The Design, Development and Testing of a Tube Launched UAV

The Design, Development and Testing of a Tube Launched UAV
اسم المؤلف
Gursimrat Singh BAWA
التاريخ
1 يوليو 2020
المشاهدات
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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رسالة دكتوراة بعنوان
The Design, Development and Testing of a Tube Launched UAV
Author:
Gursimrat Singh BAWA
Supervisor:
A.Prof. K.C. WONG
A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of
the requirements for the degree of
Master of Professional Engineering (Aerospace)
at
School of Aerospace,Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and Information Technologies
University of Sydney
Contents
Declaration of Authorship i
Abstract ii
Acknowledgements iii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Scope . 2
1.3 Objectives 3
1.4 Thesis Overview 3
2 Literature Review 5
2.1 Background Research 5
2.1.1 Industrial Developments . 5
COYOTE : BAE Systems 5
CUTLASS : L-3 Systems 6
HORUS : OTO Melara . 7
SWITCHBLADE : Aerovironment Inc . 8
WASP : MIT . 9
SILENTEYES : Raytheon 10
SKYLITE A : Rafael . 11
2.1.2 Naval Research Laboratory Developments . 12
2.1.3 Developments at AeroMech, The University of Sydney 13
AUGENAUT 13
SLUAV : Alex Lautenschlager . 14
2.1.4 Sonobuoys 16
2.2 Flying Wings . 18
2.2.1 Flying Wing Airfoils 19
2.2.2 Sweep Effect . 21
2.2.3 Washout Effect . 23
2.2.4 Lateral Control . 24
3 Design Methodology 25
3.1 Design Requirements 25
3.1.1 Interpretation of RFP 25v
3.1.2 Translating Mission Requirements to Prototype
Design Requirements . 26
3.2 Conceptual Design . 27
3.2.1 Choice of Configuration 27
3.3 Preliminary Sizing . 30
3.3.1 Components . 31
3.3.2 Control System . 31
3.3.3 Propulsion System Selection . 31
3.4 Constraint Mapping 34
3.5 Deployment Mechanism 36
4 Aerodynamic Analysis 38
4.1 Coefficient of Lift Envelope calculations . 38
4.2 Airfoil Selection . 38
4.3 Wing Geometry . 40
4.3.1 Control Surface Sizing . 42
4.3.2 Winglet Sizing 43
4.3.3 Wing Geometry Summary . 43
4.4 Stability Analysis : XFLR5 . 44
5 Mark 1 46
5.1 Detailed Design . 46
5.2 Weight and Balance Table . 46
5.3 Manufacturing 47
5.3.1 Wings 47
5.3.2 Fuselage . 51
5.4 Flight Testing 54
5.4.1 Glide Tests 54
5.4.2 Powered Test 55
5.5 Testing Summary 56
6 Mark 2 : ’The BAT’ 58
6.1 Design 58
6.1.1 Wing Sizing . 58
6.2 CAD . 60
6.2.1 Pivot Assembly . 60
6.3 LUG Design Iteration 61
6.3.1 Lug Iteration 1 . 62
6.3.2 Lug Iteration 2 . 63
6.3.3 Lug Iteration 3 . 63
6.4 Deployment Actuator : Torsion Spring 64
6.5 Wing Holding: Magnets 66
6.6 Deployment Sequence . 66
6.7 Manufacturing 67vi
6.7.1 Push Rods 67
6.8 Flight Testing 69
6.8.1 Post Flight Analysis 69
6.8.2 Recommended Solution 70
7 Summary, Conclusions and Future Work 73
7.1 Summary and Conclusions 73
7.1.1 Mark 1 74
7.1.2 Mark 2: The BAT 75
7.2 Future Work . 76
A Matlab Scripts 78
B Airfoil Selection 81
C MS Excel Based Design Sheet 83
D CAD Drawings 85
Bibliography 9
List of Figures
2.1 BAE Coyote, parachute module and the sonobuoy launch
containers 6
2.2 Cutlass UAV stowed and deployed, (Right) Gimbal mounted
nose camera . 7
2.3 OTO Melara’s HORUS . 8
2.4 Aerovironments Switchblade . 9
2.5 Supershell Concept stages . 10
2.6 Raytheon’s SilentEyes UAV 11
2.7 Rafael’s Skylite A 12
2.8 UAVs developed at the Naval Research Laboratory 14
2.9 Sydney University’s Augenaut UAV . 14
2.10 SLUAV developed by Alex Lautenschlager at Sydney
University 15
2.11 2014-Advance Aircraft Design Team’s YAK developed at
Sydney University . 16
2.12 A fleet of US Navy, standard Class A Sonobuoys . 17
2.13 Flying Wing UAV configurations 18
2.14 Types of flying wing aircrafts 20
2.15 Forces acting on a Reflexed Airfoil . 21
2.16 Comparison between a Reflexed airfoil and Symmetric Airfoil 21
2.17 Typical effect of sweep angle on lift distribution . 22
2.18 Wing Twist 23
3.1 Conceptual design sketches 28
3.2 OpenVSP Conceptual Drawing 29
3.3 Preliminary Sizing parameters 30
3.4 Static Thrust bench test setup 32
3.5 Constraint diagram for Tube Launched mission profile . 35
3.6 First stage of Tube Launch . 36
3.7 Second stage of Tube Launch . 37
3.8 Third Launch Stage. Span-wise unfolding of wing halves 37
4.1 Lift Coefficient Comparison 39
4.2 Pitching Moment Comparison . 40
4.3 Selected Airfoil MH70 40viii
4.4 Right wing folded positioning in the launch tube 42
4.5 Control surface size optimisation 42
4.6 Winglet Sizing 43
4.7 Mark 1 setup in XFLR5 . 44
4.8 Component arrangement in XFLR5 for Mark1 . 44
4.9 Pitching Moment dependency as a function of varying Static
Margin . 45
5.2 Hot Wire cutting of foam core 47
5.3 Butt Joining balsa strips to form sheets 48
5.4 MH70 camber plotted on balsa blocks to sand leading edges 49
5.5 (Left) Curing trailing edges. (Right) Spackle applied to fill gaps. 49
5.6 Left wing covered in blue monokote film . 50
5.7 Wings pivoted around an aluminium tube and held by screws. 50
5.8 Illustration showing lack of lug’s load bearing capacity . 51
5.9 Revised Spar and Lugs . 51
5.10 Load bearing test of the revised lug 52
5.11 Mark 1 Fuselage . 52
5.12 Rear fuselage with sweep lock screw 53
5.13 Misaligned wingtips with the airflow . 53
5.14 Makeshift winglets attached to the wingtips . 53
5.15 Mark 1 CG balancing . 54
5.16 Mark 1 undergoing a Roll Manoeuvre 55
5.17 Trim routine (Taken at 0.5 second intervals) . 55
5.18 Mark 1 climbing vertically and recovering from a downward
spin . 56
5.19 Mark 1 low fly-pass . 56
6.1 Fuselage dimensioning convention followed . 59
6.2 The BAT designed in SolidWorks15 60
6.3 Exploded View of the BAT’s pivot assembly . 61
6.4 (Left) Lug 1 designed in SolidWorks 1 .(Right) Lug 1 3D
printed outputs . 62
6.5 (Left) Lug 2 designed in SolidWorks 1 .(Right) Lug 2 3D
printed outputs . 63
6.6 (Left) Lug 3 designed in SolidWorks 1 .(Right) Lug 3 3D
printed outputs . 64
6.7 Sourced set of Torsion Springs . 65
6.8 Resultant drag acting on wing centre . 66
6.9 Rare earth magnet arrangement 66
6.10 The BAT’s deployment sequence testing 67
6.11 The BAT under construction 68
6.12 3D push rod system . 68
6.13 The BAT’s bungee launch 69ix
6.14 Spar failure close-up . 70
6.15 Load path tracing . 70
6.16 Reinforced spar assembly (exploded view) 71
6.17 Reinforced spar section with spar caps and new locking bolt 72
7.1 Mark 1 before first launch 75
7.2 The BAT before first launch . 76
B.1 Airfoil trade-off table . 82
C.1 Wing geometry parameters. Ones highlighted in red are to be
entered by the user 83
C.2 Sweep calculations and dependencies on the static margin 84
C.3 Washout calculation using Pankin’s Method 84x
List of Tables
3.1 Commercial Flying Wing study 30
3.2 Static thrust bench test readings 33
4.1 Lift comparison between normal and span-folded wing 41
5.1 Mark 1 build dimensions 46
5.2 Weight and Balance table 47
6.1 The BAT build dimensions . 59
6.2 Selected torsion spring’s characteristics . 65xi
List of Abbreviations
UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
SLUAV Sonobuoy Launched UAV
VLM Vortex Lattice Method
PVC PolyVinyl Chloride
CAD Computer Aided Design
NM Nautical Mile
KTS Knots
AGL Above Ground Level
RFP Request For Proposal
MTOW Maximum Take-Off Weight
LiPO Lithium Polymer
CASA Civial Aviation Safety Authority
CG Centre of Gravity
NACA National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
PLA PolyLactic Acid
MPS Metres Per Second
W Watt
DC Direct Current
HP Horse Power
AR Aspect Ratioxi
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