The Effect of Creep and Other Time Related Factors on Plastics and Elastomers

The Effect of Creep and Other Time Related Factors on Plastics and Elastomers
اسم المؤلف
Laurence W. McKeen
التاريخ
23 أبريل 2023
المشاهدات
352
التقييم
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The Effect of Creep and Other Time Related Factors on Plastics and Elastomers
Third Edition
Laurence W. McKeen
Table of Contents
Foreword
Acknowledgments

  1. Introduction to Creep, Polymers, Plastics and Elastomers
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Types of Stress
    1.3 Basic Concepts of Creep
    1.4 Plastics and Polymers
    1.5 Plastic Compositions
    1.6 Mechanisms of Creep of Plastics
    1.7 Poisson’s Ratio
    1.8 Using Creep Data in Plastic Product Design
    1.9 Summary
    References
  2. Styrenic Plastics
    2.1 Polystyrene
    2.2 Acrylonitrile Styrene Acrylate
    2.3 Styrene Acrylonitrile
    2.4 Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene
    2.5 Methyl methacrylate acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
    2.6 Styrene Maleic Anhydride
    2.7 Styrenic Block Copolymers
    2.8 Styrenic Blends and Alloys
    References
  3. Polyether Plastics
    3.1 Polyoxymethylene (POM or Acetal Homopolymer)
    3.2 Polyoxymethylene Copolymer (POM-Co or Acetal Copolymer)
    3.3 Modified Polyphenylene Ether/Polyphenylene Oxides
    References
  4. Polyesters
    4.1 Polycarbonate
    4.2 Polybutylene Terephthalate
    4.3 Polyethylene Terephthalate
    4.4 Liquid Crystalline Polymers
    4.5 Polycyclohexylene-Dimethylene Terephthalate
    4.6 Polyphthalate Carbonate
    4.7 Polyester Blends and Alloys
    References
  5. Polyimides
    5.1 Polyetherimide
    5.2 Polyamide-Imide
    5.3 Polyimide
    5.4 Imide Polymer Blends
    References
  6. Polyamides (Nylons)
    6.1 Nylon 6 (PA 6)
    6.2 Nylon 11 (PA 11)
    6.3 Nylon 12 (PA 12)
    6.4 Nylon 46 (PA 46)
    6.5 Nylon 66 (PA 66)
    6.6 Nylon 610 (PA 610)
    6.7 Nylon 612 (PA 612)
    6.8 Nylon 6/66
    6.9 Nylon Amorphous
    6.10 Polyarylamide
    6.11 Polyphthalamide
    References
  7. Polyolefins and Acrylics
    7.1 Polyethylene
    7.2 Polypropylene
    7.3 Polymethylpentene
    7.4 Cyclic Olefin Copolymer
    7.5 Rigid PVC
    7.6 Polyacrylics
    References
  8. Thermoplastic Elastomers
    8.1 Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomers
    8.2 Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomers
    8.3 Thermoplastic Polyether Olefin Elastomers
    8.4 Thermoplastic Polyether Block Amide Elastomers
    References
  9. Fluoropolymers
    9.1 Polytetrafluoroethylene
    9.2 Ethylene Chlorotrifluoroethylene
    9.3 Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene
    9.4 Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene
    9.5 Perfluoro Alkylvinylether (PFA/MFA)
    9.6 Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
    9.7 Polyvinylidene Fluoride
    References
  10. High-Temperature Polymers
    10.1 Polyketones
    10.2 Polyethersulfone
    10.3 Polyphenylene Sulfide
    10.4 Polysulfone
    10.5 Polyphenylsulfone
    References
    Appendix 1. Abbreviations
    Appendix 2. Unit Conversion Tables
    Pressure, Stress, Modulus
    Strain
    Index
    Note: Page numbers followed by “f ”, and “t ” refers to figures and tables respectively.
    A
    Acetal homopolymer.
    See Polyoxymethylene (POM)
    Acrylite® H15
    stress vs. time at 23°C and different
    strain levels, 352f
    time to fracture and crazing stress vs.
    time at 23°C, 352f
    Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS),
    6473
    advantage, 65
    applications and uses, 65
    grades available, 65
    manufacturers and trade names, 65
    polymerization, 65f
    Acrylonitrile styrene acrylate (ASA),
    4345
    applications and uses, 45
    manufacturers and trade names, 45
    Addition polymerization, 21, 21f
    chain initiation, 21
    chain propagation, 21
    chain termination, 21
    Additives, 31
    antiblock, 33, 33f
    antistats, 3536
    catalysts, 33
    combustion modifiers, 32
    composites, 31, 32f
    creep mechanism, 37
    dyes, 35
    fillers, 31
    coupling agents, 35
    nonfibrous, 31
    reinforcing, 31
    impact modifiers, 3334
    mica, 35
    optical brighteners, 34
    pigments, 35
    carbon black, 35
    titanium dioxide (TiO2), 35
    plasticizers, 3435
    platelet, 31, 32f
    release agents, 32
    resin, 31
    slip, 3233
    migrating, 32, 33f
    nonmigrating, 33
    thermal stabilizers, 35
    toughener, 34, 34f
    UV/radiation stabilizers, 34
    Alternating copolymers, 22
    Amilant CM1011G-30, 253f
    Amilant CM1011G-45, 253f
    Amodel® A-1133 HS
    compressive modulus vs. time at
    various temperatures and stress,
    303f
    flexural modulus vs. time at 23°C and
    stress of 69 MPa, 304f
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 302f
    at 125°C, 302f
    at 175°C, 303f
    tensile creep rupture vs. time at various
    temperatures, 305f
    tensile modulus vs. time at various
    temperatures and stress, 304f
    Amodel® A-1145 HS
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 305f
    at 125°C, 305f
    at 175°C, 306f
    Amodel® A-1160 HS
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 306f
    at 75°C, 306f
    at 125°C, 306f
    Amodel® ET-1000, 302f
    Amodel® PPA resins
    apparent tensile creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C and a stress of 13.8 MPa,
    307f
    at 23°C and a stress of 34.5 MPa, 307f
    at 125°C and a stress of 13.8 MPa,
    308f
    at 125°C and a stress of 34.5 MPa,
    308f
    at 175°C and a stress of 13.8 MPa,
    309f
    at 175°C and a stress of 34.5 MPa,
    309f
    Amorphous plastics, 2930, 30f. See also
    Crystalline plastics
    Antiblock additives, 33, 33f
    Antistats, 3536. See also Additives
    Atactic polypropenes, 26, 26f
    Aurum®, 214f
    AvaSpiret AV-621 GF30
    apparent creep modulus
    at 23°C and various levels of stress,
    428f
    at 120°C and various levels of stress,
    429f
    at 160°C and various levels of stress,
    429f
    isochronous creep curves for 1000 h at
    various temperatures, 428f
    AvaSpiret AV-621 NT
    apparent creep modulus
    at 23°C and various levels of stress,
    425f
    at 120°C and various levels of stress,
    425f
    at 160°C and various levels of stress,
    426f
    isochronous creep curves for
    1000 h at various temperatures,
    424f
    AvaSpiret AV-722 BG20
    apparent creep modulus
    at 23°C and various levels of stress,
    427f
    at 120°C and various levels of stress,
    427f
    isochronous creep curves for
    1000 h at various temperatures,
    426f
    AvaSpiret AV-722 CF30
    apparent creep modulus
    at 23°C and various levels of stress,
    430f
    479AvaSpiret AV-722 CF30 (Continued)
    at 120°C and various levels of stress,
    431f
    at 200°C and various levels of stress,
    431f
    isochronous creep curves for
    1000 h at various temperatures,
    430f
    AvaSpiret AV-848 CF30
    apparent creep modulus
    at 120°C and various levels of stress,
    432f
    at 160°C and various levels of stress,
    433f
    at 200°C and various levels of stress,
    433f
    isochronous creep curves for 1000 h at
    various temperatures, 432f
    AV-600 series, 423424
    AV-700 series, 424434
    B
    BASF, 121130
    Bayblend® T85
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 81f
    at 40°C, 81f
    at 60°C, 81f
    at 80°C, 82f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 82f
    at 40°C, 83f
    at 60°C, 83f
    at 80°C, 84f
    Bayblend® T88-2N
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 84f
    at 40°C, 84f
    at 60°C, 85f
    at 90°C, 85f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 85f
    at 40°C, 86f
    at 60°C, 86f
    at 90°C, 87f
    Bayblend® T88-4N
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 87f
    at 40°C, 87f
    at 60°C, 88f
    at 90°C, 88f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 88f
    at 40°C, 89f
    at 60°C, 89f
    at 90°C, 90f
    Blend/blending, of polymers, 3031, 31f
    Blends and alloys
    polyesters, 201210
    applications and end uses, 169f
    description, 201
    manufacturers and trade names, 169f
    polyimides, 230245
    styrenic plastics, 7994
    applications and uses, 81
    manufacturers and trade names, 81
    Block copolymers, 22
    Branched polymers
    creep mechanism, 37
    description, 2223, 23f
    C
    Carbon black, 35
    Catalysts, plastics, 33
    Celanese, 108120
    Celanex® 2500
    isochronous stress vs. strain at 23°C, 152f
    Celanex® 3210
    flexural creep vs. time curves at
    3.4 MPa maximum stress, 153f
    flexural creep vs. time curves at
    13.8 MPa maximum stress, 153f
    Celanex® 3300
    creep strain vs. time comparison at a
    stress of 13.8 MPa, 156f
    flexural creep at 100°C, 155f
    flexural creep vs. time curves at
    3.4 MPa maximum stress, 154f
    flexural creep vs. time curves at 14 MPa
    maximum stress, 155f
    Celanex® 3310
    creep strain vs. time comparison at a
    stress of 13.8 MPa, 156f
    Celanex® grades
    tensile creep curves, 158f
    tensile creep modulus, 157f
    Celanex® 2300 GV/30
    isochronous stress-strain curves at 23°C,
    154f
    Celanex® PBT resin
    flexural creep modulus vs. time
    comparison
    at 23°C and stress of 10 MPa, 156f
    at 80°C and stress of 5 MPa, 157f
    Celcon®
    creep modulus vs. time curves, 120f
    hoop stress vs. time curve, 120f
    Celcon® GB25
    flexural creep modulus
    vs. shifted time at 23°C, 119f
    vs. time curves at various
    temperatures, 118f
    temperature shift factor of, 119f
    Celcon® GC25A
    creep modulus vs. time at 40°C, 117f
    isochronous stress-strain at 40°C, 116f
    Celcon® M90
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 111f
    at 40°C, 111f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 112f
    at 40°C, 112f
    Celcon® M270t
    flexural creep modulus
    vs. shifted time, 110f
    at various temperatures, 109f
    temperature shift factor, 110f
    Celcon® TX90PLUS
    creep modulus vs. time strain at 23°C,
    114f
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 113f
    at 40°C, 113f
    Chain entanglement, 28
    Chain initiation, 21. See also Addition
    polymerization
    Chain propagation, 21. See also Addition
    polymerization
    Chain termination, 21. See also Addition
    polymerization
    COC. See Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC)
    Combustion modifiers, 32
    Composites, 31, 32f
    Condensation polymerization, 2122, 21f
    Copolymers, 22
    alternating, 22
    block, 22
    classifications, 22
    graft, 22
    random, 22
    Coupling agents, 35
    Covalent bonds, 24
    Crastin® LW9020
    isochronous stress vs. strain at 23°C,
    210f
    Crastin® LW9030
    isochronous stress vs. strain at 23°C,
    210f
    Crastin® S600F10 NC010
    isochronous stress vs. strain curves
    at 23°C, 158f
    at 60°C, 158f
    Crastin® SK601
    isochronous stress vs. strain curves
    at 23°C, 159f
    at 60°C, 159f
    Crastin® SK603
    isochronous stress vs. strain curves
    at 23°C, 159f
    Crastin® SK605
    isochronous stress vs. strain curves
    at 23°C, 160f
    Crastin® SK609
    isochronous stress vs. strain curves
    at 23°C, 160f
    at 60°C, 161f
    Crastin® ST820 NC010
    isochronous stress vs. strain
    at 23°C, 159f
    480 INDEXCrastin® T805
    isochronous stress vs. strain
    at 23°C, 160f
    at 80°C, 160f
    Crastin® T841FR
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 161f
    at 60°C, 161f
    Crastin® T843FR
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 161f
    at 60°C, 162f
    Crastin® T845FR
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 162f
    at 60°C, 162f
    Creep
    concepts, 420
    flexural, 4f
    tensile, 4f
    Creep mechanism
    additives, 37
    branched polymers, 37
    linear polymers, 3637
    reinforced plastics, 37
    Cross-linked polymers
    creep mechanism, 37
    description, 2223, 23f
    Crystalline plastics, 2930, 30f. See also
    Amorphous plastics
    Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), 346
    applications and end uses, 346
    chemical structure, 346f
    description, 346
    manufacturers and trade names, 346
    performance benefits, 346
    Cycolact ABS resin, 71f
    Cycolact G360, 70f
    Cycolact X37, 70f
    Cycoloyt C1000
    tensile creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 94f
    at 60°C, 94f
    at 90°C, 95f
    D
    Degree of unsaturation (DoU), 24
    Delrin® 100, 500, 900
    isochronous flexural stress-strain
    at 23°C, 100f
    at 45°C, 100f
    at 85°C, 101f
    at 100°C, 101f
    tensile stress relaxation under constant
    strain at 23°C, 101f
    Delrin® acetal resins, 97
    general purpose, composition, 98t
    higher stiffness, composition, 99t
    low friction and wear, composition,
    99t
    toughened, composition, 98t
    UV stabilized and specialty,
    composition, 100t
    Delrin® 100ST NC010
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 102f
    at 40°C, 102f
    at 60°C, 102f
    at 80°C, 102f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 103f
    at 5 MPa stress, 103f
    Delrin® 510GR NC000
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 104f
    at 40°C, 104f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 104f
    at 60°C, 105f
    at 90°C, 105f
    Delrin® 520MP NC010
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 106f
    at 60°C, 106f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 106f
    at 60°C, 107f
    Diakont acrylic resins, 351f
    Diakont LG156, 350f
    Diakont MG102, 350f
    Dipole moments, of polymer molecules,
    23, 23t
    DoU. See Degree of unsaturation (DoU)
    Dyes, 35
    Dylark® 480P16
    tensile creep strain vs. stress
    at 23°, 77f
    and various stress levels, 77f
    Dylark® SMA resins, 78f
    E
    Elastollan® 1164 D, 357f
    Elastollan® 1185 A, 357f
    Elastollan® C 64D, 357f
    Elastollan® C 85 A, 358f
    Elastollan® R 3000, 358f
    Elastomers, 355. See also Thermoplastic
    elastomer (TPE)
    Electronegativity, in polymers, 23
    Equivalent stress, 4
    Ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE),
    385387
    applications and uses, 385
    chemical structure, 385f
    manufacturers and trade names, 385
    Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE),
    388391
    applications and uses, 388
    chemical structure, 388f
    description, 388
    manufacturers and trade names, 388
    properties, 388
    Evonik Industries, 138
    Excel® 4101GL30
    flexural creep strain vs. time at 150°C
    and various stress levels, 443f
    tensile creep strain vs. time at various
    temperatures and stress levels,
    442f
    Extender, 31
    F
    FEA. See Finite element analysis (FEA)
    Fillers, additives, 31
    coupling agents, 35
    nonfibrous, 31
    reinforcing, 31
    Finite element analysis (FEA), 3940, 40f
    Finite elements, 40
    Fluon® ETFE
    compression stress relaxation, 392f
    tensile creep strain vs. time
    at 100°C, 390f
    at 150°C loaded at one half the yield
    strength, 391f
    Fluon® ETFE C-55AX, 391f
    Fluon® FC100-25 1000
    creep in compression at 20°C at various
    stress levels, 383f
    isometric stress-time curves in
    compression at 20°C at various
    strain levels, 384f
    recovery from creep in compression
    loaded at various stress levels,
    384f
    Fluon® filled PTFE, 385f
    Fluon® G163
    compressive creep strain vs. time at 25°
    C, 381f
    isochronous stress-strain at 25°C, 381f
    isochronous stress-strain curves in
    compression at 25°C, 382f
    recovery from creep in compression at
    25°C and at various stress
    levels, 382f
    Fluon® PA1025Z, 383f
    Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP),
    392397
    applications and uses, 393
    ball and stick three-dimensional
    representation, 392f
    manufacturers and trade names, 393
    three-dimensional representation, 392f
    Fluoroguard®, 32
    Fluoropolymer/fluoroplastic
    ECTFE, 385387
    applications and uses, 385
    chemical structure, 385f
    manufacturers and trade names, 385
    ETFE, 388391
    INDEX 481Fluoropolymer/fluoroplastic (Continued)
    applications and uses, 388
    chemical structure, 388f
    description, 388
    manufacturers and trade names, 388
    properties, 388
    FEP, 392397
    applications and uses, 393
    ball and stick three-dimensional
    representation, 392f
    manufacturers and trade names, 393
    three-dimensional representation,
    392f
    melting points, 373, 374t
    overview, 373
    PFA/MFA, 398404
    applications and uses, 398
    ball and stick three-dimensional
    representation, 398f
    chemical structure, 398f
    comonomers, 398t
    data, 398402
    description, 398
    manufacturers and trade names, 398
    three-dimensional representation,
    398f
    polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE),
    405
    applications and uses, 405
    description, 405
    manufacturers and trade names, 405
    polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE),
    373384
    applications and uses, 376
    ball and stick three-dimensional
    representation, 375f
    chemical structure, 375f
    description, 373
    formation, 373
    homopolymer, 373376
    manufacturers and trade names, 376
    molecules, 373
    three-dimensional representation,
    375f
    polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF),
    405411
    applications and uses, 407
    attributes, 407
    chemical structure, 407f
    description, 405
    manufacturers and trade names, 407
    structures of monomers, 374f
    tensile creep strain at 100°C and
    3.4 MPa stress, 375f
    Fortron® 1140L4
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 448f
    at 120°C, 448f
    at 150°C, 449f
    at 200°C, 449f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 451f
    at 120°C, 452f
    at 150°C, 452f
    at 200°C, 453f
    tensile creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 449f
    at 120°C, 450f
    at 150°C, 450f
    at 200°C, 451f
    Fortron® 6165A4
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 453f
    at 120°C, 453f
    at 150°C, 454f
    at 200°C, 454f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 456f
    at 120°C, 457f
    at 150°C, 457f
    at 200°C, 458f
    tensile creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 454f
    at 120°C, 455f
    at 150°C, 455f
    at 200°C, 456f
    Fortron® resins
    flexural creep modulus vs. time
    at 200°C, 459f
    at various temperatures, 458f
    G
    Geometric isomers, 2526
    cis-, 2526, 26f
    trans-, 2526, 26f
    Geont Fiberloct 87241, 348f
    Geont Fiberloct PVC resins
    creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 349f
    creep rupture strength vs. time, 348f
    flexural creep modulus vs. time at 23°
    C, 349f
    GHR®
    compressive creep strain vs. time at 23°
    C and various stress levels, 337f
    compressive creep strain vs. time at 50°
    C and various stress levels, 337f
    compressive creep strain vs. time at 80°
    C and various stress levels, 338f
    GHR® 8110
    creep strain vs. time at 23°C and 1 MPa
    stress, 336f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time at 23°C
    and 1 MPa stress, 336f
    Graft copolymers, 22
    Graphite, 33
    Grilamid® LV-3H, 268f
    Grilamid® TR55
    chemical structure, 294f
    tensile creep strain vs. time at 23°C,
    297f
    Grilamid® TR90
    tensile creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 298f
    Grilon® BG-30 S, 255f
    Grilon® BG-50 H
    tensile creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 255f
    at 120°C, 256f
    Grilon® BGM-65 X V0, 256f
    Grilon® BS/2, 254f
    Grilon® BZ 1/2, 254f
    Grilon® TSG-30/4, 293f
    Grilon® TSG-50/4, 294f
    Grilon® TSS, 293f
    Grivory® GC-4H
    creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 313f
    Grivory® GM-4H
    creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 313f
    Grivory® GV-5H
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 314f
    at 60°C, 314f
    at 80°C, 315f
    at 120°C, 315f
    Grivory® GV-6H
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 319f
    at 80°C, 319f
    Grivory® HT2V-3H
    creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 311f
    Grivory® HT2V-3X V0
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 312f
    at 80°C, 312f
    Grivory® HT2V-5H
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 316f
    at 80°C, 316f
    Grivory® HTV-3H1, 310f
    Grivory® HTV-5H1
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 317f
    at 80°C, 317f
    at 120°C, 318f
    at 150°C, 318f
    Grivory® XE3876
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 310f
    at 80°C, 311f
    GUR®
    compressive creep strain vs. time at 23°
    C and various stress levels, 337f
    compressive creep strain vs. time at 50°
    C and various stress levels, 337f
    compressive creep strain vs. time at 80°
    C and various stress levels, 338f
    GUR® 4120
    creep strain vs. time at 23°C and 1 MPa
    stress, 334f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time at 23°C
    and 1 MPa stress, 334f
    482 INDEXGUR® 4152
    creep strain vs. time at 23°C and 1 MPa
    stress, 335f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time at 23°C
    and 1 MPa stress, 335f
    H
    Halar® ECTFE
    stress relaxation vs. temperature at
    1000 h and 2% total strain, 388f
    tensile creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 386f
    at 75°C, 386f
    at 125°C, 387f
    at 150°C, 387f
    High density polyethylene (HDPE), 321
    flexural creep modulus vs. time, 329f
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 323f, 327f, 331f
    at 40°C, 324f, 327f, 331f
    at 80°C, 324f, 328f, 331f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 324f
    at 40°C, 325f
    High impact polystyrene (HIPS), 43, 44f
    High-temperature polymers
    overview, 413
    polyaryl ether ketones, 423433
    polyether ether ketones, 413421
    polyether ketone ether ether ketones,
    423
    polyether ketones, 422
    polyethersulfone (PES), 434442
    manufacturers and trade names, 434
    properties, 434
    structure, 434f
    polyketones, 413433
    applications and uses, 413
    characteristics, 413
    description, 413
    manufacturers and trade names, 413
    structure, 414t
    polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), 443458
    applications and uses, 444
    manufacturers and trade names, 444
    properties, 444
    structure, 443f
    variants, 443444
    polyphenylsulfone (PPSU), 468472
    applications and uses, 468
    manufacturers and trade names, 468
    properties, 468
    structure, 468f
    polysulfone (PSU), 459467
    applications and end uses, 459
    description, 459
    manufacturers and trade names, 459
    properties, 459
    Hostaform® C 2521, 113f
    Hostaform® C 9021
    flexural creep modulus at various
    temperatures, 109f
    tensile creep curves at 23°C, 108f
    time compression stress curves at 20°C,
    108f
    Hostaform® C 9021 GV1/30
    flexural creep modulus vs. time curves
    at 20° and 80°, 117f
    relaxation modulus vs. time curves at
    23°, 118f
    Hostaform® C 13031 and 13021, 111f
    Hostaform® S 9063
    creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 114f
    Hostaform® S 9064
    creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 115f
    Hostaform® S 9243
    creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 115f
    Hostaform® S 9244
    creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 116f
    Hostalen® CRP 100
    hoop stress vs. time at various
    temperatures, 330f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time at 40°C,
    330f
    Hostalen® GM 5010 T3
    hoop stress vs. time at various
    temperatures, 326f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 325f
    at 40°C, 326f
    Hostalen® H1022
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 341f
    at 40°C, 341f
    at 60°C, 342f
    at 80°C, 342f
    Hostalen® H2150
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 339f
    at 40°C, 339f
    at 60°C, 339f
    at 80°C, 339f
    Hostalen® H2222, 340f
    Hostalen® H2250, 340f
    Hostalen® H5216, 341f
    Hostalen® HDPE, 333f
    Hydrogen bonding, 27, 28f
    Hyflon® MFA
    creep to failure vs. stress level at 200°
    C, 404f
    isochronous stress-strain curves for a
    1000 h creep time at 120°C and
    200°C, 405f
    Hyflon® MFA F1520
    tensile creep curves at 23°C at various
    stress levels, 403f
    tensile creep curves at 120°C at various
    stress levels, 403f
    tensile creep curves at 200°C at various
    stress levels, 404f
    Hyflon® PFA 220, 400f
    Hyflon® PFA M620, 402f
    Hyflon® PFA M720, 401f
    Hyflon® PFA P420, 401f
    Hyflon® PFA resin series, 402f
    Hytrel® 4056
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 359f
    at 40°C, 359f
    at 80°C, 360f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time at 23°C,
    360f
    Hytrel® 5526
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 361f
    at 40°C, 361f
    at 80°C, 361f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time
    isochronous stress-strain at 23°
    C, 362f
    Hytrel® 6356
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 362f
    at 40°C, 362f
    at 80°C, 363f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time at 23°C,
    363f
    Hytrel® 7246
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 364f
    at 40°C, 364f
    at 80°C, 364f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time at 23°C,
    365f
    Hytrel® TPE-E or COPE resins, 365f
    compression set resistance at various
    temperatures, 359t
    I
    Imide polymer blends, 230245
    Impact modifiers, 3334
    Impet® 330R, 180f
    Impet® 610R, 180f
    Isomers, 2527
    geometric, 2526
    cis-, 2526, 26f
    trans-, 2526, 26f
    head to tail, 25, 25f
    stereoisomers, 2627. See also
    Polypropenes; Polypropylenes
    structural, 25, 25f
    Isophorone bisphenol, 142, 142f
    Isotactic polypropenes, 2627, 26f
    Iupilon®
    deformation under compressive load at
    various temperatures, 142t
    flexural and compressive creep vs. time
    at various stress levels, 150f
    tensile creep strain vs. time
    at 22°C, 149f
    INDEX 483Iupilon® (Continued)
    tensile creep stress vs. time at 22°C,
    149f
    tensile creep vs. time
    at 25°C, 147f
    at 75°C, 147f
    at 100°C, 148f
    at 125°C, 148f
    tensile deformation and recovery, 142t,
    150f
    tensile stress relaxation, 151f
    Iupital®
    flexural stress relaxation vs. time
    at 23°C, 132f
    at 50°C, 132f
    at 75°C, 133f
    tensile creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 131f
    at 50°C, 131f
    IXEF® 1022
    tensile creep strain vs. time
    at 50°C, 299f
    at 120°C, 299f
    IXEF® 1032
    tensile creep strain vs. time
    at 50°C, 300f
    K
    Kapton® Type HN PI film, 237f
    KetaSpire® KT-820 CF30
    apparent modulus vs. time
    at 23°C and various stress, 420f
    at 200°C and various stress,
    422f
    at 120°C and various stress levels,
    421f
    at 160°C and various stress levels,
    421f
    isochronous creep curves at various
    temperatures, 420f
    KetaSpire® KT-820 NT
    apparent modulus vs. time
    at 23°C and various stress, 418f
    at 120°C and various stress levels,
    419f
    at 160°C and various stress levels,
    419f
    isochronous creep curves at various
    temperatures, 418f
    Kynar® PVDF, 411f
    L
    Lexan® 101
    creep strain vs. time
    at 45°C, 143f
    Lexan® 4501
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 203f
    at 90°C, 204f
    at 120°C, 204f
    Lexan® 4704
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 205f
    at 90°C, 205f
    at 140°C, 206f
    Lexan® PCC4701R, 203f
    Lexan® 141R
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 143f
    at various temperatures and a stress
    of 15 MPa, 144f
    Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE),
    321
    Linear polymers
    creep mechanism, 3637
    description, 2223, 23f
    Liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs),
    196200
    applications and uses, 196
    chemical structures of monomers, 197f
    description, 196
    manufacturers and trade names, 196
    Longitudinal stress, 3
    Low density polyethylene (LDPE), 321
    Lubricompt DFL36
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 145f
    at 70°C, 146f
    at 120°C, 146f
    Lupolen® 5031L
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 327f
    at 40°C, 327f
    Lupolen® 5261Z
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 328f
    at 40°C, 328f
    Lupolen® 6031M
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 331f
    at 40°C, 332f
    Luran® 378P
    creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 57f
    at 40°C, 57f
    at 60°C, 58f
    at 80°C, 58f
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 55f
    at 40°C, 56f
    at 60°C, 56f
    at 80°C, 56f
    Luran® 378P G7
    creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 60f
    at 40°C, 60f
    at 60°C, 61f
    at 80°C, 61f
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 59f
    at 40°C, 59f
    at 60°C, 59f
    at 80°C, 59f
    Luran® 388S, 62f
    Luran® S 757R
    creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 51f
    at 40°C, 52f
    at 60°C, 52f
    at 80°C, 53f
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 50f
    at 40°C, 50f
    at 60°C, 51f
    at 80°C, 51f
    Luran® S 778T
    creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 54f
    at 60°C, 54f
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 53f, 55f
    at 60°C, 53f
    at 70°C, 55f
    Luran® S KR 2861-1
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 93f
    at 80°C, 93f
    Luran® SAN, 62f, 63f
    Lustran® ABS 446
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 66f
    at 40°C, 66f
    at 60°C, 67f
    at 80°C, 67f
    M
    Medium density polyethylene (MDPE),
    321
    Mesh, 40. See also Finite element
    analysis (FEA)
    Methacrylate acrylonitrile butadiene
    styrene (MABS), 74
    applications and uses, 74
    manufacturers and trade names, 74
    Mica, 35. See also Additives
    Minlon® 10B140 NC010
    creep strain in flexure vs. time at a
    stress of 6.9 MPa and 23°C,
    280f
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 279f
    at 60°C, 279f
    at 90°C, 279f
    at 100°C, 279f
    Minlon® 11B140
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 283f
    at 60°C, 283f
    at 80°C, 283f
    at 100°C, 283f
    484 INDEXMinlon® 11C40 NC010, 280f
    Minlon® 12T, 278f
    Minlon® 20B
    creep strain in flexure vs. time
    at a stress level of 6.9 MPa and at
    23°C, 281f
    at a stress level of 6.9 MPa and at
    124°C, 281f
    Minlon® 73M30 NC010
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 252f
    at 60°C, 252f
    at 90°C, 252f
    Mitsubishi Engineering-Plastics Corp.,
    131132
    Molecular attractions, in polymers, 2728
    chain entanglement, 28
    hydrogen bonding, 27, 28f
    Van der Waals forces, 2728
    Molecular polarity, 2324
    dipole moments, 23, 23t
    polar bond, 23
    qualitative ranking, 24f
    Molecular unsaturation, 24. See also
    Polymer(s)
    covalent bonds, 24
    degree of unsaturation (DoU), 24
    Molybdenum disulfide, 33
    N
    Neoflont M-300H, 406f
    Neoflont M-400H, 406f
    Node, 40. See also Finite element
    analysis (FEA)
    Nonfibrous fillers, 31
    Norylt 731
    creep performance, 136f
    creep strain vs. time
    at 60°C, 135f
    at 80°C, 135f
    at stress of 10 MPa, 136f
    Norylt GFN1
    creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 137f
    Norylt GFN2
    creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 137f
    Norylt GTX964W
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 134f
    at various temperatures and stress, 134f
    Novaduran® 5010G30
    flexural creep fracture stress vs. time at
    various temperatures, 178f
    flexural creep modulus vs. time at
    various temperatures, 177f
    flexural creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 175f
    at 80°C, 176f
    at 120°C, 176f
    at 150°C, 177f
    stress relaxation vs. time at 23°C, 178f
    Novaduran® 5010R5
    flexural creep fracture stress vs. time at
    various temperatures, 174f
    flexural creep modulus vs. time at
    various temperatures, 174f
    flexural creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 173f
    at high temperatures, 173f
    at various levels of stress, 173f
    stress relaxation vs. time at 23°C, 175f
    Novaduran® PBT resins, 179f
    Novarex®
    deformation under compressive load at
    various temperatures, 142t
    flexural and compressive creep vs. time
    at various stress levels, 150f
    tensile creep strain vs. time
    at 22°C, 149f
    tensile creep stress vs. time at 22°C,
    149f
    tensile creep vs. time
    at 25°C, 147f
    at 75°C, 147f
    at 100°C, 148f
    at 125°C, 148f
    tensile deformation and recovery, 142t,
    150f
    tensile stress relaxation, 151f
    Nylon (polyamides)
    amino acids, 249f
    amorphous, 292297
    applications and uses, 295
    characteristics, 292295
    chemical structure, 294f
    manufacturers and trade names, 295
    description, 247
    diacids, 248f
    diamines, 248f
    generalized reaction, 248f
    monomers, 248t
    properties, 247
    types, 247
    Nylon 6 (polyamide 6), 247256
    applications and uses, 247
    characteristics, 247
    chemical structure, 249f
    manufacturers and trade names, 247
    Nylon 6/66 (polyamide 666 or 66/6), 292
    applications and uses, 292
    manufacturers and trade names, 292
    Nylon 11 (polyamide 11), 257258
    applications and end uses, 257
    characteristics, 257
    chemical structure, 257f
    manufacturers and trade names, 257
    Nylon 12 (polyamide 12), 259268
    applications and end uses, 259
    characteristics, 259
    chemical structure, 259f
    manufacturers and trade names, 259
    Nylon 46 (polyamide 46), 269270
    applications and uses, 269
    characteristics, 269
    chemical structure, 269f
    manufacturers and trade names, 269
    Nylon 66 (polyamide 66), 271284
    applications and uses, 271
    characteristics, 271
    chemical structure, 271f
    manufacturers and trade names, 271
    Nylon 610 (polyamide 610), 285
    applications and uses, 285
    characteristics, 285
    chemical structure, 285f
    manufacturers and trade names, 285
    Nylon 612 (polyamide 612), 285291
    applications and uses, 287
    characteristics, 285287
    chemical structure, 287f
    manufacturers and trade names, 287
    O
    Optical brighteners, 34
    P
    PACM 12, 292, 295f
    PAMXD6, 298f
    Perfluoro alkylvinylether (PFA/MFA),
    398404
    applications and uses, 398
    ball and stick three-dimensional
    representation, 398f
    chemical structure, 398f
    comonomers, 398t
    data, 398402
    description, 398
    manufacturers and trade names, 398
    three-dimensional representation, 398f
    Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) synthetic oil,
    32
    Pigments, 35
    carbon black, 35
    titanium dioxide (TiO2), 35
    Plastic(s). See also Polymer(s); Specific
    products, and types
    amorphous, 2930, 30f
    composition. See Additives
    creep mechanism
    additives, 37
    branched polymers, 37
    linear polymers, 3637
    reinforced plastics, 37
    crystalline, 2930, 30f
    Poisson’s ratio, 3738, 38f
    product design, 3840
    FEA, 3940, 40f
    pseudo elastic design method,
    3840, 39f
    thermoplastics, 29
    thermosets, 29
    INDEX 485Plasticizers, 3435
    Platelet additives, 31, 32f
    PMP. See Polymethylpentene (PMP)
    Poisson, Simeon, 3738
    Poisson’s ratio, 3738, 38f
    Polar bond, 23
    Polarity. See Molecular polarity
    Polyacrylics, 347352
    applications and uses, 347
    description, 347
    manufacturers and trade names, 347
    Polyamide-imides (PAI)
    applications and uses, 228
    chemical structure, 228f
    monomers, 228f
    description, 213
    manufacturers and trade names, 228
    Polyamides. See Nylon (polyamides)
    Polyarylamide (PAA), 298299
    applications and uses, 298
    characteristics, 298
    manufacturers and trade names, 298
    Polyaryl ether ketones (PAEK), 423433
    Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT),
    151178
    applications and uses, 151
    chemical structure, 151f
    description, 151
    manufacturers and trade names, 151
    performance properties, 151
    Polycarbonate, 141150
    applications and end uses, 142
    chemical structures, 141f
    monomers, 141f
    description, 141
    manufacturers and trade names, 142
    performance properties, 141
    Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE), 405
    applications and uses, 405
    description, 405
    manufacturers and trade names, 405
    Polycyclohexylene-dimethylene
    terephthalate (PCT), 201
    applications and uses, 201
    chemical structure, 202f
    description, 201
    manufacturers and trade names, 201
    Polyesters. See also Specific products, and
    types
    blends and alloys, 201210
    applications and end uses, 169f
    description, 201
    manufacturers and trade names, 169f
    commercial formation, 141
    condensation polymerization reaction,
    141f
    description, 141
    liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs),
    196200
    applications and uses, 196
    chemical structures of monomers, 197f
    description, 196
    manufacturers and trade names, 196
    polybutylene terephthalate (PBT),
    151178
    applications and uses, 151
    chemical structure, 151f
    description, 151
    manufacturers and trade names, 151
    performance properties, 151
    polycarbonate, 141150
    applications and end uses, 142
    chemical structures, 141f
    description, 141
    manufacturers and trade names, 142
    performance properties, 141
    polycyclohexylene-dimethylene
    terephthalate (PCT), 201
    applications and uses, 201
    chemical structure, 202f
    description, 201
    manufacturers and trade names, 201
    polyethylene terephthalate (PET),
    179195
    applications and uses, 179
    chemical structure, 179f
    description, 179
    manufacturers and trade names, 179
    polyphthalate carbonate (PPC), 201
    applications and uses, 201
    chemical structure, 202f
    description, 201
    manufacturers and trade names, 201
    Polyether block amides (PEBAs), 366371
    applications and end uses, 368
    description, 366368
    manufacturers and trade names, 368
    Polyether ether ketones, 413421
    Polyetherimide (PEI)
    applications and uses, 213
    chemical structure, 214f, 216f
    biphenol diamine PMDA, 214f
    BPADA-DDS PEI sulfone, 215f
    BPADA monomer, 215f
    BPADA-MPD, 215f
    BPADA-PMDA-MPD
    copolyetherimide, 215f
    BPADA-PPD, 214f
    monomers, 216f
    description, 213
    manufacturers and trade names, 213
    performance features, 213
    Polyether ketones, 422
    Polyether plastics
    polyoxymethylene copolymer (POMCo), 97132
    applications and uses, 108
    chemical structure, 107f
    manufacturers and trade names, 107
    properties, 107
    polyoxymethylene (POM), 97
    applications and uses, 97
    chemical structure, 97f
    manufacturers and trade names, 97
    polyphenylene ether (PPE), 133138
    applications and end uses, 133
    chemical structure, 133f
    manufacturers and trade names, 133
    modified, 133
    Polyethersulfone (PES), 434442
    manufacturers and trade names, 434
    properties, 434
    structure, 434f
    Polyethylene (PE), 321337
    applications and use, 322
    branching, 321
    crystal structure, 323f
    flexural creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 332f
    at 40°C, 333f
    manufacturers and trade names, 322
    types/classifications, 321, 323f
    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET),
    179195
    applications and uses, 179
    chemical structure, 179f
    description, 179
    hydrolysis, 22
    manufacturers and trade names, 179
    Polyimides
    applications and uses, 229
    chemical structures, 236f
    monomers, 236f
    description, 228
    manufacturers and trade names, 229
    overview, 213
    polymer blends, 230245
    standard, 229, 237f, 240f
    thermoplastic, 230, 240f, 244f
    Polyketones, 413433
    applications and uses, 413
    characteristics, 413
    description, 413
    manufacturers and trade names,
    413
    structure, 414t
    Polymer(s). See also Specific products,
    and types
    blend/blending, 3031, 31f
    concept, 21
    copolymers, 22
    alternating, 22
    block, 22
    classifications, 22
    graft, 22
    random, 22
    molecular attractions, 2728
    chain entanglement, 28
    hydrogen bonding, 27, 28f
    Van der Waals forces, 2728
    486 INDEXmolecular polarity, 2324
    dipole moments, 23, 23t
    polar bond, 23
    qualitative ranking, 24f
    molecular unsaturation, 24
    covalent bonds, 24
    degree of unsaturation (DoU), 24
    molecular weight, 2829, 29f
    steric hindrance, 25, 25f
    Polymerization
    addition, 21, 21f
    condensation, 2122, 21f
    description, 21
    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), 347,
    350f
    Polymethylpentene (PMP), 345
    applications and end uses, 345
    characteristics, 345
    manufacturers and trade names,
    345
    Polyolefins, 322f
    Polyoxymethylene copolymer (POM-Co),
    97132
    applications and uses, 108
    chemical structure
    monomers, 107f
    polymer, 107f
    manufacturers and trade names, 107
    properties, 107
    Polyoxymethylene (POM), 97. See also
    Delrin® acetal resins
    applications and uses, 97
    chemical structure, 97f
    manufacturers and trade names, 97
    Polyphenylene ether (PPE), 133138
    applications and end uses, 133
    chemical structure, 133f
    manufacturers and trade names, 133
    modified, 133
    Polyphenylene oxide (PPO).
    See Polyphenylene ether (PPE)
    Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), 443458
    applications and uses, 444
    manufacturers and trade names, 444
    properties, 444
    structure, 443f
    variants, 443444
    Polyphenylsulfone (PPSU), 468472
    applications and uses, 468
    manufacturers and trade names, 468
    properties, 468
    structure, 468f
    Polyphthalamide (PPA)
    applications and uses, 300
    characteristics, 300
    chemical structures, 301f
    description, 300
    flexural creep strain vs. time at 150°C
    and a stress of 28 MPa, 301f
    manufacturers and trade names, 300
    Polyphthalate carbonate (PPC), 201
    applications and uses, 201
    chemical structure, 202f
    description, 201
    manufacturers and trade names, 201
    Polypropenes. See also Polypropylene
    atactic, 26, 26f
    isotactic, 2627, 26f
    structure, 26, 26f
    syndiotactic, 27, 27f
    Polypropylene, 338344
    applications and uses, 338
    homopolymers, 338
    impact copolymers, 338
    manufacturers and trade names, 338
    random copolymers, 338
    Polystyrene, 43
    applications and uses, 43
    general, 43
    high impact, 43
    chemical structure, 44f
    expanded, 43
    forms, 43
    manufacturers and trade names, 43
    Polysulfone (PSU), 459467
    applications and end uses, 459
    description, 459
    manufacturers and trade names, 459
    properties, 459
    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 33, 373384
    applications and uses, 376
    ball and stick three-dimensional
    representation, 375f
    chemical structure, 375f
    description, 373
    formation, 373
    homopolymer, 373376
    manufacturers and trade names, 376
    molecules, 373
    three-dimensional representation, 375f
    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 405411
    applications and uses, 407
    attributes, 407
    chemical structure, 407f
    description, 405
    manufacturers and trade names, 407
    PPE. See Polyphenylene ether (PPE)
    PS 143 E
    creep modulus vs. time at 23°C, 44f
    isochronous stress-strain at 23°C, 44f
    PS 168N, 47f
    PS 454C
    creep modulus
    at 23°C, 46f
    at 40°C, 46f
    at 60°C, 47f
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 45f
    at 40°C, 45f
    at 60°C, 45f
    PS 456F, 48f
    Pseudo elastic design method, 39
    R
    Radel® R-5000
    apparent creep modulus vs. time at a
    stress of 20.7 MPa at various
    temperatures, 471f
    isochronous stress-strain curves
    at 23°C, 468f
    at 95°C, 468f
    at 160°C, 469f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 469f
    at 95°C, 470f
    at 160°C, 470f
    Radial stress, 3
    Random copolymers, 22
    Reinforced plastics
    creep mechanism, 37
    Reinforcing fillers, 31
    Release agents, 32
    Resin, 31. See also Additives
    Rigid PVC, 346347
    applications and uses, 347
    classifications, 346347
    description, 346
    manufacturing and trade names, 347
    Rilsan® BESNO TL, 257f
    Rilsan® PA 11 resins
    isochronous stress-strain at 20°C, 258f
    long-term hydrostatic strength at
    various temperatures, 258f
    Riteflex® TPE-E or COPEs, 359f
    Rynite® 415HP
    flexural creep modulus vs. time at a
    stress of 27.6 MPa, 181f
    flexural creep vs. time at a stress of
    27.6 MPa, 181f
    Rynite® 530
    flexural creep modulus vs. time at a
    stress of 27.6 MPa, 184f
    flexural creep vs. time at a stress of
    27.6 MPa, 183f
    isochronous stress-strain at 23°C,
    183f
    Rynite® 545
    flexural creep modulus vs. time at a
    stress of 27.6 MPa, 193f
    flexural creep vs. time at a stress of
    27.6 MPa, 192f
    Rynite® 555
    flexural creep modulus vs. time
    at a stress of 6.9 MPa, 195f
    at a stress of 13.8 MPa, 195f
    at a stress of 27.6 MPa, 196f
    flexural creep strain vs. time
    at a stress of 6.9 MPa, 193f
    at a stress of 13.8 MPa, 194f
    at a stress of 27.6 MPa, 194f
    INDEX 487Rynite® 935
    flexural creep modulus vs. time
    at a stress of 6.9 MPa, 186f
    at a stress of 13.8 MPa, 187f
    at a stress of 27.6 MPa, 188f
    flexural creep strain vs. time
    at a stress of 6.9 MPa, 185f
    at a stress of 13.8 MPa, 186f
    at a stress of 27.6 MPa, 187f
    Rynite® 940
    flexural creep modulus vs. time at a
    stress of 27.6 MPa, 189f
    flexural creep vs. time at a stress of
    27.6 MPa, 188f
    Rynite® FR515
    flexural creep modulus vs. time at a
    stress of 27.6 MPa, 182f
    flexural creep vs. time at a stress of
    27.6 MPa, 182f
    Rynite® FR530
    flexural creep modulus vs. time at a
    stress of 27.6 MPa, 185f
    flexural creep vs. time at a stress of
    27.6 MPa, 184f
    Rynite® FR943
    flexural creep modulus vs. time at a
    stress of 27.6 MPa, 190f
    flexural creep strain vs. time at a stress
    of 27.6 MPa, 189f
    Rynite® FR946
    flexural creep modulus vs. time at a
    stress of 27.6 MPa, 191f
    flexural creep vs. time at a stress of
    27.6 MPa, 190f
    Rynite® SST35
    flexural creep modulus vs. time at a
    stress of 27.6 MPa, 192f
    flexural creep vs. time at a stress of
    27.6 MPa, 191f
    Ryton® A-200 PPS, 444f
    Ryton® R-4 PPS, 445f, 446f
    Ryton® R-4 02XT, 445f
    Ryton® R-7 PPS, 446f
    Ryton® R-10 PPS, 447f
    S
    SABIC Innovative Plastics, 134137
    Santoprene®
    compression set as a function of time at
    23°C, 366f
    compression set as a function of time at
    70°C, 367f
    compression set as a function of time at
    100°C, 367f
    compression set as a function of time at
    125°C, 368f
    Silicone fluids, 32
    Slip additives, 3233
    migrating, 32, 33f
    nonmigrating, 33
    Solef® 1010
    hoop stress extrapolated to 50 years vs.
    temperature in presence of
    water, 410f
    hoop stress vs. time at various
    temperatures, 409f
    isochronous stress-strain vs. time at 23°
    C, 407f
    tensile creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 408f
    at 120°C, 408f
    at 140°C, 409f
    Solef® 8088/0902, 411f
    Stanyl® PA 46 resins, 270f
    Stanyl® TW300, 269f
    Stanyl® TW200F8, 270f
    Stat-Kon® PC-1006, 251f
    Stereoisomers, 2627. See also
    Polypropenes; Polypropylenes
    Steric hindrance, 25, 25f
    Stress
    types, 14
    compressive, 1, 2f
    flexural/bending, 23, 3f
    hoop, 34, 3f
    shear, 1, 2f
    tensile, 1, 2f
    torsional, 12, 2f
    Styrene, 43, 44f. See also Specific
    products, and types
    Styrene acrylonitrile (SAN), 4563
    applications and uses, 55
    manufacturers and trade names, 55
    Styrene maleic anhydride (SMA)
    applications and uses, 7576
    description, 75
    manufacturers and trade names, 75
    production, 76f
    properties, 75
    Styrenic butadiene block copolymer
    (SBC), 7678
    applications and end uses, 78
    manufacturers and trade names, 78
    “microscopic” structure, 78f
    Styrenic plastics
    ABS, 6473
    advantage, 65
    applications and uses, 65
    grades available, 65
    manufacturers and trade names, 65
    polymerization, 65f
    ASA, 4345
    applications and uses, 45
    manufacturers and trade names, 45
    blends and alloys, 7994
    applications and uses, 81
    manufacturers and trade names, 81
    MABS, 74
    applications and uses, 74
    manufacturers and trade names, 74
    overview, 43
    polystyrene, 43
    applications and uses, 43
    chemical structure, 44f
    expanded, 43
    forms, 43
    manufacturers and trade names, 43
    SAN, 4563
    applications and uses, 55
    manufacturers and trade names, 55
    SBC, 7678
    applications and end uses, 78
    manufacturers and trade names, 78
    “microscopic” structure, 78f
    SMA
    applications and uses, 7576
    description, 75
    manufacturers and trade names, 75
    production, 76f
    properties, 75
    Styrolution® PS HIPS
    creep rupture curves in olive oil/oleic
    acid, 49f
    creep rupture curves in stress cracking
    testing, 50f
    Styrolution® PS polystyrene resins
    creep rupture curves
    of high-impact, at 20°C, 48f
    of several general purpose, 49f
    Styrolux® 656C
    creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 79f
    at 40°C, 80f
    at 60°C, 80f
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 78f
    at 40°C, 79f
    at 60°C, 79f
    Syndiotactic polypropenes/polypropylenes,
    27, 27f
    T
    Tangent modulus, 39
    Teflon® FEP
    creep strain in compression vs. time
    at 23°C and various stress levels,
    395f
    at 100°C and various stress levels,
    395f
    Teflon® FEP 100
    stress relaxation vs. time
    at 23°C and various strain rates,
    397f
    at 100°C and various strain rates,
    397f
    tensile creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C and various stress levels,
    393f
    at 254°C and various stress levels,
    393f
    488 INDEXat 100°C and various stress levels,
    394f
    at 175°C and various stress levels,
    394f
    torsional creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C and various stress levels,
    396f
    at 100°C and various stress levels,
    396f
    Teflon® PFA, 400f
    tensile creep strain vs. time at 23°C,
    399f
    tensile creep strain vs. time at 100°C,
    399f
    tensile creep strain vs. time at 200°C,
    400f
    Teflon® PTFE
    compressive creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C and various stress levels, 378f
    at 100°C and various stress levels,
    378f
    shear creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C and various stress levels,
    379f
    at 100°C and various stress levels,
    379f
    tensile creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C and various stress levels,
    376f
    at 254°C and various stress levels,
    376f
    at 100°C and various stress levels,
    377f
    at 200°C and various stress levels,
    377f
    tensile strength relaxation
    at 23°C and various strain levels,
    380f
    at 100°C and various strain levels,
    380f
    Tefzel® ETFE, 389f
    Tefzel® ETFE HT-2004
    apparent flexural modulus vs. time at
    various temperatures, 390f
    flexural creep strain vs. time at various
    temperatures and stress levels,
    389f
    Terblend® N NG-02
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 92f
    at 60°C, 92f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 92f
    at 60°C, 93f
    Terblend® N NM-19
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 90f
    at 40°C, 90f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 91f
    at 60°C, 91f
    Terlux® 2802 TR
    creep modulus vs. time
    at 60°C, 75f
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 74f
    at 40°C, 74f
    at 60°C, 74f
    Thermal stabilizers, 35
    Thermocomp® BF-1004, 64f
    Thermocompt DF006
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 144f
    at 70°C, 145f
    Thermocomp® PF004, 250f
    Thermocomp® PF-1006FR, 250f
    Thermocomp® QF006, 285f
    Thermocomp® QF008, 286f
    Thermocomp® QF012, 286f
    Thermocomp® SAN grades, 63f
    Thermoplastic copolyester elastomers
    (TPE-E or COPE), 358365
    applications and end uses, 358
    manufacturers and trade names, 358
    Thermoplastic elastomer (TPE)
    advantages, 355
    description, 355
    polyether block amides (PEBAs),
    366371
    applications and end uses, 368
    description, 366368
    manufacturers and trade names, 368
    properties, 355
    hard phase, 355
    soft phase, 355
    thermoplastic copolyester elastomers
    (TPE-E or COPE), 358365
    applications and end uses, 358
    manufacturers and trade names, 358
    thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO), 366
    applications and uses, 366
    description, 366
    manufacturers and trade names,
    366
    thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU),
    355357
    aliphatic, 356
    applications and end uses, 357
    aromatic, 356
    description, 355
    manufacturers and trade names, 357
    molecular structure, 356f
    polycaprolactone, 356
    polyester, 355356
    polyether, 356
    Thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO), 366
    applications and uses, 366
    description, 366
    manufacturers and trade names, 366
    Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU),
    355357
    aliphatic, 356
    applications and end uses, 357
    aromatic, 356
    description, 355
    manufacturers and trade names,
    357
    molecular structure, 356f
    polycaprolactone, 356
    polyester, 355
    characteristic features, 356
    polyether, 356
    characteristic features, 356
    Thermoplastics, 29
    Thermosets, 29. See also Thermoplastics
    Thermx® CG993
    flexural creep at 80°C and various
    stress levels, 202f
    Titanium dioxide (TiO2), 35
    Topas® COC products, 347
    Torlon® 4203L
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 231f
    at 204°C, 231f
    Torlon® 4275
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 233f
    at 204°C, 234f
    Torlon® 4301
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 232f
    at 204°C, 232f
    Torlon® 4375
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 233f
    Torlon® 5030
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 234f
    at 204°C, 235f
    Torlon® 7130
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 235f
    at 204°C, 236f
    Torsional constant (K),, 2, 2f
    Tortuous path effect, 31, 32f
    Toughener, 34, 34f
    Toyolac® 100 ABS resin
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 68f
    and 15 MPa tensile stress,
    69f
    and various stress, 68f
    Toyolac® 500 ABS resin, 69f
    Toyolac® antistatic ABS resin,
    69f
    TPXt PMP resin, 346f
    Trogamid® CX7323
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 296f
    at 40°C, 296f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 297f
    at 40°C, 297f
    INDEX 489Trogamid® T5000
    internal pressure creep of filter cups,
    296f
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 20°C, 295f
    at 80°C, 295f
    U
    Udel® P-1700
    apparent creep modulus vs. time
    at various temperatures,
    467f
    tensile creep strain vs. time in air
    at 99°C, 465f
    at 149°C, 466f
    tensile creep strain vs. time in water
    at 23°C, 466f
    at 60°C, 467f
    Ultem® 1000
    chemical structure, 215f
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 216f
    at 60°C, 217f
    at 100°C, 217f
    at 150°C, 218f
    Ultem® 2200
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 218f
    at 60°C, 219f
    at 100°C, 219f
    at 150°C, 220f
    Ultem® 2400
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 220f
    at 60°C, 221f
    at 100°C, 221f
    at 150°C, 222f
    Ultem® 5000 series, chemical structure,
    214f
    Ultem® 6000 series, chemical structure,
    215f
    Ultem® CRS5001
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 224f
    at 60°C, 225f
    at 100°C, 225f
    at 150°C, 226f
    Ultem® PEI resins
    creep modulus vs. time at 23°C and
    34.5 MPa stress, 223f
    creep modulus vs. time at 23°C and
    48.3 MPa stress, 222f
    creep modulus vs. time at 82°C and
    23.6 MPa stress, 224f
    creep modulus vs. time at 82°C and
    34.5 MPa stress, 223f
    Ultem® XH6050
    chemical structure, 215f
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 226f
    at 127°C, 227f
    at 150°C, 227f
    Ultradur® B4300 G6
    isochronous stress at 140°C, 172f
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 171f
    at 60°C, 172f
    at 100°C, 172f
    Ultradur® B4520
    isochronous stress 0 at 60°C, 171f
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 171f
    at 100°C, 171f
    Ultraform® H4320, 122f
    Ultraform® N2200 G43
    creep modulus vs. time curves
    at 23°C, 124f
    isochronous stress-strain curves
    at 23°C, 123f
    at 40°C, 123f
    at 80°C, 123f
    at 100°C, 123f
    at 120°C, 124f
    Ultraform® N2200 G53
    creep modulus vs. time curves
    at 23°C, 126f
    at 40°C, 127f
    isochronous stress-strain curves
    at 23°C, 125f
    at 40°C, 125f
    at 60°C, 125f
    at 80°C, 125f
    at 100°C, 126f
    at 120°C, 126f
    Ultraform® N2320 003
    isochronous stress-strain at 23°C, 121f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time at 23°C,
    122f
    tensile creep strain vs. time at 23°C,
    121f
    Ultraform® N2720 and M210
    creep modulus vs. time curves
    at 23°C, 128f
    isochronous stress-strain curves
    at 23°C, 127f
    at 60°C, 127f
    at 120°C, 128f
    Ultraform® N2720 M63
    creep modulus vs. time curves
    at 23°C, 130f
    at 40°C, 130f
    isochronous stress-strain curves
    at 23°C, 129f
    at 40°C, 129f
    at 60°C, 129f
    at 100°C, 129f
    Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene
    (UHMWPE), 321
    Ultra low density polyethylene (ULDPE),
    321
    Ultramid® A 3K
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 284f
    at 120°C, 284f
    Ultramid® A 3WG10
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 284f
    at 120°C, 284f
    Ultramid® B5, 249f
    Ultrason® E 2010
    1000-h isochronous stress-strain at
    various temperatures, 434f
    tensile creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C and at various stress levels,
    435f
    at 140°C and at various stress levels,
    435f
    Ultrason® E 2010 C6, 438f
    Ultrason® E 2010 G4, 436f
    Ultrason® E 2010 G6
    creep strain vs. time curves
    at 23°C, 436f
    at 180°C, 437f
    tensile creep strength in water vs. time
    at various temperatures, 437f
    Ultrason® E-3010
    tensile creep strength in water vs. time
    at 23°C and various stress levels,
    438f
    at 140°C and various stress levels,
    439f
    at 180°C and various stress levels,
    439f
    Ultrason® P 3010
    elongation-time curves at 23°C, 471f
    elongation-time curves at 180°C,
    472f
    long-term hydrostatic strength at
    various temperatures, 472f
    Ultrason® S 2010
    1000-h isochronous stress-strain at
    various temperatures, 460f
    hoop stress vs. time, 461f
    tensile creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 460f
    at 140°C, 461f
    Ultrason® S 2010 G4, 463f
    Ultrason® S 2010 G6
    tensile creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 463f
    at 140°C, 464f
    tensile creep strength vs. time,
    464f
    Ultrason® S 2010 G8, 465f
    Ultrason® S 3010
    creep strength vs. time, 462f
    tensile creep strain vs. time at 23°C,
    462f
    Unsaturation. See Molecular unsaturation
    UV/radiation stabilizers, 34
    490 INDEXV
    Valox® 508
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 206f
    at 60°C, 207f
    at 82°C, 207f
    at 121°C, 208f
    Van der Waals forces, 2728
    Vectra® A130, 198f
    Vectra® A950, 197f
    Vectra® B130, 199f
    Vectra® C130, 200f
    Vectra® E130i, 200f
    Vectra® H140, 201f
    Veradel® A-200A
    apparent creep modulus vs. time at a
    stress of 20.7 MPa, 440f
    1000-h isochronous stress-strain at
    various temperatures, 440f
    Veradel® A-201, 441f
    Veradel® AG-230, 441f, 442f
    Vertron® MV00AS, 345f
    Vertron® MV006S, 343f
    Vertron® MV008S
    creep strain vs. time
    23°C, 343f
    50°C, 344f
    70°C, 344f
    Very low density polyethylene (VLDPE),
    321
    Vespel® SP21-15% graphite filled PI resin
    creep modulus vs. time at various
    temperatures and stress, 239f
    creep strain vs. time at various
    temperatures, 238f
    Vespel® SP21-unfilled PI resin
    creep modulus vs. time at various
    temperatures and stress,
    238f
    creep strain vs. time at various
    temperatures, 237f
    Vespel® SP22
    creep modulus vs. time at various
    temperatures and stress, 240f
    creep strain vs. time at various
    temperatures, 239f
    Vespel® thermoplastic PI
    resins, 244f
    Vespel® TP-8000 series, chemical
    structure, 236f
    Vespel® TP-8054, 240f
    Vespel® TP-8130, 241f
    Vespel® TP-8212, 241f
    Vespel® TP-8311, 242f
    Vespel® TP-8395, 242f
    Vespel® TP-8549, 243f
    Vespel® TP-8792, 243f
    Vestamid® D16
    tensile creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 289f
    at 60°C, 289f
    at 100°C, 290f
    tensile creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 287f
    at 60°C, 288f
    at 100°C, 288f
    VESTAMID® E40-S3 PEBA resin
    tensile creep strain vs. time at 23°C,
    369f
    tensile creep strain vs. time at 60°C, 369f
    tensile creep strain vs. time at 80°C, 370f
    VESTAMID® E47-S3 PEBA resin
    tensile creep strain vs. time at 23°C,
    370f
    tensile creep strain vs. time at 60°C,
    371f
    tensile creep strain vs. time at 80°C,
    371f
    Vestamid® L2124
    tensile creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 264f
    at 60°C, 264f
    at 100°C, 265f
    tensile creep vs. time
    at 23°C, 262f
    at 60°C, 263f
    at 100°C, 263f
    Vestamid® L2140
    tensile creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 261f
    at 60°C, 261f
    at 100°C, 262f
    tensile creep vs. time
    at 23°C, 259f
    at 60°C, 260f
    at 100°C, 260f
    Vestamid® L-GF30
    tensile creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 267f
    at 60°C, 267f
    at 100°C, 268f
    tensile creep vs. time
    at 23°C, 265f
    at 60°C, 266f
    at 100°C, 266f
    Vestamid® VX7099
    tensile creep modulus vs. time at 23°C,
    291f
    tensile creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 290f
    Vestodur® 2000
    tensile creep modulus curves
    at 23°C, 164f
    at 100°C, 164f
    tensile creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 163f
    at 100°C, 163f
    Vestodur® GF30
    tensile creep modulus
    at 23°C, 168f
    at 100°C, 168f
    tensile creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 167f
    at 100°C, 167f
    Vestodur® HI19
    tensile creep modulus
    at 23°C, 166f
    at 100°C, 166f
    tensile creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 165f
    at 100°C, 165f
    Vestodur® HI19-GF30
    tensile creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 170f
    at 100°C, 170f
    tensile creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 169f
    at 100°C, 169f
    Vestoran®
    creep modulus vs. time at 23°C, 138f
    creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 138f
    Victrex® 450CA30
    tensile creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C and various stress levels, 415f
    at 150°C and various stress levels, 416f
    Victrex® 450G
    tensile creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C and various stress levels, 414f
    at 150°C and various stress levels, 415f
    Victrex® HT, 422f
    Victrex® PEEK resins
    hoop stress vs. time at 23°C, 417f
    hoop stress vs. time at 150°C, 417f
    tensile creep modulus vs. time at
    various temperatures and various
    strain, 416f
    Victrex® ST G45, 423f
    Von Mises equivalent stress formula, 4
    X
    Xenoy®, 208f
    Xenoy® 6370
    creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 209f
    at 60°C, 209f
    at 90°C, 210f
    Y
    Young’s modulus, 39
    Z
    Zenite® 6130 BK010
    isochronous stress-strain at 100°C
    after annealing at 250°C, 198f
    as molded, 199f
    Zytel® 101
    flexural creep modulus vs. time
    at 23°C, 273f
    at 60°C, 273f
    flexural creep strain vs. time
    at 23°C, 272f
    INDEX 491Zytel® 101 (Continued)
    flexural isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 272f
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 271f
    at 60°C, 271f
    at 100°C, 272f
    Zytel® 101F
    creep in flexure vs. time
    at 60°C, 274f
    at 125°C, 274f
    Zytel® 70G13
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 276f
    at 60°C, 276f
    Zytel® 70G30HSLR
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 276f
    at 80°C, 277f
    at 100°C, 277f
    Zytel® 70G33HS1L, 278f
    Zytel® 70G33L
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 277f
    at 125°C, 277f
    Zytel® 70G43L
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 282f
    at 60°C, 282f
    at 100°C, 282f
    at 125°C, 282f
    Zytel® 73G30L NC010
    isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 251f
    at 60°C, 251f
    at 90°C, 252f
    Zytel® 77G43L
    isochronous stress-strain in flexure
    at 23°C, 292f
    at 125°C, 292f
    Zytel® 158L NC010
    isochronous stress-strain in
    flexure
    at 23°C, 291f
    at 60°C, 291f
    Zytel® 408HS, 275f
    Zytel® 408HSL
    flexural isochronous stress-strain
    at 23°C, 275f
    at 125°C, 275f
    Zytel® 408L, 275f

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