The Basics of Hydraulic Systems

The Basics of Hydraulic Systems
اسم المؤلف
غير معروف
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24 مايو 2022
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The Basics of Hydraulic Systems
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section Page
Subcourse Overview . i
Administrative Instructions . iv
Grading and Certification Instructions iv
Lesson 1: Basic Hydraulics . 1
Practice Exercise . 19
Answer Key and Feedback . 22
Lesson 2: Hydraulic Plumbing 25
Practice Exercise . 69
Answer Key and Feedback . 71
Appendix A: Proof Testing of Hose Assemblies 72
Appendix B: Glossary 73
Examination . 78
Student Inquiry Sheet
Hydraulics
Table of Contents
Page
LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES vii
Figures vii
Tables . xiii
PREFACE . xiv
CHAPTER 1. Hydraulic Basics . 1-1
1-1. Pressure and Force . 1-1
Pressure . 1-1
Force . 1-3
1-2. Pascal’s Law . 1-4
1-3. Flow . 1-6
Velocity . 1-6
Flow Rate . 1-6
1-4. Energy, Work, and Power . 1-6
Potential Energy . 1-6
Kinetic Energy . 1-6
Heat Energy and Friction . 1-6
Relationship Between Velocity and Pressure . 1-7
Work . 1-8
Power . 1-8
CHAPTER 2. Hydraulic Systems . 2-1
2-1. Basic Systems . 2-1
Hydraulic Jack . 2-1
Motor-Reversing System 2-1
Open-Center System . 2-2
Closed-Center System . 2-5
© OS-Software
iFM 5-499
ii
Page
2-2. Color Coding 2-9
2-3. Reservoirs 2-9
Construction 2-9
Shape . 2-10
Size 2-10
Location . 2-10
Ventilation and Pressurization 2-11
Line Connections . 2-11
Maintenance . 2-11
2-4. Strainers and Filters 2-11
Strainers 2-12
Filters 2-12
2-5. Filtering Material and Elements . 2-14
2-6. Accumulators . 2-14
Spring-Loaded Accumulator 2-14
Bag-Type Accumulator . 2-15
Piston-Type Accumulator . 2-15
Maintenance . 2-15
2-7. Pressure Gauges and Volume Meters . 2-17
Pressure Gauges 2-17
Meters 2-17
2-8. Portable Hydraulic-Circuit Testers . 2-18
Testers 2-18
Improper Operation . 2-18
2-9. Circulatory Systems . 2-18
Tubing 2-19
Piping 2-19
Flexible Hosing . 2-19
Installation 2-21
2-10.Fittings and Connectors 2-21
Threaded Connectors 2-21
Flared Connectors . 2-23
Flexible-Hose Couplings 2-25
Reusable Fittings . 2-25
2-11.Leakage . 2-29
Internal . 2-29
External . 2-30
Prevention . 2-30
2-12.Seals 2-30
Static Seals 2-31
Dynamic Seals . 2-31
Packing . 2-33
Seal Materials 2-34FM 5-499
iii
Page
CHAPTER 3. Pumps . 3-1
3-1. Pump Classifications . 3-1
Nonpositive-Displacement Pumps 3-1
Positive-Displacement Pumps 3-1
Characteristics 3-2
3-2. Performance 3-2
3-3. Displacement . 3-2
Fixed-Displacement Pump . 3-3
Variable-Displacement Pump 3-3
3-4. Slippage 3-3
3-5. Designs 3-3
Centrifugal Pump 3-3
Rotary Pump 3-4
Reciprocating Pump 3-4
3-6. Gear Pumps 3-4
External . 3-4
Internal 3-5
Lobe Pump . 3-6
3-7. Vane Pumps 3-6
Characteristics 3-6
Unbalanced Vane Pumps 3-6
Balanced Vane Pumps 3-7
Double Pumps 3-7
Two-Stage Pumps 3-9
3-8. Piston Pumps 3-10
Radial 3-10
Axial Piston Pumps . 3-11
3-9. Pump Operation 3-14
Overloading . 3-14
Excess Speed 3-14
Cavitation . 3-14
Operating Problems . 3-15
CHAPTER 4. Hydraulic Actuators . 4-1
4-1. Cylinders . 4-1
Single-Acting Cylinder 4-1
Double-Acting Cylinder . 4-1
Differential Cylinder . 4-1
Nondifferential Cylinder 4-2
Ram-Type Cylinder 4-2
Piston-Type Cylinder . 4-3
Cushioned Cylinder 4-4
Lockout Cylinders . 4-4
4.2 Construction and Application 4-4FM 5-499
iv
Page
4-3. Maintenance 4-5
External Leakage 4-5
Internal Leakage 4-5
Creeping Cylinder 4-5
Sluggish Operation . 4-5
Loose Mounting . 4-5
Misalignment . 4-5
Lack of Lubrication . 4-7
Abrasives on a Piston Rod . 4-7
Burrs on a Piston Rod 4-7
Air Vents . 4-7
4-4. Hydraulic Motors 4-7
Gear-Type Motors 4-8
Vane-Type Motors 4-8
Piston-Type Motors 4-10
CHAPTER 5. Valves . 5-1
5-1. Pressure-Control Valves . 5-1
Relief Valves 5-2
Pressure-Reducing Valves . 5-3
Sequence Valves . 5-5
Counterbalance Valves 5-7
Pressure Switches 5-8
5-2. Directional-Control Valves . 5-8
Poppet Valve 5-9
Sliding-Spool Valve 5-10
Check Valves . 5-10
Two-Way Valve . 5-14
Four-Way Valves . 5-14
5-3. Flow-Control Valves . 5-19
Gate Valve . 5-19
Globe Valve 5-21
Needle Valve . 5-22
Restrictor 5-22
Orifice Check Valve . 5-23
Flow Equalizer . 5-23
5-4. Valve Installation . 5-25
Meter-In Circuit 5-25
Meter-Out Circuit . 5-25
Bleed-Off Circuit 5-26
Compensated Flow 5-26
5-5. Valve Failures and Remedies 5-26
Servicing Valves 5-27
Disassembling Valves 5-27
Repairing Valves 5-28FM 5-499
v
Page
5-6. Valve Assembly . 5-29
5-7. Troubleshooting Valves 5-30
Pressure-Control Valves . 5-30
Directional-Control Valves . 5-32
Volume-Control Valves 5-33
CHAPTER 6. Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting . 6-1
6-1. Hydraulic-Circuit Diagrams . 6-1
6-2. United States of American Standards Institute (USASI) Graphical . 6-1
Symbols
Reservoir . 6-4
Lines 6-4
Pump 6-4
Motor 6-5
Cylinder . 6-5
Pressure-Control Valves 6-5
Flow-Control Valves 6-7
Directional-Control Valves 6-7
Accessories . 6-9
6-3. Typical Mobile Circuits 6-11
Hydraulic-Lift Circuit . 6-11
Power-Steering Circuits 6-12
Road-Patrol-Truck Circuits . 6-12
6-4. Troubleshooting 6-13
Causes of Improper Operations 6-13
Testing a Hydraulic Circuit . 6-13
Comparing Test Results with Specifications . 6-13
Slippage 6-15
Flow and Pressure 6-15
Other Conditions . 6-15
Specific Troubles, Causes, and Solutions 6-16
CHAPTER 7. Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety . 7-1
7-1. Hydraulics and Electricity . 7-1
7-2. Troubleshooting Electrical Devices 7-1
Procedure 7-5
Testing Devices . 7-6
7-3. Ground 7-8
Earth Ground . 7-8
Chassis or Common Ground . 7-9
Zero Reference Point . 7-9
Isolation Between Earth and Chassis Ground 7-10
7-4. Safety 7-10
Information 7-10
Practices 7-11FM 5-499
vi
Page
APPENDIX A. Metric Conversion Chart . Appendix-1
GLOSSARY Glossary-1
REFERENCES . References-1
INDEX . Index-1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section Page
Subcourse Overview . i
Terminal Learning Objective . ii
Administrative Instructions . iv
Grading and Certification Instructions iv
Lesson 1: Hydraulic Reservoirs, Filters, Pumps,
Accumulators, and Motors 1
Practice Exercise . 19
Answer Key and Feedback . 22
Lesson 2: Basic Construction and Operation of Hydraulic
Actuating Devices, Flow Control, and Directional
Devices . 25
Practice Exercise . 43
Answer Key and Feedback . 46
Lesson 3: Hydraulic Pressure-Limiting, Controlling, and
Sensing Devices . 49
Practice Exercise . 55
Answer Key and Feedback . 58
Examination 61
Appendix: Glossary . 69
Student Inquiry Sheets
Engineering and Design
DESIGN OF HYDRAULIC STEEL
STRUCTURES
Table of Contents
Subject Paragraph Page Subject Paragraph Page
Chapter 1 Commentary on Paragraph 3-4,
Introduction Reliability Factors for HSS . 3-8 3-2
Purpose 1-1 1-1 Commentary on Paragraph 3-6, Fatigue
Applicability 1-2 1-1 and Fracture Control 3-9 3-3
References 1-3 1-1
Background . 1-4 1-1 Chapter 4
Commentary on Paragraph 1-4, Allowable Stress Design
Background 1-5 1-1 General . 4-1 4-1
Design Basis . 4-2 4-1
Chapter 2 Load and Stress Requirements . 4-3 4-1
General Considerations HSS Types: Modifications for
Limit States 2-1 2-1 Allowable Stresses . 4-4 4-1
Corrosion 2-2 2-1 Serviceability Requirements 4-5 4-1
Dynamic Loading 2-3 2-1 Fatigue and Fracture Control . 4-6 4-1
Inspection and Maintenance 2-4 2-1 Commentary on Paragraph 4-3, Load and
Deviations from Prescribed Stress Requirements . 4-7 4-2
Design 2-5 2-1 Commentary on Paragraph 4-4, HSS Types:
Commentary on Paragraph 2-2, Modifications for Allowable
Corrosion 2-6 2-1 Stresses 4-8 4-2
Commentary on Paragraph 2-3, Dynamic
Loading 2-7 2-2 Chapter 5
Connections and Details
Chapter 3 General . 5-1 5-1
Load and Resistance Factor Design Design Considerations 5-2 5-1
General . 3-1 3-1 Bolted Connections 5-3 5-1
Design Basis . 3-2 3-1 Welded Connections . 5-4 5-1
Strength Requirements 3-3 3-1 Commentary on Paragraph 5-1,
Reliability Factors for HSS 3-4 3-1 General 5-5 5-1
Serviceability Requirements 3-5 3-1 Commentary on Paragraph 5-2,
Fatigue and Fracture Control . 3-6 3-2 Design Considerations 5-6 5-2
Commentary on Paragraph 3-2, Design
Basis 3-7 3-2
iEM 1110-2-2105
Change 1
31 May 94
Subject Paragraph Page
Commentary on Paragraph 5-3, Bolted
Connections 5-7 5-2
Commentary on Paragraph 5-4, Welded
Connections 5-8 5-2
Appendix A
References
Appendix B
Load and Resistance Factor Design
Criteria for Miter Gates
Appendix C
Tainter Gates
Appendix D
Tainter Valves
Appendix E
Bulkheads and Stoplogs
Appendix F
Vertical Lift Gates (Lock and Crest)
Appendix G
Hydroelectric and Pumping Plants

  • Appendix H
    Flood Closure Structures
    Appendix I
    Miscellaneous Hydraulic Steel Structures
    Figure Page
    B-1. Point load impact for miter
    gate girders . B-3
    B-2. Assumptions for intercostal
    end connections B-5
    B-3. Nomenclature and assumed load
    area for intercostal design . B-6
    B-4. Vertical cross section for
    example miter gate B-8
    B-5. Example miter gate loading B-9
    Figure Page
    B-6. Nomenclature for skin plate
    design . B-11
    B-7. Sample intercostal section . B-12
    B-8. Girder hydrostatic loading and
    reactions . B-14
    B-9. Sample girder cross section B-14
    B-10. Example miter leaf torsion loads . B-19
    Engineering and Design
    LUBRICANTS AND HYDRAULIC FLUIDS
    Table of Contents
    Subject Paragraph Page
    Chapter 1
    Introduction
    Purpose . 1-1 1-1
    Applicability 1-2 1-1
    References . 1-3 1-1
    Distribution Statement . 1-4 1-1
    Scope 1-5 1-2
    Chapter 2
    Lubrication Principles
    Friction 2-1 2-1
    Wear . 2-2 2-4
    Lubrication and Lubricants 2-3 2-6
    Hydrodynamic or Fluid Film Lubrication 2-4 2-6
    Boundary Lubrication 2-5 2-8
    Extreme Pressure (EP) Lubrication 2-6 2-9
    Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) Lubrication . 2-7 2-9
    Chapter 3
    Lubricating Oils
    Oil Refining . 3-1 3-1
    Types of Oil 3-2 3-2
    Characteristics of Lubricating Oils . 3-3 3-4
    Oil Classifications and Grading Systems 3-4 3-7
    Chapter 4
    Hydraulic Fluids
    Purpose of Hydraulic Fluids . 4-1 4-1
    Physical Characteristics . 4-2 4-1
    Quality Requirements . 4-3 4-2
    Use of Additives 4-4 4-4
    Types of Hydraulic Fluids . 4-5 4-4
    Cleanliness Requirements . 4-6 4-6
    iEM 1110-2-1424
    28 Feb 99
    ii
    Subject Paragraph Page
    Chapter 5
    Grease
    Description . 5-1 5-1
    Function . 5-2 5-1
    Grease Characteristics . 5-3 5-2
    Fluid Lubricants . 5-4 5-5
    Soap Thickeners . 5-5 5-5
    Complex Soap . 5-6 5-6
    Additives . 5-7 5-6
    Types of Greases . 5-8 5-6
    Compatibility 5-9 5-8
    Grease Application Guide . 5-10 5-8
    Chapter 6
    Nonfluid Lubrication
    Solid Lubrication . 6-1 6-1
    Self-Lubricating Bearings 6-2 6-6
    Self-Lubricating Bearings for Olmsted Wicket Gates Prototype Tests 6-3 6-7
    Chapter 7
    Lubricant Additives
    General 7-1 7-1
    Surface Additives . 7-2 7-1
    Performance-Enhancing Additives 7-3 7-3
    Lubricant Protective Additives . 7-4 7-3
    Precautions . 7-5 7-4
    Chapter 8
    Environmentally Acceptable Lubricants
    General 8-1 8-1
    Definition of Environmentally Acceptable (EA) Lubricants 8-2 8-1
    Biodegradation . 8-3 8-2
    Toxicity 8-4 8-3
    EA Base Fluids and Additives . 8-5 8-3
    Properties of Available EA Products 8-6 8-6
    Environmentally Acceptable Guidelines 8-7 8-8
    Changing from Conventional to EA Lubricants . 8-8 8-8
    Survey of Corps Users . 8-9 8-9
    USACE Contacts 8-10 8-10
    Chapter 9
    Gears
    General 9-1 9-1
    Gear Types . 9-2 9-1
    Gear Wear and Failure . 9-3 9-2
    Gear Lubrication . 9-4 9-6EM 1110-2-1424
    28 Feb 99
    iii
    Subject Paragraph Page
    Chapter 10
    Bearings
    General . 10-1 10-1
    Plain Bearings 10-2 10-1
    Rolling-Contact Bearings 10-3 10-6
    Calculation of Bearing Lubrication Interval 10-4 10-12
    Chapter 11
    Lubrication Applications
    Introduction 11-1 11-1
    Turbines, Generators, Governors, and Transformers 11-2 11-1
    Main Pumps and Motors 11-3 11-5
    Gears, Gear Drives, and Speed Reducers 11-4 11-6
    Couplings . 11-5 11-8
    Hoists and Cranes . 11-6 11-9
    Wire Rope Lubrication . 11-7 11-10
    Chain Lubrication . 11-8 11-14
    Trashrake Systems and Traveling Water Screens 11-9 11-17
    Gates and Valves . 11-10 11-17
    Navigation Lock Gates, Culvert Valves, and Dam Gates . 11-11 11-24
    Information Sources for Lubricants . 11-12 11-26
    Chapter 12
    Operation and Maintenance Considerations
    Introduction 12-1 12-1
    Maintenance Schedules . 12-2 12-1
    Relative Cost of Lubricants 12-3 12-1
    Lubricating Oil Degradation 12-4 12-4
    Hydraulic Oil Degradation . 12-5 12-5
    Transformer and Circuit Breaker Insulating Oil Degradation . 12-6 12-6
    Essential Properties of Oil . 12-7 12-7
    Other Properties of Used Oils . 12-8 12-8
    Oil Monitoring Program . 12-9 12-9
    Oil Purification and Filtration . 12-10 12-14
    Oil Operating Temperature . 12-11 12-21
    Lubricant Storage and Handling 12-12 12-22
    Safety and Health Hazards 12-13 12-28
    Environmental Regulations 12-14 12-29
    Chapter 13
    Lubricant Specifications and Selection
    Introduction 13-1 13-1
    Lubricant Classification . 13-2 13-1
    Principles of Selection 13-3 13-4
    Specification Types 13-4 13-9
    Lubricant Consolidation . 13-5 13-10EM 1110-2-1424
    31 Jul 06
    Change 1
    iv
    Appendix A
    References
    Appendix B
    Survey of Locks and Dams for Lubricants
    Appendix C
    Specification for Turbine Oil
    TABLE OF CONTENTS
  1. GENERAL
  2. REFERENCES
  3. SUBMITTALS
  4. TURBINE OIL CHARACTERISTICS AND REQUIREMENTS
  5. COMPATIBILITY
  6. PRE-DELIVERY TESTING
  7. DELIVERY
  8. INSPECTION AND ACCEPTANCE.
  9. GENERAL
    This specification covers zinc and chlorine-free rust and oxidation inhibited (R&O) mineral oils for
    use in hydraulic turbine and generator bearings, Kaplan turbine hubs, hydraulic-turbine governors,
    and other applications, where high-grade turbine oil having anti-corrosion, anti-oxidation, and
    anti-foaming properties is required.
  10. REFERENCES
    The publications listed below form a part of this specification to the extent referenced. The
    publications are referred to in the text by basic designation only.
    AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS (ASTM)
    ASTM D 92 (2002b) Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open
    Cup
    ASTM D 97 (2004) Pour Point of Petroleum Oils
    ASTM D 130 (2004) Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum
    Products by Copper Strip Test
    ASTM D 445 (2004e1) Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and
    Opaque Liquids (and the Calibration of Dynamic
    Viscosity)
    ASTM D 664 (2004e1) Acid Number of Petroleum Products by
    Potentiometric Titration
    ASTM D 665 (2003) Rust-Preventing Characteristics of Inhibited
    Mineral Oil in the Presence of Water
    C-3EM 1110-2-1424
    26 Oct 07
    Change 2
    ASTM D 892 (2003) Foaming Characteristics of Lubricating Oils
    ASTM D 943 (2004a) Oxidation Characteristics of Inhibited
    Mineral Oils
    ASTM D 1401 (2002) Water Separability of Petroleum Oils and
    Synthetic Fluids
    ASTM D 2270 (2004) Calculating Viscosity Index from Kinematic
    Viscosity at 40 and 100 Degrees C
    ASTM D 2272 (2002) Oxidation Stability of Steam Turbine Oils by
    Rotating Pressure Vessel Oxidation Test
    ASTM D 3427 (2003) Air Release Properties of Petroleum Oils
    ASTM D 4057 (2000) Manual Sampling of Petroleum and
    Petroleum ProductsASTM D 4177 (2000)
    Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum
    Products)
    ASTM D 6304 (2004ae1) Water in Petroleum Products, Lubricating
    Oils, and Additives by Coulometric Karl Fisher
    Titration
    ASTM D 7155 (2006) Standard Practice for Evaluating
    Compatibility of Mixtures of Turbine Lubricating
    Oils
    INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION (ISO)
    ISO 4406 (1999) Coding the Level of Contamination by Solid
    Particles
    ISO 11171 (1999) Calibration Of Automatic Particle Counters
    TABLE OF CONTENTS
    Section Page
    Subcourse Overview i
    Administrative Instructions .iii
    Grading and Certification Instructions iv
    Lesson 1: Hydraulic Pumps .1­1
    Part A: Positive­Displacement Pumps .1­2
    Part B: Gear Pump .1­5
    Part C: Vane Pump .1­11
    Part D: Piston Pump .1­12
    Practice Exercise .1­19
    Answer Key and Feedback .1­22
    Lesson 2: Hydraulic Valves 2­1
    Part A: Pressure­Control Valves .2­2
    Part B: Directional­Control Valves .2­5
    Part C Control­Valve Repair .2­8
    Practice Exercise .2­15
    Answer Key and Feedback .2­18
    Examination E­1
    Appendix A: List of Common Acronyms .A­1
    Appendix B: Recommended Reading List B­1
    Appendix C: Metric Conversion Chart .C­1
    iii EN 5260Appendix D: Publication Extracts .D­1
    Student Inquiry Sheets
    Table of Contents
    Subject Paragraph Page
    CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
    Purpose 1-1 1-1
    Applicability 1-2 1-1
    References 1-3 1-1
    Background 1-4 1-2
    General Requirements 1-5 1-3
    Scope 1-6 1-3
    Computer Programs 1-7 1-3
    Rescission 1-8 1-3
    CHAPTER 2. DETAILS OF REINFORCEMENT
    General 2-1 2-1
    Quality 2-2 2-1
    Anchorage, Bar Development, and Splices 2-3 2-1
    Hooks and Bends 2-4 2-1
    Bar Spacing 2-5 2-1
    Concrete Protection for Reinforcement 2-6 2-2
    Splicing 2-7 2-2
    Temperature and Shrinkage Reinforcement 2-8 2-3
    CHAPTER 3. STRENGTH AND SERVICEABILITY REQUIREMENTS
    General 3-1 3-1
    Stability Analysis 3-2 3-1
    Required Strength 3-3 3-2
    Design Strength of Reinforcement 3-4 3-6
    Maximum Tension Reinforcement 3-5 3-6
    Control of Deflections and Cracking 3-6 3-6
    Minimum Thickness of Walls 3-7 3-
    STRENGTH AND SERVICEABILITY COMMENTARY
    General
    Stability Analysis
    Required Strength
    CHAPTER 4. FLEXURAL AND AXIAL LOADS
    Design Assumptions and General
    Requirements
    Flexural and Compressive
    Capacity – Tension
    Reinforcement Only
    Flexural and Compressive
    Capacity – Tension and Compression
    Reinforcement
    Flexural and Tensile Capacity
    Biaxial Bending and Axial Load
    CHAPTER 5. SHEAR
    Shear Strength
    Shear Strength for Special Straight
    Members
    Shear Strength for Curved Members
    Empirical Approach
    APPENDICES
    Appendix A Notation A-1
    Appendix B Derivation of Equations for
    Flexural and Axial Loads
    B-l
    Appendix C Investigation Examples C-l
    Appendix D Design Examples D-l
    Appendix E Interaction Diagram E-l
    Appendix F Axial Load with Biaxial Bending –
    Example

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