اسم المؤلف
John J. Macionis
15 نوفمبر 2018

Sixteenth Edition
Global Edition
John J. Macionis
Kenyon College
Brief Contents
Part I The Foundations of Sociology
1 The Sociological Perspective 29
2 Sociological Investigation 55
Part II The Foundations of Society
3 Culture 86
4 Society 116
5 Socialization 139
6 Social Interaction in
Everyday Life 163
7 Groups and Organizations 186
8 Sexuality and Society 210
9 Deviance 238
Part III Social Inequality
10 Social Stratification 269
11 Social Class in the
United States 292
12 Global Stratification
13 Gender Stratification
14 Race and Ethnicity
15 Aging and the Elderly
Part IV Social Institutions
16 The Economy and Work
17 Politics and Government
18 Families
19 Religion
20 Education
21 Health and Medicine
Part V Social Change
22 Population, Urbanization, and Environment
23 Collective Behavior and Social Movements
24 Social Change: Traditional, Modern, and Postmodern Societies
Boxes 17
Maps 18
Preface 20
About the Author 26
Part I The Foundations of Sociology
1 The Sociological Perspective 29
The Power of Society to guide our choices in
marriage partners 30
The Sociological Perspective 31
1.1: Explain how the sociological perspective
differs from common sense.
SEEinG thE GEnEral in thE Particular 31
SEEinG thE StranGE in thE Familiar 32
SEEinG SociEty in our EvEryday livES 33
SEEinG SocioloGically: marGinality and criSiS 34
The Importance of a Global Perspective 35
1.2: State several reasons that a global perspective is
important in today’s world.
Applying the Sociological Perspective 37
1.3: Identify the advantages of sociological thinking for
developing public policy, for encouraging personal
growth, and for advancing in a career.
SocioloGy and Public Policy 37
SocioloGy and PErSonal Growth 38
carEErS: thE “SocioloGy advantaGE” 39
The Origins of Sociology 40
1.4: Link the origins of sociology to historical social
Social chanGE and SocioloGy 40
SciEncE and SocioloGy 40
Sociological Theory 41
1.5: Summarize sociology’s major theoretical approaches.
thE Structural-Functional aPProach 42
thE Social-conFlict aPProach 43
FEminiSm and GEndEr-conFlict thEory 44
racE-conFlict thEory 44
thE Symbolic-intEraction aPProach 46
Applying the Approaches: The Sociology of Sports 47
1.6: Apply sociology’s major theoretical approaches to
the topic of sports.
thE FunctionS oF SPortS 47
SPortS and conFlict 47
SPortS aS intEraction 49
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 51
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 52
Making the Grade 53
2 Sociological Investigation 55
The Power of Society to influence our life chances 56
Basics of Sociological Investigation 58
2.1: Explain how scientific evidence often challenges
common sense.
SciEncE aS onE tyPE oF truth 58
common SEnSE vErSuS SciEntiFic EvidEncE 58
Three Ways to Do Sociology 59
2.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations.
PoSitiviSt SocioloGy 59
intErPrEtivE SocioloGy 64
critical SocioloGy 65
rESEarch oriEntationS and thEory 66
Issues Affecting Sociological Research 66
2.3: Identify the importance of gender and ethics
in sociological research.
GEndEr 66
rESEarch EthicS 67
rESEarch mEthodS 69
2.4: Explain why a researcher might choose each of
sociology’s research methods.
tEStinG a hyPothESiS: thE ExPErimEnt 69
aSkinG QuEStionS: SurvEy rESEarch 70
in thE FiEld: ParticiPant obSErvation 74
uSinG availablE data: ExiStinG SourcES 77
rESEarch mEthodS and thEory 80
PuttinG it all toGEthEr: tEn StEPS in
SocioloGical invEStiGation 81
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 82
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 83
Making the Grade 84
Part II The Foundations of Society
3 Culture 86
The Power of Society to guide our attitudes on
social issues such as abortion 87
What Is Culture? 88
3.1: Explain the development of culture as a human
strategy for survival.
culturE and human intElliGEncE 90
culturE, nation, and SociEty 92
how many culturES? 92
The Elements of Culture 92
3.2: Identify common elements of culture.
SymbolS 92
lanGuaGE 94
valuES and bEliEFS 958 contents
normS 97
idEal and rEal culturE 98
matErial culturE and tEchnoloGy 98
nEw inFormation tEchnoloGy and culturE 99
Cultural Diversity: Many Ways of Life in One World 99
3.3: Discuss dimensions of cultural difference and
cultural change.
hiGh culturE and PoPular culturE 99
SubculturE 101
multiculturaliSm 101
countErculturE 104
cultural chanGE 104
EthnocEntriSm and cultural rElativiSm 105
a Global culturE? 107
Theories of Culture 108
3.4: Apply sociology’s macro-level theories to gain
greater understanding of culture.
Structural-Functional thEory:
thE FunctionS oF culturE 108
Social-conFlict thEory: inEQuality and culturE 109
FEminiSt thEory: GEndEr and culturE 109
SociobioloGy: Evolution and culturE 110
Culture and Human Freedom 111
3.5: Critique culture as limiting or expanding
human freedom.
culturE aS conStraint 111
culturE aS FrEEdom 111
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 112
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 113
Making the Grade 114
4 Society 116
The Power of Society to shape access to the Internet 117
Gerhard Lenski: Society and Technology 118
4.1: Describe how technological development
has shaped the history of human societies.
huntinG and GathErinG SociEtiES 119
horticultural and PaStoral SociEtiES 120
aGrarian SociEtiES 121
induStrial SociEtiES 122
PoStinduStrial SociEtiES 123
thE limitS oF tEchnoloGy 123
Karl Marx: Society and Conflict 123
4.2: Analyze the importance of class conflict
to the historical development of
human societies.
SociEty and Production 124
conFlict and hiStory 125
caPitaliSm and claSS conFlict 125
caPitaliSm and aliEnation 126
rEvolution 126
Max Weber: The Rationalization of Society 127
4.3: Demonstrate the importance of ideas to the
development of human societies.
two worldviEwS: tradition and rationality 127
iS caPitaliSm rational? 129
wEbEr’S GrEat thESiS: ProtEStantiSm and caPitaliSm 129
rational Social orGanization 129
Emile Durkheim: Society and Function 131
4.4: Contrast the social bonds typical of
traditional and modern societies.
StructurE: SociEty bEyond ourSElvES 131
Function: SociEty aS SyStEm 131
PErSonality: SociEty in ourSElvES 131
modErnity and anomiE 132
EvolvinG SociEtiES: thE diviSion oF labor 132
Critical Review: Four Visions of Society 133
4.5: Summarize the contributions of Lenski, Marx,
Weber, and Durkheim to our understanding
of social change.
what holdS SociEtiES toGEthEr? 133
how havE SociEtiES chanGEd? 133
why do SociEtiES chanGE? 133
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 135
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 136
Making the Grade 137
5 Socialization 139
The Power of Society to shape how much
television we watch 140
Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity 141
5.1: Describe how social interaction is the foundation of
human dEvEloPmEnt: naturE and nurturE 141
Social iSolation 142
Understanding Socialization 143
5.2: Explain six major theories of socialization.
SiGmund FrEud’S ElEmEntS oF PErSonality 143
JEan PiaGEt’S thEory oF coGnitivE dEvEloPmEnt 144
lawrEncE kohlbErG’S thEory oF moral dEvEloPmEnt 145
carol GilliGan’S thEory oF GEndEr and moral
dEvEloPmEnt 145
GEorGE hErbErt mEad’S thEory oF thE Social SElF 146
Erik h. ErikSon’S EiGht StaGES oF dEvEloPmEnt 148
Agents of Socialization 148
5.3: Analyze how the family, school, peer groups,
and the mass media guide the socialization
thE Family 148
thE School 150
thE PEEr GrouP 150
thE maSS mEdia 151
Socialization and the Life Course 153
5.4: Discuss how our society organizes
human experience into distinctive stages
of life.
childhood 154
adolEScEncE 155
adulthood 155
old aGE 155
dEath and dyinG 156
thE liFE courSE: PattErnS and variationS 157contents 9
Resocialization: Total Institutions 157
5.5: Characterize the operation of total institutions.
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 159
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 160
Making the Grade 161
6 Social Interaction in Everyday Life 163
The Power of Society to guide the way we do social
networking 164
Social Structure: A Guide to Everyday Living 165
6.1: Explain how social structure helps us to
make sense of everyday situations.
Status 166
6.2: State the importance of status to social organization.
StatuS SEt 166
aScribEd and achiEvEd StatuS 166
maStEr StatuS 166
Role 166
6.3: State the importance of role to social organization.
rolE SEt 167
rolE conFlict and rolE Strain 168
rolE Exit 168
The Social Construction of Reality 168
6.4: Describe how we socially construct reality.
thE thomaS thEorEm 170
EthnomEthodoloGy 170
rEality buildinG: claSS and culturE 171
thE incrEaSinG imPortancE oF Social mEdia 171
Dramaturgical Analysis: The “Presentation of Self” 172
6.5: Apply Goffman’s analysis to several familiar
PErFormancES 172
nonvErbal communication 173
GEndEr and PErFormancES 174
idEalization 174
EmbarraSSmEnt and tact 175
Interaction in Everyday Life: Three Applications 176
6.6: Construct a sociological analysis of three aspects of
everyday life: emotions, language, and humor.
EmotionS: thE Social conStruction oF FEElinG 176
lanGuaGE: thE Social conStruction oF GEndEr 177
rEality Play: thE Social conStruction oF humor 179
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 182
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 183
Making the Grade 184
7 Groups and Organizations 186
The Power of Society to link people into groups 187
Social Groups 188
7.1: Explain the importance of various types
of groups to social life.
Primary and SEcondary GrouPS 188
GrouP lEadErShiP 190
GrouP conFormity 190
rEFErEncE GrouPS 192
in-GrouPS and out-GrouPS 192
GrouP SizE 193
Social divErSity: racE, claSS, and GEndEr 193
nEtworkS 194
Social mEdia and nEtworkinG 195
Formal Organizations 195
7.2: Describe the operation of large,
formal organizations.
tyPES oF Formal orGanizationS 196
oriGinS oF Formal orGanizationS 196
charactEriSticS oF burEaucracy 196
orGanizational EnvironmEnt 197
thE inFormal SidE oF burEaucracy 197
ProblEmS oF burEaucracy 198
oliGarchy 199
The Evolution of Formal Organizations 200
7.3: Summarize the changes to formal
organizations over the course of the last century.
SciEntiFic manaGEmEnt 200
thE FirSt challEnGE: racE and GEndEr 200
thE SEcond challEnGE: thE JaPanESE
work orGanization 201
thE third challEnGE: thE chanGinG naturE
oF work 201
thE “mcdonaldization” oF SociEty 203
thE FuturE oF orGanizationS: oPPoSinG trEndS 204
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 206
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 207
Making the Grade 208
8 Sexuality and Society 210
The Power of Society to shape our attitudes
on social issues involving sexuality 211
Understanding Sexuality 212
8.1: Describe how sexuality is both a biological
and a cultural issue.
SEx: a bioloGical iSSuE 213
SEx and thE body 214
SEx: a cultural iSSuE 214
thE incESt taboo 215
Sexual Attitudes in the United States 216
8.2: Explain changes in sexual attitudes
in the United States.
thE SExual rEvolution 217
thE SExual countErrEvolution 218
PrEmarital SEx 219
SEx bEtwEEn adultS 219
Extramarital SEx 219
SEx ovEr thE liFE courSE 220
Sexual Orientation 220
8.3: Analyze factors that shape sexual orientation.
what GivES uS a SExual oriEntation? 220
how many Gay PEoPlE arE thErE? 221
thE Gay riGhtS movEmEnt 222
tranSGEndEr 22410 contents
Sexual Issues and Controversies 224
8.4: Discuss several current controversies
involving sexuality.
tEEn PrEGnancy 224
PornoGraPhy 225
ProStitution 226
SExual violEncE: raPE and datE raPE 227
Theories of Sexuality 227
8.5: Apply sociology’s major theories to the topic
of sexuality.
Structural-Functional thEory 227
Symbolic-intEraction thEory 229
Social-conFlict and FEminiSt thEoriES 230
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 234
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 235
Making the Grade 236
9 Deviance 238
The Power of Society to affect the odds of being
incarcerated for using drugs 239
What Is Deviance? 240
9.1: Explain how sociology addresses limitations of a
biological or psychological approach to deviance.
Social control 240
thE bioloGical contExt 241
PErSonality FactorS 241
thE Social FoundationS oF dEviancE 242
Structural-Functional Theories: The Functions
of Deviance 243
9.2: Apply structural-functional theories to the topic of
durkhEim’S baSic inSiGht 243
mErton’S Strain thEory 244
dEviant SubculturES 245
Symbolic-Interaction Theories: Defining Deviance 246
9.3: Apply symbolic-interaction theories
to the topic of deviance.
labElinG thEory 246
thE mEdicalization oF dEviancE 247
thE diFFErEncE labElS makE 247
SuthErland’S diFFErEntial aSSociation thEory 248
hirSchi’S control thEory 248
Theories of Class, Race, and Gender: Deviance
and Inequality 249
9.4: Apply social-conflict theories to the topic
of deviance.
dEviancE and PowEr 249
dEviancE and caPitaliSm 249
whitE-collar crimE 250
corPoratE crimE 250
orGanizEd crimE 251
racE-conFlict thEory: hatE crimES 251
FEminiSt thEory: dEviancE and GEndEr 251
Crime 253
9.5: Identify patterns of crime in the United States
and around the world.
tyPES oF crimE 253
criminal StatiSticS 254
thE StrEEt criminal: a ProFilE 254
crimE in Global PErSPEctivE 257
The U.S. Criminal Justice System 259
9.6: Analyze the operation of the
criminal justice system.
duE ProcESS 259
PolicE 259
courtS 260
PuniShmEnt 260
thE dEath PEnalty 262
community-baSEd corrEctionS 263
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 265
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 266
Making the Grade 267
Part III Social Inequality
10 Social Stratification 269
The Power of Society to affect life expectancy 270
What Is Social Stratification? 271
10.1: Identify four principles that underlie social
Caste and Class Systems 272
10.2: Apply the concepts of caste, class, and
meritocracy to societies around the world.
thE caStE SyStEm 272
thE claSS SyStEm 273
caStE and claSS: thE unitEd kinGdom 275
anothEr ExamPlE: JaPan 276
claSSlESS SociEtiES? thE FormEr SoviEt union 277
china: EmErGinG Social claSSES 278
Ideology: Supporting Stratification 279
10.3: Explain how cultural beliefs
justify social inequality.
Plato and marx on idEoloGy 280
hiStorical PattErnS oF idEoloGy 280
Theories of Social Inequality 281
10.4: Apply sociology’s major theories
to the topic of social inequality.
Structural-Functional thEory:
thE daviS-moorE thESiS 281
Social-conFlict thEoriES:
karl marx and max wEbEr 282
Symbolic-intEraction thEory:
StratiFication in EvEryday liFE 284
Social StratiFication: FactS and valuES 285
Social Stratification and Technology:
A Global Perspective 286
10.5: Analyze the link between a
society’s technology and its social stratification.
huntinG and GathErinG SociEtiES 286
horticultural, PaStoral, and aGrarian SociEtiES 286
induStrial SociEtiES 286
thE kuznEtS curvE 286contents 11
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 288
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 289
Making the Grade 290
11 Social Class in the United States 292
The Power of Society to shape our
changes of living in poverty 293
Dimensions of Social Inequality 294
11.1: Describe the distribution of
income and wealth in the United States.
incomE 294
wEalth 295
PowEr 295
occuPational PrEStiGE 296
SchoolinG 296
U.S. Stratification: Merit and Caste 296
11.2: Explain how someone’s position
at birth affects social standing later in life.
ancEStry 297
racE and Ethnicity 297
GEndEr 297
Social Classes in the United States 297
11.3: Describe the various social class positions
in U.S. society.
thE uPPEr claSS 298
thE middlE claSS 299
thE workinG claSS 299
thE lowEr claSS 300
The Difference Class Makes 300
11.4: Analyze how social class position affects health,
values, politics, and family life.
hEalth 301
valuES and attitudES 301
PoliticS 301
Family and GEndEr 303
Social Mobility 303
11.5: Assess the extent of social mobility
in the United States.
rESEarch on mobility 303
mobility by incomE lEvEl 305
mobility: racE, Ethnicity, and GEndEr 306
mobility and marriaGE 306
thE amErican drEam: Still a rEality? 306
thE Global Economy and thE u.S. claSS StructurE 307
Poverty and the Trend Toward Increasing Inequality 307
11.6: Discuss patterns of poverty and increasing
economic inequality in the United States.
thE ExtEnt oF PovErty 308
who arE thE Poor? 308
ExPlaininG PovErty 309
thE workinG Poor 310
homElESSnESS 312
thE trEnd toward incrEaSinG inEQuality 314
arE thE vEry rich worth thE monEy? 314
can thE rESt oF uS GEt ahEad? 315
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 316
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 317
Making the Grade 318
12 Global Stratification 320
The Power of Society to determine a child’s
chance of survival to age five 321
Global Stratification: An Overview 323
12.1: Describe the division of the world into high-,
middle-, and low-income countries.
a word about tErminoloGy 323
hiGh-incomE countriES 324
middlE-incomE countriES 326
low-incomE countriES 327
Global Wealth and Poverty 327
12.2: Discuss patterns and explanations
of poverty around the world.
thE SEvErity oF PovErty 328
thE ExtEnt oF PovErty 329
PovErty and childrEn 330
PovErty and womEn 331
SlavEry 331
ExPlanationS oF Global PovErty 333
Theories of Global Stratification 333
12.3: Apply sociological theories to the
topic of global inequality.
modErnization thEory 334
dEPEndEncy thEory 336
thE FuturE oF Global StratiFication 339
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 341
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 342
Making the Grade 343
13 Gender Stratification 345
The Power of Society to guide our life choices 346
Gender and Inequality 347
13.1: Describe the ways in which society
creates gender stratification.
malE-FEmalE diFFErEncES 347
GEndEr in Global PErSPEctivE 348
Patriarchy and SExiSm 349
Gender and Socialization 351
13.2: Explain the importance of gender to socialization.
GEndEr and thE Family 351
GEndEr and thE PEEr GrouP 352
GEndEr and SchoolinG 352
GEndEr and thE maSS mEdia 352
Gender and Social Stratification 353
13.3: Analyze the extent of gender inequality
in various social institutions.
workinG womEn and mEn 354
GEndEr and unEmPloymEnt 355
GEndEr, incomE, and wEalth 355
houSEwork: womEn’S “SEcond ShiFt” 356
GEndEr and Education 356
GEndEr and PoliticS 35712 contents
GEndEr and thE military 358
arE womEn a minority? 359
violEncE aGainSt womEn 359
violEncE aGainSt mEn 359
SExual haraSSmEnt 360
PornoGraPhy 362
Theories of Gender 362
13.4: Apply sociology’s major theories to gender
Structural-Functional thEory 362
Symbolic-intEraction thEory 363
Social-conFlict thEory 364
intErSEction thEory 365
Feminism 366
13.5: Contrast liberal, radical, and
socialist feminism.
baSic FEminiSt idEaS 366
tyPES oF FEminiSm 367
Public SuPPort For FEminiSm 368
GEndEr: lookinG ahEad 369
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 370
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 371
Making the Grade 372
14 Race and Ethnicity 374
The Power of Society to shape political attitudes 375
The Social Meaning of Race and Ethnicity 376
14.1: Explain the social construction of
race and ethnicity.
racE 376
Ethnicity 378
minoritiES 379
Prejudice and Stereotypes 380
14.2: Describe the extent and
causes of prejudice.
mEaSurinG PrEJudicE: thE Social diStancE ScalE 382
raciSm 383
thEoriES oF PrEJudicE 383
Discrimination 384
14.3: Distinguish discrimination from prejudice.
inStitutional PrEJudicE and diScrimination 385
PrEJudicE and diScrimination: thE viciouS circlE 385
Majority and Minority: Patterns of Interaction 385
14.4: Identify examples of pluralism, assimilation,
segregation, and genocide.
PluraliSm 385
aSSimilation 386
SEGrEGation 386
GEnocidE 387
Race and Ethnicity in the United States 387
14.5: Assess the social standing of racial
and ethnic categories of U.S. society.
nativE amEricanS 388
whitE anGlo-Saxon ProtEStantS 390
aFrican amEricanS 390
aSian amEricanS 392
hiSPanic amEricanS/latinoS 396
arab amEricanS 397
whitE Ethnic amEricanS 398
racE and Ethnicity: lookinG ahEad 399
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 401
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 402
Making the Grade 403
15 Aging and the Elderly 405
The Power of Society to shape caregiving for
older people 406
The Graying of the United States 407
15.1: Explain the increasing share of elderly
people in modern societies.
birth ratE: GoinG down 408
liFE ExPEctancy: GoinG uP 408
an aGinG SociEty: cultural chanGE 409
thE “younG old” and thE “old old” 410
Growing Old: Biology and Culture 410
15.2: Describe age stratification
in global context.
bioloGical chanGES 410
PSycholoGical chanGES 410
aGinG and culturE 411
aGE StratiFication: a Global SurvEy 411
Transitions and Challenges of Aging 413
15.3: Discuss problems related to aging.
FindinG mEaninG 413
Social iSolation 414
rEtirEmEnt 414
aGinG and PovErty 415
carEGivinG 417
aGEiSm 417
thE EldErly: a minority? 418
Theories of Aging 418
15.4: Apply sociology’s major theories
to the topic of aging.
Structural-Functional thEory: aGinG
and diSEnGaGEmEnt 418
Symbolic-intEraction thEory: aGinG and activity 419
Social-conFlict and FEminiSt thEoriES:
aGinG and inEQuality 419
Death and Dying 420
15.5: Analyze changing attitudes about
the end of life.
hiStorical PattErnS oF dEath 421
thE modErn SEParation oF liFE and dEath 421
Ethical iSSuES: conFrontinG dEath 421
bErEavEmEnt 422
aGinG: lookinG ahEad 424
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 426
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 427
Making the Grade 428contents 13
Part IV Social Institutions
16 The Economy and Work 430
The Power of Society to shape our choices in jobs 431
The Economy: Historical Overview 432
16.1: Summarize historical changes
to the economy.
thE aGricultural rEvolution 433
thE induStrial rEvolution 433
thE inFormation rEvolution and
PoStinduStrial SociEty 433
SEctorS oF thE Economy 434
thE Global Economy 434
Economic SyStEmS: PathS to JuSticE 436
16.2: Assess the operation of capitalist and socialist
caPitaliSm 436
SocialiSm 437
wElFarE caPitaliSm and StatE caPitaliSm 438
rElativE advantaGES oF caPitaliSm and SocialiSm 438
chanGES in SocialiSt and caPitaliSt countriES 439
Work in the Postindustrial U.S. Economy 440
16.3: Analyze patterns of employment
and unemployment in the United States.
thE dEclinE oF aGricultural work 440
From Factory work to SErvicE work 440
thE dual labor markEt 440
labor unionS 440
ProFESSionS 442
SElF-EmPloymEnt 443
unEmPloymEnt and undErEmPloymEnt 444
thE “JoblESS rEcovEry” 445
thE undErGround Economy 445
workPlacE divErSity: racE and GEndEr 446
nEw inFormation tEchnoloGy and work 447
Corporations 447
16.4: Discuss the importance of
corporations to the U.S. economy.
Economic concEntration 448
conGlomEratES and corPoratE linkaGES 448
corPorationS: arE thEy comPEtitivE? 448
corPorationS and thE Global Economy 448
thE Economy: lookinG ahEad 449
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 450
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 451
Making the Grade 452
17 Politics and Government 454
The Power of Society to shape voting patterns 455
Power and Authority 456
17.1: Distinguish traditional, rational-legal, and
charismatic authority.
traditional authority 457
rational-lEGal authority 457
chariSmatic authority 457
Politics in Global Perspective 458
17.2: Compare monarchy and democracy as well as
authoritarian and totalitarian political systems.
monarchy 458
dEmocracy 458
authoritarianiSm 460
totalitarianiSm 461
a Global Political SyStEm? 462
Politics in the United States 462
17.3: Analyze economic and social issues using the
political spectrum.
u.S. culturE and thE riSE oF thE wElFarE StatE 462
thE Political SPEctrum 462
SPEcial-intErESt GrouPS and camPaiGn SPEndinG 464
votEr aPathy 465
Should convictEd criminalS votE? 467
Theories of Power in Society 467
17.4: Apply the pluralist, power-elite, and Marxist
models to the U.S. political system.
thE PluraliSt modEl: thE PEoPlE rulE 467
thE PowEr-ElitE modEl: a FEw PEoPlE rulE 468
thE marxiSt modEl: thE SyStEm iS biaSEd 468
Power beyond the Rules 469
17.5: Describe causes of both revolution
and terrorism.
rEvolution 469
tErroriSm 470
War and Peace 471
17.6: Identify factors encouraging war or peace.
thE cauSES oF war 472
Social claSS, GEndEr, and thE military 472
iS tErroriSm a nEw kind oF war? 474
thE coStS and cauSES oF militariSm 474
nuclEar wEaPonS 475
maSS mEdia and war 475
PurSuinG PEacE 475
PoliticS: lookinG ahEad 476
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 478
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 479
Making the Grade 480
18 Families 482
The Power of Society to affect the odds that
a marriage will end in divorce 483
Families: Basic Concepts and Global Variations 484
18.1: Describe families and how they differ around the
marriaGE PattErnS 485
rESidEntial PattErnS 487
PattErnS oF dEScEnt 488
PattErnS oF authority 488
Theories of the Family 488
18.2: Apply sociology’s major theories to family life.
Structural-Functional thEory:
FunctionS oF thE Family 48814 contents
Social-conFlict and FEminiSt thEoriES:
inEQuality and thE Family 489
micro-lEvEl thEoriES: conStructinG Family liFE 490
Stages of Family Life 490
18.3: Analyze changes in the family over the life course.
courtShiP 491
SEttlinG in: idEal and rEal marriaGE 491
child rEarinG 491
thE Family in latEr liFE 492
U.S. Families: Class, Race, and Gender 493
18.4: Explain how class, race, and
gender shape family life.
Social claSS 493
Ethnicity and racE 494
GEndEr 495
Transitions and Problems in Family Life 497
18.5: Analyze the effects of divorce, remarriage,
and violence on family life.
divorcE 497
rEmarriaGE and blEndEd FamiliES 499
Family violEncE 500
Alternative Family Forms 500
18.6: Describe the diversity of family
life in the United States.
onE-ParEnt FamiliES 500
cohabitation 501
Gay and lESbian couPlES 501
SinGlEhood 502
ExtEndEd Family houSEholdS 502
nEw rEProductivE tEchnoloGiES and FamiliES 503
FamiliES: lookinG ahEad 503
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 505
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 506
Making the Grade 507
19 Religion 509
The Power of Society to shape our values and beliefs 510
Religion: Concepts and Theories 511
19.1: Apply sociology’s major theories to religion.
rEliGion and SocioloGy 512
Structural-Functional thEory:
FunctionS oF rEliGion 512
Symbolic-intEraction thEory:
conStructinG thE SacrEd 513
Social-conFlict thEory: inEQuality and rEliGion 513
FEminiSt thEory: GEndEr and rEliGion 513
Religion and Social Change 515
19.2: Discuss the links between religion
and social change.
max wEbEr: ProtEStantiSm and caPitaliSm 515
libEration thEoloGy 515
Types of Religious Organizations 515
19.3: Distinguish among church, sect, and cult.
church 515
SEct 516
cult 517
Religion in History and Around the World 517
19.4: Contrast religious patterns around the world.
rEliGion in PrEinduStrial SociEtiES 517
rEliGion in induStrial SociEtiES 518
world rEliGionS 518
chriStianity 518
iSlam 519
JudaiSm 520
hinduiSm 522
buddhiSm 523
conFucianiSm 524
rEliGion: EaSt and wESt 524
Religious Trends in the United States 524
19.5: Analyze patterns of religiosity in the United States.
rEliGiouS aFFiliation 525
rEliGioSity 526
rEliGiouS divErSity: claSS, Ethnicity, and racE 527
SEcularization 528
civil rEliGion 529
“nEw aGE” SEEkErS: SPirituality without
Formal rEliGion 529
rEliGiouS rEvival: “Good old-timE rEliGion” 530
rEliGion: lookinG ahEad 532
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 533
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 534
Making the Grade 535
20 Education 537
The Power of Society to open the door to college 538
Education: A Global Survey 539
20.1: Compare schooling in high-, middle-,
and low-income societies.
SchoolinG and Economic dEvEloPmEnt 539
SchoolinG in india 540
SchoolinG in JaPan 540
SchoolinG in GrEat britain 541
SchoolinG in thE unitEd StatES 542
The Functions of Schooling 542
20.2: Apply structural-functional theory to schooling.
Socialization 543
cultural innovation 543
Social intEGration 543
Social PlacEmEnt 543
latEnt FunctionS oF SchoolinG 543
Schooling and Social Interaction 543
20.3: Apply social-interaction theory to schooling.
thE SElF-FulFillinG ProPhEcy 543
Schooling and Social Inequality 544
20.4: Apply social-conflict theory to schooling.
Social control 545
StandardizEd tEStinG 545
School trackinG 545
inEQuality amonG SchoolS 545
accESS to hiGhEr Education 548
GrEatEr oPPortunity: ExPandinG hiGhEr Education 549contents 15
community collEGES 549
PrivilEGE and PErSonal mErit 550
Problems in the Schools 550
20.5: Discuss dropping out, violence, and
other problems facing today’s schools.
diSciPlinE and violEncE 550
StudEnt PaSSivity 551
droPPinG out 551
acadEmic StandardS 552
GradE inFlation 553
Current Issues in U.S. Education 553
20.6: Summarize the debate over the
performance of U.S. schools.
School choicE 553
homE SchoolinG 554
SchoolinG PEoPlE with diSabilitiES 555
adult Education 555
thE tEachEr ShortaGE 555
SchoolinG: lookinG ahEad 556
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 558
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 559
Making the Grade 560
21 Health and Medicine 562
The Power of Society to shape patterns of health 563
What Is Health? 564
21.1: Explain how patterns of health
are shaped by society.
hEalth and SociEty 564
Health: A Global Survey 565
21.2: Contrast patterns of health in lowand high-income countries.
hEalth in low-incomE countriES 565
hEalth in hiGh-incomE countriES 565
Health in the United States 566
21.3: Analyze how race, class, gender,
and age are linked to health.
who iS hEalthy? aGE, GEndEr, claSS, and racE 566
ciGarEttE SmokinG 567
EatinG diSordErS 569
obESity 569
SExually tranSmittEd diSEaSES 571
Ethical iSSuES SurroundinG dEath 573
The Medical Establishment 574
21.4: Compare the medical systems in
nations around the world.
thE riSE oF SciEntiFic mEdicinE 574
holiStic mEdicinE 575
PayinG For mEdical carE: a Global SurvEy 576
PayinG For mEdical carE: thE unitEd StatES 577
thE nurSinG ShortaGE 578
Theories of Health and Medicine 579
21.5: Apply sociology’s major theories
to health and medicine.
Structural-Functional thEory: rolE analySiS 579
Symbolic-intEraction thEory:
thE mEaninG oF hEalth 580
Social-conFlict and FEminiSt thEoriES:
inEQuality and hEalth 581
hEalth and mEdicinE: lookinG ahEad 582
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 584
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 585
Making the Grade 586
Part V Social Change
22 Population, Urbanization,
and Environment 588
The Power of Society to shape our view of
global warming 589
Demography: The Study of Population 590
22.1: Explain the concepts of fertility, mortality, and
migration, and how they affect population size.
FErtility 590
mortality 591
miGration 592
PoPulation Growth 593
PoPulation comPoSition 594
History and Theory of Population Growth 594
22.2: Analyze population trends using
Malthusian theory and demographic
transition theory.
malthuSian thEory 595
dEmoGraPhic tranSition thEory 595
Global PoPulation today: a briEF SurvEy 596
Urbanization: The Growth of Cities 597
22.3: Summarize patterns of urbanization
in the United States and around the world.
thE Evolution oF citiES 598
thE Growth oF u.S. citiES 598
SuburbS and urban dEclinE 599
PoStinduStrial SunbElt citiES 599
mEGaloPoliS: thE rEGional city 600
EdGE citiES 600
chanGES to rural arEaS 601
Urbanism as a Way of Life 601
22.4: Identify the contributions of T?nnies,
Durkheim, Simmel, Park, Wirth, and Marx
to our understanding of urban life.
FErdinand t?nniES: GEMEinSchafT and
GESELLSchafT 602
EmilE durkhEim: mEchanical and
orGanic Solidarity 602
GEorG SimmEl: thE blaSé urbanitE 602
thE chicaGo School: robErt Park and louiS wirth 603
urban EcoloGy 603
urban Political Economy 604
Urbanization in Poor Nations 605
22.5: Describe the third urban revolution now
under way in poor societies.Environment and Society 606
22.6: Analyze current environmental
problems such as pollution
and global warming.
thE Global dimEnSion 606
tEchnoloGy and thE EnvironmEntal dEFicit 607
culturE: Growth and limitS 607
Solid waStE: thE diSPoSablE SociEty 608
watEr and air 610
thE rain ForEStS 611
Global climatE chanGE 612
dEclininG biodivErSity 612
EnvironmEntal raciSm 613
toward a SuStainablE SociEty and world 614
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 616
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 617
Making the Grade 618
23 Collective Behavior and
Social Movements 620
The Power of Society to encourage or discourage
participation in social movements 621
Studying Collective Behavior 622
23.1: Distinguish various types
of collective behavior.
Localized Collectivities: Crowds 623
23.2: Identify five types of crowds and
three explanations of crowd behavior.
mobS and riotS 624
crowdS, mobS, and Social chanGE 625
thEoriES oF crowd bEhavior 625
Dispersed Collectivities: Mass Behavior 626
23.3: Describe rumor, disasters, and
other types of mass behavior.
rumor and GoSSiP 626
Public oPinion and ProPaGanda 627
FaShionS and FadS 628
Panic and maSS hyStEria 628
diSaStErS 629
Social Movements 631
23.4: Analyze the causes and consequences
of social movements.
tyPES oF Social movEmEntS 631
claimS makinG 632
ExPlaininG Social movEmEntS 632
GEndEr and Social movEmEntS 639
StaGES in Social movEmEntS 639
Social movEmEntS and Social chanGE 640
Social movEmEntS: lookinG ahEad 640
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 642
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 643
Making the Grade 644
24 Social Change: Traditional, Modern,
and Postmodern Societies 646
The Power of Society to shape our view of science 647
What Is Social Change? 648
24.1: State four defining characteristics
of social change.
Causes of Social Change 649
24.2: Explain how culture, conflict, ideas,
and population patterns direct social change.
culturE and chanGE 649
conFlict and chanGE 650
idEaS and chanGE 650
dEmoGraPhic chanGE 650
Visions of Modernity 651
24.3: Apply the ideas of T?nnies, Durkheim,
Weber, and Marx to our understanding
of modernity.
Four dimEnSionS oF modErnization 651
FErdinand t?nniES: thE loSS oF community 652
EmilE durkhEim: thE diviSion oF labor 654
max wEbEr: rationalization 655
karl marx: caPitaliSm 656
Theories of Modernity 656
24.4: Contrast analysis of modernity as
mass society and as class society.
Structural-Functional thEory:
modErnity aS maSS SociEty 656
Social-conFlict thEory:
modErnity aS claSS SociEty 658
modErnity and thE individual 659
modErnity and ProGrESS 661
modErnity: Global variation 663
Postmodernity 663
24.5: Discuss postmodernism as
one type of social criticism.
Modernization and Our Global Future 664
24.6: Evaluate possible directions of future
social change.
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 665
Seeing Sociology in your Everyday Life 666
Making the Grade 667
Glossary 669
References 675
Credits 705
Author Index 711
Subject Index 717
Society in History: A Timeline
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