
Economic Justification/Collect Application Information
Appendix A—Industry Associations and Standards
Belgium . A-
Czech Republic A-
England . A-
France . A-
Germany . A-
Italy . A-
Netherlands . A-
Poland . A-
Spain . A-
Sweden A-
Switzerland A-
United Kingdom A-
United States . A- TMEH VOLUME – MATERIAL AND PART HANDLING IN MANUFACTURING
TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK xvii
SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
SYMBOLS AND
ABBREVIATIONS
D two-dimensional
D three-dimensional
A-B
A Amp (Ampere)
AAR Association of American Railroads
ABC Activity-based costing
ABM Activity-based management
AC Alternating current
ADC Automated data capture
AEM Automated electrified monorail
AGV Automated guided vehicle
AGVS Automated guided vehicle system
AHAM Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers
AI Automatic identification
AIAG Automotive Industry Action Group
AISC American Institute of Steel Construction
ANSI American National Standards Institute
APS Advanced planning and scheduling systems
APV Attended program verification
ARA After receipt of approval
AREA American Railroad Engineering Association
AS/RS Automated storage and retrieval systems
ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers
ASCII American National Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASN Advance shipping notice
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
BOM Bill of material
C-D-E
CAD Computer-aided design
CAT Cross-aisle transfer
cc Cubic centimeter
CCD Charge-coupled device
CEMA Conveyor Equipment Manufacturers Association
CFM Cubic feet per minute
CIM Computer-integrated manufacturing
CMAA Crane Manufacturers Association of America
CMM Coordinate measuring machine
CNC Computer numerical control
CNG Compressed natural gas
CO Carbon monoxide
COE Chain-on-edge
CP Carrier present
CS/RS Carousel storage and retrieval system
The following is a list of symbols and abbreviations in general use throughout this volume. Supplementary and/or derived units,
symbols, and abbreviations that are peculiar to specific subject matter are listed within chapters.
CTD Cumulative trauma disorder
CV Constant velocity
DC Data collection
DC Direct current
DIN European equivalent of the American Society for
Testing and Materials (ASTM)
DLC Deep-lane shuttle car
DLT Deep-lane transfer
DOT Department of Transportation
EAN European Article Numbering
ECN Engineering change notice
EDI Electronic data interchange
EDM Electrical discharge machining
EFT Electronic funds transfer
EIA Electronics Industry Association
ELM Enterprise logistics management
EOAT End-of-arm tool
EOQ Economic order quantity
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
EPS Expanded polystyrene
ERS Evaluated receipt settlement
ESFR Early-suppression-fast-response sprinkler
ETF Electronic transfer feed
ETV Electric track vehicle
F-G-H
FCC Federal Communications Commission
FCS Finite capacity scheduling
FDA Food and Drug Administration
FEA Finite element analysis
FHS Flexible handling system
FIFO First-in first-out
Fig. Figure
FMRC The Factory Mutual Research Corporation
FMS Flexible manufacturing system
fpm Feet per minute
ft Feet
g Gram
gal Gallon
GMA Grocery Manufacturers Association
GMP Good manufacturing practice
gpm Gallons per minute
GPS Global positioning system
GUI Graphical user interface
h Hour
HD/DS High-density dynamic-storage system
HIPO Hierarchical input process output
hp HorsepowerTMEH VOLUME – MATERIAL AND PART HANDLING IN MANUFACTURING
xviii TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK
SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
I-J-K
I/E Inserter/Extractor
I/O Input/Output
ICAM Integrated computer-aided manufacturing
ICE Internal combustion engine
ICM Inverted chain monorail
ID Inside diameter
ID Identification
IMM Injection molding machine
in. Inch
in. Square inch
in. Cubic inch
IPF Inverted power-and-free conveyor
IRR Internal rate of return
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ITA Industrial Truck Association
J Joule
JIT Just-in-Time
kg Kilogram
kPa Kilopascal
KT Kepner-Tregoe
L-M-N
L Liter
lb Pound
LCC Life-cycle cost
LH Left-hand
LIFO Last-in last-out
LIM Linear induction motor
LP Liquid petroleum
LPG LP-gas or liquid petroleum gas
LTL Less than a truckload
m Meter
m Cubic meter
MES Manufacturing execution system
MHIA Material Handling Industry of America
MHS Manual handling system
min Minute
MIS Management information system
MLD Movable loading device
MMH Manual material handling
MPS Master production schedule
MRP Material requirements planning
MRP Manufacturing resource planning
MRPII Manufacturing resource planning
MSD Musculoskeletal disorder
MSDS Material safety data sheet
MSHA Mine Safety and Health Administration
MTBF Mean time between failure
MTTR Mean-time-to-repair
MUD Movable unloading device
N Newton
NC Numerical control
NEMA National Equipment Manufacturers Association
NFPA National Fire Protection Association
NICAD Nickel cadmium
NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health
NPV Net present value
NWPCA National Wooden Pallet and Container Association
O-P
OCM Overhead chain monorail
OD Outside diameter
ODETTE Organization for Data Exchange by
Teletransmission in Europe
OEM Original equipment manufacturer
OHPF Overhead power-and-free conveyor
OPC Operations process chart
OSB Oriented strand board
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OTC Overhead trolley conveyor
P&F Power-and-free
P/D Pickup and delivery
PC Personal computer
PCV Positive crankcase ventilation valve
PDF Portable data file
PDM Product data management
PE Polyethylene
PERT/CPM Program evaluation review technique/critical
path method
PFD Process flow diagrams
PI Profitability index
PLC Programmable logic controller
PM Preventive maintenance
PMT Peak metal temperature
PO Purchase order
PP Polypropylene
PPH Parts per hour
PS Polystyrene
psi Pounds per square inch
PVC Polyvinyl chloride
Q-R-S
QC Quality control
RF Radio frequency
RFID Radio-frequency identification
RFQ Request for quotation
RGV Rail-guided vehicle
RH Right-hand
RMI Rack Manufacturers Institute
ROI Return-on-investment
rpm Revolutions per minute
RRFQ Response to request for quote
RSI Repetitive strain injury
RULA Rapid upper limb assessment
S/R Storage and retrieval
S/RM Storage and retrieval machine
SCAC Standard carrier alpha code
SCARA Selective compliance assembly robot arm
SEMCO Statistical equipment maintenance control
sfpm Surface feet per minute
SGV Self-guided vehicle
SKU Stock-keeping unit
SMED Single-minute exchange of dieTMEH VOLUME – MATERIAL AND PART HANDLING IN MANUFACTURING
TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK xix
SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
SPC Statistical process control
SPD Stationary pulling device
SPI Society of the Plastics Industry
spm Strokes per minute
SSPP Static strength prediction program
STEP Standard for the exchange of product data
T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
TOC Theory of constraints
TP Travel permit
TPA Trading partner agreement or handbook
TWA Time-weighted average
UCC Uniform Code Council
UHMW Ultra-high molecular weight
UL Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
UN United Nations
UOM Unit of measure
UPC Uniform plumbing code
U.P.C. Universal product code
UPM Use-point manager
U.S. United States
USDA United States Department of Agriculture
UV Ultraviolet
V Volts
VAN Value-added network
VLM Vertical lift module
VTL Vertical turning lathe
VTL Vertical transfer lift
WIP Work-in-process
WMS Warehouse management systems
INDEX
TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK I-
D codes, –
A
Above-floor stamping scrap collection, –
Absorption, –
Activity-based costing (ABC), – (Fig. – )
Actuators
multimotion, –
rotary, –
Administrative controls, –
A-frame type, –
Aggregate planning, –
Agility, –
AGV
benefits, –
comparison, – (Table – )
controls, –
cycle time, –
guidance system comparison, – (Table

  • )
    selection, –
    system sizing, –
    Air cellular packaging, –
    Air feeds, –
    Air-actuated coil feeder, – (Fig. – )
    Aisle throughput, – (eq. )
    Analysis tools and methods, –
    analysis results, – (Table – )
    analyzing load size, –
    effect of unit load size on cycle time,

  • large versus small unit loads, –
    batch size considerations, –
    dual manufacturing and shipping
    containers, –
    effects of unit load and container
    configuration, –
    history of change, –
    universal container configuration,

  • analyzing plant layout, –
    computer-based analysis tools, –
    cost analysis tools, –
    flow-charting tools, –
    layout analysis tools, –
    computer-based simulation, –
    comparing alternative systems, –
    conveyors and monorail systems, –
    other material handling systems, –
    work simplification, –
    methods improvements—what to look
    for, –
    operations process chart, –
    plantwide, –
    value- versus nonvalue-added
    operations, –
    Analytical
    data, –
    indicators, –
    Anchor frame, –
    Appliance trucks, –
    Applications
    for returnable containers, –
    parameters for the conveyor selection
    process, – (Fig. – )
    planning, –
    Apron conveyor, –
    Area efficiency, –
    Area gantry, – , – (Fig. – )
    Articulated jib, – , – (Fig. – )
    A-side, B-side processing, –
    Assemble-to-order, –
    Assembling parts, –
    Assembly, – to –
    asynchronous pallet loop systems, –
    flexible, –
    linear asynchronous assembly, –
    operator-assisted workstation, –
    qualification of parts, –
    rate comparisons for assembly systems,

  • synchronous assembly—carousel, –
    synchronous assembly—rotary index table,

  • vehicles, –
    Assembly application, –
    Asynchronous pallet loop systems, – , –
    (Fig. – )
    Attachments for lift trucks, –
    clamps, –
    fork positioners, –
    fork rotators, –
    load pushes and load push/pulls, –
    load stabilizers, –
    mechanical attachments, –
    rotators, –
    safety, –
    sideshifters, –
    Auto body side panels ready for transport, –
    (Fig. – )
    Automated
    supply hopper, – (Fig. – )
    supply and loading system, – (Fig.
  • )
    Automated assembly systems, – (Fig. – )
    Automated data capture (ADC), – , –
    considerations, –
    linear bar coding, – , –
    costs, –
    information needed, –
    labeling environment, –
    physical characteristics, –
    postlabeling environment, –
    reading conditions, –
    required life expectancy, –
    symbology and requirements, –
    radio-frequency data communications, –
    advantages and limitations, –
    data collection, –
    data transmittal, –
    two-dimensional ( D) symbologies, –
    advantages and limitations, –
    area efficiency, –
    scanning technologies, –
    selection criteria, –
    symbology structure, –
    data elements, –
    error detection and correction, –
    finder patterns, –
    quiet zones, –
    shapes and sizes, –
    types, –
    when to use, –
    Automated electrified monorails (AEM), – ,

  • aluminum-alloy track AEMs, –
    design, –
    performance characteristics, –
    carrier assembly, – (Fig. – )
    equipment comparison, – (Table – )
    linear induction motor systems, –
    selection, –
    equipment cost, –
    flexibility, –
    maintainability and reliability, –
    operator safety, –
    product quality, –
    selection parameters, – (Table – )
    Automated guided vehicle (AGV) systems, –
    (Fig. – ), – , – , – , –
    AGV controls, –
    battery requirements, –
    benefits, –
    cost estimating and justification, –
    future trends, –
    guidance, –
    inductive, –
    inertial navigation, –
    laser, –
    passive, –
    chemical, –
    grid, –
    metal tape, –
    optical, –
    maintenance, –
    safety, –
    selection, –
    sizing, –
    method one, –
    method two, –
    types, –
    driverless trains, –
    fork lift vehicles, –
    light-load vehicles, –
    module transport vehicles, –
    specialized vehicles, –
    unit-load vehicles, –
    wire-guided pallet trucks, –
    Automated machine loading, –
    automation issues, –
    cycle time and throughput improvement,

  • job enhancement, –
    labor reduction, –
    quality improvement, –
    Automated material handling
    equipment, – to –
    systems maintenance, –
    Automated packaging equipment, –
    types, –
    case-sealing systems, –
    palletizers and depalletizers, –
    shrink-wrappers, –
    strappers, –
    stretch-wrappers, –
    Automated palletizers, –
    Automated parts racking, –
    Automated parts supply systems, –
    basic hopper, –
    bulk feeder supply, –
    coil spring hopper, –
    hopper-elevator combination, –
    liners, –
    movable-wall hoppers, –
    portable hoppers, –
    wire form hoppers, –
    Automated storage and retrieval systems
    (AS/RS), –
    benefits, –
    controls, – INDEX
    I- TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK
    cost estimating and justification, –
    cycle time, –
    future trends, –
    maintenance, –
    pallets, –
    safety, –
    selection, –
    sizing, –
    storage racks, –
    types, – , – (Table – and Table
  • )
    deep-lane, –
    man-aboard, –
    microload, –
    miniload, –
    unit-load, –
    use-point manager, –
    vertical lift module, –
    Automatic
    bar feed, –
    fork lift and transfer, – , – (Fig.
  • )
    identification, –
    item dispensers, – , – (Fig. – )
    sortation system, – (Fig. – )
    Automation
    benefits, – , – , – (Table – )
    economics, –
    justification, –
    planning process, – (Fig. – )
    program life cycle, – (Fig. – )
    solution savings, – (Table – ), –
    (Table – )
    B
    Backflush, –
    Backward scheduling, –
    Bag trucks, –
    Balanced manipulator, – (Fig. – )
    Balancer, –
    Balancers and hoists – , – (Table – )
    Balance-tilt, –
    Ball transfer, –
    Bandsawing, –
    applications, –
    automating infeed and outfeed, –
    Bar code printers, –
    Bar work, –
    cut feeding, –
    feeding and loading systems, –
    additional considerations, –
    hydrodynamic bar feeders, –
    loader operation, – (Fig. – )
    magazine loading, – (Fig. – )
    material considerations, –
    remnants, –
    short bar feeds and bar loaders, –
    support, –
    loading of centerless grinders, –
    hopper and bowl feeding, –
    Bar-coded shipping label, – (Fig. – )
    Barrel or drum trucks, –
    Batteries, –
    Bearing
    friction, –
    sets, –
    Bellows-style vacuum cup, – (Fig. – )
    Belt
    conveyors, – , – (Fig. – )
    transfer, – (Fig. – )
    Belt-on-roller conveyors, – (Fig. – )
    Belts with guides for part movement, –
    Benefits
    analysis, –
    determine objectives, –
    economic requirements, –
    relating solutions to resources, –
    savings potential, –
    sizing the investment, –
    estimate resource functions, –
    of carousels, –
    of high-density storage systems, –
    of material handling solutions, –
    automated storage and retrieval, –
    automated transportation, –
    controls, –
    AS/RS controls, –
    automated transportation, –
    of robots, –
    of specialized systems, –
    procurement and implementation, –
    project justification, –
    cost avoidance, –
    incremental volume, –
    program versus project justification,

  • return on investment (ROI), –
    resource functions, –
    sell the project to top management, –
    document savings, –
    implementation schedule, –
    obtain firm costs, –
    outside consultants, –
    value economic requirements, –
    floor area savings valuation, –
    inflation, –
    inventory savings valuation, –
    labor hour savings valuation, –
    Between-press transfer systems, –
    tandem press lines, –
    Bills of material, – , – (Fig. – ), –
    Biomechanics, –
    Blanking press feeding, – (Fig. – )
    Blending systems, –
    Blocking systems, –
    Bottleneck, –
    Bottom-running drag conveyor, – (Fig. – )
    Bowl feeders with sensing, –
    Bowl size in relation to part length, – (Fig.
  • )
    Box dumper, – (Fig. – )
    Breakeven point, – (eq. ), – (Fig. – )
    Bridge crane, –
    design, –
    fundamentals, –
    Bridges, –
    Bucket elevator, –
    conveyor, – (Fig. – )
    Bulk
    feeder supply, –
    unloading, –
    Bumper dunnage, – (Fig. – )
    Burst rate, –
    Bursting strength, –
    Business computer systems
    software capabilities, –
    bulk (reserve) and forward (loose)
    inventory, –
    general inventory storage, –
    receiving, –
    shipping, –
    temporary storage—WIP material, –
    storage functions, –
    C
    Cable conveyors, –
    Cable hoist-operated lift conveyors, –
    Cable link conveyor and carrier assembly, –
    (Fig. – )
    Cantilever lift (light-duty), – (Fig. – )
    Cantilever pallet lift (heavy-duty), – (Fig.
  • )
    Capacity, –
    planning, –
    Captive pallets, –
    Carousel storage and retrieval systems, –
    benefits, –
    comparison, – (Table – )
    controls, –
    cost estimating and justification, –
    cycle time, –
    future trends, –
    safety and maintenance, –
    sizing, – , – (eq. )
    types, –
    horizontal, –
    rotary rack, –
    twin-bin, –
    vertical, –
    Carriers, –
    structural integrity, –
    Cart
    design, –
    transfer system, – , – (Fig. – )
    turning devices, –
    Cartesian robot, –
    Caster and wheel maintenance, –
    Cells, –
    Cellulose wadding, –
    Cement plant, – , – (Fig. – and Fig.
  • )
    Centrifugal force, – (eq. )
    Centrifuge, which separates chips from coolant,
  • (Fig. – )
    Chain, –
    block, –
    conveyor, – , –
    transfer, – (Fig. – )
    of parts, –
    Chain monorail system, – (Fig. – ), –
    chain pull basics, –
    computing chain pull, –
    conveyor component selection, –
    drives, –
    enclosed and keystone chain, –
    horizontal turns, –
    lubrication of chain and trolleys, –
    power-and-free, –
    support steel, –
    take-up units, –
    track, –
    trolley brackets and wheels, –
    vertical curves, –
    conveyor system design, –
    obstruction friction, – INDEX
    TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK I-
    trolley wheel friction, –
    Chain pull system total, – , – (eqs. to
    ), –
    basics, –
    caused by vertical curves, – (eq. )
    due to take-up tension, – (eq. )
    load, – (eq. )
    Chain-on-edge (COE) conveyor, – , – (Fig.
  • )
    Chain-on-flat configuration, –
    Chip management, –
    central systems, –
    cold briquetting, –
    continuous chip processing, – , –
    (Fig. – )
    rapid accumulation, –
    stand-alone wringers, –
    Chucking work, –
    gantry applications, –
    crankshaft machining line, –
    grinder, –
    lathes, –
    multiple CNC lathes, –
    turning cell with multiple functions,

  • gantry loading, –
    construction and axes of motion, –
    grippers, –
    interface, –
    lathes, –
    linear and area gantries, –
    machining center, –
    other than lathes, –
    part weights and sizes, –
    payback calculation, –
    robot loading, –
    built-in gantry loaders and robots, –
    lathe-loading applications, –
    work stocker tables, –
    considerations, – , –
    gripper considerations, –
    integration and troubleshooting, –
    what to expect, –
    simple loaders for lathes, –
    autoloaders, –
    chutes, –
    finished parts handling in turning, –
    vertical chucking, –
    application example, –
    benefits, –
    limits to the hanging spindle, –
    types, –
    Chuting and distribution systems, – , –
    Clamp for lift truck, –
    Classes and types of trucks, – (Table – )
    Close pack, –
    Closed loop system, –
    Code , –
    Code , –
    Coil feeding, –
    accuracy control, –
    high-speed feeding, –
    techniques, –
    types, –
    air feeds, –
    actuation, –
    adaptability, –
    circuits, –
    electrical roll feed, –
    hitch feeds, –
    mechanical roll feed, –
    Coil spring hopper, – , – (Fig. – )
    Combination machines, –
    punch
    and bending, –
    and laser cutter, –
    and shear, –
    and shearing/bending, –
    roll feeder and coil straightener, – (Fig.
  • )
    Common denominator handling unit, –
    Comparison of
    AS/RS types, – (Table – and Table
  • )
    assembly systems, –
    in-floor conveyor systems, – (Table – )
    mechanical and hydraulic presses, –
    (Table – )
    nonpowered conveyors, – (Table – )
    part identification technologies, – (Table
  • )
    powered conveyors for assembly, – (Table
  • )
    sortation conveyors, – (Table – )
    tandem press line layout and transfer press,
  • (Fig. – )
    Compliance labeling, –
    Compound factor formula for a complete turn,
  • (eqs. to )
    Computerized tool management system, –
    (Fig. – )
    Consolidated operations process chart, – ,
  • (Fig. – )
    Consumables, –
    Container
    design, –
    for molded parts, – (Fig. – )
    Continuous
    improvement, –
    vertical lift conveyor, –
    Control pendant, –
    Control system for
    a conveyor, – (Fig. – )
    AGVs, –
    carousels, –
    robots, –
    Conveyance equipment, –
    chain monorail systems, –
    floor truck, –
    floor-mounted skid, –
    guided vehicle (automated and manual),

  • hand-pushed monorail and bridge cranes,

  • pedestal and fixture conveyors, –
    power-and-free conveyor systems, –
    roller conveyors, –
    tow cart systems, –
    tow conveyors, –
    Conveyance methods for plastic manufacturing,

  • automatic and high volume, –
    bulk bag/pressure unload, –
    container dumper/pressure unload, –
    feeding and blending systems, –
    manual, –
    robots, –
    vacuum, –
    Conveyor, –
    chain on edge, – (Fig. – )
    component selection, –
    control panel, –
    drives, –
    engine slat, – (Fig. – )
    flat top, – (Fig. – )
    guarding, – (Fig. – )
    in-floor, – (Table – )
    inverted power-and-free, – (Fig. – )
    justification, –
    costs, –
    dealing with uncertainty, –
    return on investment
    internal rate of return, –
    net present value, –
    payback method, –
    profitability index, –
    savings, –
    loudness, – (Fig. – )
    maintenance, –
    belt conveyors, –
    chain conveyors, –
    drag, flight, screw, apron, and general
    conveyors, –
    portable conveyors, –
    roller conveyors, –
    metal scrap handling, –
    eccentric-driven oscillating, –
    hydraulic fluid-driven, –
    hydraulic and sluice fluid-motion, –
    pneumatic, –
    rotary-driven screw, –
    dumpers and lifters, –
    reciprocating, –
    standard drive configuration, –
    bucket, –
    drag, –
    hinged steel belt, –
    magnetic, –
    metal mesh belt, –
    pivoting hinge steel belt, –
    advantages and disadvantages,

  • side chain drag, –
    top- and bottom-running, –
    tubular drag, –
    troughing belt, –
    nonpowered, – (Table – )
    painting operations, – (Table – )
    pneumatic, –
    powered, – (Table – )
    safety, –
    common hazards, –
    devices, –
    establishing a program, –
    label checklist, – (Fig. – )
    noise considerations, –
    training, –
    sections overlaid on the layout, – (Fig.
  • )
    selection chart, – (Table – )
    sortation, – (Table – )
    stamping operations, – (Fig. – )
    system design, –
    track, –
    two-strand, – (Fig. – )
    unit load handling, – to –
    walking beam, –
    Coolant filtration management, –
    future trends, –
    high-pressure systems, –
    space planning, –
    Corrugated cartons, –
    design, – INDEX
    I- TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK
    film alternative, –
    recycled fiberboard, –
    Corrugated fiberboard pallet, – (Fig. – )
    Costs
    AGVs, – , –
    high-density storage systems, –
    justification, –
    Cotton trucks, –
    Counterbalanced lift trucks, –
    applications, –
    hydraulic system and operation, –
    mast types and operations, –
    tires, –
    Counterbalanced walkie truck, – (Fig. – )
    Counterweights, –
    Crane, –
    design
    bridge, –
    monorail, –
    hairpin, –
    service classes, –
    Crash, –
    Creep, –
    Cross-aisle transfer, –
    Crossbar
    feed motion path, – (Fig. – )
    transfer, –
    transfer press, – (Fig. – )
    Cubing system, –
    Cushion tires, –
    Cut feeder, –
    Cutting tool management, –
    automated delivery and loading, –
    automatic storage equipment, –
    computerized, –
    machining cell, –
    Cycle time, – (eq. and eq. )
    for carousels, –
    to get first lot output, – (Fig. – )
    Cylinder trucks, – (Fig. – )
    Cylinders, –
    Cylindrical robot, –
    D
    Data
    collection points, –
    storage and postprocessing, –
    transmission sensors, –
    Decoupled postmold operation, –
    Deep-lane
    AS/RS cycle time, – (eq. and eq. )
    AS/RS width, – (eq. ), – (eq. )
    transfer, –
    Defining the material storage environment, –
    goals and evaluation criteria, – , –
    identify rules, –
    intangible goals and evaluation criteria, –
    Kepner-Tregoe™ (KT) methodology, –
    work sheet, –
    Dehumidifying system, – (Fig. – )
    Dense phase, –
    Dependent demands, –
    Design considerations, –
    for cartons, –
    Design elements, –
    conveyance equipment, –
    chain monorail systems, –
    floor truck, –
    floor-mounted skid, –
    guided vehicle (automated and manual),

  • hand-pushed monorail and bridge
    cranes, –
    pedestal and fixture conveyors, –
    power-and-free systems, –
    roller conveyors, –
    tow cart systems, –
    tow conveyors, –
    finishing equipment, –
    environment effects on conveyors, –
    paint application, –
    paint curing, –
    product surface preparation, –
    of cranes
    bridge, –
    monorail, –
    of pallet, –
    product and carrier relationship, –
    product features, –
    quality-of-finish goals, –
    quantity of products per carrier, –
    structural integrity of carrier, –
    system layouts, –
    process specifications, –
    quantity process and facility criteria,

  • rough concept layouts, –
    Dessicant, –
    Destacker, –
    double-head, – (Fig. – )
    Die cast scrap handling systems, –
    Die clearance to transfer mechanism, – (Fig.
  • )
    Die-handling walkie trucks, –
    Diffuse reflector sensor, –
    Dilute phase, –
    Double pantograph, –
    Double-masted unit-load S/R machine, –
    (Fig. – )
    Drag conveyor, – , –
    Drive pusher dog, –
    Driverless trains, –
    Driving screws, – (Fig. – )
    Drop/lift transfers, –
    comparison, – , – (Table – )
    major types, –
    automatic fork lift and transfer, –
    cable hoist-operated, –
    continuous vertical lift conveyors, –
    electric-powered belt, –
    electric-powered chain drop/lifts, –
    hydraulic-cylinder, –
    selection, – , – (Table – )
    equipment cost, –
    maintainability and reliability, –
    operator safety, –
    product quality, –
    Drop-in holders, –
    Drum
    and barrel truck, – (Fig. – )
    clamp, –
    dumper, – (Fig. – )
    Dual grippers, – (Fig. – ), –
    Dual-roll rotary system, –
    Dumper and lifter conveyor, – (Fig. – )
    Dunnage, – , – (Fig. – )
    Duty cycle, –
    Dynamic orientation, –
    E
    Edge crush, –
    Electric hoist with pendant control, – , –
    (Fig. – )
    Electrical controls, –
    Electrical roll feed, –
    Electric-powered
    belt drop/lifts, –
    chain drop/lifts, – (Fig. – ), – ,
  • (Fig. – ), – (Fig. – )
    Electromagnetic vibratory bowl feeder, –
    (Fig. – )
    Electronic data interchange (EDI), –
    service providers, –
    two-way, –
    ELVO application, – , – (Fig. – and
    Fig. – )
    Embedded check codes, –
    Enclosed and keystone chain, –
    Enclosed track, – (Fig. – )
    chain conveyor, –
    crane and runway, – (Fig. – )
    monorail and carrier assembly, – (Fig.
  • )
    power-and-free conveyor and carrier
    assembly, – (Fig. – )
    underhung cranes, –
    Enclosed track workstation cranes, – , –
    (Fig. – )
    application, –
    optimizing weight, –
    size specification, –
    configuration, –
    End effectors, – , – (Table – )
    Energy expenditure, –
    Energy sources for lift trucks, –
    batteries, –
    compressed natural gas, –
    diesel, –
    dual-fuel lift trucks, –
    exhaust treatment, –
    gasoline, –
    power comparison, –
    propane, –
    how LPG works, –
    LPG tanks, –
    Engine slat conveyor, – (Fig. – )
    Engineering controls, –
    Engineer-to-order, –
    Enterprise logistics management (ELM), –
    Environmental effects on conveyors, –
    Equipment condition and performance analysis,

  • inspection criteria, –
    inspection frequency, –
    inspection schedule, –
    what should be inspected, –
    Equipment selection factors, – (Fig. – )
    Equivalent length, –
    Ergonomic
    aids, –
    issues, –
    Ergonomics and manual material handling, –
    to –
    Escapement, – , –
    Europallet, –
    Evaluated receipt settlement (ERS), –
    Explosion-proof (Ex) trucks, – INDEX
    TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK I-
    F
    Fabricated corrugated fiberboard, –
    Faraday cage effect, –
    Fastener devices, –
    Feeder, – , –
    speed, – (eq. )
    Feeding system with selection work sheet, –
    (Fig. – )
    Fiberboard pallets, –
    Fiber-orienting track system, – (Fig. – )
    Finishing equipment considerations, –
    environment effects, –
    paint application, –
    paint curing, –
    product surface preparation, –
    Finishing, painting, and coating, – to –
    Fire protection
    and packaging, –
    commodity classes, – (Table – )
    Fixtures and holding devices, –
    baskets, –
    mobile storage, –
    specialty frames, –
    tubs and skids with crane hairpins, –
    Flat top conveyor, – , – (Fig. – )
    Fleet management, –
    lift truck selection, –
    maintenance, –
    cutting cost, –
    tracking costs, –
    operator training, –
    program elements, –
    environment and safety, –
    equipment specific, –
    load stability, –
    maintenance, –
    operator testing, –
    standardizing the fleet, –
    when to replace trucks, –
    Flexible automation for assembly, –
    parts feeders, –
    bowl feeders with sensing, –
    emerging technology, –
    flexible parts feeders, –
    systems, – (Fig. – )
    Flexible handling systems, –
    automated material handling benefits, –
    automation economics, –
    bulk material handling, –
    just-in-time, –
    sheet metal operation, –
    automated forging cells, –
    automated material handling cells,

  • transporting, transferring, and
    buffering materials, –
    adding bending to an FMS line,

  • automated press brakes and bending
    machines, –
    loading and unloading, –
    bending machines, –
    choices, –
    laser cutters, –
    laser machines, –
    press brakes, –
    punch and laser machine
    combinations, –
    separation, –
    sheets, –
    turret punch presses, –
    modular, –
    automated storage, –
    decentralized automated storage,

  • pallet storage, –
    process equipment, –
    combination machines, –
    punch
    and bending, –
    and laser cutter, –
    and shear, –
    and shearing/bending,

  • press brakes, –
    shears (preshearing), –
    turret punch press, –
    tooling, –
    Flexible wheeled handling equipment, – to

  • maintenance, –
    industrial trucks, –
    electric, –
    annual activities, –
    weekly to monthly activities,

  • gasoline, –
    checklist, – (Fig. – )
    monthly, normal conditions, –
    quarterly to annually, normal
    conditions, –
    weekly, normal conditions, –
    nonpowered floor equipment, –
    caster and wheels, –
    hand push trucks, –
    trailers, –
    Flexographic printing, –
    Flexural strength, –
    Flight conveyor, –
    Flooded cell batteries, –
    Floor trucks, – (Fig. – ), –
    decks, –
    frames, –
    running gear, –
    size and capacity, –
    wheel selection, –
    Floor-mounted skid, –
    Flow chart, – , – (Fig. – and Fig. – )
    of molding operation, – (Fig. – )
    Flow rack, –
    Flow shop, –
    Folding
    machines, –
    utility truck, – (Fig. – )
    Footprint, – (eq. )
    Force feeding, –
    Forging, –
    Fork lift truck, –
    classes, –
    impact on industry, –
    Forward scheduling, –
    Forward-sensor blocking, –
    Four-way units, –
    Fragility of packaged items, – (Table – )
    Free lift, –
    Free-drop handling, – (Fig. – )
    Free-flowing scrap, –
    Free-piston, pneumatic vibratory bowl feeder,
  • (Fig. – )
    Freestanding jib cranes, –
    Friction factors for turns, –
    Front/sideloader, –
    Full-free masts, –
    Full-web stretch-wrapper, –
    G
    Gantry, –
    crane, – , – (Fig. – )
    maintenance, –
    grippers, –
    loader arm wrist and rotation axes, –
    (Fig. – )
    robot, –
    Gatling gun-style bar loader, – , – (Fig.
  • )
    Gaylord, –
    GMA pallet standard, –
    Grain trucks, –
    Gravimetric feeding, –
    Gravity
    exit track, – (Fig. – )
    flow racks, –
    tracks for parts transfer and placement,
  • , –
    Gripper, – , –
    dual, – (Fig. – ), –
    fingers, –
    tooling, – (Fig. – )
    transfer for heavy parts, – (Fig. – )
    Guidance systems for AGVs, –
    Guide chutes, –
    Guided vehicle design, –
    H
    H arrangement, –
    Hairpin crane hook, – (Fig. – )
    Hand
    platform combination truck, – (Fig. – )
    -powered hoists, –
    push truck maintenance, –
    -pushed monorail and bridge cranes, –
    Hand pallet trucks, –
    application, –
    fork dimensions, –
    maintenance, –
    pallet entry devices, –
    wheels, –
    Hand trucks, – (Fig. – )
    attachments, –
    Eastern style, –
    for handling square or round loads, –
    (Fig. – )
    hand truck types, –
    special designs, –
    terminology, –
    weight and bearings, –
    Western style, –
    bag, – (Fig. – )
    wheel selection, –
    worker preferences, –
    Handling of molded parts, –
    automated molding cell, –
    benefits, –
    part quality, –
    productivity, –
    reduce labor, – INDEX
    I- TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK
    reduce WIP inventory, –
    worker safety, –
    yield, –
    features of automation equipment, –
    interfacing requirements, –
    ejector control, –
    emergency stop circuit, –
    “Mold Open” signals and noise,

  • robot cycle, –
    signals, –
    peripheral equipment, –
    robot controls, –
    teach pendants and control
    points, –
    teaching the robot, –
    robot drives, –
    planning process, –
    annual cost of WIP, –
    automate from the start, –
    floor space, –
    identify desired benefits, –
    installation and start-up, –
    integrated versus decoupled post
    mold operations, –
    molding time and quality of next
    operation, –
    air-conditioned molding room,

  • cycle time and labor balance,

  • family of parts, –
    visual inspection, –
    robot selection, – , –
    configurations, –
    sprue pickers, –
    strokes, hard stops, and
    clearances, –
    safety, –
    below gate blocker, –
    gates and proper safety
    guarding, –
    lockout, –
    loss of load, –
    physical barrier, –
    robot placement, maintenance,
    and catwalk design, –
    risk assessment, –
    conveying systems, –
    automated box filling, –
    electric track vehicles, –
    implementation, –
    moving parts
    that need cooling, –
    to a central location, –
    part and runner separators, –
    quality control, –
    robotics, –
    free-drop systems for molded parts, –
    advantages and limitations, –
    description, –
    part orientation, –
    robotic systems for parts orientation, – ,

  • downstream secondary operations,

  • assembly operation, –
    parts retrieval, –
    Helical coil, –
    Hierarchical modeling system, – (Fig. – )
    High-density dynamic storage systems, –
    benefits, –
    controls, –
    cost estimating and justification, –
    future trends, –
    safety and maintenance, –
    selection, –
    sizing, –
    types, –
    ELVO, –
    gravity flow rack, –
    modular, –
    High-pressure coolant systems, –
    High-speed feeding, coil, –
    High-speed robot arm and robotic system, –
    (Fig. – ), – (Fig. – )
    High-volume systems, –
    asynchronous
    transfer lines, –
    chip removal, – (Fig. – )
    simulating an engine plant, –
    allocation of equipment, –
    buffer sizes and logistics, –
    manpower optimization, –
    material storage, –
    operating philosophies, –
    preventive maintenance and tool change,

  • simulation, –
    building the macromodel, –
    determining inefficiencies, –
    throughput, –
    synchronous transfer lines, –
    system equipment, –
    transfer line flexibility, – to –
    machining modules for high-volume,

  • modular build concepts, –
    Hinged belt conveyors, –
    Hit-to-hit, –
    Hoists, –
    Hold condition, –
    Hopper, –
    elevator, – (Fig. – )
    combination, –
    liners, –
    Horizontal
    carousels, – , – (Fig. – )
    machining center, – (Fig. – )
    turn tow chain track, – (Fig. – )
    turning, –
    turns for enclosed track conveyors, –
    turns for keystone chain, –
    twin-bin carousels cycle time, – (eq.
    and eq. )
    twin-bin or rotary rack carousel size, –
    (eqs. to )
    Human extenders, –
    Human physical limits, –
    Hydraulic
    -actuated press with transfer mechanism, –
    (Fig. – )
    cylinder drop/lifts, – , – (Fig. – )
    hand pallet truck, – , – (Fig. – and
    Fig. – )
    presses, –
    sideshifter, –
    sluice conveyor, – (Fig. – )
    transfer press die, – (Fig. – )
    Hydrodynamic
    bar feeder, –
    bar loader, – (Fig. – )
    Hydrostatic bar loader, –
    Hygroscopic resins, –
    I
    I arrangement, –
    IDEF model, – (Fig. – )
    IDEFO, – , – (Fig. – )
    Identification of ledgered stock-keeping units,

  • controlling part identification, –
    engineering and purchasing responsibilities,

  • nonledgered parts, –
    numbering systems, –
    sizes of stock materials, –
    tracing and tracking, –
    unique SKU, –
    units of measure, –
    Impact printers, –
    Index table
    for five part qualities, – (Fig. – )
    pockets filled by a linear feeder, – (Fig.
  • )
    In-die transfer systems, –
    design of a three-axis transfer die, –
    Inductive proximity sensor, –
    Industrial robots, –
    benefits and applications, –
    controls, –
    future trends, –
    safety and maintenance, –
    system sizing, –
    types, –
    Industrial truck maintenance, – , –
    In-floor
    and on-floor track, – (Fig. – )
    collection system with swivel chute, –
    (Fig. – )
    handling of oily chips and turnings, –
    (Fig. – )
    stamping systems, –
    systems for machined chips and turnings,

  • towline, –
    In-floor conveyors, – (Table – )
    Information flow, defined, –
    Infrared bell, –
    In-plant compounding system, – (Fig. – )
    In-press transfer systems, –
    flexible universal stations, –
    hydraulic presses, –
    material handling, –
    productivity, – , –
    new technology advantages, –
    press construction, –
    size classification, –
    transfer feed technology, –
    advances, –
    evolution, –
    Inserter/extractor, –
    Insert-mounted jib crane, –
    Inspection, –
    system, – (Fig. – )
    Integrated
    packaging line, – (Fig. – )
    postmold operation, –
    sheet loading/unloading, – (Fig. – )
    Integrating the packaging function, –
    Integrating sensors and control, – INDEX
    TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK I-
    automated guided vehicles, –
    automatic storage and retrieval, –
    sortation, –
    Interchangeable tracks for vibratory feeder,
  • (Fig. – )
    Inventory, –
    centralization versus decentralization, –
    financial, –
    geographical location, –
    storage (within each site), –
    operations, –
    FDA guidelines, –
    industry trends and benchmarks,

  • ISO standards, –
    JIT guidelines, –
    special storage and handling, –
    warehouse productivity, –
    world class-A MRP II, –
    service and transportation, –
    express transportation, –
    inventory service performance, –
    JIT customers, –
    days on hand, – (eq. )
    management, – , –
    master schedule
    output report, – (Fig. – )
    storage and flow characteristics, –
    capacity by type, –
    handling, –
    pick frequency, –
    put-away unit of measure (UOM), –
    special needs, –
    storage methods, –
    automated storage and retrieval systems
    (AS/RS), –
    bulk (reserve), –
    carousels, –
    conventional, –
    dating systems (storage life), –
    forward (loose), –
    temporary, –
    queue
    applications, –
    methods, –
    sizing and modeling, –
    vertical modules, –
    Inverted
    container, – (Fig. – )
    power-and-free (IPF) conveyor, – (Fig.
  • ), – (Fig. – )
    vertical chuckers, – (Fig. – )
    ISO pallet, –
    J
    Jib, –
    cranes, –
    Job shop, –
    Jointed robot, –
    Justification, –
    costs, –
    return on investment, –
    net present value, – , – (eq. )
    payback, – (eq. )
    profitability index, – (eq. )
    internal rate of return, – (eq. )
    savings, –
    uncertainty, –
    K
    Kanban, –
    Kepner-Tregoe™ evaluation work sheets, –
    (Table – ), – (Table – )
    Keystone chain turns, –
    L
    Label requirements, –
    Labor functional analysis, – (Table – )
    Layout
    drawn by simulation software, – (Fig.
  • )
    of assembly operation, – (Fig. – ),
  • (Fig. – )
    of conveyor system in CAD software, –
    (Fig. – )
    relationship drawn by analysis software,
  • (Fig. – )
    License plate codes, –
    Life cycle cost, – (Fig. – )
    Lift
    and tilt table, – (Fig. – )
    and tilter, – (Fig. – )
    tables, – , – (Table – )
    Lift truck attachments, – , – (Fig. – )
    clamps, –
    fork positioners, –
    fork rotators, –
    load pushes and load push/pulls, –
    load stabilizers, –
    mechanical, –
    rotators, –
    safety, –
    slip-sheet handling, – (Fig. – )
    Lifting devices, –
    balancers and hoists, –
    applications and usage, –
    controls, –
    ergonomic benefits, –
    limitations and range of capacity, –
    power sources, –
    end effectors and tooling, –
    complex payload handling, –
    grippers, –
    simple tooling, –
    interfaces, –
    manipulators, –
    balanced, –
    jibs, –
    positioning arms, –
    torque arms, –
    vertical lifters, –
    reasons for use, –
    cannot be physically handled, –
    higher productivity, –
    reduction in injury and medical claims,

  • work force reduction, –
    tables, –
    applications and usage, –
    controls, –
    ergonomic benefits, –
    power sources, –
    Light-load vehicles, –
    Linear
    asynchronous assembly, –
    bar codes, –
    gantry, – (Fig. – ), –
    gantry machine load and unload, – (Fig.
  • )
    picket fence bar code, –
    synchronous assembly, – (Fig. – )
    thruster, –
    vibratory feeders, – , –
    Liquid petroleum gas (LPG), –
    Live roller conveyor, – (Fig. – )
    Load, – , –
    path, –
    protecting and securing, –
    push/pull models, –
    Loading and unloading, –
    bending machines, –
    choices, –
    elevating hopper for ease of loading, –
    (Fig. – )
    laser
    cutters, –
    machines, –
    press brakes, –
    punch and laser machine combinations,

  • separation, –
    sheets, –
    turret punch presses, –
    Logistics, – to –
    Loose fill, –
    Low-lift
    pallet truck, – (Fig. – )
    powered walkies, –
    LP-gas, –
    Lubrication, –
    of chain and trolley, –
    M
    Magnetic
    conveyors, – , – (Fig. – )
    feeders, and equipment, – (Fig. – )
    Maintenance of systems and equipment, – to

  • AGVs, – , –
    automated material handling systems, –
    intervals, – to – (Fig. – )
    carousel, –
    chain and trolley, –
    conveyors, –
    belt, –
    chain, –
    drag, flight, screw, apron, and general,

  • portable, –
    roller, –
    costs, – (Fig. – )
    flexible wheeled handling equipment, –
    industrial trucks, –
    electric trucks, – , –
    gasoline trucks, – , –
    nonpowered floor equipment, –
    caster and wheels, –
    hand push trucks, –
    trailers, –
    high-density storage systems, –
    overhead handling and lift devices, –
    chain blocks, –
    grabs, slings, and holding devices, – INDEX
    I- TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK
    hand hoists, –
    mobile cranes, –
    power cranes, –
    power hoists, –
    wall and floor cranes, –
    robots, –
    specialized systems, –
    storage equipment, –
    baskets, boxes, bins, –
    chutes, hoppers, and silos, –
    transport packaging, –
    fiber rope, –
    pallets, –
    pneumatic and hydraulic-cylinder
    devices, –
    scales, –
    skids, –
    types, –
    lubrication, –
    predictive maintenance, –
    preventive maintenance, –
    proactive maintenance, –
    reactive maintenance, –
    Maintenance-free battery, –
    Make-to-order, –
    Make-to-stock, –
    Man-aboard AS/RS, –
    Management, lift truck, –
    lift truck selection, –
    maintenance, –
    cutting cost, –
    tracking costs, –
    operator training, –
    program elements, –
    environment and safety, –
    equipment specific, –
    load stability, –
    maintenance, –
    testing, –
    standardizing the fleet, –
    when to replace trucks, –
    Mandrel support of coil, – (Fig. – )
    Manipulator
    cranes, – , – (Fig. – )
    overhead suspended hoist, – (Fig. – )
    Manipulators, – , – , – , – (Table
  • )
    Manual
    handling systems selection and design, –
    (Fig. – )
    material handling, –
    turntable, – (Fig. – )
    Manual and powered overhead cranes, –
    bridge crane, –
    building considerations, –
    maintainability and reliability, –
    operator and safety issues, –
    service classes, –
    comparison, –
    enclosed-track underhung cranes, –
    ergonomic manipulator cranes, –
    gantry cranes, –
    hoists, –
    jib cranes, –
    patented-rail underhung overhead cranes,

  • structural-beam underhung cranes, –
    top-running cranes, –
    Manufacture-to-order, –
    Manufacture-to-stock, –
    Manufacturing
    cost flow summary, – (Fig. – )
    improvement strategy, – (Fig. – )
    resource planning (MRP), – , – (Fig.
  • ), – (Fig. – )
    strategy analysis, – (Fig. – )
    Manufacturing concepts, –
    inventory management, –
    order policies, –
    fixed period order factor, –
    order minimum, –
    order multiples, –
    safety stock, –
    scrap factors, –
    reducing inventory, –
    production environment, –
    assemble-to-order, –
    engineer-to-order, –
    environmental combinations, –
    job shop and flow shop, –
    lead times, –
    manufacture-to-order, –
    manufacture-to-stock, –
    push and pull manufacturing, –
    constraints management, –
    just-in-time, –
    Mast-type jib cranes, –
    Material
    conditioning, –
    flow
    bar chart, – (Fig. – )
    defined, –
    conventional, – (Fig. – )
    handling
    analysis, – to –
    cells, –
    —complicated and simple, – (Fig.
  • )
    organizational areas of impact, –
    (Fig. – )
    outline of requirements document, –
    (Fig. – )
    principles and economics, –
    equipment utilization, –
    facility utilization, –
    inventory turnover, –
    stock, –
    work-in-process, –
    labor utilization, –
    direct, –
    indirect, –
    purchasing, –
    supervision, –
    material cost, –
    synergistic effect of integration, –
    system service life and flexibility,

  • planning, – , – (Fig. – )
    Matrix codes, –
    Mechanical roll feed, –
    Meeting the customer, – (Fig. – )
    Metal forming, – to –
    Metal mesh belt conveyors, –
    Metal scrap, –
    brass and bronze scrap, –
    broken aluminum chips, –
    broken steel chips (shoveling chips), –
    bushy aluminum chips, –
    bushy steel scrap, –
    cast iron scrap, –
    conveyor utilization, –
    die cast scrap, –
    stamping scrap, –
    Metal scrap handling conveyors, –
    eccentric-driven oscillating, –
    hydraulic fluid-driven, –
    hydraulic and sluice fluid-motion, –
    pneumatic, –
    rotary-driven screw, –
    dumpers and lifters, –
    reciprocating, –
    standard drive configuration, –
    bucket, –
    drag, –
    hinged steel belt, –
    magnetic, –
    metal mesh belt, –
    pivoting hinge steel belt, –
    advantages and disadvantages, –
    side chain drag, –
    top- and bottom-running, –
    tubular drag, –
    troughing belt, –
    Metalcutting, – to –
    Miniload S/R machine, – (Fig. – )
    Mix model scheduling, –
    Mobile
    crane, –
    -platform rotary systems, –
    robots, –
    Modular
    high-density dynamic storage system (HD/
    DS), – (Fig. – ), – (Fig. – )
    systems for sheet metal operations, –
    workstation crane, –
    Module transport vehicles, –
    Molded
    packaging, –
    part handling, –
    Molding cell, –
    Monorail assembly, – (Fig. – )
    Monorail crane design, –
    Movable
    loading device, –
    unloading device, –
    wall hoppers, –
    Move time, –
    Moving and handling scrap and waste, – to

  • Moving load, – (eq. )
    MRPII, – (Fig. – )
    Multimotion actuators, –
    Multitools, –
    N
    Narrow-aisle reach truck, – (Fig. – )
    Net investment, – (eq. )
    Net present value, – , – (eq. )
    Net recurring savings, – (eq. )
    NIOSH work practices, –
    Nip point, –
    Nonhygroscopic resins, –
    Nonimpact printers, –
    Nonpowered conveyors, – (Table – )
    ball transfer tables and omnidirection
    wheels, –
    gravity roller, –
    skate wheel, –
    Nonpowered floor equipment maintenance, –
    Nonsignificant numbering systems, – INDEX
    TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK I-
    Nontilt floor truck, –
    Number of
    aisles, – (eq. )
    machines required, – (eq. )
    pallets and setup stations, – (eqs. to )
    robots required, – (eq. )
    vehicles required, – (eq. ), – (eq. )
    Numbering systems, –
    O
    Obstructions, –
    Offcut, –
    Offset printing, –
    On-floor track and drive units, – (Fig. –
    )
    Open loop control system, –
    Operations process chart, – (Fig. – ), –
    (Fig. – and Fig. – )
    Operator-assisted workstation, –
    Order
    picking questionnaire, – (Fig. – )
    policies, –
    preparation lead time, –
    Ordering and receiving processes, –
    determining what, when, and how much, –
    computerized systems, –
    pull systems, –
    re-order point, –
    electronic data interchange (EDI), –
    current trends, –
    electronic invoicing, –
    integrated applications, –
    shared data, –
    future trends, –
    placing orders, –
    hardware and software requirements,

  • implementation considerations, –
    materials management with EDI, –
    to reduce order cycle time, –
    order acknowledgment, –
    quoting, –
    receiving, –
    current trends, –
    future trends, –
    automated inventory update, –
    paperless payment, –
    traditional process, –
    Order-picking
    operation, – (Fig. – )
    vehicle, –
    Oriented parts
    placement, –
    fastener devices, –
    force feeding, –
    gravity tracks, –
    loop systems, –
    pick-and-place mechanisms, –
    reciprocating plunger and jaw
    combinations, –
    robots, –
    transfer, –
    belts with guides, –
    chain, –
    gravity tracks, –
    linear vibratory feeders, –
    tube, –
    Oscillating conveyor, – (Fig. – )
    Outside track bowl, – (Fig. – )
    Over-and-under pallet conveyor or fixture
    conveyor, –
    Overhead crane, –
    equipment comparison, – (Table – )
    selection parameters, – (Table – ),
  • (Table – )
    Overhead equipment selection, –
    cost considerations, –
    maintainability and reliability, –
    manufacturing and production flexibility,

  • quality issues, –
    safety issues, –
    Overhead handling
    and lifting devices, – to –
    equipment, –
    equipment comparison, – (Table – )
    maintenance, –
    chain blocks, –
    grabs, slings, and holding devices, –
    hand hoists, –
    mobile cranes, –
    power cranes, –
    power hoists, –
    wall and floor cranes, –
    Overhead power-and-free (OHPF) conveyors,
  • , – (Fig. – )
    comparison, – , – (Table – )
    selection, – , – (Table – )
    cost considerations, –
    maintainability and reliability, –
    manufacturing and production
    flexibility, –
    quality issues, –
    safety issues, –
    types, –
    enclosed-track, –
    four-inch, –
    six-inch, –
    special hybrid, –
    Overhead rotary system, –
    Overhead trolley conveyors, –
    comparison, – , – (Table – )
    parameters, – (Table – )
    selection, –
    cost considerations, –
    flexibility, –
    maintainability and reliability, –
    quality issues, –
    safety issues, –
    types, –
    , , and chain, –
    cable, –
    enclosed-track chain, –
    overhead tow, –
    P
    Packaging (transport), –
    Pail truck, – (Fig. – )
    Paint
    application equipment, –
    curing equipment, –
    Painting preparation, –
    Pallet, –
    design, –
    jack, –
    rack, – , – (Fig. – )
    rack used as shelving, – (Fig. – )
    standards, –
    storage, modular systems, –
    Palletizers
    and depalletizers, –
    methods, – , – (Table – )
    Pallets
    and AGVs, –
    fiberboard, –
    plastic, –
    steel, –
    wood, –
    Pantograph, –
    Paper roll clamp, –
    Parcel manifest systems, –
    Part
    handling conveying, –
    transfer, – (Fig. – )
    Parts feeders, –
    movement to a nest, – (Fig. – )
    Parts orientation equipment, –
    centrifugal feeders, –
    drum feeders, –
    hopper elevators, –
    horizontal belt feeders, –
    linear fiber vibratory feeders, –
    orienting on linear vibratory conveyors, –
    part quality, –
    precision rolls, –
    sensing, –
    vibratory bowl feeders, –
    determining bowl size, –
    electromagnetically-driven, –
    operating, –
    turning, –
    free-piston, pneumatically-driven, –
    Parts qualification, –
    Pass-through systems, –
    Patented-rail
    powered monorail, – (Fig. – )
    underhung overhead cranes, – , – (Fig.
  • )
    Payback
    calculation, – (Table – ), –
    calculation for a gantry-loaded turning cell,
  • (eq. and eq. )
    period, – (eq. )
    Pedestal and fixture conveyor design, –
    Pendulum-arm robot, – , – (Fig. – )
    Performance requirements for pallets, – ,
  • (Fig. – )
    Perimeter-based block pallet, –
    Photoelectric proximity sensor, –
    Physical limits, –
    biomechanical assessment, –
    multidisciplinary risk assessment, –
    NIOSH guide and revised equation, –
    rapid upper limb assessment, –
    physiological assessment, –
    psychophysical assessment, –
    Physiology, –
    Piano hinge conveyors, –
    Pick-and-place mechanism, – , – (Fig.
  • )
    Piece (pc), –
    Pilots, –
    Pin pallets, – (Fig. – ), –
    Pit mount, –
    Pitch, –
    Pitching and rotating tools, – (Fig. – )
    Pivoting-hinge steel belt conveyor, – (Fig.
  • )INDEX
    I- TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK
    Planned order, –
    Planning for an integrated paint system, –
    chain monorail system, –
    chain pull basics, –
    computing chain pull, –
    conveyor component selection, –
    drives, –
    enclosed and keystone chain, –
    horizontal turns for enclosed-track,

  • horizontal turns for keystone chain,

  • lubrication of chain and trolleys, –

power-and-free, –
support steel, –
take-up units, –
track, –
trolley brackets and wheels, –
vertical curves, –
conveyor system design, –
friction factors for horizontal turns,


  • trolley wheel friction, –
    conveyor system, –
    conveyor components, –
    cart design, –
    cart transfer system, –
    cart turning devices, –
    control panel, –
    delay station, –
    horizontal turns, –
    planning, –
    chain pull basics, –
    sizing, –
    tow chain, –
    conveyor drive, –
    track, –
    Planning a tow chain conveyor system, –
    Planograph, –
    Plant layout, –
    Plant scheduling, –
    Plastic manufacturing, – to –
    Plastic pallet, –
    rackable, conveyable, – (Fig. – )
    Plunger and jaw for placing parts, – , –
    (Fig. – )
    Pneumatic
    balancers, – , – (Fig. – )
    conveyor, – (Fig. – )
    Pneumatic devices for automation, –
    application criteria, –
    cylinders, –
    escapements, switches, and sensors, –
    grippers, –
    multimotion actuators, –
    powered slides, –
    rotary actuators, –
    Pneumatic tires, –
    Portable conveyors, –
    Portable hoppers, – , – (Fig. – )
    Positioner—lift and tilt table, – (Fig. – )
    Positioning arm, – (Fig. – )
    Positioning devices, – , – (Table – )
    choosing the right equipment, –
    delivery and retrieval, –
    load parameters, –
    load positioning, –
    safety, –
    lift and tilter, –
    lift and turntable, –
    lifter, –
    load leveler, –
    tilter and dumper, –
    turntable, –
    Post capacity, –
    Post mold operations, –
    Posture and handling techniques, –
    Power crane, –
    Power hoists, –
    Power-and-free
    component selection, –
    conveyor, – , –
    selection, –
    conveyor and carrier assembly, – , –
    (Fig. – and Fig. – )
    Powered conveyors, – , – (Table – )
    accumulation, –
    belt turns and spirals, –
    for assembly of large unit loads, –
    flat top, –
    in-floor towline, –
    inverted power-and-free, –
    multiple strand chain, –
    slat, –
    live roller, –
    belt-driven, –
    chain-driven, –
    internally-powered rollers, –
    line shaft-powered, –
    powered belt, –
    inclines and declines, –
    sortation equipment, –
    Powered slides, –
    Powered walkie lift trucks, –
    economics, –
    maintenance factors, –
    selection, –
    types, –
    Powering fork lift trucks, –
    batteries, –
    compressed natural gas, –
    diesel, –
    dual-fuel lift trucks, –
    exhaust treatment, –
    gasoline, –
    power comparison, –
    propane, –
    how LPG works, –
    LPG tanks, –
    Predictive maintenance, –
    Prepurchase strategies, –
    collect application information, –
    economic justification, –
    Press
    brakes, – , –
    cell, –
    Press-to-press
    automation, – (Fig. – )
    system with turnover capability, – (Fig.
  • )
    Preventive maintenance, –
    Prismatic parts, –
    pallets and pallet loading systems, –
    arrangements, –
    cell design, –
    carrier use, –
    higher level control systems, –
    level of automation, –
    loading method and layout, –
    machines required, –
    pallets and setup stations required,

  • selection of core machine and
    options, –
    supply of raw material to setup
    station, –
    time-study, tooling, and fixturing,

  • components for horizontal machining
    centers, –
    pallet loaders, –
    pallet receivers, –
    pallets, –
    small pallets, –
    Proactive maintenance, –
    Problem definition, –
    constraints, –
    handling and storage, –
    information flow, –
    physical material flow, –
    quality, –
    resource limitations, –
    Process capacity, –
    Process planning and flow analysis, – , –
    as-is conditions, –
    define the processes, –
    capacity, –
    continuous improvement, –
    bills of material, –
    mix model scheduling, –
    plant layout, –
    quality, –
    queues, –
    safety stock, –
    setups and changeovers, –
    stockrooms, –
    controls, –
    determining what is done with material,

  • equalizing material flow, –
    quality and quantity, –
    resources, –
    transportation and storage, –
    design, –
    implementation, –
    planning, –
    what to change, –
    Process
    re-engineering, –
    times and costs, – (Table – )
    Product and carrier relationship, –
    product features, –
    quality-of-finish goals, –
    quantity of products per carrier, –
    structural integrity of carrier, –
    Product data management (PDM), – (Fig.
  • )
    Product identification and tracking, – to – ,

  • bar code printers, –
    label requirements, –
    weighing systems, –
    Product-to-carrier density, – (Fig. – )
    Profitability index, – (eq. )
    Progression of automated metal forming, –
    (Table – )
    Project management, –
    design and development, –
    implementation, –
    overview, –
    planning and analysis, –
    procurement, – INDEX
    TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK I-
    support and modification, –
    Protective packaging, –
    fabricated, –
    loose fill, –
    materials comparison, – (Table – )
    molded, –
    selection guidelines, –
    wrapping materials, –
    Proximity
    device, –
    sensors, –
    switches, –
    Psychological assessment, –
    Pull load, – (eq. )
    Punch
    and bending, –
    and laser cutters, –
    and shear, –
    punch/laser with modular autoload/unload,
  • (Fig. – )
    Purchase order (PO), –
    Purchasing used fork lift trucks, –
    “as-is”, –
    rebuilt, –
    reconditioned, –
    warranties, –
    where to buy, –
    Push versus pull, –
    Pushback rack, –
    Q
    Quad mast, –
    Quality, –
    Queue time, –
    Queues, –
    Quiet zone, –
    R
    Rack height, – (eq. )
    Rack rotation time, – (eq. and eq. )
    Racks, – , –
    cantilever, –
    drive-in, –
    drive-through, –
    flow, –
    for pallet moving equipment, –
    high-density storage, –
    pallet, –
    pushback, –
    steel pallet, –
    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) system,

  • Railcar unloading system with filter section,
  • (Fig. – )
    Ram trucks, –
    Rate of return, – (eq. )
    Raw material storage and handling for plastic
    manufacturing, –
    automatic and high-volume resin systems,

  • automation, –
    controller design, –
    line proofing, –
    bulk unloading, –
    railcar costs, –
    railcar systems, –
    connection, –
    continuous vacuum, –
    dense phase, –
    destination bins and silos, –
    dual blower combination pullpush, –
    intermittent batch vacuum, –
    single blower combination pullpush, –
    single motor/dual blower
    combination pull-push, –
    truck, –
    intraplant transfer systems, –
    batch vacuum, –
    silo/bin discharge pressure, –
    material containers, –
    selection criteria, –
    material type and usage, –
    operator intervention, –
    physical layout, –
    throughput requirements, –
    feeding and blending systems, –
    blending, –
    gravimetric feeding systems, –
    control, –
    weighing, –
    selection, –
    volumetric feeding, –
    belt, –
    controls, –
    disk, –
    rotary, –
    single screw, –
    slot, –
    vibratory, –
    manual methods, –
    material conditioning systems, –
    dehumidifying systems, –
    multiple indexing bed, –
    selecting a bed design, –
    single rotating bed, –
    twin stationary beds, –
    hot air drying, – , –
    special equipment, –
    semi-automatic material conveyance
    methods, –
    bulk bag and pressure unload, –
    container dumper/pressure unload, –
    vacuum conveying, –
    Reach trucks, –
    attachments to standard lift trucks, –
    Reactive maintenance, –
    Real-time orientation, –
    Receiver, – , –
    Receiving and inspection lead time, –
    Recipe, –
    Reciprocating
    conveyor, – (Fig. – )
    plunger and jaw for parts placement, – ,
  • (Fig. – )
    Recurring savings equivalent, – (eq. )
    Recycled fiberboard, –
    Reduced-maintenance battery, –
    Reducing MMH risks, –
    administrative control of risk factors, –
    posture and handling techniques, –
    task duration, –
    training, –
    classroom, –
    for safe handling methods, –
    physical, –
    work organization, –
    engineering control of risk factors, –
    Reeved pneumatic balancer, – (Fig. – )
    Regeneration, –
    Rejected parts from a bad cycle, – (Fig.
  • )
    Relationship chart drawn by planning software,
  • (Fig. – )
    Remote dispatch system, –
    Re-order point, – (eq. )
    Representative
    linear bar codes, – (Fig. – )
    two-dimensional codes, – (Fig. – )
    Request for quote (RFQ), –
    Requirements definition, –
    alternative solutions, –
    material and data flows, –
    process re-engineering, –
    rapid response and flexible
    manufacturing, –
    results of evaluation, –
    data analysis, –
    data collection, –
    document understanding, –
    flow analysis, –
    key considerations, –
    rules and regulations, –
    safety, –
    security, –
    opportunities and problems, –
    questionnaires, – to – (Fig. – to
    Fig. – )
    Requirements questionnaire
    for management, – (Fig. – )
    for products, – (Fig. – )
    for supervisors and workers, – (Fig.
  • )
    for system flows, – (Fig. – )
    initial investigation, – (Fig. – )
    Resource planning and scheduling concepts, – ,

  • planner’s tool kit, –
    aggregate planning, –
    capacity planning, –
    master scheduling, –
    material requirements planning, –
    re-order points, –
    two-bin system, –
    plant scheduling, –
    backward and forward, –
    push versus pull, –
    supplier scheduling, –
    process re-engineering, –
    serving the customer, –
    Results of software simulation, – (Fig. – )
    Retroreflective sensors, –
    Return on investment, – (eq. )
    Returnable containers, – , – , – (Fig.
  • )
    application guidelines, –
    container design, –
    maximizing return-on-investment (ROI),

  • Robot, – , – , –
    drive types, – (Table – )
    five- and six-axis servo-driven, – (Fig.
  • )
    maintenance, –
    pendulum-arm, –
    safety, – INDEX
    I- TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK
    selection for press-to-press transfer, –
    shuttle devices, –
    swing-arm, –
    top entry, – (Fig. – )
    types and features, – , – , –
    (Table – )
    vision system, – (Fig. – )
    Robot wrist grippers and positions for machine
    tooling, – (Fig. – )
    Robot-automated CNC brake, – (Fig. – )
    Robotic
    order selection systems, –
    palletizers, –
    retrieval system, – (Fig. – )
    Rocker switch, –
    Roll forming, –
    Roller bed conveyor, –
    Roller conveyors, – , –
    Roller turn, – (Fig. – ), – (Fig. – )
    force, – (eqs. to )
    Rolling friction, –
    Rolling mast reach trucks, –
    Rope, –
    Rotary
    actuators, –
    feeder valve, – (Fig. – )
    index table, – (Fig. – )
    rack, – (Fig. – )
    length and width with pickers on the
    side, – (eq. and eq. )
    rack carousels, –
    Rotating centrifugal feeder, – (Fig. – )
    Rotators, –
    Row-stripping palletizer, –
    Run time, –
    S
    Safety
    AGVs, –
    aspects of MMH, – , –
    carousel use, –
    considerations for AGVs, –
    devices for conveyors, –
    high-density storage systems, –
    operator and crane, –
    automated electrified monorails, –
    power-and-free, –
    -related accidents, – (Fig. – )
    robot use, –
    specialized systems, –
    Safety stock, – , –
    Sagittal plane, –
    Sales and operations planning work sheet, –
    (Fig. – )
    Savings with six-minute cycle, – (Fig. – )
    SCARA, –
    Scissors-type reach, –
    Scrap-to-remelt system, – (Fig. – )
    Screw conveyor, – , – (Fig. – )
    Seal friction, –
    Selection
    criteria for AGVs, –
    guide for conveyor trolley wheel and track
    rail, – (Table – )
    guidelines for packaging, –
    Selective rack, –
    Self-guided vehicles, –
    Semi-automatic simple pick-and-place loader for
    vertical chucker, – (Fig. – )
    Sensors, – , –
    Servomotor-driven coil feeder with controls,
  • (Fig. – )
    Setup lead time, –
    Setups and changeovers, –
    Shaft clatter, –
    Shear point or shear line, –
    Shears, –
    Sheet metal operation, –
    Shelving unit, – (Fig. – )
    Ship sets, –
    Shipping to meet customer expectations, –
    lean manufacturing and JIT, –
    supplier responsibilities, –
    auditing and improving internal
    processes, –
    meeting the demands of multiple
    programs, –
    new technology, –
    pricing, –
    process and technology improvement,

  • quality and material system
    certifications, –
    trading partnerships, – , –
    concurrent engineering, –
    customer-supplied training and
    assistance, –
    long-term contracts, –
    Shock sensor, –
    Short stack support, –
    Short-bar feeder, – (Fig. – )
    Shrink-wrappers, –
    Shuttle
    conveyor system, – (Fig. – )
    unit, –
    Side chain drag conveyor, – , – (Fig. – )
    Side stacker, – (Fig. – )
    Side-by-side machine layout, – (Fig. – )
    Sideloaders in manufacturing, –
    special features, –
    Side-mounted chain transfer, – (Fig. – )
    sideshifters, –
    Significant numbering systems, –
    Silent space, –
    Simple tooling, – (Fig. – )
    Single
    -head destacker, – (Fig. – )
    scissors lift, – (Fig. – )
    -strand chain conveyor, –
    unit machined chips and turnings, –
    vertical lift module, – (eq. and eq. )
    Singulation, –
    Sit-down fork lift, – (Fig. – and Fig. – )
    breakeven point, – (Fig. – )
    Sit-down, front/sideloader for high-lift pallets,
  • (Fig. – )
    Size of
    a unit load, miniload, and microload AS/RS,
  • (eq. and eq. )
    horizontal, twin-bin, or rotary rack carousel,
  • (eq. and eq. )
    one aisle for AS/RS, – (eqs. to )
    Sizing assembly equipment, –
    Slat conveyor, –
    Slave pallets, –
    Slider bed conveyor, –
    Slides, –
    Sliding chain, –
    Slip-sheet, –
    Software and controls, –
    emulation, –
    equipment control devices, –
    programmable logic controllers (PLCs),

  • scanners, –
    sensors, –
    system software, –
    Solid pneumatics, –
    Solving MMH ergonomic issues, –
    database, –
    manual handling systems model application,

  • proactive design, –
    reactive design, –
    need for more research, –
    reducing musculoskeletal injury hazard, –
    selection guide, –
    supplier build and prototype buy off, –
    work parameters and indicators, –
    Sortation conveyors, – (Table – )
    Spans, –
    Special lift trucks, –
    Specialized AGV, – (Fig. – )
    Specialized systems, –
    automatic item dispensers, –
    benefits, –
    controls, –
    robotic order-selection systems, –
    safety and maintenance, –
    sizing, –
    tool-dispensing systems, –
    Specialty in-floor conveying systems, –
    automated guided vehicles, –
    inverted automated electrified monorail,

  • linear induction motors, –
    spinning tube, –
    walking beam, –
    Spherical robot, –
    Spill point, –
    Spinning tube, –
    Spiral rotary system, –
    Spring balancer, –
    Stacked codes, –
    Stackers, – , – (Fig. – )
    Stamping plant, – , – (Fig. – )
    Standards for pallets, –
    Start and stop codes, –
    Stationary pushing device, –
    Steel belt or hinge belt conveyor, – (Fig.
  • )
    Stock-keeping units (SKU), –
    Stockrooms, –
    Storage
    baskets, boxes, bins, –
    chutes, hoppers, and silos, –
    equipment, – to –
    equipment maintenance, –
    equipment quantity and floor area, – (eqs.
    to ), – (eqs. to )
    guidelines, –
    layout plans, –
    other considerations, –
    selection criteria, –
    specifications, –
    aisle space, –
    increasing shelf height, –
    planning considerations, –
    inventory planning, – to –
    life, – INDEX
    TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK I-
    racks for AGVs, –
    Storage plan, –
    design tasks, – (Tables – and – )
    evaluation criteria, –
    engineering, –
    general manager and financial, –
    manufacturing or quality control, –
    materials and transportation
    management, –
    production control and shop scheduling,

  • supervision, –
    work-in-process (WIP) inventory
    management, –
    implementation tasks, – (Table – )
    key phases
    define/evaluate/select strategy, –
    define requirements, –
    select team, –
    strategic tasks, – , – (Table – )
    Straddle
    truck, – (Fig. – )
    walkies, –
    Strapping, –
    Strategy determination and production
    requirements, – to –
    Stretch
    film, shrink-wrap, and strapping, –
    (Table – )
    -wrappers, –
    -wrapping, –
    Stringer
    pallet, –
    -style pallet design, – (Fig. – )
    Stroke calculation formulas, – (eq. ), –
    (Fig. – )
    Structural integrity of carrier, –
    Structural-beam underhung bridge cranes, –
    Suboptimization, –
    Supplier schedule, – , – (Fig. – )
    Supply chain management, –
    Support method, –
    Support for a monorail system, –
    Supportable investment, – (eq. )
    Surface preparation for painting, –
    Swing chutes, – , –
    Swing-arm robot, – (Fig. – ), –
    Switches, –
    Symbologies, –
    Synchronous assembly
    carousel, –
    rotary index table, –
    System layouts, –
    process specifications, –
    quantity process and facility criteria, –
    rough concept, –
    System sizing, – (eqs. to )
    carousels, –
    robots, –
    T
    Tabletop turners, – (Fig. – )
    Tag, –
    Take-away rate, – (eq. )
    Take-up units, –
    Tandem lines versus transfer press, – (Fig.
  • )
    Tandem press lines, –
    Task duration, –
    Telescoping fork, –
    Three-axis transfer die, –
    Through-beam photoelectric sensor, –
    Tie-rod style V-lift, –
    Tilter, – (Fig. – )
    Time
    and motion diagram for:
    crossbar transfer system, – (Fig.
  • )
    tri-axis transfer press, – (Fig.
  • )
    fences, –
    to move between storage locations, –
    (eq. and eq. )
    to perform operations on part, – (Fig.
  • )
    Tool life, –
    Tool management, –
    Tool-dispensing systems, –
    Tooling, – (Fig. – ), –
    Top and bottom drag conveyors, –
    Top entry robot, – (Fig. – )
    with perimeter guarding, – (Fig. – )
    Top-running cranes, – (Fig. – )
    Torque arm with brakes, – (Fig. – )
    Total
    equivalent recurring savings potential/year,
  • (eq. )
    labor savings potential, – (Table – )
    manufacturing costs, – (Table – )
    Totes, –
    Tow cart, – (Fig. – and Fig. – )
    system, – , – (Fig. – )
    Tow chain
    in on-floor open track, – (Fig. – )
    track, –
    Tow chain conveyor
    drive, –
    planning the system, –
    chain pull basics, –
    sizing, –
    system, –
    components, –
    cart design, –
    cart transfer system, –
    cart turning devices, –
    conveyor control panel, –
    delay station, –
    horizontal turns, –
    tow chain, –
    tow chain conveyor drive, –
    tow chain track, –
    Tow conveyors, –
    Tracing a part’s life through the factory, –
    (Fig. – )
    Track layout
    cylindrical bowl, – (Fig. – )
    spiral bowl, – (Fig. – )
    Trailer maintenance, –
    Training, –
    Transfer feed, –
    evaluation process for format, – (Fig.
  • )
    family tree, – (Fig. – )
    technology, –
    Transfer lines, –
    Transfer press, –
    size classifications, – (Table – )
    with orientation system, – (Fig. – )
    Transfer system sequence of operation and
    motion path, – (Fig. – )
    Translation software, –
    Transport packaging, – to –
    maintenance, –
    fiber rope, –
    pallets, –
    pneumatic and hydraulic-cylinder devices,

  • scales, –
    skids, –
    Transportation and storage, –
    Trapezoidal blank, – , – (Fig. – and
    Fig. – )
    Tri-axis and crossbar feeds, –
    primary motion, – (Fig. – )
    Trolley wheel, – (Fig. – )
    Troughing belt conveyors, – , – (Fig. – )
    truck, –
    Tube transfer of parts, –
    Tubular drag conveyor, – , – (Fig. – )
    Turnover unit, –
    Turret
    punch cell, – (Fig. – )
    punch press, – (Fig. – ), –
    Twin-bin
    carousels, –
    system, –
    Two-strand production conveyor, – (Fig. – )
    Two-way units, –
    Two-wheel hand trucks, –
    attachments, –
    hand truck types, –
    special designs, –
    terminology, –
    weight and bearings, –
    wheel selection, –
    worker preferences, –
    U
    U.P.C., –
    Ultrasonic sensors, –
    Uncertainty, –
    Unidirectional block-style pallet design, –
    (Fig. – )
    Unit load base, –
    comparison, – (Table – )
    corrugated fiberboard pallets, –
    handling without pallets, –
    pallet design, –
    pallet standards, –
    plastic pallets, –
    slip-sheets, –
    wood pallets, –
    Unit load forming, –
    load protecting and securing, –
    strapping, –
    stretch-wrapping, –
    palletizing methods, –
    automated palletizers, –
    ergonomic aids, –
    Unit-load AGV, – (Fig. – )
    Used fork lift trucks, –
    “as-is”, –
    rebuilt, –
    reconditioned, – INDEX
    I- TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK
    warranties, –
    where to buy, –
    Utility trucks, –
    V
    Vacuum tooling, – (Fig. – )
    Vacuum-head palletizer, –
    Vertical carousel, – , – (Fig. – )
    height, length, and width, – (eqs. to
    )
    without external clearances, – (eq. )
    Vertical chucking, –
    Vertical curves, –
    Vertical lift (V-lifts), – , – (Fig. – )
    conveyor, – (Fig. – )
    module, – , – (Fig. – )
    throughput, – (eq. and eq. )
    picker travel time, – (eq. and eq. )
    transfer, –
    turning, –
    Vertical twin-spindle machine, – (Fig.
  • )
    Vibrating plate supply hopper, – (Fig. –
    and Fig. – )
    Vibratory
    bowl feeders, –
    bulk feeder, – (Fig. – )
    feeder operation, –
    parts feeder tuning, –
    Volumetric feeding, –
    W
    Walkies, –
    Walking beam conveyor, –
    Wall and floor crane, –
    Wall-cantilevered jib cranes, –
    Warehouse trucks, –
    Washers and lubricators, –
    Washing system, – (Fig. – )
    Weighing systems, –
    Weigh-in-motion system, –
    Western style hand truck, –
    bag, – (Fig. – )
    Wire form hoppers, – , – (Fig. – )
    Wire-guided pallet trucks, –
    Wood pallets, –
    Work
    cell for automatic panels, – (Fig. – )
    center, –
    parameters, –
    Worker productivity and ergonomic assists, –
    to –
    Wrapping
    materials, –
    technology comparison, – (Table – )
    Z
    Zero pressure or minimum pressure
    accumulation, –
    Zone blocking, – , –

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