Springer Handbook of Metrology and Testing

Springer Handbook of Metrology and Testing
اسم المؤلف
Horst Czichos, Tetsuya Saito, Leslie Smith
25 أغسطس 2016

Springer Handbook of Metrology and Testing
2nd edition
Horst Czichos, Tetsuya Saito, Leslie Smith
List of Abbreviations . XXV
Part A Fundamentals of Metrology and Testing
1 Introduction to Metrology and Testing
Horst Czichos . 3
1.1 Methodologies of Measurement and Testing . 3
1.2 Overview of Metrology . 9
1.3 Fundamentals of Materials Characterization . 13
References 22
2 Metrology Principles and Organization
Andrew Wallard . 23
2.1 The Roots and Evolution of Metrology . 23
2.2 BIPM: The Birth of the Metre Convention 25
2.3 BIPM: The First 75 Years . 26
2.4 Quantum Standards: A Metrological Revolution . 28
2.5 Regional Metrology Organizations 29
2.6 Metrological Traceability 29
2.7 Mutual Recognition of NMI Standards: The CIPM MRA . 30
2.8 Metrology in the 21st Century . 32
2.9 The SI System and New Science 34
References 37
3 Quality in Measurement and Testing
Michael H. Ramsey, Stephen L.R. Ellison, Horst Czichos,
Werner Hässelbarth, Hanspeter Ischi, Wolfhard Wegscheider,
Brian Brookman, Adolf Zschunke, Holger Frenz, Manfred Golze,
Martina Hedrich, Anita Schmidt, Thomas Steiger . 39
3.1 Sampling 40
3.2 Traceability of Measurements . 45
3.3 Statistical Evaluation of Results 50
3.4 Uncertainty and Accuracy of Measurement and Testing . 68
3.5 Validation . 78
3.6 Interlaboratory Comparisons and Proficiency Testing . 87
3.7 Reference Materials . 97
3.8 Reference Procedures 116
3.9 Laboratory Accreditation and Peer Assessment 126
3.10 International Standards and Global Trade 130
3.11 Human Aspects in a Laboratory 134
3.12 Further Reading: Books and Guides . 138
References 138XX Contents
Part B Chemical and Microstructural Analysis
4 Analytical Chemistry
Willie E. May, Richard R. Cavanagh, Gregory C. Turk, Michael Winchester,
John Travis, Melody V. Smith, Paul DeRose, Steven J. Choquette,
Gary W. Kramer, John R. Sieber, Robert R. Greenberg, Richard Lindstrom,
George Lamaze, Rolf Zeisler, Michele Schantz, Lane Sander,
Karen W. Phinney, Michael Welch, Thomas Vetter, Kenneth W. Pratt,
John H. J. Scott, John Small, Scott Wight, Stephan J. Stranick,
Ralf Matschat, Peter Reich 145
4.1 Bulk Chemical Characterization 145
4.2 Microanalytical Chemical Characterization 179
4.3 Inorganic Analytical Chemistry: Short Surveys
of Analytical Bulk Methods 189
4.4 Compound and Molecular Specific Analysis:
Short Surveys of Analytical Methods . 195
4.5 National Primary Standards – An Example
to Establish Metrological Traceability in Elemental Analysis . 198
References 199
5 Nanoscopic Architecture and Microstructure
Koji Maeda, Hiroshi Mizubayashi 205
5.1 Fundamentals . 211
5.2 Crystalline and Amorphous Structure Analysis . 232
5.3 Lattice Defects and Impurities Analysis . 239
5.4 Molecular Architecture Analysis 258
5.5 Texture, Phase Distributions, and Finite Structures Analysis . 269
References 277
6 Surface and Interface Characterization
Martin Seah, Leonardo De Chiffre 281
6.1 Surface Chemical Analysis 282
6.2 Surface Topography Analysis 308
References 326
Part C Materials Properties Measurement
7 Mechanical Properties
Sheldon M. Wiederhorn, Richard J. Fields, Samuel Low,
Gun-Woong Bahng, Alois Wehrstedt, Junhee Hahn, Yo Tomota,
Takashi Miyata, Haiqing Lin, Benny D. Freeman, Shuji Aihara,
Yukito Hagihara, Tetsuya Tagawa 339
7.1 Elasticity . 340
7.2 Plasticity . 355Contents XXI
7.3 Hardness 366
7.4 Strength . 388
7.5 Fracture Mechanics 408
7.6 Permeation and Diffusion 426
References 442
8 Thermal Properties
Wolfgang Buck, Steffen Rudtsch . 453
8.1 Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat Capacity . 454
8.2 Enthalpy of Phase Transition, Adsorption and Mixing 462
8.3 Thermal Expansion and Thermomechanical Analysis . 469
8.4 Thermogravimetry . 471
8.5 Temperature Sensors . 471
References 482
9 Electrical Properties
Bernd Schumacher, Heinz-Gunter Bach, Petra Spitzer, Jan Obrzut,
Steffen Seitz 485
9.1 Electrical Materials 486
9.2 Electrical Conductivity of Metallic Materials . 493
9.3 Electrolytic Conductivity . 498
9.4 Semiconductors . 507
9.5 Measurement of Dielectric Materials Properties . 526
References 537
10 Magnetic Properties
Joachim Wecker, Günther Bayreuther, Gunnar Ross, Roland Grössinger 541
10.1 Magnetic Materials 542
10.2 Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials: (Standard) Measurement
Techniques for Properties Related to the B(H) Loop . 546
10.3 Magnetic Characterization in a Pulsed Field Magnetometer (PFM) 567
10.4 Properties of Magnetic Thin Films . 579
References 585
11 Optical Properties
Tadashi Itoh, Tsutomu Araki, Masaaki Ashida, Tetsuo Iwata,
Kiyofumi Muro, Noboru Yamada . 587
11.1 Fundamentals of Optical Spectroscopy 588
11.2 Microspectroscopy . 605
11.3 Magnetooptical Measurement 609
11.4 Nonlinear Optics and Ultrashort Pulsed Laser Application 614
11.5 Fiber Optics . 626
11.6 Evaluation Technologies for Optical Disk Memory Materials 641
11.7 Optical Sensing . 649
References 656XXII Contents
Part D Materials Performance Testing
12 Corrosion
Bernd Isecke, Michael Schütze, Hans-Henning Strehblow 667
12.1 Background 668
12.2 Conventional Electrochemical Test Methods 671
12.3 Novel Electrochemical Test Methods . 695
12.4 Exposure and On-Site Testing 699
12.5 Corrosion Without Mechanical Loading . 699
12.6 Corrosion with Mechanical Loading 705
12.7 Hydrogen-Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking 714
12.8 High-Temperature Corrosion 718
12.9 Inhibitor Testing and Monitoring of Efficiency . 732
References 738
13 Friction and Wear
Ian Hutchings, Mark Gee, Erich Santner 743
13.1 Definitions and Units . 743
13.2 Selection of Friction and Wear Tests . 747
13.3 Tribological Test Methods . 751
13.4 Friction Measurement 754
13.5 Quantitative Assessment of Wear . 759
13.6 Characterization of Surfaces and Debris 764
References 767
14 Biogenic Impact on Materials
Ina Stephan, Peter D. Askew, Anna A. Gorbushina, Manfred Grinda,
Horst Hertel, Wolfgang E. Krumbein, Rolf-Joachim Müller, Michael Pantke,
Rüdiger (Rudy) Plarre, Guenter Schmitt, Karin Schwibbert 769
14.1 Modes of Materials – Organisms Interactions 770
14.2 Biological Testing of Wood . 774
14.3 Testing of Organic Materials . 789
14.4 Biological Testing of Inorganic Materials . 811
14.5 Coatings and Coating Materials 826
14.6 Reference Organisms . 833
References 838
15 Material–Environment Interactions
Franz-Georg Simon, Oliver Jann, Ulf Wickström, Anja Geburtig,
Peter Trubiroha, Volker Wachtendorf . 845
15.1 Materials and the Environment 845
15.2 Emissions from Materials . 860
15.3 Fire Physics and Chemistry . 869
References 883Contents XXIII
16 Performance Control: Nondestructive Testing and Reliability
Uwe Ewert, Gerd-Rüdiger Jaenisch, Kurt Osterloh, Uwe Zscherpel,
Claude Bathias, Manfred P. Hentschel, Anton Erhard, Jürgen Goebbels,
Holger Hanselka, Bernd R. Müller, Jürgen Nuffer, Werner Daum,
David Flaschenträger, Enrico Janssen, Bernd Bertsche, Daniel Hofmann,
Jochen Gäng 887
16.1 Nondestructive Evaluation . 888
16.2 Industrial Radiology 900
16.3 Computerized Tomography – Application to Organic Materials . 915
16.4 Computerized Tomography – Application to Inorganic Materials 921
16.5 Computed Tomography –
Application to Composites and Microstructures . 927
16.6 Structural Health Monitoring – Embedded Sensors 932
16.7 Characterization of Reliability 949
16.A Appendix 967
References 968
Part E Modeling and Simulation Methods
17 Molecular Dynamics
Masato Shimono 975
17.1 Basic Idea of Molecular Dynamics . 975
17.2 Diffusionless Transformation 988
17.3 Rapid Solidification . 995
17.4 Diffusion . 1006
17.5 Summary 1010
References 1010
18 Continuum Constitutive Modeling
Shoji Imatani 1013
18.1 Phenomenological Viscoplasticity . 1013
18.2 Material Anisotropy . 1018
18.3 Metallothermomechanical Coupling . 1023
18.4 Crystal Plasticity 1026
References 1030
19 Finite Element and Finite Difference Methods
Akira Tezuka 1033
19.1 Discretized Numerical Schemes for FEM and FDM . 1035
19.2 Basic Derivations in FEM and FDM 1037
19.3 The Equivalence of FEM and FDM Methods 1041
19.4 From Mechanics to Mathematics:
Equilibrium Equations and Partial Differential Equations 1042
19.5 From Mathematics to Mechanics:
Characteristic of Partial Differential Equations 1047XXIV Contents
19.6 Time Integration for Unsteady Problems . 1049
19.7 Multidimensional Case 1051
19.8 Treatment of the Nonlinear Case 1055
19.9 Advanced Topics in FEM and FDM . 1055
19.10 Free Codes 1059
References 1059
20 The CALPHAD Method
Hiroshi Ohtani . 1061
20.1 Outline of the CALPHAD Method 1062
20.2 Incorporation of the First-principles Calculations
into the CALPHAD Approach 1066
20.3 Prediction of Thermodynamic Properties of Compound Phases
with First-principles Calculations . 1079
References 1090
21 Phase Field Approach
Toshiyuki Koyama 1091
21.1 Basic Concept of the Phase-Field Method . 1092
21.2 Total Free Energy of Microstructure . 1093
21.3 Solidification 1102
21.4 Diffusion-Controlled Phase Transformation 1105
21.5 Structural Phase Transformation 1108
21.6 Microstructure Evolution 1110
References 1114
22 Monte Carlo Simulation
Xiao Hu, Yoshihiko Nonomura, Masanori Kohno . 1117
22.1 Fundamentals of the Monte Carlo Method 1117
22.2 Improved Algorithms . 1121
22.3 Quantum Monte Carlo Method . 1126
22.4 Bicritical Phenomena in O(5) Model 1133
22.5 Superconductivity Vortex State . 1137
22.6 Effects of Randomness in Vortex States . 1143
22.7 Quantum Critical Phenomena . 1146
References 1149
Acknowledgements . 1159
About the Authors . 1161
Detailed Contents 1185
Subject Index . 1203XXV
List of Abbreviations
μTA microthermal analysis
AA arithmetic average
AAS atomic absorption spectrometry
AB accreditation body
AC alternating current
ACF autocorrelation function
ACVF autocovariance function
ADC analog-to-digital converter
ADR automated defect recognition
AED atomic emission detector
AEM analytical electron microscopy
AES Auger electron spectroscopy
AF antiferromagnetism
AFGM alternating field gradient magnetometer
AFM atomic force microscope
AFM atomic force microscopy
AFNOR Association Francaise de Normalisation
AFRAC African Accreditation Cooperation
AGM alternating gradient magnetometer
ALT accelerated lifetime testing
AMR anisotropic magneto-resistance
AMRSF average matrix relative sensitivity factor
ANOVA analysis of variance
AOAC Association of Official Analytical
APCI atmospheric pressure chemical ionization
APD avalanche photodiodes
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
APLAC Asian Pacific Accreditation Cooperation
APMP Asian–Pacific Metrology Program
ARDRA amplified ribosomal DNA restriction
ARPES angle-resolved photoemission
AS activation spectrum
ASE amplified spontaneous emission
ASEAN Association of South-East-Asian Nations
ASTM American Society for Testing and
ATP adenosine triphosphate
ATR attenuated total reflection
BAAS British Association for the Advancement
of Science
BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research
and Testing, Germany
BBG Bragg–Bose glass
bcc body-centered-cubic
BCR Bureau Communautaire de Référence
BCS Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer
bct body-centered tetragonal
BE Bauschinger effect
BEI back-scattered electron imaging
BEM boundary element method
BER bit error rate
BESSY Berlin Electron Storage Ring Company
for Synchrotron Radiation
BF bright field
BG Bose glass
BIPM Bureau International des Poids et
BIPM International Bureau of Weights and
BLRF bispectral luminescence radiance factor
BOFDA Brillouin optical-fiber frequency-domain
BOTDA Brillouin optical-fiber time-domain
BRENDA bacterial restriction endonuclease nucleic
acid digest analysis
BSI British Standards Institute
Bi-CGSTAB biconjugate gradient stabilized
CAB conformity assessment body
CAD computer-aided design
CALPHAD calculation of phase diagrams
CANMET Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy
CARS coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy
CASCO ISO Committee on Conformity
CBED convergent beam electron diffraction
CC consultative committee
CC correlation coefficient
CCAUV Consultative Committee for Acoustics,
Ultrasound, and Vibration
CCD charge-coupled device
CCEM Consultative Committee for Electricity
and Magnetism
CCL Consultative Committee for Length
CCM Consultative Committee for Mass and
Related Quantities
CCPR Consultative Committee for Photometry
and RadiometryXXVI List of Abbreviations
CCQM Comité Consultative pour la Quantité de
CCQM Consultative Committee for Quantity of
Matter Metrology in Chemistry
CCRI Consultative Committee for Ionizing
CCT Consultative Committee for
CCT center-cracked tension
cct crevice corrosion temperature
CCTF Consultative Committee for Time and
CCU Consultative Committee for Units
CD circular dichroism
CE Communauté Européenne
CE Conformité Européenne
CE capillary electrophoresis
CE counter electrode
CEM cluster expansion method
CEN European Committee for Standardization
CEN European Standard Organization
CENELEC European Electrotechnical
Standardization Commission
CERT constant extension rate test
CFD computational fluid dynamics
CFL Courant–Friedrishs–Lewy
CFRP carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer
CG coarse grained
CG conjugate gradient
CGE capillary gel electrophoresis
CGHE carrier gas hot extraction
CGPM General Conference on Weights and
CI carbonyl index
CIEF capillary isoelectric focusing
CIP constrained interpolated profile
CIP current-in-plane
CIPM Comité Internationale des Poids et
CIPM International Committee of Weights and
CITAC Cooperation for International Traceability
in Analytical Chemistry
CITP capillary isotachophoresis
CL cathodoluminescence
CLA center line average
CM ceramic matrix
CMA cylindrical mirror analyzer
CMC calibration and measurement capability
CMC ceramic matrix composite
CMM coordinate-measuring machine
CMN cerium magnesium nitrate
CMOS complementary
CNR contrast-to-noise ratio
CNRS Centre National de la Recherche
COMAR Code d’Indexation des Materiaux de
COSY correlated spectroscopy
CPAA charged particle activation analysis
CPP current-perpendicular-to-plane
cpt critical pitting temperature
CR computed radiography
CRM certified reference material
CT compact tension
CT compact test
CT computed tomography
CTD charge transfer device
CTE coefficient of thermal expansion
CTOD crack–tip opening displacement
CTS collaborative trial in sampling
CVD chemical vapor deposition
CVM cluster variation method
CW continuous wave
CZE capillary zone electrophoresis
DA differential amplifier
DA drop amplifier
DAD diode-array detector
DBTT ductile-to-brittle transition temperature
DC direct current
DCM double crystal monochromator
DDA digital detector array
DEM discrete element method
DF dark field
DFG difference frequency generation
DFT discrete Fourier transform
DI designated institute
DIN Deutsches Institut fr Normung
DIR digital industrial radiology
DLTS deep-level transient spectroscopy
DMM double multilayer monochromator
DMRG density-matrix renormalization group
DMS diluted magnetic semiconductor
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
DNPH 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine
DOC dissolved organic carbon
DOS density of states
DRP dense random packing
DS digital storage
DSC differential scanning calorimeter
DT tomography density
DTA differential thermal analysis
DTU Danmarks Tekniske Universitet
DWDD domain-wall displacement detection
DWDM dense wavelength-division multiplexedList of Abbreviations XXVII
EA European Cooperation for Accreditation
EAL European Cooperation for Accreditation
of Laboratories
EAM embedded-atom method
EBIC electron-beam-induced current
EBS elastic backscattering spectrometry
EC electrochemical
ECD electron capture detector
ECISS European Committee for Iron and Steel
ECP electron channeling pattern
ED electron diffraction
EDFA Er-doped fiber amplifier
EDMR electrically detected magnetic resonance
EDS energy-dispersive spectrometer
EDX energy dispersive x-ray
EELS electron energy-loss spectroscopy
EF emission factors
EFPI extrinsic FPI
EFTA European Free Trade Association
EHL elastohydrodynamic lubrication
EIS electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
EL electroluminescence
ELSD evaporative light scattering detection
EMD easy magnetization direction
EMI electromagnetic interference
ENA electrochemical noise analysis
ENDOR electron nuclear double resonance
ENFS European Network of Forensic Science
ENFSI European Network of Forensic Science
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
EPFM elastic–plastic fracture mechanics
EPMA electron probe microanalysis
EPM electron probe microscopy
EPR electron paramagnetic resonance
EPS equivalent penetrameter sensitivity
EPC extracellular polymeric compounds
EPTIS European Proficiency Testing
Information System
EQA external quality assessment
ER electrical resistance
ERM European reference material
ESEM environmental scanning electron
ESI electrospray ionization
ESIS European Structural Integrity Society
ESR electron spin resonance
ETS environmental tobacco smoke
EU European Union
EURACHEM European Federation of National
Associations of Analytical Laboratories
EUROLAB European Federation of National
Associations of Measurement, Testing
and Analytical Laboratories
EUROMET European Cooperation in Measurement
EXAFS extended x-ray absorption fine structure
FAA Federal Aviation Administration
FAA Federal Aviation Authority
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
FAR Federal Aviation Regulations
FBG fiber Bragg grating
fcc face-centered cubic
fct face-centred tetragonal
FD finite difference
FDA frequency-domain analysis
FDD focus–detector distance
FDM finite difference method
FE finite element
FEA finite element analysis
FEM finite element method
FEPA Federation of European Producers of
FET field-effect mobility transistor
FFP fitness for purpose
FFT fast Fourier transformation
FHG first-harmonic generation
FIA flow injection analysis
FIB focused ion beam
FID free induction decay
FIM field ion microscopy
FISH fluorescence in situ hybridization
FL Fermi level
FLAPW full potential linearized augmented plane
FLEC field and laboratory emission cell
FLN fluorescence line narrowing
FMEA failure mode and effects analysis
FMVSS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards
FNAA fast neutron activation analysis
FOD focus–object distance
FOLZ first-order Laue zone
FP fire protection
FPD flame photometric detector
FPI Fabry–Perot interferometer ´
FRET fluorescence resonant energy transfer
FRP fibre-reinforced plastics
FT Fourier transform
FTIR Fourier-transform infrared
FTP fire test procedure
FTS Fourier-transform spectrometer
FVM finite volume methodXXVIII List of Abbreviations
FWHM full width at half maximum
FWM four-wave mixing
GC gas chromatography
GC/MS gas-chromatography mass spectrometry
GD-MS glow discharge mass spectrometry
GDD group delay dispersion
GDP gross domestic product
GE gel electrophoresis
GEFTA German Society for Thermal Analysis
GFRP glass-fiber-reinforced polymer
GFSR generalized feedback shift register
GGA generalized gradient approximation
GIXRR grazing-incidence x-ray reflectance
GL Ginzburg–Landau
GLS Galerkin/least squares
GMI giant magnetoimpedance effect
GMO genetically modified organism
GMR giant magneto-resistance
GMRES generalized minimal residual
GP Guinier–Preston
GPS geometrical product specification
GSED gaseous secondary electron detector
GUM Glowny-Urzad-Miar
GUM guide to the expression of uncertainty in
GVD group velocity dispersion
HAADF high-angle annular dark-field
HAADF-STEM high-angle annular dark-field STEM
HALT highly accelerated lifetime testing
HASS highly accelerated stress screening
HAZ heat-affected zone
HBW Brinell hardness
HCF high cycle fatigue test
HCP hexagonal close-packed
hcp hexagonal close packed
HDDR hydrogenation disproportionation
desorption recombination
HEMT high-electron mobility transistor
HFET hetero structure FET
HGW hollow grass waveguide
HISCC hydrogen-induced stress corrosion
HK Knoop hardness test
HL Haber–Luggin capillary
HL hydrodynamic lubrication
HMFG heavy-metal fluoride glass fiber
HN Havriliak–Negami
HOLZ higher-order Laue zone
HPLC high-performance liquid chromatography
HR Rockwell hardness
HRR Hutchinson–Rice–Rosengren
HRR heat release rate
HRTEM high-resolution transmission electron
HSA hemispherical analyzer
HTS high-temperature superconductor
HV Vickers hardness
HV high vacuum
IAAC Inter American Cooperation for
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IAF International Accreditation Forum
IAGRM International Advisory Group on
Reference Materials
IAQ indoor air quality
IBRG International Biodeterioration Research
IC ion chromatography
ICP inductively coupled plasma
ICPS inductively coupled plasma spectrometry
ICR ion cyclotron resonance
IEC International Electrotechnical
IERF intensity–energy response function
IFCC International Federation of Clinical
Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine
IFFT inverse fast Fourier transform
IGC inverse gas chromatography
IIT instrumented indentation test
IL interstitial liquid
ILAC International Laboratory Accreditation
ILC interlaboratory comparison
IMEP International Measurement Evaluation
IMFP inelastic mean free path
IMO International Maritime Organization
INAA instrumental NAA
IP imaging plate
IPA isopropyl alcohol
IPL inverse power law
IQI image-quality indicator
IQR interquartile range
IR infrared
IRAS infrared absorption spectroscopy
IRMM Institute of Reference Materials and
ISO International Organization for
StandardizationList of Abbreviations XXIX
JCGM Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology
JCTLM Joint Committee for Traceability in
Laboratory Medicine
JIS Japanese Institute of Standards
KC key comparison
KCDB key comparison database
KKS Kim–Kim–Suzuki
KLM Kerr-lens mode-locking
KT Kosterlitz–Thouless
LBB Ladyzhenskaya–Babuska–Brezzi
LBZ local brittle zone
LC liquid chromatography
LC liquid crystal
LCF low cycle fatigue
LD Lawrence–Doniach
LD laser device
LD laser diode
LDOS local density of states
LDV laser Doppler velocimeter
LED light-emitting diode
LEFM linear-elastic fracture mechanics
LGC Laboratory of the Government Chemist
LIF laser-induced fluorescence
LJ Lennard-Jones
LNE Laboratoire nationale de métrologie et
LOC limit of decision
LOD limit of detection
LOD limit of determination
LOQ limit of quantification
LSCM laser scanning confocal microscope
LSDA local spin density approximation
LST linear system theory
LTS low-temperature superconductor
LVDT linear variable differential transformer
LVM local vibrational mode
MAD median absolute deviation
MC Monte Carlo
MCA multichannel analyzer
MCD magnetic circular dichroism
MCDA magnetic circular dichroic absorption
MCP microchannel plate
MCPE magnetic circular-polarized emission
MD molecular dynamics
MDM minimum detectable mass
MECC micellar electrokinetic capillary
MEIS medium-energy ion scattering
MEM maximum entropy method
MEMS microelectromechanical system
MFC mass-flow controller
MFD mode field diameter
MFM magnetoforce micrometer
MIBK methylisobutylketone
MIC microbially induced corrosion
MID measuring instruments directive
MIS metal–insulator–semiconductor
MISFET metal–insulator–semiconductor FET
MITI Ministry of International Trade and
MKS meter, kilogram, and second
MKSA meter, kilogram, second, and ampere
MLA multilateral agreement
MLE maximum-likelihood estimation
MLLSQ multiple linear least squares
MM metal matrix
MMC metal matrix composite
MMF minimum mass fraction
MO magnetooptical
MOE modulus of elasticity
MOKE magnetooptic Kerr effect
MOL magnetooptical layer
MON monochromator
MOS metal–oxide–semiconductor
MPA Materialprfungsamt
MRA multiregional agreement
MRA mutual recognition arrangement
MRAM magnetic random-access memory
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
MRR median rank regression
MS magnetic stirring
MS mass spectrometry
MST microsystems technology
MSW municipal solid waste
MTJ magnetic tunnel junction
MUT material under test
MUVU mobile UV unit
MXCD magnetic x-ray circular dichroism
MoU memorandum of understanding
NA numerical aperture
NAA neutron activation analysis
NAB national accreditation body
NACE National Association of Corrosion
NAFTA North America Free Trade Association
NBS National Bureau of Standards
ND neutron diffraction
NDE nondestructive evaluationXXX List of Abbreviations
NDP neutron depth profiling
NDT nondestructive testing
NEP noise-equivalent power
NEXAFS near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure
NFPA National Fire Protection Association
NHE normal hydrogen electrode
NIR near infrared
NIST National Institute of Standards and
NMI National Metrology Institute
NMR nuclear magnetic resonance
NMi Netherlands Measurement Institute
NOE nuclear Overhauser effect
NPL National Physical Laboratory
NPT number pressure temperature
NR natural rubber
NR neutron reflectance
NRA nuclear reaction analysis
NRC-CRM National Research Center for Certified
Reference Materials
NRW Nordrhein-Westfalen
NTC negative temperature coefficient
OA operational amplifier
OCT optical coherence tomography
ODD object-to-detector distance
ODF orientation distribution function
ODMR optically detected magnetic resonance
ODS octadecylsilane
OES optical emission
OIML International Organization of Legal
OKE optical Kerr effect
OM optical microscopy
OMH Orzajos Meresugyi Hivatal
OPA optical parametric amplifier
OPG optical parametric generation
OPO optical parametric oscillator
OR optical rectification
ORD optical rotary dispersion
OSA optical spectrum analyzer
OSU Ohio State University
OTDR optical time-domain reflectometry
PA polyamide
PAA photon activation analysis
PAC Pacific Accreditation Cooperation
PAC perturbed angular correlation
PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
PAS positron annihilation spectroscopy
PBG photonic band gap
PC personal computer
PC photoconductive detector
PC polycarbonate
PCB polychlorinated biphenyl
PCF photonic crystal fiber
PCI phase contrast imaging
PCR polymerase chain reaction
PDMS poly(dimethylsiloxane)
PE polyethylene
PE-HD high-density polyethylene
PE-LD low-density polyethylene
PEELS parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy
PEM photoelectromagnetic
PERSF pure element relative sensitivity factor
PET polyethylene terephthalate
PFM pulse field magnetometer
PGAA prompt gamma activation analysis
PHB poly(β-hydroxy butyrate)
PI pitting index
PID photoionization detector
PIRG path-integral renormalization group
PIXE particle-induced x-ray emission
PL photoluminescence
PLE PL excitation
PLZT lanthanide-modified piezoceramic
PM polymer matrix
PMMA poly(methyl methacrylate)
PMT photomultiplier tube
POD probability of detection
POF polymer optical fiber
POL polychromator
POM particulate organic matter
POS proof-of-screen
PSD power-spectral density
PSDF power spectral density function
PSI phase-shift interferometry
PSL photostimulated luminescence
PT phototube
PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt
PTC positive temperature coefficient
PTFE polytetrafluoroethylene
PTMSP poly(1-trimethlsilyl-1-propyne)
PU polyurethane
PUF polyurethane foam
PV photovoltaic
PVA polyvinyl acetate
PVC polyvinyl chloride
PVD physical vapor deposition
PVDF polyvinylidene fluoride
PWM pulse-width modulation
PZT lead zirconate titanate
QA quality assurance
QC quality controlList of Abbreviations XXXI
QE quantum effect
QMR quasiminimal residual
QMS quality management system
QNMR quantitative proton nuclear magnetic
RAPD random amplified polymorphic DNA
RBS Rutherford backscattering
RC resistor–capacitor
RD rolling direction
RDE rotating disc electrode
RE reference electrode
RF radiofrequency
RFLP restriction fragment length polymorphism
RG renormalization group
RH relative humidity
RI refractive index
RM reference material
RMO regional metrology organization
RMR RM report
RMS root mean square
RNA nuclear reaction analysis
RNAA radiochemical NAA
RPLC reversed-phase liquid chromatography
RRDE rotating ring-disc electrode
rRNA ribosomal RNA
RSF relative sensitivity factor
S/N signal-to-noise ratio
SABS South African Bureau of Standards
SAD selected area diffraction
SADCMET Southern African Development
Community Cooperation in Measurement
SAMR small-angle magnetization-rotation
SAQCS sampling and analytical quality control
SAXS small-angle x-ray scattering
SBI single burning item
SBR styrene butyl rubber
SBS sick-building syndrome
SC superconductivity
SCA surface chemical analysis
SCC stress corrosion cracking
SCE saturated calomel electrode
SCLM scanning confocal laser microscopy
SD strength difference
SDD silicon drift detector
SE secondary electron
SEC specific energy consumption
SECM scanning electrochemical microscope
SEI secondary electron imaging
SEM scanning electron microscopy
SEN single-edge notched
SENB4 four-point single-edge notch bend
SER specific emission rate
SFG sum frequency generation
SFM scanning force microscopy
SHE standard hydrogen electrode
SHG second-harmonic generation
SHM structural health monitoring
SI International System of Units
SI Système International d’Unités
SIM Sistema Interamericano de Metrología
SIMS secondary ion mass spectrometry
SMSC study semiconductor
SMU Slovenski Metrologicky Ustav
SNOM scanning near-field optical microscopy
SNR signal-to-noise ratio
SOD source-to-object distance
SOLAS safety of life at sea
SOLZ second-order Laue zone
SOP standard operating procedure
SOR successive overrelaxation
SP Swedish National Testing and Research
SPD singular point detection
SPF superplastic forming
SPH smooth particle hydrodynamics
SPI selective polarization inversion
SPM scanning probe microscopy
SPM self-phase modulation
SPOM surface potential microscope
SPRT standard platinum resistance thermometer
SPT sampling proficiency test
SQUID superconducting quantum interference
SRE stray radiant energy
SRET scanning reference electrode technique
SRM standard reference material
SRS stimulated Raman scattering
SS spectral sensitivity
SSE stochastic series expansion
SST single-sheet tester
SST system suitability test
STEM scanning transmission electron
STL stereolithographic data format
STM scanning tunneling microscopy
STP steady-state permeation
STS scanning tunneling spectroscopy
SUPG streamline-upwind Petrov–Galerkin
SVET scanning vibrating electrode technique
SVOC semi-volatile organic compound
SW Swendsen–Wang
SWLI scanning white-light interferometry
SZ stretched zone
SZW stretched zone widthXXXII List of Abbreviations
TAC time-to-amplitude converter
TBCCO tellurium-barium-calcium-copper-oxide
TBT technical barriers to trade
TCD thermal conductivity detector
TCSPC time-correlated single-photon counting
TDI time-delayed integration
TDS thermal desorption mass spectrometry
TDS total dissolved solid
TEM transmission electron microscopy
TFT thin-film transistor
TG thermogravimetry
TGA-IR thermal gravimetric analysis-infrared
TGFSR twisted GFSR
THG third-harmonic generation
TIMS thermal ionization mass spectrometry
TIRFM total internal reflection fluorescence
TLA thin-layer activation
TMA thermomechanical analysis
TMR tunnel magneto-resistance
TMS tetramethylsilane
TOF time of flight
TPA two-photon absorption
TR technical report
TRIP transformation induced plasticity
TS tensile strength
TTT time–temperature-transformation
TU Technical University
TVOC total volatile organic compound
TW thermostat water
TWA technical work area
TWIP twinning induced plasticity
TXIB 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol
TXRF total reflection x-ray fluorescence
UBA Bundesumweltamt
UHV ultra-high vacuum
UIC Union Internationale des Chemins de Fer
ULSI ultralarge-scale integration
USAXS ultrasmall-angle scattering
USP United States Pharmacopeia
UT ultrasonic technique
UTS ultimate tensile strength
UV ultraviolet
UVSG UV Spectrometry Group
UXO unexploded ordnance
VAMAS Versailles Project on Advanced Materials
and Standards
VCSEL vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser
VDEh Verein Deutscher Eisenhttenleute
VG vortex glass
VIM international vocabulary of basic and
general terms in metrology
VIM international vocabulary of metrology
VL vortex liquid
VOC volatile organic carbon
VOST volatile organic sampling train
VSM vibrating-sample magnetometer
VVOC very volatile organic compound
WDM wavelength division multiplexing
WDS wavelength-dispersive spectrometry
WE working electrode
WFI water for injection
WGMM Working Group on Materials Metrology
WHO World Health Organization
WLI white-light interferometry
WTO World Trade Organization
WZW Wess–Zumino–Witten
XAS x-ray absorption spectroscopy
XCT x-ray computed tomography
XEDS energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry
XFL photoemitted Fermi level
XMA x-ray micro analyzer
XMCD x-ray magnetic circular dichroism
XPS x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
XPS x-ray photoemission spectroscopy
XRD x-ray diffraction
XRF x-ray fluorescence
XRT x-ray topography
YAG yttrium aluminum garnet
YIG yttrium-iron garnet
YS yield strength
ZOLZ zero-order Laue zone
ZRA zero-resistance ammetry
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