اسم المؤلف
S. Ramamrutham
التاريخ
23 سبتمبر 2022
المشاهدات
525
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)

Strength of Materials
[For Engineering Degree, Diploma and A.M.I E. Students]
By
S. Ramamrutham
B.E., (Civilf M.l.C.E.
Principal, Modern College of Engineering, New Delhi
Author of Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Design of Steel Structutes,
Theory of Structures, Applied Mechanics etc.CONTENTS
Chapter * Pages

1. Simple Stresses and Strains *
Introduction – Definitions, stress, strain, tensile and compres¬
sive stresses – Sheaf stress – Plastic limit – Hooke’s law
poisson’s ratio – Modulus of Elasticity – Modulus of Rigidity,
Bulk Modulus – Bars of varying section – Extension of a
tapering rod – Composite section -modular ratio- Bar of
uniform strength – Equivalent area of composite sections –
Temjierature stresses – Hoop stress-Stresses on oblique
sections – State of simple shear – Relation between the Elastic
constants – Volumetric Strain – Rectangular block subject to
normal stresses – Diagonal tensile and diagonal compressive
stresses – Solved problems I to 71 – Problems for exercise.
1 – 100
2. Strain Energy – Impact Leading
Strain Energy – Elastic, plastic and rigid members – Stresses
blems 72 to 84 – Problems for exercise. 101 – 118
3- Centre of Gravity and Moment of Inertia
Centre of Gravity – Definition – Lamina – Moment of an
area – Centroid of a uniform lamina – Centroids of laminae of
various shapes – Triangle, circle, semicircle, trapeziumBuilt-in sections – Analytical and graphical methods – Moment
of Inertia of a lamina – Definition – Parallel axes theoremPerpendicular axes theorem – Moment of Inertia of laminae of
different shapes- Rectangalar, ciicular, triangular and com¬
posite sections – Solved problems 85 to 104 – Problems for
exercise. 119 – 157
3. Shear Forces and Bending Moments
Definitions -Cantilevers, simply supported beam, fixed beam,
continuous beams -Conception of Shear Force and Bending
Moment – Sign conventions – shear force and Bending Mo¬
ment diagrams for cantilevers, beams supported at ends.
Beams with overhangs – Point of contraffexure-Member sub¬
Miscellaneous types of members and corresponding S.F.
and B.M. diagrams – Inter-relation between S F. and B. M^
diagrams – To obtain the B.M. diagrams from S.F. dia¬
gram-Solved problems 105 to 130 -Problems for exercise.
158-227
4. Stresses in Beams
Definition – Pure or simple bending – Theory of simple bend¬
ing-Netural layer – Neutral axis – Bending Stress distribu¬
tion-moment of resistance – Assumptions in the theory ofan
Chapter Pages
simple binding – Practical application of bending equation
Section modulus – Section moduli for different shapesRectangular, triangular, circular, I-section, T-section – Normal
force on a partial area of a beam section – Moment of resis¬
tance of a partial area of a btam section -Flitched beams –
Equivalent section – Beams of uniform strength – Shear stress
distribution on a beam section – Shear stress distribution on
rectangular, circular, triangular, 1 and T sections – Shear
stresses in bolts connecting components in laminated beams.
Proportion of B M and S F. resisted by flange and web
of anI section – Shrar centre – Solved problems 131 to 199 –
Problems for exercise. 228 – 337
5. Direct and Bending Stresses
Stress distribution of the section of an eccentrically loaded
rectangular column. The middle third rule – Core or kernel of
a section – Circular section – Hollow section – Structural
section – Walls and pillars – Solved Problems 200 to 223 –
Problems for exercise. 338 – 370
6. Masonary Dams
Forces acting on a dam – Stress distribution on the base of a
dam, Stability of a dam – Minimum bottom width of a dam
section. Solved Problems 224 to 228. 371 – 388
7. Deflection of beams
Member bending into a circular are – slope, deflection and
ladius of curvature – Derivation of formulae for slope and
deflection – Cantilever – Propped cantilevers- Beams – Macau¬
lay’s Method – Beams subjected to couples – Moment area
method – Mohr’s theorems – Relations between maximum
bending stress and maximum deflection – Beams of varying
. section – Strain energy stored due to bending – Law of reci¬
procal deflections -Bette’s law – The first theorem of
Castigliano – Impact loading on beams – Laminated SpringsConjugate beam method – Solved problems 229 to 312 Pro^
blems for exercise. 389 – 527
8. Fixed and Continuous Beams
Fixed beam -Relation between the free B.M. diagram and
the fixed B.M. diagram-slope and deflection – Effect of sinking
of supports – Fixed beam subjected to couple – Degree of
Continuous beam – Clapyron’s theorm of three moments –
Solved problems 3)3 to 324 – Problems for exercise. 528 – 581
9. Torsion of Shafts
Pure Torsion – Theory of Pure Torsion – Torsional mement of
resistance. Assumptions in the theory of pure Torsion – Polar
modulus – H.P. transmitted by a shaft – Torsional Rigidity –
Stepped shafts – Composite shafts – Keys – Couplings – Shear
and Torsional resilience – Shaftsof non-circular section – Close(fit)
coiled helical springs – Torsion of a tapering rod. Solved
Problems 325 to 361 – Problems for exercise. ’582 – 632
10. Principal stresses and strains
Normal stresses – Tangential or shear streses – Principal stresses
• Principal planes – Graphical and analytical methods – Ellipse
of stress – Determination of principal stresses and strains –
Obliquity – Mohr’s circle of stress – Combined bending and
Torsion – Strain energy in terms of principal stresses –
Equivalent bending moment and equivalent torque – Principal
strains – Criterion for failure – Ellipse of strain – Solved prob¬
lems 362 to 388. Problems for exercise. 633 – 682
12- Thin Cylinders and Spheres
Thin cylinders – circumferential ond longitudinal Stresses –
Riveted cylinderical boilers – Wire bound pipes. Thin spherical
shells – Biaxial stresses in doubly curved walls of pressure
vessels – Stresses in a conical tank. Solved problems 342 to
1. Problems for exercise. 683 – 705
2. Thick cylinders and Spheres
Thick cylinders -Derivation of formulae – Lamme’s equations
• Hoop stresses and radial pressure distribution – compound
cylinders – Thick spherical Shells- Solved problems 350 to
413 – Problems for exercise. 706 – 726
1. Columns and Struts
Introduction – Axially loaded compression members – Crush¬
theory of long columns – Different end conditions – Effective
length of colums – Assumptions made in Euler’s theoryLimitations of Euler’s formula – Empirical formulae –
Rankine’s formula – Straight line formula – Johnson’s para¬
bolic formula – Formula given by the I S. code – Column
method – Prof Perry’s formula – Columns with initial curva¬
ture – Laterally loaded struts – Solved problems 413 to 429.
Problems for exercise. 727 – 768
2. Riveted Joints
Types of joints – Lap and butt joints – Failure of a riveted
joint – Tearing strength, shearing strength, bearing strength –
Efficiency of a joint – Riveted joints in structural steel work –
Chain riveting and diamond riveting – Eccentric Riveted
connections – Resistance of a rivet against translation and
rotation. Solved problems 430 to 442. Problems for
exercise. 769 – 798
3. Welded Connections
The welding process – Advantages of welded connection –
Disadvantages of welded connection – Types of weld – Mini¬
mum sizes of weld – Effective length – Minimum length – Fillet(iv)
weld applied tp the edge of a plate-Angle between fusion
faces – Throat thickness-Intermittent fillet welds – Lap joints
• Fillet welds in slots or holes – End returns – Bending about
a single fillet -Permissible stresses in welds – Combined
stresses in welds -Eccentric welded connections, Solved
problems 443 to- 462 799 – 830
1. Analysis of Framed Structures
Perfect frame -Deficient frame – Redundant frame-Reactions
at supports – Analysis of a truss – Method of joints-Method
of section – Graphical method. Solved problems 463 to 489.
831-914
2. Simple Mechanical Properties of Metals
Yield or flow of material – Tensile stress – Stress – Strain
diagrams for Mild Steel Specimen – Limit of proportionality –
Ultimate stress-Working stress – Factor of safety – Measure¬
ment of ductility -Unwin’s Method based on reduction of
sectional area – Hardness – Scratch test – Indentation test –
Brinnel’s method-Impact testing – Fatigue of metals –
Endurance limit. Solved problems 449 to 491. 915 – 922
3. Elements of reinforced Concrete
General principles of design – Assumptions – Singly reinforced
beams-Netural axis -Lever arm – Moment of resistanceBalanced or economic or critical sections – Unbalanced
sections – Under-reinforced and over-reinforced sections –
Doubly reinforced beams-Shear in beams- Shear stresses –
Diagonal tensile and diagonal compressive stresses in concrete-Stirrups-Diagonal reinforcement – Bond stresses –
End anchora.e -Standard hook – Reinforcement-T and L
direct stresses. Solved problems 492 to 520. Problems for
exercises. 923 – 998
Appendix Useful tables. 999-1035
Index 1036 – 1038INDEX
A
Analysis of frames, 831
Analysis of dams. 371
Assumptionsin theory of bending, 228
Axis, neutral, 229, 230 ‘
B
Balanced section, 928
Bar of composite section, 27
Bar of uniform stren th, 47
Bar of varying section, 11
Beams, 158
Beams-deflection, 389
Beams of uniform strength, 295
Beams of varying section, 469
Bearing value of rivets, 773
Bending, 228
Bending moment, >58, 160
Beltrami theory, 678
Bending stress, 228
Bet’e’s law, 484
Bond stress, 966, 967
Boom, 727
Bow’s notation, 891
Brinnel’s method. 921
Built-m-beams, 158, 528
Bulk m< dulus, 86 Butt-joint, 769 Butt weld, 801 C Cantilevers, 158 Cantilever-propped, 400 Carriage springs, 5<)0 Castigliano’s theorem, 485 Centre of gravity, 119 Centroid, t <9 Cham riveting, 787 Circum’erential stress, 72. 684 Clapeyron’s theorem, 561 Clear span, 158 Close coiled springs, 620 Columns, 727 Combined stresses, 338 Complementary shear stress, 81 Composite sections, 27 Composite shafts, 610 Compound cylinders, 713 Compoon stresses and strains, 633 Compressive siress, 31 Compressive strain, 31 Cbmpound section,27 Conjugate beam method, 505 Continuous beam, 158, 528, 560 Continuous columns, 987 Contraflexure-point of, 186 Core of a section, 342 Couples, 203 Couplings, 616 Cover, 973 CripplingI ad, 728 Critical load, 728 Critical section, 928 Crushing load, 727 Crushing s’ress, 727 D Dams, 371 Deficient frame, 832 Deflection of beams, 381 Deformation, 1 Diagonal compres ion, 84 Diagonal tension, 84 Diamond riveting, 787 Direct stress, 338 Direct and bending stresses, 338 Direct bond, 967 Doubly curved walls, 701 Doubly reinforced beams, 949 Ductility, 917 E Eccentricity, 339 Eccentric riveted connection, 791 Eccentric welded connections, 815 Economic section, 928 , Effective length of column, 735 Effective length of weld, 802 Effective span. 158 Efficiency of joints, 774 Elastic instability, 728 Elasic limit, 6 Elastic material, 1, 102 Elastic modulus, 102 Elapse of strain, 679 Ellipse of stress, 642 Encastred beams, 528 End Anchorage, 969 End returns, 804 Endurance limit, 922 Energy, strain, 47, 101, 102 Equivalent ana, 38 1036INDEX 1037 Euler’s theory, 728 F Factor of safety, 916 Failure of a riveted joint, 770 Fatigue of metals, 922 Fillet weld, 800 Fixed beam, 158, 52* Fixed ei d moment, 528 Flexural rigidity, 586 Flitched beams, 278 1rained structures, 831 Freely supported beams, 158 French formula, 774 G German formula, 774 Gradually applied loads, 103 Graphical methods, 838 Graphic statics, 891 Guest theory, <>77
Gusset plate, 785
H
Haigh’s theory, 678
Hardness, 920
Helical springs 620
Hogging moment, 161
Homogeneity, 23.’
Hook’s law, 6
Hoop stress, 72, 684
I
Impact testing. 101, 105, 498, 921
I ‘ entation test, 921
Inertia-moment of, 136
1< lens ty of stress, 2 Isotropy, 233 Izod test, 921, 922 J Johnson’s parabolic formula, 749 Joints-riveted, 769 Joiots-weided. 799 K Kernel of a Section, 342 Keys, 616 L L-boams, 974 Lame’s equatioa, 70* Laminated spriaM 900 Lap joint, 769. <04 Lateral strain, 74 Laterally loaded strata, 743 Leaf springs, *00 Lever arm, 927 Limit-elastic, 6 Load, I Loading-gradual, sudden, impact, 101 Local bond, 969 Long columns, 986 Longitudinal stress, 684 M Macaulay’s method, 423 Masonry dams, 371 Maxwell’s law, 483 Mechanical properties of metals, 915 Membrane stresses 701 Meridional stress, 702 Method of joints, 838 Method of resolution, 838 Method of section, 838 864 Method of substitution, 903 Middle third rule, 341 Modular rati >, 27, 279,923
Modulus bulk, 86
Modulus of elasticity, 6
Modulus of rigidity, 6
Modulus ol section. 2M
Mohr’s Circle, 645
Mohr’s theorems, 459, 460
Moment area method, 459
Mou. nt of Inertia, 136, 928
MorneM of resistance, 231
N
Neutral axis. 229, 230, 926
Neutral layer, 229
Neutral suifa^e, 229
Normal stresses, 83
O
Obliquity, 6 5
Over reinforced sectian, 951
P
Parabolic formula, 749
Parallel axes the rem, 138
Perfect frame, 831
Perpendicular au« theorem, 137
P-rry’s f. rmula, 758
PUUra, 364
Plastic member, 1, 102
Poet of contrafcxure, 186
Poiet of laflextion. 86
Pvkacw’a ami, 741038 Polar modulus, ^84 Port, 727 . Principal planes, 633, 634 Principal strains, 613. 675 Principal stresses, 633, 634 Propp,d cantilevers, 400 Pure bending, 228 R Radius of curvature, 390 Radius of gyration, 137 Rankine’s formula, 740 Rankine’s theory, 677 Reinforced < oncrete, 923 Reciprocal deflection theorem, 482 Reinforcement, 970 Redundant frame, 833 Relation between elastic constants, Resistance, I, 101 Resistance-moment of, 231 Rigid material, ], 102 Rigidity modulus 6 Riveted boilers, 693 Riveted joints, 769 Roller support, 833 Safety-factor of, 916 Sagging moment, 160 Scratch test, 921 Second moment of area, 136 Section-composite, 27 Section-method of, 833, 864 Section modulus, 234 Shafts, 582 Shear centre, 330 Shear delormalion, 5, 6 Shear force, 158 Shear mo ulus, 6 Sheaf reinforcement, 944 Shear resistance, 618 Shear strain, 4 Shear stress, 4, 297, 954, 957 Shear stress distribution, Shear value of rivets, 773 Shells, 683 Simple bending. 228 Simple stresses and strains, 1 Simply supported beams, 158 Singly reinforced beams, 924 Sieucer ess ratio, 736
Slope, 390
Span, 158
Spherical shells. 698
Spnngs-coiled, 620
Spr ngs-lamrnated, 500
Stability of dams, 373
Stannard book, 969
Stare of simple shear, 81
Strffnem.502 621
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
Stirrups, 960
Straight line formula, 749
Strain, 1, 2, 3
Strain energy, 47, 101, 102
Strength, i
Stress, 1, 2, 3
Stress intensity, 2
Stresses in beams, 228
Struts, 727
St. Venant’s theory, 677
Subs itution method, 903
T
T-beams, 973
Tapering shafts, 628
Tearing strength, 771
Temperature stresses, 55
Tensile strain, 3
Tensile stress, 3
Theorem of three moments, 561
The ry of bending. 228
Thick cylindeis, 706
Thick sph-res, 7?t
Thin cylinders, 683
Thin spheres, 698
Thr at of weld, 800, 802
Thrust diagram, 11,212
Torsion of shafts, 582
Torsion of non circular section, 619-
Torsional resilience, 618
Torsional rigidity, 586
Twist of a shaft, 583
U
U-Butt weld, 801
Ultimate stress, 9 6
Unbalanced setion, 931
Under reinforced section 931
Unit stress, 2
Unwin’s formula, 774
V
V-Butt weld, 801
Volumetric strain, 7*
W
Walls, 364
Welded joints, 799
Wind pressure, 364
Wire bound pipes, 695
Wohler’s experiments, 922.
Work, 101..481
Working stresses, 916
Y
Yield point, 915
Young’s modulus, 6

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