Strength of Materials

Strength of Materials
اسم المؤلف
S. Ramamrutham
التاريخ
23 سبتمبر 2022
المشاهدات
525
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Strength of Materials
[For Engineering Degree, Diploma and A.M.I E. Students]
By
S. Ramamrutham
B.E., (Civilf M.l.C.E.
Principal, Modern College of Engineering, New Delhi
Author of Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Design of Steel Structutes,
Theory of Structures, Applied Mechanics etc.CONTENTS
Chapter * Pages

  1. Simple Stresses and Strains *
    Introduction – Definitions, stress, strain, tensile and compres¬
    sive stresses – Sheaf stress – Plastic limit – Hooke’s law
    poisson’s ratio – Modulus of Elasticity – Modulus of Rigidity,
    Bulk Modulus – Bars of varying section – Extension of a
    tapering rod – Composite section -modular ratio- Bar of
    uniform strength – Equivalent area of composite sections –
    Temjierature stresses – Hoop stress-Stresses on oblique
    sections – State of simple shear – Relation between the Elastic
    constants – Volumetric Strain – Rectangular block subject to
    normal stresses – Diagonal tensile and diagonal compressive
    stresses – Solved problems I to 71 – Problems for exercise.
    1 – 100
  2. Strain Energy – Impact Leading
    Strain Energy – Elastic, plastic and rigid members – Stresses
    due to different types of axial loading – Gradually applied
    loads – Suddenly applied load) – Impact loads – Solved pro¬
    blems 72 to 84 – Problems for exercise. 101 – 118
    3- Centre of Gravity and Moment of Inertia
    Centre of Gravity – Definition – Lamina – Moment of an
    area – Centroid of a uniform lamina – Centroids of laminae of
    various shapes – Triangle, circle, semicircle, trapeziumBuilt-in sections – Analytical and graphical methods – Moment
    of Inertia of a lamina – Definition – Parallel axes theoremPerpendicular axes theorem – Moment of Inertia of laminae of
    different shapes- Rectangalar, ciicular, triangular and com¬
    posite sections – Solved problems 85 to 104 – Problems for
    exercise. 119 – 157
  3. Shear Forces and Bending Moments
    Definitions -Cantilevers, simply supported beam, fixed beam,
    continuous beams -Conception of Shear Force and Bending
    Moment – Sign conventions – shear force and Bending Mo¬
    ment diagrams for cantilevers, beams supported at ends.
    Beams with overhangs – Point of contraffexure-Member sub¬
    jected to couples – Members subjected to Oblique loading –
    Miscellaneous types of members and corresponding S.F.
    and B.M. diagrams – Inter-relation between S F. and B. M^
    diagrams – To obtain the B.M. diagrams from S.F. dia¬
    gram-Solved problems 105 to 130 -Problems for exercise.
    158-227
  4. Stresses in Beams
    Definition – Pure or simple bending – Theory of simple bend¬
    ing-Netural layer – Neutral axis – Bending Stress distribu¬
    tion-moment of resistance – Assumptions in the theory ofan
    Chapter Pages
    simple binding – Practical application of bending equation
    Section modulus – Section moduli for different shapesRectangular, triangular, circular, I-section, T-section – Normal
    force on a partial area of a beam section – Moment of resis¬
    tance of a partial area of a btam section -Flitched beams –
    Equivalent section – Beams of uniform strength – Shear stress
    distribution on a beam section – Shear stress distribution on
    rectangular, circular, triangular, 1 and T sections – Shear
    stresses in bolts connecting components in laminated beams.
    Proportion of B M and S F. resisted by flange and web
    of anI section – Shrar centre – Solved problems 131 to 199 –
    Problems for exercise. 228 – 337
  5. Direct and Bending Stresses
    Stress distribution of the section of an eccentrically loaded
    rectangular column. The middle third rule – Core or kernel of
    a section – Circular section – Hollow section – Structural
    section – Walls and pillars – Solved Problems 200 to 223 –
    Problems for exercise. 338 – 370
  6. Masonary Dams
    Forces acting on a dam – Stress distribution on the base of a
    dam, Stability of a dam – Minimum bottom width of a dam
    section. Solved Problems 224 to 228. 371 – 388
  7. Deflection of beams
    Member bending into a circular are – slope, deflection and
    ladius of curvature – Derivation of formulae for slope and
    deflection – Cantilever – Propped cantilevers- Beams – Macau¬
    lay’s Method – Beams subjected to couples – Moment area
    method – Mohr’s theorems – Relations between maximum
    bending stress and maximum deflection – Beams of varying
    . section – Strain energy stored due to bending – Law of reci¬
    procal deflections -Bette’s law – The first theorem of
    Castigliano – Impact loading on beams – Laminated SpringsConjugate beam method – Solved problems 229 to 312 Pro^
    blems for exercise. 389 – 527
  8. Fixed and Continuous Beams
    Fixed beam -Relation between the free B.M. diagram and
    the fixed B.M. diagram-slope and deflection – Effect of sinking
    of supports – Fixed beam subjected to couple – Degree of
    fixing – Advantages and disadvantages of fixing beams –
    Continuous beam – Clapyron’s theorm of three moments –
    Solved problems 3)3 to 324 – Problems for exercise. 528 – 581
  9. Torsion of Shafts
    Pure Torsion – Theory of Pure Torsion – Torsional mement of
    resistance. Assumptions in the theory of pure Torsion – Polar
    modulus – H.P. transmitted by a shaft – Torsional Rigidity –
    Stepped shafts – Composite shafts – Keys – Couplings – Shear
    and Torsional resilience – Shaftsof non-circular section – Close(fit)
    coiled helical springs – Torsion of a tapering rod. Solved
    Problems 325 to 361 – Problems for exercise. ’582 – 632
  10. Principal stresses and strains
    Normal stresses – Tangential or shear streses – Principal stresses
  • Principal planes – Graphical and analytical methods – Ellipse
    of stress – Determination of principal stresses and strains –
    Obliquity – Mohr’s circle of stress – Combined bending and
    Torsion – Strain energy in terms of principal stresses –
    Equivalent bending moment and equivalent torque – Principal
    strains – Criterion for failure – Ellipse of strain – Solved prob¬
    lems 362 to 388. Problems for exercise. 633 – 682
    12- Thin Cylinders and Spheres
    Thin cylinders – circumferential ond longitudinal Stresses –
    Riveted cylinderical boilers – Wire bound pipes. Thin spherical
    shells – Biaxial stresses in doubly curved walls of pressure
    vessels – Stresses in a conical tank. Solved problems 342 to
  1. Problems for exercise. 683 – 705
  2. Thick cylinders and Spheres
    Thick cylinders -Derivation of formulae – Lamme’s equations
  • Hoop stresses and radial pressure distribution – compound
    cylinders – Thick spherical Shells- Solved problems 350 to
    413 – Problems for exercise. 706 – 726
  1. Columns and Struts
    Introduction – Axially loaded compression members – Crush¬
    ing load – Buckling or critical load or crippling load – Euler’s
    theory of long columns – Different end conditions – Effective
    length of colums – Assumptions made in Euler’s theoryLimitations of Euler’s formula – Empirical formulae –
    Rankine’s formula – Straight line formula – Johnson’s para¬
    bolic formula – Formula given by the I S. code – Column
    •objected to eccentric loading – Euler’s method – Rankine’s
    method – Prof Perry’s formula – Columns with initial curva¬
    ture – Laterally loaded struts – Solved problems 413 to 429.
    Problems for exercise. 727 – 768
  2. Riveted Joints
    Types of joints – Lap and butt joints – Failure of a riveted
    joint – Tearing strength, shearing strength, bearing strength –
    Efficiency of a joint – Riveted joints in structural steel work –
    Chain riveting and diamond riveting – Eccentric Riveted
    connections – Resistance of a rivet against translation and
    rotation. Solved problems 430 to 442. Problems for
    exercise. 769 – 798
  3. Welded Connections
    The welding process – Advantages of welded connection –
    Disadvantages of welded connection – Types of weld – Mini¬
    mum sizes of weld – Effective length – Minimum length – Fillet(iv)
    weld applied tp the edge of a plate-Angle between fusion
    faces – Throat thickness-Intermittent fillet welds – Lap joints
  • Fillet welds in slots or holes – End returns – Bending about
    a single fillet -Permissible stresses in welds – Combined
    stresses in welds -Eccentric welded connections, Solved
    problems 443 to- 462 799 – 830
  1. Analysis of Framed Structures
    Perfect frame -Deficient frame – Redundant frame-Reactions
    at supports – Analysis of a truss – Method of joints-Method
    of section – Graphical method. Solved problems 463 to 489.
    831-914
  2. Simple Mechanical Properties of Metals
    Yield or flow of material – Tensile stress – Stress – Strain
    diagrams for Mild Steel Specimen – Limit of proportionality –
    Ultimate stress-Working stress – Factor of safety – Measure¬
    ment of ductility -Unwin’s Method based on reduction of
    sectional area – Hardness – Scratch test – Indentation test –
    Brinnel’s method-Impact testing – Fatigue of metals –
    Endurance limit. Solved problems 449 to 491. 915 – 922
  3. Elements of reinforced Concrete
    General principles of design – Assumptions – Singly reinforced
    beams-Netural axis -Lever arm – Moment of resistanceBalanced or economic or critical sections – Unbalanced
    sections – Under-reinforced and over-reinforced sections –
    Doubly reinforced beams-Shear in beams- Shear stresses –
    Diagonal tensile and diagonal compressive stresses in concrete-Stirrups-Diagonal reinforcement – Bond stresses –
    End anchora.e -Standard hook – Reinforcement-T and L
    beams-Axially Loaded Columns-Combined bending and
    direct stresses. Solved problems 492 to 520. Problems for
    exercises. 923 – 998
    Appendix Useful tables. 999-1035
    Index 1036 – 1038INDEX
    A
    Analysis of frames, 831
    Analysis of dams. 371
    Assumptionsin theory of bending, 228
    Axis, neutral, 229, 230 ‘
    B
    Balanced section, 928
    Bar of composite section, 27
    Bar of uniform stren th, 47
    Bar of varying section, 11
    Beams, 158
    Beams-deflection, 389
    Beams of uniform strength, 295
    Beams of varying section, 469
    Bearing value of rivets, 773
    Bending, 228
    Bending moment, >58, 160
    Beltrami theory, 678
    Bending stress, 228
    Bet’e’s law, 484
    Bond stress, 966, 967
    Boom, 727
    Bow’s notation, 891
    Brinnel’s method. 921
    Buckling load, 72k
    Built-m-beams, 158, 528
    Bulk m< dulus, 86 Butt-joint, 769 Butt weld, 801 C Cantilevers, 158 Cantilever-propped, 400 Carriage springs, 5<)0 Castigliano’s theorem, 485 Centre of gravity, 119 Centroid, t <9 Cham riveting, 787 Circum’erential stress, 72. 684 Clapeyron’s theorem, 561 Clear span, 158 Close coiled springs, 620 Columns, 727 Combined stresses, 338 Complementary shear stress, 81 Composite sections, 27 Composite shafts, 610 Compound cylinders, 713 Compoon stresses and strains, 633 Compressive siress, 31 Compressive strain, 31 Cbmpound section,27 Conjugate beam method, 505 Continuous beam, 158, 528, 560 Continuous columns, 987 Contraflexure-point of, 186 Core of a section, 342 Couples, 203 Couplings, 616 Cover, 973 CripplingI ad, 728 Critical load, 728 Critical section, 928 Crushing load, 727 Crushing s’ress, 727 D Dams, 371 Deficient frame, 832 Deflection of beams, 381 Deformation, 1 Diagonal compres ion, 84 Diagonal tension, 84 Diamond riveting, 787 Direct stress, 338 Direct and bending stresses, 338 Direct bond, 967 Doubly curved walls, 701 Doubly reinforced beams, 949 Ductility, 917 E Eccentricity, 339 Eccentric riveted connection, 791 Eccentric welded connections, 815 Economic section, 928 , Effective length of column, 735 Effective length of weld, 802 Effective span. 158 Efficiency of joints, 774 Elastic instability, 728 Elasic limit, 6 Elastic material, 1, 102 Elastic modulus, 102 Elapse of strain, 679 Ellipse of stress, 642 Encastred beams, 528 End Anchorage, 969 End returns, 804 Endurance limit, 922 Energy, strain, 47, 101, 102 Equivalent ana, 38 1036INDEX 1037 Euler’s theory, 728 F Factor of safety, 916 Failure of a riveted joint, 770 Fatigue of metals, 922 Fillet weld, 800 Fixed beam, 158, 52* Fixed ei d moment, 528 Flexural rigidity, 586 Flitched beams, 278 1rained structures, 831 Freely supported beams, 158 French formula, 774 G German formula, 774 Gradually applied loads, 103 Graphical methods, 838 Graphic statics, 891 Guest theory, <>77
    Gusset plate, 785
    Gyration-radius of, 137
    H
    Haigh’s theory, 678
    Hardness, 920
    Helical springs 620
    Hogging moment, 161
    Homogeneity, 23.’
    Hook’s law, 6
    Hoop stress, 72, 684
    I
    Impact loading, 101
    Impact testing. 101, 105, 498, 921
    I ‘ entation test, 921
    Inertia-moment of, 136
    1< lens ty of stress, 2 Isotropy, 233 Izod test, 921, 922 J Johnson’s parabolic formula, 749 Joints-riveted, 769 Joiots-weided. 799 K Kernel of a Section, 342 Keys, 616 L L-boams, 974 Lame’s equatioa, 70* Laminated spriaM 900 Lap joint, 769. <04 Lateral strain, 74 Laterally loaded strata, 743 Leaf springs, *00 Lever arm, 927 Limit-elastic, 6 Load, I Loading-gradual, sudden, impact, 101 Local bond, 969 Long columns, 986 Longitudinal stress, 684 M Macaulay’s method, 423 Masonry dams, 371 Maxwell’s law, 483 Mechanical properties of metals, 915 Membrane stresses 701 Meridional stress, 702 Method of joints, 838 Method of resolution, 838 Method of section, 838 864 Method of substitution, 903 Middle third rule, 341 Modular rati >, 27, 279,923
    Modulus bulk, 86
    Modulus of elasticity, 6
    Modulus of rigidity, 6
    Modulus ol section. 2M
    Mohr’s Circle, 645
    Mohr’s theorems, 459, 460
    Moment area method, 459
    Mou. nt of Inertia, 136, 928
    MorneM of resistance, 231
    N
    Neutral axis. 229, 230, 926
    Neutral layer, 229
    Neutral suifa^e, 229
    Normal stresses, 83
    O
    Oblique loading on beams, 210
    Obliquity, 6 5
    Over reinforced sectian, 951
    P
    Parabolic formula, 749
    Parallel axes the rem, 138
    Perfect frame, 831
    Perpendicular au« theorem, 137
    P-rry’s f. rmula, 758
    PUUra, 364
    Plastic member, 1, 102
    Poet of contrafcxure, 186
    Poiet of laflextion. 86
    Pvkacw’a ami, 741038 Polar modulus, ^84 Port, 727 . Principal planes, 633, 634 Principal strains, 613. 675 Principal stresses, 633, 634 Propp,d cantilevers, 400 Pure bending, 228 R Radius of curvature, 390 Radius of gyration, 137 Rankine’s formula, 740 Rankine’s theory, 677 Reinforced < oncrete, 923 Reciprocal deflection theorem, 482 Reinforcement, 970 Redundant frame, 833 Relation between elastic constants, Resistance, I, 101 Resistance-moment of, 231 Rigid material, ], 102 Rigidity modulus 6 Riveted boilers, 693 Riveted joints, 769 Roller support, 833 Safety-factor of, 916 Sagging moment, 160 Scratch test, 921 Second moment of area, 136 Section-composite, 27 Section-method of, 833, 864 Section modulus, 234 Shafts, 582 Shear centre, 330 Shear delormalion, 5, 6 Shear force, 158 Shear mo ulus, 6 Sheaf reinforcement, 944 Shear resistance, 618 Shear strain, 4 Shear stress, 4, 297, 954, 957 Shear stress distribution, Shear value of rivets, 773 Shells, 683 Simple bending. 228 Simple stresses and strains, 1 Simply supported beams, 158 Singly reinforced beams, 924 Sieucer ess ratio, 736
    Slope, 390
    Span, 158
    Spherical shells. 698
    Spnngs-coiled, 620
    Spr ngs-lamrnated, 500
    Stability of dams, 373
    Stannard book, 969
    Stare of simple shear, 81
    Strffnem.502 621
    STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
    Stirrups, 960
    Straight line formula, 749
    Strain, 1, 2, 3
    Strain energy, 47, 101, 102
    Strength, i
    Stress, 1, 2, 3
    Stress intensity, 2
    Stresses in beams, 228
    Struts, 727
    St. Venant’s theory, 677
    Subs itution method, 903
    Suddenly applied loads, 104
    T
    T-beams, 973
    Tapering shafts, 628
    Tearing strength, 771
    Temperature stresses, 55
    Tensile strain, 3
    Tensile stress, 3
    Theorem of three moments, 561
    The ry of bending. 228
    Thick cylindeis, 706
    Thick sph-res, 7?t
    Thin cylinders, 683
    Thin spheres, 698
    Thr at of weld, 800, 802
    Thrust diagram, 11,212
    Torsion of shafts, 582
    Torsion of non circular section, 619-
    Torsional resilience, 618
    Torsional rigidity, 586
    Twist of a shaft, 583
    U
    U-Butt weld, 801
    Ultimate stress, 9 6
    Unbalanced setion, 931
    Under reinforced section 931
    Unit stress, 2
    Unwin’s formula, 774
    V
    V-Butt weld, 801
    Volumetric strain, 7*
    W
    Walls, 364
    Welded joints, 799
    Wind pressure, 364
    Wire bound pipes, 695
    Wohler’s experiments, 922.
    Work, 101..481
    Working stresses, 916
    Y
    Yield point, 915
    Young’s modulus, 6

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