Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook

Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook
اسم المؤلف
Meherwan P. Boyce
التاريخ
24 سبتمبر 2022
المشاهدات
112
التقييم
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Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook
Fourth Edition
Meherwan P. Boyce
Managing Partner, The Boyce Consultancy
Fellow, American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Fellow, Institute of Diesel and Gas Turbine Engineers, U.K
Contents
Preface to the Fourth Edition xix
Preface to the Third Edition xxiii
Preface to the Second Edition xxvii
Preface to the First Edition xxix
Foreword to the First Edition xxxi
About the Author xxxiii
Part I Design: Theory and Practice
An Overview of Gas Turbines
Gas Turbine Cycle in the Combined Cycle or Cogeneration Mode
Gas Turbine Performance
Gas Turbine Design Considerations
Categories of Gas Turbines
Frame Type Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines
Aircraft-Derivative Gas Turbines
Industrial-Type Gas Turbines
Small Gas Turbines
Vehicular Gas Turbines
Microturbines
Major Gas Turbine Components
Compressors
Regenerators/Recuperators
Fuel Type
Combustors
Environmental Effects
Turbine Expander Section
Radial-Inflow Turbine
Mixed-Flow Turbine
Axial-Flow Turbines
Materials
Coatings
Gas Turbine Heat Recovery
Supplementary Firing of Heat Recovery Systems
Instrumentation and Controls vi Contents
Theoretical and Actual Cycle Analyses
The Brayton Cycle
Regeneration Effect
Increasing the Work Output of the Simple-Cycle Gas Turbine
Intercooling and Reheating Effects
Actual Cycle Analysis
The Simple Cycle
The Split-Shaft Simple Cycle
The Regenerative Cycle
The Inter-cooled Simple Cycle
The Reheat Cycle
The Inter-cooled Regenerative Reheat Cycle
The Steam Injection Cycle
The Evaporative Regenerative Cycle
The Brayton–Rankine Cycle
Summation of Cycle Analysis
A General Overview of Combined-Cycle Plants
Compressed Air Energy Storage Cycle
Power Augmentation
Inlet Cooling
Injection of Compressed Air, Steam, or Water
Inlet Cooling Techniques
Evaporative Cooling of the Turbine
Refrigerated Inlets for the Gas Turbines
Combination of Evaporative and Refrigerated Inlet Systems
Thermal Energy Storage Systems
Injection of Compressed Air, Steam, or Water for Increasing Power
Mid-Compressor Flashing of Water
Injection of Humidified and Heated Compressed Air
Combination of Evaporative Cooling and Steam Injection
Summation of the Power Augmentation Systems
Bibliography
Compressor and Turbine Performance Characteristics
Aerothermodynamics of Turbomachinery
Ideal Gas
Dry- and Wet-bulb Temperatures
Optical and Radiation Pyrometers
Ideal Gas Laws
Compressibility Effect
Aerothermal Equations
Continuity Equation
Momentum Equation
Energy Equation Contents vii
Efficiencies
Adiabatic Thermal Efficiency
Polytropic Efficiency
Dimensional Analysis
Compressor Performance Characteristics
Turbine Performance Characteristics
Gas Turbine Performance Computation
Bibliography
Performance and Mechanical Standards
Major Variables for a Gas Turbine Application
Type of Application
Plant Location and Site Configuration
Plant Type
Gas Turbine Size and Efficiency
Type of Fuel
Enclosures
Plant Operation Mode: Base or Peaking
Start-Up Techniques
Performance Standards
ASME PTC . : Test Uncertainty
ASME PTC . : Part : Temperature Measurement
Instruments and Apparatus
ASME PTC . : Flow Measurement, Published
PTC . : Flue and Exhaust Gas Analyses, Part
ASME PTC . : Steam and Water Sampling, Conditioning,
and Analysis in the Power Cycle
ASME PTC . : Guidance Manual for Model Testing, Published
ASME PTC : Performance Test Code on Overall Plant Performance,
Published January ,
Object and Scope
Performance Test Code on Gas Turbines
ASME PTC , Published
ASME Measurement of Exhaust Emissions from Stationary
Gas Turbine Engines B . , Published
ASME PTC Measurement of Industrial Sound (ASME B . ),
Published
Mechanical Parameters
ASME B . Basic Gas Turbines, Published
(Reaffirmed: )
ASME B . Procurement Standard for Gas Turbine Auxiliary
Equipment, Published (Reaffirmed )
ASME B . Gas Turbine Control and Protection Systems,
Published (Reaffirmed: ) viii Contents
ASME B . Procurement Standard for Gas Turbine Electrical
Equipment, Published (Reaffirmed: )
ASME B . M Gas Turbine Fuels, Published
(Reaffirmed: )
ASME B . Gas Turbine Installation Sound Emissions,
Published (Reaffirmed: )
ASME B . Measurement of Exhaust Emissions from
Stationary Gas Turbine Engines, Published:
API Std Gas Turbines for the Petroleum, Chemical, and
Gas Industry Services, Fourth Edition, August
API Std Special Purpose Gear Units for Petroleum, Chemical,
and Gas Industry Services, Fourth Edition, June
API Std Lubrication, Shaft-Sealing, and Control-Oil Systems
and Auxiliaries for Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas Industry
Services, Fourth Edition, April
API Std , Reciprocating Compressors for Petroleum, Chemical,
and Gas Industry Services, Fourth Edition, June
API Std , Rotary-Type Positive Displacement Compressors
for Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas Industry Services, Third
Edition, June
ANSI/API Std Vibration, Axial-Position, and
Bearing-Temperature Monitoring Systems, Third Edition,
November
API Std , Special Purpose Couplings for Petroleum, Chemical,
and Gas Industry Services, Third Edition, October
API Std , General-Purpose Gear Units for Petroleum,
Chemical, and Gas Industry Services, Second Edition, July
(Reaffirmed: March )
Application of the Mechanical Standards to the Gas Turbine
Gears
Lubrication Systems
Vibration Measurements
Specifications
Rotor Dynamics
Mathematical Analysis
Undamped Free System
Damped System
Forced Vibrations
Design Considerations
Application to Rotating Machines
Rigid Supports
Flexible Supports
Critical Speed Calculations for Rotor Bearing Systems Contents ix
Electromechanical Systems and Analogies
Forces Acting on a Rotor-Bearing System
Rotor-Bearing System Instabilities
Self-Excited Instabilities
Campbell Diagram
Bibliography
Part II Major Components
Centrifugal Compressors
Centrifugal Compressor Components
Inlet Guide Vanes
Impeller
Inducer
Centrifugal Section of an Impeller
Causes of Slip in an Impeller
Stodola Slip Factor
Stanitz Slip Factor
Diffusers
Scroll or Volute
Centrifugal Compressor Performance
Rotor Losses
Stator Losses
Compressor Surge
Effects of Gas Composition
External Causes and Effects of Surge
Surge Detection and Control
Process Centrifugal Compressors
Compressor Configuration
Impeller Fabrication
Bibliography
Axial-Flow Compressors
Introduction
Blade and Cascade Nomenclature
Elementary Airfoil Theory
Laminar-Flow Airfoils
Energy Increase
Velocity Triangles
Degree of Reaction
Radial Equilibrium
Diffusion Factor
The Incidence Rule
The Deviation Rule x Contents
Compressor Operation Characteristics
Compressor Surge
Compressor Choke
Compressor Stall
Individual Blade Stall
Rotating Stall
Stall Flutter
Compressor Performance Parameters
Performance Losses in an Axial-Flow Compressor
New Developments in Axial-Flow Compressors
Axial-Flow Compressor Research
Cascade Tests
Blade Profile
Compressor Blade Material
Acknowledgments
Bibliography
Radial-Inflow Turbines
Hydraulic Radial-Inflow Turbines
Radial-Inflow Turbines for Gas Applications
Turbine Configurations
Thermodynamic and Aerodynamic Theory
Turbine Design Considerations
Performance of a Radial-Inflow Turbine
Losses in a Radial-Inflow Turbine
Radial-Inflow Turbine Applications
Bibliography
Axial-Flow Turbines
Turbine Geometry
Thermodynamic and Aerodynamic Theory
Utilization Factor
Degree of Reaction
Work Factor
Velocity Diagrams
Zero-Exit Swirl Diagram
Impulse Diagram
Symmetrical Diagram
Impulse Turbine
Turbine Blade Cooling Concepts
Convection Cooling
Impingement Cooling
Film Cooling
Transpiration Cooling
Water/Steam Cooling Contents xi
Turbine Blade Cooling Design
Convection and Impingement Cooling/Strut Insert Design
Film and Convection Cooling Design
Transpiration Cooling Design
Multiple Small-Hole Design
Water-Cooled Turbine Blades
Steam-Cooled Turbine Blades
Cooled-Turbine Aerodynamics
Turbine Losses
Bibliography
Combustors
Gas Turbine Combustors
Typical Combustor Arrangements
Can-Annular and Annular Combustors
Silo-Type Combustors
Combustion in Combustors
The Diffusion-Type Combustor
Air-Pollution Problems in a Diffusion Combustor
Smoke
Oxides of Nitrogen
NOx Prevention
Diffusion Combustor Design
The Diffusion Combustor
Flame Stabilization
Combustion and Dilution
Film Cooling of the Liner
Fuel Atomization and Ignition
The Dry Low Emission Combustors
Primary
Lean–Lean
Premix Transfer
Piloted Premix
Premix
Tertiary Full-Speed No Load (FSNL)
Silo-Type Combustors
Operation of DLN/DLE Combustors
Catalytic Combustion and Combustors
Features of Catalytic Combustion
Catalytic Combustor Design
Preburner
Main Fuel Injector
Catalytic Reactor
Transition Pieces xii Contents
Part III Materials, Fuel Technology, and Fuel Systems
Materials
General Metallurgical Behaviors in Gas Turbines
Creep and Rupture
Ductility and Fracture
Cyclic Fatigue
Thermal Fatigue
Corrosion
Gas Turbine Materials
Turbine Wheel Alloys
Compressor Blades
Forgings and Non-destructive Testing
Ceramics
Coatings
Shroud Coatings
Future Coatings
Bibliography
Fuels
Fuel Specifications
Fuel Properties
Liquid Fuels
Liquid Fuel Handling and Treatment
Heavy Fuels
Fuel Gas Handling and Treatment
Equipment for Removal of Particulates and Liquids from Fuel Gas Systems
Fuel Heating
Cleaning of Turbine Components
Hot Section Wash
Compressor Washing
Fuel Economics
Operating Experience
Heat Tracing of Piping Systems
Types of Heat-Tracing Systems
Stream Tracing Systems
Electric Tracing
Storage of Liquids
Atmospheric Tanks
Elevated Tanks
Open Tanks
Fixed Roof Tanks
Floating Roof Tanks
Pressure Tanks
Bibliography Contents xiii
Part IV Auxiliary Components and Accessories
Bearings and Seals
Bearings
Rolling Bearings
Journal Bearings
Bearing Design Principles
Tilting-Pad Journal Bearings
Bearing Materials
Bearing and Shaft Instabilities
Thrust Bearings
Factors Affecting Thrust-Bearing Design
Thrust-Bearing Power Loss
Seals
Non-contacting Seals
Labyrinth Seals
Ring (Bushing) Seals
Mechanical (Face) Seals
Mechanical Seal Selection and Application
Product
Additional Product Considerations
Seal Environment
Seal Arrangement Considerations
Equipment
Secondary Packing
Seal-Face Combinations
Seal Gland Plate
Main Seal Body
Seal Systems
Associated Oil System
Dry Gas Seals
Tandem Dry Gas Seals
Tandem Dry Gas Seal with Labyrinth
Double Gas Seals
Operating Range of Dry Gas Seals
Dry Gas Seal Materials
Dry Gas Seal Systems
Dry Gas Seal Degradation
Bibliography
Gears
Gear Types
Factors Affecting Gear Design
Pressure Angle
Helix Angle xiv Contents
Tooth Hardness
Scuffing
Gear Accuracy
Types of Bearings
Service Factor
Gear Housings
Lubrication
Manufacturing Processes
Hobbing
Hobbing and Shaving
Hobbing and Lapping
Grinding
Gear Rating
Gear Noise
Installation and Initial Operation
Gear Failures
Acknowledgement
Bibliography
Part V Installation, Operation, and Maintenance
Lubrication
Basic Oil System
Lubrication Oil System
Seal Oil System
Lubrication Management Program
Lubricant Selection
Oil Contamination
Filter Selection
Cleaning and Flushing
Oil Sampling and Testing
Oil Analysis Tests
Test Profiles
Gearboxes
Clean Oil Systems
Coupling Lubrication
Bibliography
Spectrum Analysis
Vibration Measurement
Displacement Transducers
Velocity Transducers
Acceleration Transducers
Dynamic Pressure Transducers Contents xv
Taping Data
Interpretation of Vibration Spectra
Subsynchronous Vibration Analysis Using RTA
Synchronous and Harmonic Spectra
Bibliography
Balancing
Rotor Imbalance
Balancing Procedures
Orbital Balancing
Modal Balancing
Multiplane Balancing (Influence Coefficient Method)
Application of Balancing Techniques
User’s Guide for Multiplane Balancing
Bibliography
Couplings and Alignment
Gear Couplings
Oil-Filled Couplings
Grease-Packed Couplings
Continuously Lubricated Couplings
Gear Coupling Failure Modes
Metal Diaphragm Couplings
Metal Disc Couplings
Turbomachinery Uprates
Curvic Couplings
Shaft Alignment
The Shaft Alignment Procedure
Bibliography
Control Systems and Instrumentation
Control Systems
Start-up Sequence
Condition Monitoring Systems
Requirements for an Effective Diagnostic System
Monitoring Software
Implementation of a Condition Monitoring System
Plant Power Optimization
Online Optimization Process
Life Cycle Costs
Diagnostic System Components and Functions
Data Inputs
Instrumentation Requirements
Typical Instrumentation (Minimum Requirements for Each Machine)
Desirable Instrumentation (Optional) xvi Contents
Criteria for the Collection of Aerothermal Data
Pressure Drop in Filter System
Temperature and Pressure Measurement for Compressors
and Turbines
Temperature Measurement
Thermocouples
Resistive Thermal Detectors
Pyrometers
Pressure Measurement
Vibration Measurement
Vibration Instrumentation Selection
Selection of Systems for Analyses of Vibration Data
Auxiliary System Monitoring
Fuel System
Torque Measurement
Baseline for Machinery
Data Trending
The Gas Turbine
Identification of Losses
Compressor Aerothermal Characteristics and Compressor Surge
Failure Diagnostics
Compressor Analysis
Combustor Analysis
Turbine Analysis
Turbine Efficiency
Mechanical Problem Diagnostics
Data Retrieval
Summary
Bibliography
Gas Turbine Performance Test
Introduction
Performance Codes
Flow Straighteners
Pressure Measurement
Temperature Measurement
Flow Measurement
Gas Turbine Test
Gas Turbine
Air Inlet Filter Module
Compressor Module
Combustor Module
Expander Module
Life Cycle Consideration of Various Critical Hot Section Components
Performance Curves Contents xvii
Performance Computations
General Governing Equations
Gas Turbine Performance Calculation
Gas Turbine Performance Calculations
Correction Factors for Gas Turbines
Vibration Measurement
Rotor Dynamics
Vibration Measurements
Emission Measurements
Emissions
Plant Losses
Bibliography
Maintenance Techniques
Philosophy of Maintenance
Maximization of Equipment Efficiency and Effectiveness
Organization Structures for a Performance-Based Total Productive
Maintenance Program
Implementation of a Performance-Based Total Productive
Maintenance
Maintenance Department Requirements
Training of Personnel
I. Type of Personnel
II. Types of Training
Tools and Shop Equipment
Spare Parts Inventory
Condition and Life Assessment
Availability and Reliability
Redesign for Higher Machinery Reliability
Gas Turbine Start-up
Redesign for Higher Machinery Reliability
Advanced Gas Turbines
Axial-Flow Compressor
Dry Low NOx Combustors
Axial-Flow Turbine
Maintenance Scheduling
Maintenance Communications
Inspection
Long-Term Service Agreements
Borescope Inspection
Maintenance of Gas Turbine Components
Compressors
Compressor Cleaning
Compressor Water Wash
Different Wash Systems xviii Contents
On-Line Wash Cleaning System
Off-Line Crank Wash Cleaning System
On-Line and Off-Line Water Wash Fluids
Off-Line Crank Wash Procedure
Combustors
Turbines
Rejuvenation of Used Turbine Blades
Rotor Dynamic System Characteristics
Bearing Maintenance
Clearance Checks
Thrust-Bearing Failure
Coupling Maintenance
Repair and Rehabilitation of Turbomachinery Foundations
Installation Defects
Increasing Mass and Rigidity
Bibliography
Case Histories
Axial-Flow Compressors
Combustion Systems
Transition Piece
Axial-Flow Turbines
Appendix: Equivalent Units
Index
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
INDEX
Index Terms Links
Page numbers with “t” denote tables; those with “f ” denote figures.
A
A- alloy
ABB turbine f
Abrasives, for turbine cleaning
Absolute velocity
Absorption cooling systems f
Accelerated oxidation
Acceleration transducers
Accelerometers f

ACCPPs, see Advanced combined-cycle
power plants
Acid number (AN) test
Adiabatic efficiency
description of
of axial-flow compressors
Adiabatic thermal efficiency f f
Carnot cycle
overall cycle work and
regeneration effect f
simple-cycle Index Terms Links
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Advanced combined-cycle power plants
(ACCPPs)
efficiency of f
heat rate of f
Advanced gas turbines
benefits of
concerns regarding
pressure ratios for
redesign of, for reliability
improvements
Aeroderivative gas turbine f
benefits of
Aerodynamic cross-coupling effect
Aerodynamic theory
Aerodynamic whirl t
Aerospace engines
Aerothermal
analysis
baseline
condition monitoring f
data
Aerothermal equations
continuity equation
energy equation
momentum equation
Aerothermodynamics, turbomachinery
compressibility effect
dry- and wet-bulb temperatures
dew point
psychrometers Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Aerothermodynamics, turbomachinery (Cont.)
psychrometric chart f
RTDs vs thermocouples
temperature measurement
devices
Eulerian motion
ideal flow
ideal gas
Lagrangian motion
optical and radiation pyrometers
Air atomization system f
Air bypass valves
Air filtration
Air inlet angle
Air-cooling schemes f
Aircraft propulsion gas turbines
Aircraft-derivative gas turbines
Airfoils
description of
elementary theory of
laminar-flow f
NACA series of f
zero-camber f
AIT, see Auto ignition temperatures
Alarm/system logs
Alloy nickel-based alloy
Alloy nickel-based alloy
Alloys
A-
Cr Index Terms Links
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Alloys (Cont.)
Cr–Mo–V
high-temperature t
Alstom GT / gas turbine f
Aluminum-alloy impellers
AM recorder
Ambient temperature
American Gear Manufacturers Association
(AGMA)
American Petroleum Institute, mechanical
specifications
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
flow nozzle f
performance test codes
description of
list of t
on overall plant performance
on test uncertainty
Amplitude factor f
AN test, see Acid number test
Analytical ferrography
Angular misalignment
Annular combustors f
ANSI/API Std Vibration, Axial
Position and BearingTemperature Monitoring
Systems
API Std Special Purpose Gear
Units for Petroleum, and Gas
Industry Services Index Terms Links
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API Std Lubrication, Shaft-Sealing
and Control-Oil Systems and
Auxiliaries for Petroleum
Chemical, and Gas
Industry Services
API Std Gas Turbines for the
Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas
Industry Services
API Std , Reciprocating Compressors
for Petroleum, Chemical, and
Gas Industry Services
API Std , Rotary-Type Positive
Displacement Compressors for
Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas
Industry Services
API Std , Special Purpose Couplings
for Petroleum, Chemical, and
Gas Industry Services
API Std , General-Purpose Gear Units
for Petroleum, Chemical, and
Gas Industry Services
Approach temperature
ASME B . Basic Gas Turbines
ASME B . M Gas Turbine Fuels
ASME B . Procurement Standard for
Gas Turbine Auxiliary
Equipment
ASME B . Gas Turbine Control and
Protection Systems Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
ASME B . Procurement Standard
for Gas Turbine Electrical
Equipment
ASME B . Gas Turbine Installation
Sound Emissions
ASME B . Measurement of Exhaust
Emissions from Stationary Gas
Turbine Engines
ASME Measurement of Exhaust Emissions
from Stationary Gas Turbine
Engines B .
ASME PTC . : Steam and Water
Sampling, Conditioning, and
Analysis in the Power Cycle
ASME PTC . : Test Uncertainty
ASME PTC . : Guidance Manual for
Model Testing
ASME PTC . : Temperature Measurement
Instruments and Apparatus
ASME PTC . : Flow Measurement
ASME PTC Measurement of Industrial
Sound (ASME B . )
ASME PTC : Performance Test Code on
Overall Plant Performance
Aspect ratio t
Atmospheric tanks, for liquid fuel storage
Atomization air system f
Auto ignition temperatures (AIT) Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Auto-ignition
classification of
flashback, see Flashback
Auxiliary system monitoring
aerothermal baseline
data trending
fuel system
mechanical baseline
torque measurement
Availability
AVCO Lycoming’s AGT- gas turbine f
Averaging
Axial deflection f
Axial proximity probes
Axial velocity
Axial-flow compressors f
f f
accelerometers for detecting
problems with
adiabatic efficiency of
airfoils in
description of
elementary theory of
laminar-flow f
aspect ratio of
blades
advancements in f
coatings on
description of
hand scrubbing of Index Terms Links
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Axial-flow compressors (Cont.)
materials used in t
profile of t
squealer sections on
stall of f
stators f
with tip rub f t
transonic
wear on
cascades, tests of
casing treatments f
centrifugal compressors vs.
characteristics of t
choke of
in cylindrical coordinate system
degree of reaction in
description of
design point for
deterioration of f
deviation rule
diffusion factor
efficiencies of
energy increase in
enthalpy in f
evaporative cooling
exit guide vanes for
failure mechanisms for t t
first-stage rotor blade
gas turbines
high-pressure axial-flow turbineIndex Terms Links
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Axial-flow compressors (Cont.)
rotor f
incidence rule
inlet air fogging systems
interstage cooling of
losses in
new developments in
operation of
performance
blade condition and
losses
map of f
parameters for
radial equilibrium
redesign of, for reliability
improvements
research of
rotor f
stages of
asymmetrical
description of
symmetrical
stall
description of
flutter f
individual blade
propagating f
rotating f t
t
tip tIndex Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Axial-flow compressors (Cont.)
stators f
surge of t
technology changes in t
trends for
velocity
diagram for
triangles
Axial-flow turbines f
first-stage nozzles
fuel nozzles
impulse turbine
reaction turbine
redesign of t
second-stage nozzle vanes
thermodynamic and aerodynamic theory
absolute velocity
axial-flow turbine
degree of reaction
Euler turbine equation
fluid velocity
Reynolds number
utilization factor
work factor
turbine blade cooling concepts
turbine geometry
velocity diagrams
B
Babbitt Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Backward-curved vanes f f

Balancing
component
high-speed f
modal
multiplane
one-plane
orbital
production-rotor
rule of
techniques, application of
trim
two-plane
Barrel-type centrifugal compressor f
Baseline signatures f
BBC/Alstom GT N gas turbine f
Bearing(s)
clearance checks for
design of
failure of
fluid-film lubrication for f
functions of
hydrodynamic mode
journal
circumferential grooved
cylindrical bore
description of
design principles for
elliptical Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Bearing(s) (Cont.)
fluid-film principles of
half-frequency whirl
inspection of
instabilities in
lemon bore
load capacity for f
maintenance of
materials used in
offset halves
pressure dam f
three-lobe
tilting-pad
maintenance of
pre-load
radial ball
illustration of f
load rating of
rolling
cages of
components of f
cylindrical
description of
load ratings of
rollers used in f
rolling elements
terminology for f
types of f
wear of
“self-acting” Index Terms Links
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Bearing(s) (Cont.)
sleeve
surfaces of f
thrust
carrying capacity of
changing of
design of
failure of
function of
plain washer f
power loss f
resistance temperature detectors for
monitoring of
tapered-land f
temperature characteristics of f
types of f
“Bending critical speed”
Blade(s)
axial-flow compressors
advancements in f
coatings on
description of
hand scrubbing of
materials used in
profile of t
squealer sections on
stall of f
with tip rub f t
transonic
wear on Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Blade(s) (Cont.)
borescope inspection of f
coatings
compressor
cooling diagrams f
efficiency of
failures f
flutter
fouling t
geometry loss f
high pressure turbine f
impeller f
IN-
inlet angle for
loading
nomenclature for f
single-crystal
stall of f
stress levels
tip rubs f
turbine
description of
failure of
internal degradation of
surface damage to
used, rejuvenation of
Borescope inspection
Boundary-layer development, in
centrifugal compressors f
Bourdon tube gauges Index Terms Links
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Bowed turbine nozzle vanes f
Boyle’s gas law
Brake-specific fuel combustion (BSFC)
Brayton cycle f
description of
Brayton–Rankine cycle f f
Breakdown f
Brittle fracture
BSFC, see Brake-specific fuel combustion
BTU meter
Burnt first-stage turbine blades f
C
CAES, see Compressed air energy storage
Cages, of rolling bearings
Campbell diagram
Can-annular combustors f

TBC with f
Can-annular gas turbine combustion system f
Cantilever-type radial-inflow turbines
velocity triangles f
Carbon monoxide
Carbon residue
Carnot cycle
inter-cooled regenerative reheat cycle
Carter’s rule
Cascade
Casing accelerometers
Casing force tIndex Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Casing(s)
in axial-flow compressors
in process centrifugal compressors f
Catalyst surface temperatures
Catalytic combustion
features of
Catalytic combustor, design of
Catalytic converters
Catalytic reactor
Catastrophic corrosion
Catastrophic oxidation
CCGT, see Combined-cycle gas turbine
CCPP, see Combined-cycle power plant
CDA, see Controlled diffusion airfoil
Centrifugal compressors, gas
f f
axial-flow compressors vs.
barrel-type f
boundary-layer development in f
casing types
components of
description of
diffusers f
double-entry inducer f
entry-inducer systems f
inducer
inlet guide vanes
scroll
volute
configuration of Index Terms Links
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Centrifugal compressors, gas (Cont.)
description of
flow in f
forces in f
high-pressure-ratio
horizontally split f
industrial applications of
leakage in
losses in
clearance f
description of
diffusion-blading
disc friction f
incidence
recirculating
rotor
skin friction
stator
wake-mixing
low-pressure
map of f
multistage f
operating principles of
performance of
description of
losses in, see Centrifugal
compressors losses in
map
pressure ratios of
process Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Centrifugal compressors, gas (Cont.)
schematic diagram of f
slip in, causes of
Stanitz slip factor
Stodola slip factor
vaneless diffuser
description of
flow trajectory in f
loss in
stall of
surge in
vanes
inlet guide
number of
thickness of
Centrifugal force
Centrifugal oil pump
Centrifuging
Ceramics
Choke
axial flow compressor, stone wall
centrifugal compressor
Circular arc camber lines
Circumferential grooved bearings
Clean oil systems t
Clearance loss f
Clearance seals
Clogged filter
Clogged filters t
Closed impeller fIndex Terms Links
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Closed-loop systems
CMS, see Condition monitoring
systems
Coalescer separators
Coalescing filters
Coatings
on axial-flow compressors blades
blade
developments of f
diffusion
duplex type
future of
plasma-sprayed
shroud
thermal barrier
types of
Cold alignment
Coloumb damping
Combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT)
Combined-cycle plants
overview of f f f
f f
CAES
Combined-cycle power plant (CCPP) f
efficiency of f
heat rate of f
life cycle costs for f
Combustion analysis Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Combustion chamber
linear metallic as
positions of
Combustion chamber liner, metallic
tiles as
Combustion instability
Combustion liners
Combustion process
Combustion systems
diffusion-type combustor
dry low NOx (DLN) combustors
Combustor(s) f f
air pollution issues, unburnt
hydrocarbons f
analysis
annular f
arrangements of
can-annular
catalytic combustion and
cross-sectional area
description of
diagnostics t
diffusion flame
diffusion type
dry low emission nitrous oxide
flashback t
dynamic pressure transducers in
external
failure mechanisms for t
fuel nozzles Index Terms Links
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Combustor(s) (Cont.)
length
liner f
film cooling of
fuel nozzles and f
plates f
liner plates f
maintenance of
monitoring of
performance of
potassium effects on f
redesign of t
reliability of
side
silo-type f
sodium effects on f
vanadium effects on f
Combustor-exit temperature
Combustor-inlet temperature
Commissioning time
Component balancing
Compressed air energy storage
(CAES)
Compressed air injection
of humidified and heated f f
Compressor cleaning
reasons for
water washing
abrasive cleaning
fluids used in Index Terms Links
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Compressor cleaning (Cont.)
off-line
on-line
solvent base agents for
systems for
water quality for t
Compressor performance characteristics
axial-flow compressor f
efficiency islands
gas turbine performance computation
Brayton–Rankine cycle
compressor and turbine efficiencies f
gas turbine load f
part-load turbine efficiencies
turbine efficiency
turbine inlet temperature f
stone walling
turbine performance characteristics
typical compressor map f
Compressor surge
axial-flow compressors t
blade stall
compressor stall
rotating stall
stall flutter
surge margin
vibration and
boundary-layer prediction of f
control system for f f
definition of Index Terms Links
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Compressor surge (Cont.)
description of
detection of
dynamic surge detectors
external causes of
gas consumption effects
impeller blades and
initiation of
internal causes of
signs of
static surge detectors
Compressor(s)
aerothermal characteristics
analysis
blades
categories of
characteristics of f t
choke
diagnostics t
discharge
efficiency
measurements t
fouling
effects on
inlet
inspection of f
losses
maintenance of
map f
performance, testing of Index Terms Links
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Compressor(s) (Cont.)
stall
surge
surging
types of f
Condition management
Condition monitoring systems (CMS)
borescope
description of
implementation of
online optimization process
plant power optimization
Conservation of mass equation
Contact-point shift
Continuity equation
Continuous oil-flow couplings
Continuously lubricated couplings
Control systems
closed-loop systems
combined cycle power plants f
DCS
feedback control loop f
feedforward control system f
flame detection system
gas turbine
negative control loop
open-loop system position
start-up sequence
thermocouples
TIT Index Terms Links
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Control systems (Cont.)
vibration monitors
Control-vortex pre-whirl
Controllable losses
Controlled diffusion airfoil (CDA)
blading
Convection cooling
design
Convection-cooled blade f
Conventional equiaxed investment
casting process
Cooled turbine
aerodynamics
blade f
Cooley-Tukey method
Coriolis circulation f
Correction factors
Corrosion
analysis
catastrophic
fuel-related
hot t
probe
sulfidation
Counter-rotation
Counteract vanadium
Coupling(s)
application of
characteristics of
continuous oil-flow Index Terms Links
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Coupling(s) (Cont.)
continuously lubricated
description of
diaphragm
fasteners
flexible
friction
gear
advantages of
description of
failure of
fretting on gear teeth
high-speed
lubrication problems with
maintenance of
thrust
grease-packed
high-performance flexible
keys
lubrication of
maintenance of
mechanical-joint
metal diaphragm
metal disc
oil-filled
resilient-material
Cr–Mo–V alloy
Crackle test
Creep
life experiments tIndex Terms Links
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Critical shaft speed
Critical speed
calculations, for rotor bearing systems
definition of
map of
Critically damped systems
Cross-flow recuperator f
Curtis turbine f
Cycle analysis
Brayton–Rankine cycle f
evaporative regenerative cycle f f
inter-cooled regenerative reheat cycle f
inter-cooled simple cycle f f
regenerative cycle f f
reheat cycle f f
simple-cycle f f
split-shaft simple cycle f f
steam injection cycle f f f
summation of f
Cyclic bending stress
Cyclic fatigue
Cylindrical bore bearings
Cylindrical coordinate system f
D
Damped systems
critically damped systems
description of
overdamped systems
underdamped systems Index Terms Links
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Damping
Data inputs
Data retrieval
Data trending
DCS, see Distributed control systems
Deaeration
Degassing drum arrangement f
Degradation
inspection for t
nonrecoverable
recoverable
Degree of reaction
in axial-flow compressors
Demulsifier
Depth filters
Design point
of axial-flow compressors
Dew point
Diagnostic analysis
Diaphragm couplings
Differential pressure class meters
Differential pressure switch
Differential thermal expansion
Diffusers f
Diffusion coatings
Diffusion combustor
air pollution problems in
nitrogen oxides
oxides of nitrogen
smoke Index Terms Links
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Diffusion combustor (Cont.)
design consideration
simple straight-walled duct combustor f
velocity
Diffusion factor
Diffusion flame combustors
Diffusion loss
Diffusion type combustor f
air distribution in f
Diffusion blading loss
Dilution
Dimensional analysis
compressor map f
Reynolds number
turbine map f
turbomachines
Direct inlet fogging method
Directional solidification (DS)
Disc couplings
Disc friction loss f
Displacement probes
Displacement transducers
Distributed control systems (DCS)
DLE, see Dry low emission
Dodd bar system
Domestic object damage (DOD) f
Double gas seals f
Double-entry inducer f
Double-helical gearing
Dresser-Rand KG – E gas turbine fIndex Terms Links
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Driver shafts
Dry gas seals
degradation of
description of
double f
materials for
operating range of
schematic diagram of f
spiral groove pattern used in f
systems
tandem f
Dry low NOx (DLN)
combustion system
combustors
Dry low emission (DLE)
combustors f f
operation of
problems with
staging of f
frame-type gas turbine with f
injector
Dry low emission nitrous oxide combustor
description of
flashback t
monitoring of
Dry low NOx (DLN)
Dry scrubbers
Dry-bulb temperature
Dry-friction whirl f t
DS, see Directional solidificationIndex Terms Links
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Ductile fracture
Ductility
Duplex type coating
Dynamic fluid system f
Dynamic pressure transducers
Dynamic surge detectors
Dynamic vibration data
E
Eddy probes
Effective diagnostic system
requirements of
Effective forced outage hours
Efficiencies
adiabatic
cleaning of compressor and
factors that affect
firing temperature and f f
maximization of
of power plants f
pressure ratio and f
pressure ratio effects on
Efficiency islands
Elbow flow meters
Electric Power Research Institute
(EPRI)
Electrical heaters, for fuel heating
Electrical tracing f
Electromagnetic flow meters
Electron microscope fIndex Terms Links
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Electrostatic separators
Elemental analysis, oil
Elevated tanks, for liquid fuel storage
Elliptical arc
Elliptical bearings
Emissions
carbon monoxide
measurement of
nitrous oxide
factors that affect
dry control of
wet control of
smoke
types of
unburnt hydrocarbons f
End-wall losses
Energy equation
Enthalpy
changes in
in axial-flow compressors f
multistage turbine f
radial-inflow turbines f
Entropy
multistage turbine f
radial-inflow turbines f
Entry-inducer systems f
Environmental (EV) burner technology
EPRI, see Electric Power Research Institute
Equation of state Index Terms Links
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Equations
energy
Euler
Euler turbine
momentum
performance computation
Equivalence ratio
Equivalent engine time
in combustor section f
in turbine section f
Euler equation
Euler turbine equation

Eulerian motion
Evacuation chamber f
Evaporative and refrigerated inlet systems
combination of f
Evaporative cooling
and steam injection, combination of f
failure of t
of turbine
Evaporative methods
Evaporative regenerative cycle f f
Evaporators
Excitations
frequency of
identification of t
Exducer
fatigue
Exit guide vanes Index Terms Links
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Exit loss
Exit velocity diagrams for, radial-inflow
turbine f
Expander module
Expander stage
External combustors
External thrust loads
F
Face-OD method, of cold alignment
Failure
axial-flow compressor
bearings
description of
thrust
combustor t
gear couplings
lubrication as cause of
thrust bearings
Failure diagnostics
combustor analysis
compressor analysis
turbine analysis
turbine efficiency
Fast Fourier transform (FFT)
Feedback control loop f
Feedforward control system f
Ferrography, analytical
Ferrous density
FFT, see Fast Fourier transformIndex Terms Links
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Film convection-cooled design f
Film cooling
design
Film-cooled blade f
Filter analysis
Filtration, oil
Finite element modeling
Firing temperature
calculation of
description of f
efficiencies and f
efficiency and f
life cycle and
First law of thermodynamics
First turbine stage, nozzle area of
First-stage compressor
blade f
failure of f
First-stage nozzle vanes f
Five-stage power turbine, design of
Fixed roof tanks, for liquid fuel storage
Fixed seal rings
Flame detection system
Flame stabilization f
Flame tubes
Flash point
Flashback t
Flexible supports f
Floating roof tanks, for liquid fuel
storage Index Terms Links
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Floating seal rings
Flow conditioning
Flow measurement f
Flow nozzle f
Flow straighteners f
Fluid pressure
Fluid velocity
FM recorder
Force(s)
casing t
foundation t
on rotor bearing system
rotor motion-generated t
rotor-applied t
Force-current analogy f
Force-voltage system f
Forced circulation system
Forced vibrations
characteristics of t
description of
stimuli
with viscous damping f
Forced-vortex pre-whirl
Ford gas turbine f
Ford turbine engine
Foremen
Forgings
Forward-curved vanes f f
Index Terms Links
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Fouling
blade t
description of
indicators of
on-line washing to control
turbine t t
Foundation forces t
Foundations
improper installation of
mass and rigidity increases
vibration problems caused by
Fourier analyzer
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)
spectroscopy
Fourier transforms f
Fracture
Frame type heavy-duty gas turbines
advantages of
axial flow compressors in
schematic diagram of
Frame-type gas turbine f
blade cooling in f
Francis turbine f
cross section of f
Free-power gas turbine f
Free-vortex pre-whirl
Fretting t
Friction damping
Frictional flow losses
Frictional loss Index Terms Links
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FT gas turbine f
FTIR, see Fourier transform infrared
spectroscopy
Fuel
atomization
availability of
blended
cleanliness of
corrosion by
deposition tendencies of
fouling of
gaseous
heating value of
heavy
high-ash crudes and residuals
liquid
air atomization system f
ash content of t
characteristics of t
description of t
flash point of
handling of
luminosity of
pour point of
properties of t
specific gravity of
specifications of t
storage of
tank storage of
treatment of Index Terms Links
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Fuel (Cont.)
vaporized fuel oil system
viscosity of
maintenance costs based on t
operating experience regarding
overview of
skid
specifications for
system
turbine cleaning after using
types of t
vaporized fuel oil system
viscosity of f
Fuel blending f
Fuel economics t
Fuel gas
auto ignition temperatures
characteristics of t
conditioning of
contaminants in
construction debris
liquids
description of
handling of
heating value of
particulates in
effects of
equipment for removal of
superheating of t
treatment of Index Terms Links
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Fuel gas (Cont.)
vaporized fuel oil system
Fuel heating
Fuel nozzles f
combustors
Fuel oil
Fuel washing
definition of
inhibitors
sludge from
systems for t
types of
Fuel–bound nitrogen (FBN)
Fuel/air ratio, effect of f
G
Gage pressure
Galvanic corrosion
Gas
compressor surge and
fuel characteristic of
heavy
hydrogen-rich
Gas generator
Gas thermometer
Gas turbine
aerothermal performance equations t
availability of
axial-flow compressor, performance
map of fIndex Terms Links
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Gas turbine (Cont.)
categories of
combined-cycle mode
combustion chambers f
combustors
annular combustors
can-annular combustors
silo-type
commissioning time for
components, compressors
compressor
aerothermal characteristics and surge
fouling
control
loop
correction factors for
cycle, reheat f
deterioration of
efficiency of
electrical power generation unit
production f
engine f
environmental effects
exhaust gases from
firing temperature for f
generation technologies of t
heavy-duty
limitations of
losses, identification of
materials f Index Terms Links
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Gas turbine (Cont.)
metallurgical behaviors in
operational parameters
performance of
pressure ratio for f
refrigerated inlet for
reliability of
sales, distribution f
start-up characteristics of f
starting reliability of
torque meter for f
turbines used in
walnut shells
Gas turbine adiabatic thermal efficiency
Gas turbine applications
ASME PTC
enclosures of
mechanical standards to
size and efficiency
start-up techniques of
types of
variables
Gas turbine blade f
Gas turbine cycle f
in cogeneration mode
in combined cycle mode
Gas turbine design
auxiliary systems
availability
considerations for Index Terms Links
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Gas turbine design (Cont.)
criteria for
environmental considerations
firing temperature f
lubrication systems
pressure ratio f
reliability
serviceability
Gas turbine gear drive f
Gas turbine load f
Gas turbine performance computation
Brayton–Rankine cycle
compressor and turbine efficiencies f
gas turbine load f
part-load turbine efficiencies
thermocouples
turbine efficiency
turbine inlet temperature f
Gas turbine power plant f
Gas turbines

Gas-fired heaters, for fuel heating
Gaseous fuel
Gasifier turbine
GE H gas turbine f
GE industrial-type gas turbine f
GE LM , engine f
GE LMS turbine f f
Gear
advantages of Index Terms Links
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Gear (Cont.)
description of
design considerations
accuracy
bearings
gear housings
helix angle
lubrication
pressure angle
scuffing
service factor
tooth hardness
failures of
high-speed
installation and initial operation of
lubrication problems with
manufacturing of
types of
Gear accuracy
Gear couplings
description of
failure of
fretting on gear teeth
maintenance of
thrust
Gear failures
Gear housings
Gear noise
Gear rating Index Terms Links
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Gear selection
couplings
external thrust loads
operating conditions
Gearbox
signature spectra for f
Gearboxes t
Generator power output capacity
Generator protective
Graphic user interface (GUI)
Grease-packed couplings
Grinding process
GT / gas turbine
GTD-
GUI, see Graphic user interface
H
Half-frequency whirl
Harmonic frequencies of spectrum
Harmonic motion f
Harmonic vibration
Heat balance ratio
Heat loss
Heat rate
controllable losses effect on t
description of
of power plants f
Heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) f f
f
Index Terms Links
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Heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) (Cont.)
approach temperature
evaporators
power augmentation system
summation of
Heat recovery steam generator systems
(HRSG)
Heat recovery systems
supplemental firing of f
Heat tracing
costs of
electrical f
for insulated pipes
how to avoid
stream f
uses of
Heating value
Heavy fuels
description of
heat tracing of piping systems for
Helix angle f
Helmholtz law
Hero’s turbine
High cycle fatigue t
High pressure turbine blades f
High-nickel alloy
High-performance flexible couplings
High-pressure burners for gas turbines
High-pressure compressor (HPC)
High-pressure-ratio centrifugal compressor Index Terms Links
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High-speed balancing f
High-speed couplings
Highpass filter
Historical data management
Hobbing process f
Horizontally split centrifugal
compressors f
Hot alignment
Hot corrosion t
Hot gas erosion oxidation t
Hot section wash
HPC, see High-pressure compressor
HRSG, see Heat recovery steam generator
Hub-to-shroud plane
Humidity
Hydraulic fracturing
Hydrocarbon liquids
Hydrocarbon radicals
Hydrodynamic mode bearing
Hydrogen-rich gases
Hysteretic whirl f t
I
ICP, see Inductively coupled plasma
spectroscopy
Ideal gas
Ideal isentropic process
Ignition
IGV, see Inlet guide vanes
Impact torque Index Terms Links
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Impeller centrifugal
backward-curved vanes f f

blading of f
centrifugal section of
closed f
components of
description of f
Euler work distribution at exit of f
fabrication of
flow in
forward-curved vanes f f

function of
open-faced f
radial vanes f t f
shrouded
velocity profiles through f
Impeller efficiency
Impingement cooling
Impulse diagram
Impulse turbine
IN- blades
Incidence loss
Incidence rule
Inducer
Inductively coupled plasma (ICP)
spectroscopy
Industrial turbines Index Terms Links
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Industrial-type gas turbines f
f
description of
pressure ratios in
Influence coefficient method
Injection pressure
Inlet air fogging systems
Inlet cooling
evaporative and refrigerated inlet
systems, combination of
evaporative cooling of turbine f
gas turbine, refrigerated inlet for
thermal energy storage systems
Inlet guide vanes (IGV)
in axial-flow compressors
in centrifugal compressors
Inspection
borescope
compressor f
degradation-based t
description of
journal bearings
long-term service agreements for
turbine
Instabilities
rotor bearing system
self-excited, see Self-excited
instabilities
Instrument alarms Index Terms Links
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Instrumentation
accuracy of t
and controls
pressure measurement
temperature measurement
Inter-cooled regenerative reheat cycle f
Inter-cooled simple cycle f f
Interconnecting piping
Intercooling and reheating effects f f
Inward-flow radial turbine f
Isentropic adiabatic process
Isentropic efficiency
relationship between polytropic and f
Isentropic flow
Isentropic process
Isobaric process
J
Jet engine f
Journal bearings
babbitt
circumferential grooved
cylindrical bore
description of
design principles for
elliptical
fluid-film principles of
half-frequency whirl
inspection of
instabilities in Index Terms Links
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Journal bearings (Cont.)
lemon bore
load capacity for f
materials used in
offset halves
pressure dam f
three-lobe
tilting-pad
K
Karl Fischer test
Karman vortices
Kawasaki gas turbines
Keyphazor
Kingsbury-type tilting-pad thrust
bearings
Kongsberg gas turbine
Kronecker delta
L
Labyrinth seals
advantages and disadvantages of
description of
dynamic applications of
knife-edge arrangement f
leakage of
materials for
staggered labyrinth
static applications of
straight labyrinth Index Terms Links
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Labyrinth seals (Cont.)
tandem seal with f
types of f
Lagrangian motion
Laminar-flow airfoils
Lapping process
Large power turbines
Larson–Miller parameters f
Lead machinist
Leading-edge lock-up
Leak(s)
in centrifugal compressors
condensate
labyrinth seal
steam
steam leaks in
Lean–lean modes
Lemon bore bearings
Life cycle
analysis
characteristics of f
costs
aerothermal data
for combined cycle power plants f
compressors and turbines, temperature
and pressure measurement for
data inputs
desirable instrumentation
diagnostic system components and
functions Index Terms Links
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Life cycle (Cont.)
filter system, pressure drop in
instrumentation requirements
performance monitoring
total performance condition
monitoring systems
typical instrumentation
parameters that affect
Liner holes
Liner combustion chamber metallic tiles as
Lip-guided cages
Liquid fuel
air atomization system f
ash content of t
characteristics of t
description of t
flash point of
handling of
luminosity of
pour point of
properties of t
specific gravity of
specifications of t
tank storage of
treatment of
viscosity of
Ljungström turbine
Load-distribution program t
Long-term service agreements (LTSA) Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Losses
in axial-flow compressors
in centrifugal compressors
clearance f
controllable
description of
diffusion-blading loss
disc friction f
exit
incidence
performance based total productive
maintenance system for
recirculating
rotor
skin friction
stator
uncontrollable t
wake-mixing
Low-cycle fatigue (LCF) t
Low-pressure centrifugal compressors
Low-pressure compressor (LPC)
Low-temperature hot corrosion
Lower heating value
LP fuel injector
LPC, see Low-pressure compressor
Lubricants, selection of
Lubrication
coupling
failure
gear couplings Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Lubrication (Cont.)
grease
management program for
scheduling of
skid
Lubrication systems
design of
oil reservoir f
oil systems, see Oil systems
M
Mach number
description of
incidence angle affected by
Machined cages
Machinery
breakdown of f
condensate leaks in
description of
diagnosis
foundations for
improper installation of
mass and rigidity increases
vibration problems caused by
life cycle of f
uprates
Machinist
description of
training of
Magnesium sulfate Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Magnesium/vanadium ratio
Magnetic bearings
turbo expanders with f
Magnetic seals f
Main fuel injector
Maintenance
bearing
combustors
communications regarding
compressor
costs
coupling
definition of
description of
fuel effects on t
importance of
inspection
borescope
degradation-based t
description of
long-term service agreements for
performance based total productive
maintenance system
description of
development of
elements of
equipment efficiency and
effectiveness
features of
implementation of Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Maintenance (Cont.)
losses eliminated using
organization structures for
personnel training for
shop equipment
tools
philosophy of
rotor dynamic system t t
t
scheduling of
description of
setup of
total productive
training materials
turbines
turnaround of
Maintenance engineer
Manometers
Materials
axial-flow compressor blades
gas turbine f
Mean tensile stress
Mechanical analysis
Mechanical baseline
Mechanical contact shaft seal f
Mechanical drive gas turbines
Mechanical meters
Mechanical parameters
Mechanical problem diagnostics
Mechanical refrigeration system fIndex Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Mechanical seals
classification of f
components of
equipment considerations
material to be sealed and
oil system associated with f
product considerations
seal arrangement considerations
“seal balance” f
“seal body”
seal environment and
seal gland plate
seal head unit f
seal seat
seal-face combinations
secondary packing
selection of
Mechanical-joint couplings
Medium-sized gas turbines
Memos
Mercury thermometer, bimetallic element
Meridional cross section, radial- and
mixed-flow impellers f
Meridional velocity distribution f
Metal diaphragm couplings
Metal disc couplings
Metallurgical behaviors
corrosion
creep
ductility Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Metallurgical behaviors (Cont.)
fatigue
cyclic
thermal
fracture
rupture
Meter installation
Microturbines
cogeneration system using f
Millwright
Mitsubishi’s M J rotor gas turbine f
Mitsubishis M G gas turbine f
Mixed-flow radial-inflow turbine
nomenclature f
Mixed-flow turbine f
Modal balancing
Molded cages
Momentum equation
Monitoring software
Motion
periodic
rotor
vibration-related
Multi-nozzle combustors
Multi-venturi tube (MVT)
Multiplane balancing
Multiple small-hole
design f
transpiration-cooled blade f
Multipressure steam generators Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Multistage turbine, enthalpy–entropy
diagram for f
N
N-plane
NACA series f
Natural frequency
Natural gas
auto ignition temperatures
characteristics of t
combustion of
conditioning of
consumption f
contaminants in
construction debris
liquids
description of
handling of f
heating value of
particulates in
effects of
equipment for removal of
superheating of t
vaporized fuel oil system
Negative control loop
Negative pre-swirl
Neutral-strain axis
Neutral-stress axis
Nitriding Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Nitrous oxide emissions
reductions f
dry control of
wet control of
Noise
Non-destructive testing
Nozzle vanes f f
failure of t
repairing of
Nozzle, combustors
O
O&M, see Operating and maintenance
Off-design performance
Off-line optimization t
Oil
contamination of
dirt in
heating of
rust and oxidation inhibitor
sampling and testing of
water contamination of
Oil analysis tests
Oil coolers
Oil filters
depth-type
selection of
surface-type
Oil pressure switches
Oil pump Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Oil reservoir f
Oil systems
basic
cleaning of t
condensation in
flushing of
lubrication
mechanical contact seal and f
seal f
Oil whirl f t f

Oil-filled couplings
Oil-fired heaters, for fuel heating
Oil-to-pressure-gas seal
Oil-to-uncontaminated-seal-oil-drain seal
On-line washing
Once through steam generators (OTSG) f
One-plane balancing
Online condition monitoring system f
Online optimization process
Open tanks, for liquid fuel storage
Open-faced impeller f
Open-faced radial-inflow impeller f
Open-loop system position
Operating and maintenance (O&M)
Operating conditions
Operation manual
Optical pyrometers
Optimization analysis Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Optimum pressure ratio f
regenerative cycle
Orbital balancing
Organic NOx
Oscillatory functions
OTSG, see Once through steam generators
Overdamped systems
P
Palladium oxide
Part-load turbine efficiencies
Particle counting tests t
Patch test
Performance analysis
Performance based total productive
maintenance system
description of
development of
elements of
equipment efficiency and effectiveness
features of
implementation of
losses eliminated using
organization structures for
personnel training for
shop equipment
tools
Performance codes Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Performance computations
equations
overview of
Performance curves
Performance evaluation
Performance maps
of centrifugal compressors
of axial-flow compressors
of regenerative gas turbine cycle f
of simple-cycle gas turbine f
Performance monitoring
importance of
Performance test(s)
air inlet fillter module
codes
description of
list of t
on overall plant performance
on test uncertainty
combustor module
compressor module
computations used in
description of
emission measurements
expander module
measurement points for f
vibration measurements
Performance, calculations
Periodic loading
Periodic motion Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Personnel
foremen
lead machinist
machinist
maintenance engineer
millwright
Personnel training
borescope
description of
machinist
practical
update
Phase angles f
Phase lag f
Piloted premix modes
Piloting zone
Pinch point
Piping strain
Pitting
Plant location
Plant operation mode
Plant power optimization
Plasma-sprayed coatings
Pocket guide
Pollutants
Polytropic compression process f
Polytropic efficiency
Power augmentation system
summation of t
Power generation turbines Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Power plants
availability of
complexes
economic and operation
characteristics of t
heat rate of f
reliability of
Power turbine
Pre-whirl
control-vortex
forced-vortex
free-vortex
Preburner
Predictive test
Premix modes
Premix transfer modes
Pressed cages
Pressure angle
Pressure dam bearings f
Pressure drop
Pressure gauges
Pressure measurement
instrumentation for
Pressure ratio
advanced gas turbines
axial-flow compressor and t
description of f
development of f
efficiency and f
pressure drop effects on Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Pressure tanks, for liquid fuel storage
Pressure transducers
Pressure-sensing switch
Primary modes
Proactive test
Probes
accelerometers
axial proximity
dynamic pressure
eddy
velocity
Process centrifugal compressors
Process integration
Production-rotor balancing
Profile factor
Prognostic alarms
Propagating stall f
Proximity probes
Psychrometers
Psychrometric chart f
PTC . : Flue and Exhaust
Gas Analyses
Pure tones
Pusher-type seals f
Pyrometers
R
Radial ball bearings f
Radial equilibrium
Radial roller bearings fIndex Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Radial turbine scallops, types of f
Radial vanes f t f
Radial-flow turbine and compressor f
Radial-inflow gas turbine f
Radial-inflow impeller
boundary-layer formation in f
Radial-inflow turbines f
advantage
applications
characteristic f
configurations
deep scallops f
design
efficiency of
enthalpy f
entropy f
for gas applications
losses in
Ns versus Ds diagram f
noise problems in
nomenclature f f
numerical positions for components of f
performance of
rotor/impeller of
shrouded f
thermodynamic and aerodynamic theory
two dimensional surfaces for
flow analysis f
velocity triangles for f
Radiation pyrometers Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Ratteau turbine f
Raw material costs, comparison of f
RB gas turbine f
Reaction turbine f
Real-time analyzers
description of
subsynchronous vibration
analysis using
Recirculating loss
Recuperative gas turbine (RGT) f
efficiency of f
heat rate of f
Recuperative heat exchanger
Recuperators
cross-flow f
Reference velocity
Refrigerated inlet cooling system
Regeneration effect f f
Regenerative cycle f f
Regenerative gas turbine cycle, performance
maps of f
Regenerative heat exchanger
Regenerators f
advantages of
disadvantage of
Reheat cycle f f
Reheat factor
Reheat gas turbine cycle f
Relative velocity
distribution fIndex Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Reliability
description of
redesigns to improve
advanced gas turbines
axial-flow compressor
axial-flow turbine t
overview of
Resilient-material couplings
Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs)
Resistive thermal detectors (RTDs)
Resonant vibrations t
Restrictive-ring seals f
Reverse-dial indicator method, of cold
alignment
Reynolds number
description of
on turbine stage efficiency f
Rigid supports
Ring seals
cooling of
description of
fixed
floating
restrictive f
Rolling bearings
cages of
components of f
cylindrical
description of
load ratings of Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Rolling bearings (Cont.)
rollers used in f
rolling elements
terminology for f
types of f
wear of
Rolls-Royce aero-derivative gas turbines
Rotary generator f
Rotary regenerator
Rotating machines
flexible supports f
rigid supports
Rotating shaft
Rotating stall f t
Rotor
assembly and disassembly of
balanced f
dynamic balancing of
flexible
high-speed balancing of f
imbalance
causes of
correction of
distribution of
vibration measurements
Rotor bearing system
forces acting on
instabilities of
Routine oil analyses Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
RTDs, see Resistance temperature
detectors
Rumble
Runner
S
Salt
SCGT, see Simple-cycle gas turbine
Screening test
Scroll
Scuffing
Seal oil system f
Seal systems
buffered f
description of
restrictive-ring f
Seal(s)
bearing lubrication oil contamination
clearance
contamination of
description of
dry gas
degradation of
description of
double f
materials for
operating range of
schematic diagram of f
spiral groove pattern used in f
systems Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Seal(s) (Cont.)
gland plate
labyrinth
advantages and disadvantages of
description of
dynamic applications of
knife-edge arrangement f
leakage of
materials for
staggered labyrinth
static applications of
straight labyrinth
tandem seal with f
types of f
windback f
magnetic f
mechanical
classification of f
components of
equipment considerations
material to be sealed and
oil system associated with f
product considerations
seal arrangement considerations
“seal balance” f
“seal body”
seal environment and
seal gland plate
seal head unit f
seal seat Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Seal(s) (Cont.)
seal-face combinations
secondary packing
selection of
noncontacting
oil pressure
oil-to-pressure-gas seal
oil-to-uncontaminated-seal-oil-drain
process gas contamination of
pusher-type f
ring (bushing)
cooling of
description of
fixed
floating
restrictive f
seal gas supply contamination of
Second-stage nozzle vanes
Secondary loss
Selective catalytic reactor
“Self-acting” bearing
Self-excited instabilities
aerodynamic whirl t
characteristics of f t
dry-friction whirl f t
hysteretic whirl f t
oil whirl f t
whirl from fluid trapped in the rotor f
Service manual
SEV burners Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Severity chart f
Shaft alignment
cold alignment
description of
hot alignment check
prealignment survey
procedure for
Shaving process
Shock, in rotor losses
Shop equipment, spare parts
inventory for
Shroud coatings
Shrouded impeller
Shutdown, preparation for
Side combustors
Siemen’s V . gas turbine f
Siemen’s V . gas turbine, DLN annular
combustor in f
Siemen’s W G gas turbine f
Siemens combustors, fuel injector for f
Siemens W F gas turbine f
Siemens/KWU gas turbine f
Siemens V . gas turbine f
Signal-to-noise ratio
averaging effects on
description of
Silo-type combustors f
f
Simple straight-walled duct combustor fIndex Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Simple-cycle f f
gas turbine f f
split-shaft f f
Simple-cycle gas turbine (SCGT)
classification of
efficiency of f
heat rate of f
performance map of f
Single-crystal alloys
Single-crystal blades
Single-entry inducer f
Single-helical gearing
Single-nozzle combustors
Single-stage impulse turbine f
Site configuration
Skin friction loss
Sleeve bearings
Sliding friction coefficient
Slip
Sludge
Small gas turbines
Small standby power turbines
Smoke
Sodium sulfate
Solvent cleaning
Sonic flow nozzles
Spare parts inventory
Spectrum analysis
analyzers for
Fourier transforms fIndex Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Spectrum analysis (Cont.)
harmonic spectra
signal-to-noise ratio
spectra interpretation
subsynchronous vibration analysis
synchronous spectra
taping data
time-domain instant
velocity transducers for
vibration measurements
acceleration transducers for
displacement transducers for
dynamic pressure transducers for
overview of
Split-shaft simple cycle f f
Split-shaft turbines
Staging ratio (SR)
Stall
description of
flutter f
individual blade
propagating f
rotating t t
tip t
Standby pump
Stanitz slip factor
Start-up sequence
gas turbine control
generator protective
shutdown Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Start-up sequence (Cont.)
start-up description
Starting reliability
Startup, guidelines for
Static pressure f
Static surge detectors
Static temperature
Stationary guide vanes
Stationary signal
Stator losses
Steady-state oscillation
Steam cooling
Steam generators
Steam injection f

cycle f f f
Steam tracing f
Steam turbine (ST) plant
efficiency of f
heat rate of f
Steam-cooled turbine blades
Stodola slip factor
Stoichiometric proportions
Stokes flow
Stone walling
Straight-wall conical diffuser f
Straight-wall rectangular diffuser f
Strut insert
blade f
design fIndex Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Strut-supported porous shell
Subcritical operation
Subharmonic frequencies of spectrum
Sulfidation corrosion
Supercritical operation
Superheating t
Surface filters
Surge control
Surge margin
Surge, compressor
axial-flow compressors
boundary-layer prediction of f
control system for f f
definition of
description of
detection of
dynamic surge detectors
external causes of
gas consumption effects
impeller blades and
initiation of
internal causes of
signs of
static surge detectors
vibration and
Surging
Swirler
Symmetrical diagram
Synchronous spectra Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
T
Tandem dry gas seals f
with labyrinth f
Tandem inducers f
Tapered-land thrust bearings f
Teeth failures
Temperature
energy f
firing
calculation of
life cycle and
measurement
instruments for
transducer
Temperature measurement
devices
Temperature-sensing switch
Tertiary full-speed no load (FSNL) modes
Thermal barrier coating (TBC)

Thermal energy storage systems f
Thermal fatigue
Thermal nitrous oxide
Thermal NOx
Thermal reference speed
Thermocouples
f
Thermodynamic theory
and aerodynamic theory
absolute velocity Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Thermodynamic theory (Cont.)
axial-flow turbine
degree of reaction
Euler turbine equation
fluid velocity
Reynolds number
utilization factor
work factor
Thermometers
Thrust bearings
carrying capacity of
changing of
design of
failure of
function of
plain washer f
power loss in f
resistance temperature detectors for
monitoring of
schematic diagram of f
tapered-land f
temperature characteristics of f
types of f
Tilting pad bearings
Tilting-pad journal bearings
Tilting-pad thrust bearing f
Tip rubs t
Tip shrouds f
Tip stall t
Tip-shrouded blocks/rings fIndex Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Tips-shrouded blades f
TIT, see Turbine inlet temperature
Titanium impellers
Tools
overview of
spare parts inventory
Tooth hardness
Tooth-sliding velocity
Torque
description of
measurement
Torsional forces
Tracer methods
Transducers
acceleration
displacement
dynamic pressure
velocity
Transfer-function analysis
Transition piece f
Transonic blades
Transpiration cooling
design f
Transpiration-cooled blade f
Trim balancing
Truck engines t
Truck gas turbine, specification of t
Turbine blade cooling
concepts
designIndex Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Turbine blade cooling (Cont.)
convection and impingement
cooling/strut insert design
cooled-turbine aerodynamics
film and convection cooling design
multiple small-hole design
steam-cooled turbine blades
transpiration cooling design
turbine losses
water-cooled turbine blades
Turbine car f
Turbine inlet temperature (TIT) f
Turbine(s)
analysis
axial-flow f
backpressure
blades
blades of
failure of
internal degradation of
surface damage to
used, rejuvenation of
bucket material’s temperature
car f
casing f
cleaning of
efficiency f
exhaust
temperature
firing temperature Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Turbine(s) (Cont.)
flow meters
fouling of t
geometry
inspection of
inward-flow radial f
losses
maintenance of
map f
mixed-flow f
oil
performance characteristics
performance map f
radial-inflow
rotor shaft f
salt collection in
velocity triangles f
wheel alloys f
Turbo expanders f
applications of
Turbo-compressors
Turbochargers
cross section of f
Turbomachines
aerothermodynamics of
compressibility effect
dry- and wet-bulb temperatures
Eulerian motion
ideal flow
ideal gas Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Turbomachines (Cont.)
Lagrangian motion
optical and radiation pyrometers
condensate leaks in
description of
efficiencies
adiabatic thermal efficiency
gas turbine power plant
gasturbine power plant f
polytropic efficiency
foundations for
improper installation of
mass and rigidity increases
vibration problems caused by
gears
steam leaks in
uprates
Turboprop engine f
Twin oil coolers
Two-plane balancing
Two-stage intermediate-pressure turbine
design of
Two-stage power turbine f
Typical compressor map f
Typical performance map f
U
Ultrasonic flow meters
Unbalance
sensitivity factors Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Unburnt hydrocarbons f
Uncontrollable losses t
Underdamped systems
US Main Battle tank
Utilization factor f
f
V
Value range alarms
Vanadium f
Vane cooling diagrams f
Vaned diffuser
loss caused by
schematic diagram of f
vanes used in
Vaneless diffuser
description of
flow trajectory in f
loss in
stall of
surge in
Vaneless nozzle configurations
Vaporized fuel oil system (VFO)
Vehicular gas turbines
Velocity diagrams f
Velocity pressure
Velocity sensors
Velocity transducers Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Velocity triangles
in axial-flow compressors
in centrifugal compressor f f
Velocity vectors f
Vent valves
Venturi tubes
VFO, see Vaporized fuel oil system
Vibration
signal
Vibration measurements
Vibration systems
classification of
damped
critically damped systems
description of
overdamped systems
underdamped systems
degree of freedom f f
free
description of
undamped
Vibration(s)
acceptable limits for t
amplitude
analysis
baseline
compressor surge and
data
diagnosis of t t
forced Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Vibration(s) (Cont.)
instrumentation selection
measurement of
acceleration transducers for
displacement transducers for
dynamic pressure transducers for
overview of
rotor dynamics
subsynchronous analysis of
velocity transducers for
monitors
motion caused by
nomograph f
protection
resonant t
signal
spectra f
theory
Viscosity
blending f
oil analysis test
Viscous damping
description of
forced vibration with f
Volumetric heat-release rate
Volute
W
Wake-mixing loss
Walnut shells Index Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Washable fuel
Waste-heat recovery system
back pressure considerations
Waste-heat-fired heaters, for fuel heating
Water (crackle) test
Water contamination, of oil system
Water cooling
Water injection f
mid-compressor flashing of
Water nozzles f
inlet spray from f
Water test (Karl Fischer method)
Water washing of compressor
abrasive cleaning
description of
fluids used in
off-line
on-line
solvent base agents for
systems for
water quality for t
Water-cooled turbine blades f
Water-detecting device
Wave analyzer
Westinghouse gas turbines
Wet-bulb temperature
Whirl
aerodynamic t
dry-friction f t
from fluid trapped in the rotor fIndex Terms Links
This p a g e ha s b e e n re fo rma tte d b y Kno ve l to p ro vid e e a sie r na vig a tio n.
Whirl (Cont.)
half-frequency
hysteretic f t
oil f t f

velocity
ratio of
Whirling
Whittle gas turbine f
Windback seal f
Wobbe index (WI)
Wobbe number
Work factor
Z
Zeldovich mechanism
Zero axial displacement
Zero-camber airfoils f
Zero-exit swirl diagram

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