Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design – Eighth Edition in SI Units

Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design – Eighth Edition in SI Units
اسم المؤلف
Richard G. Budynas, J. Keith Nisbett
التاريخ
14 يوليو 2023
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437
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Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design
Eighth Edition in SI Units
Richard G. Budynas
Professor Emeritus, Kate Gleason College of Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology
J. Keith Nisbett
Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, University of Missouri—Rolla
Brief Contents
Preface Xv
Part 1 Basics 2
1 Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Design 3
2 Materials 27
3 Load and Stress Analysis 67
4 Deflection and Stiffness 141
Part 2 Failure Prevention 204
5 Failures Resulting from Static Loading 205
Fatigue Failure Resulting from Variable Loading 257
Part 3 Design of Mechanical Elements 346
Shafts and Shaft Components 347
8 Screws, Fasteners, and the Design of
Nonpermanent Joints 395
9 Welding, Bonding, and the Design
of Permanent Joints 457
10 Mechanical Springs 499
11 Rolling-Contact Bearings 549
12 Lubrication and Journal Bearings 597

  1. Gears—General 653
    14 = Spur and Helical Gears 713
    15 Bevel and Worm Gears 765
    16 Clutches, Brakes, Couplings, and Flywheels 805
    17 ‘Flexible Mechanical Elements 859
    18 Power Transmission Case Study 913
    viiiPart 4
    Analysis Tools 932
    Finite-Element Analysis 933
    Statistical Considerations 957
    Appendices
    Useful Tables 983
    Answers to Selected Problems 1035
    Index 1040
    Brief Contents ixContents
    Part1
    Preface Xv
    Basics 2
    Introduction to Mechanical
    Engineering Design 3
    Design 4
    Mechanical Engineering Design 5
    Phases and Interactions of the Design
    IPLOCESSEED
    Design Tools and Resources 8
    The Design Engineer’s Professional
    Responsibilities 10
    Standards and Codes 12
    Economics 12
    Safety and Product Liability 15
    Stress and Strength 15
    Uncertainty 16
    Design Factor and Factor of Safety 17
    Reliability 18
    Dimensions and Tolerances 19
    Units 21
    Calculations and Significant Figures 22
    Power Transmission Case Study
    Specifications 22
    Problems 24
    Materials 27
    Material Strength and Stiffness 28
    The Statistical Significance of Material
    Properties 32
    Strength and Cold Work 33
    Hardness 36
    Impact Properties 37
    Temperature Effects 39
    Numbering Systems 40
    Sand Casting 41
    Shell Molding 42
    Investment Casting 42
    Powder-Metallurgy Process 42
    Hot-Working Processes 43
    Cold-Working Processes 44
    The Heat Treatment of Steel 44
    Alloy Steels 47
    Corrosion-Resistant Steels 48
    Casting Materials 49
    Nonferrous Metals 51
    Plastics 54
    Composite Materials 55
    Materials Selection 56
    Problems 63
    Load and Stress
    Analysis 67
    Equilibrium and Free-Body
    Diagrams 68
    Shear Force and Bending Moments in
    Beams 71
    Singularity Functions 73
    Stress 75
    Cartesian Stress Components 75
    Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress 76
    General Three-Dimensional Stress 82
    Elastic Strain 83
    Uniformly Distributed Stresses 84
    Normal Stresses for Beams in Bending 85
    Shear Stresses for Beams in Bending 90
    Torsion 95
    Stress Concentration 105
    Stresses in Pressurized Cylinders 107
    Stresses in Rotating Rings 110
    Press and Shrink Fits 110Temperature Effects 111
    Curved Beams in Bending 112
    Contact Stresses 117
    Summary 121
    Problems 121
    Deflection and
    Stiffness 141
    Spring Rates 142
    Tension, Compression, and Torsion 143
    Deflection Due to Bending 144
    Beam Deflection Methods 146
    Beam Deflections by
    Superposition 147
    Beam Deflecticns by Singularity
    Functions 150
    Strain Energy 156
    Castigliano’s Theorem 158
    Deflection of Curved Members 163
    Statically Indeterminate Problems 168
    Compression Members—General 173
    Long Columns with Central Loading 173
    Intermediate-Length Columns with Central
    Loading 176
    Columns with Eccentric Loading 176
    Struts or Short Compression Members 180
    Elastic Stability 182
    Shock and Impact 183
    Suddenly Applied Loading 184
    Problems 186
    Failure Prevention 204
    Failures Resulting from
    Static Loading 205
    Static Strength 208
    Stress Concentration 209
    Failure Theories 211
    Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory
    for Ductile Materials 211
    Distortion-Energy Theory for Ductile
    Materials 213
    Contents
    Coulomb-Mohr Theory for Ductile
    Materials 219
    Failure of Ductile Materials
    Summary 222
    Maximum-Normal-Stress Theory for Brittle
    Materials 226
    Modifications of the Mohr Theory for Brittle
    Materials 227
    Failure of Brittle Materials
    Summary 229
    Selection of Failure Criteria 230
    Introduction to Fracture Mechanics 231
    Stochastic Analysis 240
    Important Design Equations 246
    Problems 248
    Fatigue Failure Resulting
    from Variable Loading 257
    Introduction to Fatigue in Metals 258
    Approach to Fatigue Failure in Analysis and
    Design 264
    Fatigue-Life Methods 265
    The Stress-Life Method 265
    The Strain-Life Method 268
    The Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics
    Method 270
    The Endurance Limit 274
    Fatigue Strength 275
    Endurance Limit Modifying Factors 278
    Stress Concentration and Notch
    Sensitivity 287
    Characterizing Fluctuating Stresses 292
    Fatigue Failure Criteria for Fluctuating
    Stress 295
    Torsional Fatigue Strength under
    Fluctuating Stresses 309
    Combinations of Loading Modes 309
    Varying, Fluctuating Stresses; Cumulative
    Fatigue Damage 313
    Surface Fatigue Strength 319
    Stochastic Analysis 322
    Roadmaps and Important Design Equations
    for the Stress-Life Method 336
    Problems 340
    xixii Mechanical Engineering Design
    Part 3 Design of Mechanical
    Elements 346
    Shafts and Shaft
    Components 347
    Introduction 348
    Shaft Materials 348
    Shaft layout 349
    Shaft Design for Stress 354
    Deflection Considerations 367
    Critical Speeds for Shafts 371
    Miscellaneous Shaft Components 376
    Limits and Fits 383
    Problems 388
    Screws, Fasteners, and the
    Design of Nonpermanent
    Joints 395
    Thread Standards and Definitions 396
    The Mechanics of Power Screws 400
    Threaded Fasteners 408
    Joints—Fastener Stiffness 410
    Joints—Member Stiffness 413
    Bolt Strength 417
    Tension Joints—The External Load 421
    Relating Bolt Torque to Bolt Tension 422
    Statically Loaded Tension Joint with
    Preload 425
    Gasketed Joints 429
    Fatigue Loading of Tension Joints 429
    Bolted and Riveted Joints Loaded in
    Shear 435
    Problems 443
    Welding, Bonding,
    and the Design
    of Permanent Joints 457
    Welding Symbols 458
    Butt and Fillet Welds 460
    Stresses in Welded Joints in Torsion 464
    Stresses in Welded Joints in Bending 469
    The Strength of Welded Joints 471
    Static Loading 474
    Fatigue Loading 478
    Resistance Welding 480
    Adhesive Bonding 480
    Problems 489
    Mechanical Springs 499
    Stresses in Helical Springs 500
    The Curvature Effect 501
    Deflection of Helical Springs 502
    Compression Springs 502
    Stability 504
    Spring Materials 505
    Helical Compression Spring Design
    for Static Service 510
    Critical Frequency of Helical Springs 516
    Fatigue Loading of Helical Compression
    Springs 518
    Helical Compression Spring Design for Fatigue
    Loading 521
    Extension Springs 524
    Helical Coil Torsion Springs 532
    Belleville Springs 539
    Miscellaneous Springs 540
    Summary 542
    Problems 542
    Rolling-Contact
    Bearings 549
    Bearing Types 550
    Bearing Life 553
    Bearing Load Life at Rated Reliability 554
    Bearing Survival: Reliability versus
    Lifes oo)
    Relating Load, Life, and Reliability 557
    Combined Radial and Thrust Loading 559
    Variable Loading 564
    Selection of Ball and Cylindrical Roller
    Bearings 568
    Selection of Tapered Roller Bearings 571
    Design Assessment for Selected
    Rolling-Contact Bearings 58211-11
    Lubrication 586
    Mounting and Enclosure 587
    Problems 591
    Lubrication and Journal
    Bearings 597
    Types of Lubrication 598
    Viscosity 599
    Petroff’s Equation 601
    Stable Lubrication 603
    Thick-Film Lubrication 604
    Hydrodynamic Theory 605
    Design Considerations 609
    The Relations of the Variables 611
    Steady-State Conditions in Self-Contained
    Bearings 625
    Clearance 628
    Pressure-Fed Bearings 630
    Loads and Materials 636
    Bearing Types 638
    Thrust Bearings 639
    Boundary-Lubricated Bearings 640
    Problems 649
    Gears—General 653
    Types of Gear 654
    Nomenclature 655
    Conjugate Action 657
    Involute Properties 658
    Fundamentals 658
    Contact Ratio 664
    Interference 665
    The Forming of Gear Teeth 667
    Straight Bevel Gears 670
    Parallel Helical Gears 671
    Worm Gears 675
    Tooth Systems 676
    Gear Trains 678
    Force Analysis—Spur Gearing 685
    Force Analysis—Bevel Gearing 689
    Force Analysis—Helical
    Gearing 692
    Contents xiii
    Force Analysis—Worm Gearing 694
    Problems 700
    Spur and Helical Gears 713
    The Lewis Bending Equation 714
    Surface Durability 723
    AGMA Stress Equations 725
    AGMA Strength Equations 727
    Geometry Factors J and J (Z, and Y,) 731
    The Elastic Coefficient C, (Z;) 736
    Dynamic Factor K, 736
    Overload Factor K, 738
    Surface Condition Factor C,(Zp) 738
    Size Factor K, 739
    Load-Distribution Factor K,, (K,) 739
    Hardness-Ratio Factor C, 741
    Stress Cycle Life Factors Yy and Z, 742
    Reliability Factor Kp (Y7) 743
    Temperature Factor K,; (Y,) 744
    Rim-Thickness Factor K, 744
    Safety Factors S$, and S,, 745
    Analysis 745
    Design of a Gear Mesh 755
    Problems 760
    Bevel and Worm Gears 765
    Bevel Gearing—General 766
    Bevel-Gear Stresses and Strengths 768
    AGMA Equation Factors 771
    Straight-Bevel Gear Analysis 783
    Design of a Straight-Bevel Gear Mesh 786
    Worm Gearing—AGMA Equation 789
    Worm-Gear Analysis 793
    Designing a Worm-Gear Mesh 797
    Buckingham Wear Load 800
    Problems 801
    Clutches, Brakes, Couplings,
    and Flywheels 805
    Static Analysis of Clutches and Brakes 807
    Internal Expanding Rim Clutches and
    Brakes 812xiv Mechanical Engineering Design
    External Contracting Rim Clutches and
    Brakes 820
    Band-Type Clutches and Brakes 824
    Frictional-Contact Axial Clutches 825
    Disk Brakes 829
    Cone Clutches and Brakes 833
    Energy Considerations 836
    Temperature Rise 837
    Friction Materials 841
    Miscellaneous Clutches and Couplings 844
    Flywheels 846
    Problems 851
    Flexible Mechanical
    Elements 859
    Belts 860
    Flat- and Round-Belt Drives 863
    V Belts 878
    Timing Belts 886
    Roller Chain 887
    Wire Rope 896
    Flexible Shafts 904
    Problems 905
    Power Transmission
    Case Study 913
    Design Sequence for Power Transmission 915
    Power and Torque Requirements 916
    Gear Specification 916
    Shaft Layout 923
    Force Analysis 925
    Shaft Material Selection 925
    Shaft Design for Stress 926
    Shaft Design for Deflection 926
    Index
    A
    Abrasion, 723
    ABS group, 54
    Absolute system of units, 21
    Absolute tolerance system, 20
    Absolute viscosity, 600
    Acetal group, 54
    Acme threads, 398-400
    Acrylic, 54
    Actual stress, 30
    Adams, R. D., 483, 489
    Addendum, 656
    Addendum circle, 656
    Adhesive bonding, 480-489
    Adhesive joint design, 486-488
    Admiralty metal, 53
    AGMA equations/standards
    bevel gears, 769-783
    spur and helical gears, 715-716,
    725-745
    worm gears, 789-792
    AISC code, 471, 472
    Algor, 934
    Alkyd, 55
    Allowance, 19
    Alloy cast irons, 50
    Alloy steels, 47-48
    Allylic, 55
    Aluminum, 51-52
    numbering system, 41
    physical constants, 987
    tensile tests, 1023
    Aluminum alloy, 51-52, 637, 1023,
    1027
    Aluminum alloy designations, 41
    Aluminum brass, 53
    Aluminum bronze, 53-54
    American Gear Manufacturers
    Association (AGMA), 714. See
    also AGMA equation/standards
    American Standard Pipe, 1019
    Amino group, 55
    Anaerobic adhesives, 482
    Analysis and optimization, 7
    Analysis tools, 912—982
    case study. See Power transmission
    case study
    FEA, 933-955. See also Finiteelement analysis (FEA)
    1040
    statistics, 957-982. See also
    Statistical considerations
    Anderson, G. P., 489
    Angle of action, 662
    Angle of approach, 662
    Angle of articulation, 888
    Angle of recess, 662
    Angle of twist, 95, 97
    Angular-contact bearing, 551, 552
    Annealing, 45
    Annular-pad segment of a caliper brake,
    830
    Anodizing, 51
    Answers to selected problems,
    1039-1043
    ANSYS, 934
    Antiflutter adhesive bonding, 481
    Antifriction-bearing lubricant, 587
    Antifriction bearings, 550. See also
    Rolling—constant bearings
    Arc of action, 664
    Arc of approach, 664
    Arc of recess, 664
    Arc-weld symbol, 459
    Argyris, J. H., 935n
    Arithmetic mean, 960
    Ashby charts, 59-62
    Ashby, Mike F., 57-62
    ASM Metals Handbook, 261
    ASME elliptic failure criterion,
    297-300
    ASTM numbering system, 41
    ASTM specifications (steel bolts), 419
    Atkins, Anthony G., 231n
    Automated mesh generation, 943
    Automobile body, 481
    Automotive axle, 348
    Automotive disk brake, 829
    Average life, 554
    AWS code, 472
    AWS standard welding symbol, 458
    Axial pitch, 672, 675
    Axle, 348
    B
    Bio life, 554
    Backlash, 656
    Bainite, 45
    Bairstow, L., 268n
    Ball bearings, 550. See Rolling-constant
    bearings
    Ball bushings, 553
    Band-type clutches/brakes, 824-825
    Barsom, J. M., 272
    Barth, Carl G., 719
    Barth equation, 719
    Base circle, 658, 660
    Base pitch, 662
    Base units, 21
    Bathe, K. J., 953n
    Bazant, Z. P., 182n
    BCM theory, 227
    Beach marks, 258
    Beam. See also Shear, moment and
    deflection of beams
    asymmetrical sections, 89-90
    bending moments, 71—72
    bending stresses, 85—90
    curved, in bending, 112-116
    deflection, 146-156
    shear force, 71-72
    shear stresses, 90-95
    two-plane bending, 88
    Beam deflection methods, 146-156
    Bearing alloys, 637
    Bearing characteristic number, 602
    Bearing life, 553
    Bearing load-life log-log curve, 554
    Bearing mountings, 571, 573, 587-590
    Bearing pressure, 899-900
    Bearing Selection Handbook—Revised,
    oy, Se
    Bearing stress, 437
    Been F Pe LO2ns 14 7ny l73n
    Belegundu, A. D., 941n
    Belleville springs, 539, 540
    Belt, 860-887
    flat. See Flat belts
    nonreversing/reversing drives, 861
    round, 860. See also Flat belts
    timing, 860, 862-863, 886-887
    types, 860
    V. See V belts
    Belting equation, 865, 867
    Belt-tension schemes, 872
    Bending and deflection, 144-146Bending moments (beams), 71—72
    Bending properties (fillet welds), 470
    Bending strength geometry factor,
    7132-133, 773,774
    Bending strength stress-cycle factor,
    743
    Bending stress
    beams, 85-95
    bevel gears, 771, 779-782,
    787-788
    Lewis bending equation, 714-723
    spur and helical gears, 725-731, 746,
    750, 752-753
    torsion springs, 534
    welded joints, 469-471
    Bennett, S. J., 489
    Bergstrasser factor, 501, 519
    Beryllium bronze, 54
    Beryllium copper, 987
    Beryllium-copper wire, 508
    Bethlehem Steel, 47
    Bevel gears, 655, 670-671, 766-788.
    See also Gears
    AGMA equation factors, 769-783
    bending stress, 771, 779-782,
    787-7188
    carburized case-hard materials,
    782-783
    contact stress, 768-771, 778, 779,
    788
    design of straight-bevel gear mesh,
    786-788
    dynamic factor, 771-772
    elastic coefficient, 778
    force analysis, 689-692
    geometry factors, 773, 774
    hardness-ratio factor, 776, 777
    intersecting- vs. offset- shaft, 768
    load-distribution factor, 773
    overload factor, 771
    reliability factors, 777, 778
    safety factors, 771
    size factor, 773
    straight-bevel gear analysis,
    783-785
    stress cycle factors, 775, 776
    stresses/strengths, 768-771, 778-782,
    787-7188
    through-hardening, 782
    tooth system, 677
    types, 670-671, 766-768
    wear equations (summary), 781
    Bevel lap joint, 483
    Beyer, William H., 1038
    Bilateral tolerance, 19
    Binding head screw, 410
    Bis-maleimide adhesive, 482
    Blake, J. C., 423n
    Boedo, S., 934n
    Bolt preload, 411
    Bolt strength, 417-421
    Bolt torque/bolt tension, 422—425
    Bolted and riveted joints loaded in
    shear, 435-443
    Bonding, 480-489. See also Welding
    and bonding—permanent joints
    Book, overview, 4
    Booser, E. R., 625n
    Boresi, Arthur P., 117n, 215n
    BOST-FLEX, 845
    Bottom land, 656
    Boundary conditions, 945-946
    Boundary elements, 946
    Boundary lubrication, 599, 641
    Boundary representation (B-rep), 943
    Boundary-lubricated bearings, 640-648
    bushing wear, 643-646
    linear sliding wear, 641-643
    temperature rise, 646-648
    Bowman Distribution, 424, 427
    Boyd, John, 611-612
    Brake linings, 843
    Brakes, 805-858. See also Clutches,
    brakes, etc.
    Brandes, E. A., 283n
    Brass, 52-53, 987
    Breakeven points, 13-14
    B-rep, 943
    Brinell hardness, 36
    Brinson, H. F., 489
    Brittle-Coulomb-Mohr (BCM) theory,
    227
    Brittle materials, 29, 106, 226-230. See
    also Failure of brittle materials
    Broek, D., 231n
    Broghamer, E. I., 723n
    Bronze, 53-54
    Brown, Thomas H., Jr., 46n, 47n, 165n,
    275n, 349n, 370n, 379n, 507n,
    508, 738n
    Bubble chart, 59
    Buckingham, Earle, 319-321, 792, 800,
    801
    Buckingham load-stress factor, 320
    Buckingham wear load, 800-801
    Buckingham’s adaptation of Lewis
    equation, 792
    Budynas, Richard G., 83n, 97n, 107n,
    113n, 147n, 157, 163n, 228n,
    946n, 949n
    Burnishing, 670
    Bushed-pin bearings, 641
    Bushing, 598, 638
    Bushing wear, 643-646
    Butt and fillet welds, 460-463. See also
    Fillet welds
    Butt strap lap joint, 483
    Button-pad caliper brake, 832, 833
    Index 1041
    C
    CAD software, 8—9, 934. See also
    Finite-element analysis (FEA)
    Cadmium, 637
    CAE, 9
    Calculations and significant figures,
    22-27
    Caliper brakes, 829-833
    Cantilever
    end load, 993
    intermediate load, 993
    moment load, 994
    uniform load, 994
    Cap-screw heads, 409
    Carbon steel, 987, 1030
    Carburized case-hard materials,
    782-783
    Carlson, Harold C. R., 506
    Cartesian stress components, 75—76
    Cartridge brass, 53
    Case hardening, 47
    Case study. See Power transmission
    case study
    Case-hardened part, 285—286
    Cast iron, 41, 49-50. See also Gray
    cast iron
    Cast steels, 51
    Castigliano’s theorem, 158-163,
    502
    Casting alloys, 51
    Castings materials, 49-57
    Catalog load rating, 554
    Catenary theory, 872
    CD steel, 1020
    CDE I59
    Cedolin, L., 182n
    Cellosics adhesive, 482
    Centistokes (cSt), 600
    Central loading
    columns, 173-176
    fixed supports, 999
    one fixed and one simple support,
    998
    simple supports, 995
    Centrifugal castings, 42, 667
    Centrifugal clutch, 812
    Centroidal axis, 85, 113
    Ceramics, 57
    Cermet pads, 843
    CES Edupack, 57
    cgs units, 600
    Chain drives, 887-895. See also
    Roller chain
    Chain velocity, 889
    Chains for Power Transmission and
    Materials Handling, 891
    Chandrupatla, T. R., 941n
    Charpy notched-bar test, 38, 39
    Chevron lines, 2591042 Mechanical Engineering Design
    Chilled-cast gears, 790
    Chordal speed variation, 890
    Choudury, M., 415n, 416
    Chrome-silicon wire, 506—508
    Chrome-vanadium wire, 506—508
    Chromium, 47
    Chromium-nickel stainless steels, 49
    Circle, 1016
    Circular pitch, 655, 656, 672
    Circular-pad caliper brake, 832, 833
    Clamshell marks, 258
    Class frequency, 32
    Claussen, G. E., 462n
    Clearance
    defined,19
    gears, 656
    journal bearings, 628-630
    worm gears, 792
    Clearance circle, 656
    Clearance fits, 385
    Close running fit, 385
    Closed thin-walled tubes, 102
    Close-wound, 526
    Clough, R. W., 936n
    Clutches, brakes, etc., 805-858
    band-type clutches/brakes, 824-825
    brake linings, 843
    cone clutches/brakes, 833-835
    couplings, 806, 844-845
    disk brake, 829-833
    drum brake, 812-824, 829
    energy considerations, 836-837
    external contracting clutches/brakes,
    820-824
    factors to consider, 806
    flywheel, 806, 846-85|
    friction materials, 841-844
    frictional-contact axial clutch,
    825-828
    internal expanding clutches/brakes,
    812-820
    overload release clutch, 844, 845
    overrunning clutch/coupling, 845
    rim clutches/brakes, 812-820
    self-acting/self-locking phenomenon,
    809
    self-deenergization, 807
    self-energization, 807, 829
    shaft couplings, 845
    slippage, 806
    square-jaw clutch, 844, 845
    static analysis, 807-811
    temperature rise, 837-841
    Coarse-pitch threads, 398, 399
    Code, 12
    Coefficient of friction
    boundary-lubricated bearings, 642
    clutches/brakes, 809
    journal bearings, 618, 619
    screw threads, 407, 408
    worm gears, 795
    Coefficient of speed fluctuation, 847
    Coefficient of variation, 962
    Coin pari 70m
    Cold drawing, 44
    Cold forming, 667
    Cold rolling, 44, 667
    Cold working, 33-35
    Cold-drawn (CD) steel, 1020
    Cold-finished bars, 44
    Cold-rolled bars, 44
    Cold-work factor, 34
    Cold-working processes, 44
    Collins, J. A., 272n, 296, 319n
    Columns, 173. See also Compression
    members
    Combination of loading modes,
    309-313, 339
    Commercial bronze, 52
    Commercial seal, 590
    Companion distribution, 967
    Completely reversed sinusoidal
    stress, 293
    Completely reversing simple loads, 309,
    337-338
    Composite materials, 55—56
    Compound reverted gear train, 681, 914
    Compression members, 173-181
    columns with eccentric loading,
    176-180
    intermediate-length columns with
    central loading, 176
    long columns with central loading,
    173-176
    struts, 180-181
    Compression springs, 502-503. See also
    Mechanical springs
    end-condition constant, 504
    fatigue loading, 518-524
    spring ends, 502-503
    static loading, 510-516
    Compressive strengths, 30-31
    Compressive stress, 75, 182
    Computational errors, 936
    Computational tools, 8-9
    Computer-aided design (CAD), 8-9,
  2. See also Finite-element
    analysis (FEA)
    Computer-aided engineering (CAB), 9
    Comyn, J., 483, 489
    Concept design, 6-7
    Cone angle, 833
    Cone clutches/brakes, 833-835
    Conical spring, 540
    Conjugate action, 657
    Constanit-force spring, 540, 541
    Constructive solid geometry (CSG), 943
    Contact adhesives, 482
    Contact fatigue strength, 320
    Contact geometry factor, 773, 774
    Contact ratio, 664-665
    Contact strength, 320
    Contact stress, 117-120. See also Stress
    Contact stress cycle factor for pitting
    resistance, 775
    Continuous random variable, 959
    Cook, R. D., 949n, 953n
    Copper, 987
    Copper-base alloys, 52-54
    Copper-lead, 637
    Correlation coefficient, 975
    Corrosion, 286
    corrosion-resistant steels, 48-49
    Cost, 12-15
    Cost estimates, 15
    Coulomb-Mohr theory, 219-222
    Couplings, 806, 844-845. See also
    Clutches, brakes, etc.
    Courant, R., 935n
    cP, 600
    Crack formation, 259
    Crack growth, 232, 271-273
    Crack propagation modes, 233
    Crafts, W., 47n
    Gieepeso
    Creep-time curve, 40
    Critical buckling load, 949-951
    Critical frequency of helical springs,
    516-518
    Critical speeds, 371-376
    Critical stress intensity factor, 234
    Critical unit load, 174
    Crossed belt, 861, 863
    Crowned pulleys, 860
    Crowning factor for pitting, 773
    CSG, 943
    cSt, 600
    Cumulative density function (CDF), 959
    Cumulative fatigue damage, 313-319
    Cumulative frequency distribution, 960
    Cumulative probability distribution, 959
    Curvature effect, 501-502
    Curved beams in bending, 112-116
    Curved members and deflection, 163—167
    Curved-beam theory, 534
    Cyanoacrylate adhesive, 482
    Cyclic frequency, 286
    Cylinder, 1018
    Cylindrical contact, 118-120
    Cylindrical fit, 384
    D
    Dahleh, Marie Dillon, 184n, 371n, 372n
    Damage theories, 313-319
    Damage-tolerant design, 231
    Dandage, S., 615Daniel, I. M., 55n
    Datsko, Joseph, 34n, 1023
    DB mounting, 589
    DCM theory, 219-222
    DE theory, 213-219, 246
    De Wolf, J. T., 102n
    Decimal inches (preferred sizes), 1015
    Dedendum, 656
    Dedendum circle, 656
    Deep-groove bearing, 551
    Definition of problem, 6
    Deflection
    FEA, 946
    helical springs, 502
    power transmission systems, 926-927
    shaft, 367-370
    SI units, 987
    springs, 502, 534-536
    stiffness. See Deflection and stiffness
    torsion springs, 534-536
    Deflection and stiffness, 141-203. See
    also Shear, moment and deflection
    of beams
    beam deflection methods, 146-156
    bending and deflection, 144-146
    Castighano’s theorem, 158-163
    compression members, 173-181. See
    also Compression members
    curved members, 163-167
    elastic stability, 182—183
    impact, 183-184
    shock, 183-184
    spring rates, 142-143
    statically indeterminate problems,
    168-173
    strain energy, 156-158
    suddenly applied loading, 184-186
    superimposition, 147-150
    tension, compression, torsion, 143
    variable-cross-section punch-press
    frame, 166—167
    Degrees of freedom (dof’s), 935, 939
    Derived unit, 21
    Design, 4-5
    Design considerations, 8
    Design factor, 17-18
    Design factor in fatigue, 334-336
    Design process, 5—7
    Design tools and resources, 8-10
    Deterministic method, 16-17
    Deterministic quantity, 962
    Deviation, 383
    DeVries, K. L., 489
    DeWolf, J. T., 147n, 173n
    DF mounting, 589
    Diameter series, 560
    Diametral clearance, 19
    Diametral pitch, 656
    Diamond Chain Company, 894
    Die castings, 42, 667
    Dieter, George E., 8n
    Dillard, David A., 480n
    Dimensioning, 19-21
    Dimension-series code, 560
    Direct load, 440
    Direct mounting, 571, 573
    Directional characteristics, 285
    Discontinuity, 259
    Discrete frequency histogram, 961
    Discrete random variable, 959
    Discretization errors, 936
    Disk brake, 829-833
    Disk friction member, 826
    Distortion-energy (DE) theory,
    213-219, 246
    dottsa925,1939
    Dolan, Thomas J., 296, 723n
    Doorstop, 807, 808
    Double butt trap lap joint, 483
    Double helical gears, 671
    Double V-groove weld, 460
    Double-enveloping worm-gear set,
    655
    Double-lap joint, 483, 484
    Double-row bearings, 551, 552
    Double-strand roller chain, 887
    Double-threaded, 396
    Douglas fir, 987
    Dowel pin, 379
    Dowling, N. E., 222, 228, 270n, 272,
    294n
    Drawing, 46
    Drive pin, 379
    Drum brake, 812—824, 829
    DT mounting, 589
    Ductile cast iron, 50
    Ductile Coulomb-Mohr (DCM) theory,
    219-222
    Ductile materials, 29, 30, 211-225. See
    also Failure of ductile materials
    Ductility, 34
    Dudley, Darle W., 730
    Dunkerley’s equation, 374
    Duplexing, 589
    Dyn, 600
    Dynamic equivalent radial loads,
    578-579
    Dynamic factor
    bevel gears, 771-772
    spur and helical gears, 736-738
    E
    Eccentric loading
    columns, 176-180
    shear joints, 439-443
    Eccentrically loaded column, 176-180
    Eccentrically loaded strut, 180
    Index 1043
    Eccentricity, 604
    Eccentricity ratio, 177, 605
    Economics, 12-15
    Edge shearing, 436, 437, 439
    Effective arc, 863
    Effective dimension, 28]
    Effective slenderness ratio, 504
    BHD 5375 999
    Elastic coefficient, 724
    bevel gears, 778
    spur and helical gears, 736, 737
    Elastic creep, 863
    Elastic limit, 29
    Elastic machine elements. See Flexible
    mechanical elements
    Elastic stability, 182-183
    Elastic strain, 83-84
    Elasticity, 142
    Elastic-strain line, 270
    Elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHD),
    Se, Se)
    Elastomers, 58
    Electrolytic plating, 286
    Element geometries, 937-939
    Element library, 937
    Element loads, 945
    Elimination approach, 941
    End load, cantilever, 993
    End-condition constant, 174, 504
    End-of-chapter problems, answers,
    1039-1043
    Endurance limit, 264, 274-275
    case-hardened part, 285-286
    corrosion, 286
    cyclic frequency, 286
    directional characteristics, 285
    electrolytic plating, 286
    frettage corrosion, 286
    loading factor, 282
    metal spraying, 286
    miscellaneous-effects factor, 285-286
    modifying (Marin) factors, 278-286,
    323-326
    reliability factor, 284, 285
    residual stress, 285
    size factor, 280-281
    stochastic analysis, 322-326
    surface factor, 279
    temperature factor, 282-284
    Endurance limit modifying factors,
    278-286, 323-326
    Energy
    brakes/clutches, 836-837
    strain, 156-158
    Engineering, 264
    Engineering stresses/strengths, 30, 31
    Engineering stress-strain diagrams, 30
    Engineer’s creed, 11
    Engraver’s brass, 531044 Mechanical Engineering Design
    Ensign, C. R., 318n
    EP lubricants, 640
    Epicyclic gear trains, 683
    Epoxy, 55
    Eppinger, Steven D., 15n
    Equation
    AGMA. See AGMA
    equations/standards
    Barth, 719
    belting, 865, 867
    Dunkerley’s, 374
    Euler’s, 849
    Lewis bending, 714-723
    Marin, 279
    modified Neuber, 327
    multipoint constraint, 946
    Neuber, 288
    Newton’s energy loss, 838-839
    normal coupling, 241
    Petroff’s, 602
    piecewise differential, 184
    plane-stress transformation, 76
    Rayleigh’s, 371
    Reynolds, 609
    Equilibrium, 68
    Equivalent bending load, 897, 902
    Equivalent radial load, 559, 560
    Euler column formula, 174
    Euler’s equation, 849
    Evaluation, 7
    Expanding-ring clutch, 812
    Extension springs, 524-532
    External contracting clutches/brakes,
    820-824
    External self-aligning bearing, 551
    Extreme-pressure (EP) lubricants, 640
    Extrusion, 43, 667
    F
    Face width, 678
    Face-contact ratio, 731
    Factor of safety, 17
    Factors of safety. See Safety factors
    Failure of brittle materials, 226-230
    BCM theory, 227
    MM theory, 227-228
    MNS theory, 226-227
    selection flowchart, 230
    summary, 229-230
    Failure of ductile materials, 21 1—225
    Coulomb-Mohr theory, 219-222
    DE theory, 213-219
    MSS theory, 211-212
    selection flowchart, 230
    summary, 222—225
    Failure prevention, 204-345
    brittle materials, 226—230. See also
    Failure of brittle materials
    ductile materials, 211-225. See also
    Failure of ductile materials
    failure theory selection flowchart,
    230
    fatigue failure, 257-345. See also
    Fatigue failure—variable loading
    static loading, 205-255. See also
    Failure—static loading
    Failure theory selection flowchart, 230
    Failure—static loading, 205-255
    brittle materials, 226-230. See also
    Failure of brittle materials
    compression springs, 510-516
    ductile materials, 21 1-225. See also
    Failure of ductile materials
    failure theory selection flowchart,
    230
    fracture mechanics, 231—240
    photographs of failed parts, 206-208
    static strength, 208-209
    stochastic analysis, 240-246
    stress concentration, 106, 209-210
    welding, 474-477
    Fastener, 408-410. See also Screws and
    fasteners—nonpermanent joints
    Fastener stiffness, 410-413
    Fatigue crack growth, 271-273
    Fatigue ductility coefficient, 269
    Fatigue ductility exponent, 269
    Fatigue factor of safety, 299, 300
    Fatigue failure, 258-263
    Fatigue failure—variable loading,
    257-345
    ASME-elliptic line, 297—300
    ball bearings, 564-568
    combination of loading modes,
    309-313, 339
    completely reversing simple loads,
    309, 337-338
    cumulative fatigue damage, 313-319
    design factor, 334-336
    endurance limit, 274-275. See also
    Endurance limit
    fatigue failure, 258-263
    fatigue strength, 275-278
    fluctuating simple loads, 309,
    338-339
    fluctuating stress, 292-309, 330-334
    Gerber line, 297-299
    Langer line, 297-300
    linear-elastic fracture mechanics
    method, 270-274
    Manson method, 318
    Marin factors, 278-286
    Miner rule, 314-317
    modified Goodman diagram, 295
    modified Goodman line, 297-299
    notch sensitivity, 287-292, 326-330
    overview, 264—265
    Smith-Dolan locus, 306
    Soderberg line, 297-298
    strain-life method, 268-270
    stress concentration, 287-292,
    326-330
    stress-life method, 266-268
    surface fatigue strength, 319-322
    torsional fatigue strength (fluctuating
    stress), 309
    Fatigue loading
    compression springs, 518-524
    tension joints, 429-435
    welding, 478-480
    Fatigue ration, 322, 324
    Fatigue strength, 267, 275-278
    Fatigue strength coefficient, 269
    Fatigue strength exponent, 270
    Fatigue stress-concentration factor,
    IE ee
    Fatigue-life methods, 265-274
    linear-elastic fracture mechanics
    method, 270-274
    strain-life method, 268-270
    stress-life method, 266-268
    Fazekas, G. A., 833
    FEA, 933-955. See also Finite-element
    analysis (FEA)
    Felbeck, David K., 231n
    Felt seal, 590
    Ferritic chromium steels, 49
    Field, J., 47n
    Filler, 55
    Fillet, 661
    Fillet welds, 460-463
    bending properties, 470
    parallel, 463
    stress distribution, 463
    symbols, 459
    torsional properties, 466
    transverse, 461
    Filling notch, 551, 552
    Fillister head screw, 409, 410
    Film pressure, 621-622
    Fine-pitch threads, 398, 399
    Finishing the tooth profiles, 670
    Finite-element analysis (FEA), 933-935
    boundary conditions, 945—946
    critical buckling load, 949-951
    deflection, 946
    element geometries, 937-939
    elimination approach, 941
    errors, 935-936
    historical overview, 935—936
    load application, 944-945
    mesh generation, 941
    modal analysis, 951—952
    modeling techniques, 946-949
    nodes, 937
    partitioning, 941reference books, 953
    solution process, 939-942
    sources of information, 953
    stress concentration, 943, 948
    thermal stress, 949
    vibration analysis, 951-952
    Finite-life region, 267
    Firbank, T. C., 863-864
    First-cycle yield (Langer), 297-300
    Fit, 383-388
    Fitted bearing, 605
    Fixed supports
    center load, 999
    intermediate load, 1000
    uniform load, 1000
    Fixed-pad thrust bearing, 639
    Flanged two-piece bearings, 638
    Flat belts, 860, 862, 863-878
    analysis, 868
    belting equation, 865, 867
    belt-tension schemes, 872
    crown height, 869, 871
    decision set, 873
    efficiency, 863
    Firbank’s theory, 863-864
    flat metal belts, 875-878
    geometry, 860, 861
    initial tension, 872
    materials, 869
    pulley correction factor, 869, 871
    pulley sizes, 869
    tensions, 875
    Flat head screw, 410
    Flat metal belts, 875-878
    Flat springs, 500
    Flexible clutch and brake bands,
    824-825
    Flexible mechanical elements, 859-91 |
    belt. See Belt
    flexible shafts, 904-905
    inspection schedule, 860
    roller chain, 887-895. See also Roller
    chain
    wire rope, 896-904. See also Wire
    rope
    Flexible shafts, 904-905
    Flexural endurance limit, 319
    Flexure formula, 90
    Floating caliper brake, 829
    Floating shoe, 812, 813
    Fluctuating simple loads, 309, 338-339
    Fluctuating stress, 292-309, 330-334
    Fluid lubrication, 598
    Fluoroplastic group, 54
    Flywheel, 806, 846-851. See also
    Clutches, brakes, etc.
    Foams, 58
    Force analysis
    bevel gears, 689-692
    helical gears, 692-694
    power transmission system, 925
    spur gears, 685-689
    worm gears, 694-697
    Force fit, 385
    Forging, 43
    Form cutting, 667
    Formulated hot melt adhesive, 482
    Forest; P\Gs325n
    Forys, Edward, 503n
    Fourier series, 147
    fps system, 21-22
    Fraction of inches (preferred sizes),
    1015
    Fracture mechanics, 231-240, 270-274
    Fracture toughness, 236
    Free running fit, 385
    Free-body diagram, 69
    Free-cutting brass, 53
    Frequency distribution, 959
    Frequency function, 959
    Presche, J. C., 318n
    Frettage corrosion, 286
    Friction
    coefficient. See Coefficient of friction
    internal-friction theory, 219
    Friction drives, 875-878
    Friction variable, 618
    Frictional-contact axial clutch, 825-828
    Fuchs, H. O., 272n
    Full bearing, 605
    Full-film lubrication, 598
    Full-gasketed joints, 429
    Fully automated mesh generation, 943
    Fundamental deviation, 383
    G
    Gamma function, 1038
    Gasketed joints, 429
    Gas-weld symbols, 459
    Gates Rubber Company, 880, 884
    Gauges, 1031-1032
    Gaussian distribution, 965-966,
    1001-1002
    Gear reducer, 70
    Gear train, 678-685
    Gears, 653-804
    bevel. See Bevel gears
    conjugate action, 657
    contact ratio, 664-665
    drawing gear teeth, 658-664
    finishing the tooth profiles, 670
    force analysis, 685-697. See also
    Force analysis
    forming of gear teeth, 667
    gear train, 678-685
    helical. See Spurs and helical gears
    Index 1045
    hobbing, 669
    interference, 665-667
    involute properties, 658
    milling, 668
    nomenclature, 655-656
    power transmission system, 916-923
    shaping, 668-669
    spur. See Spur gears
    tooth systems, 676-678
    types, 654-655
    worm. See Worm gears
    General three-dimensional stress, 82-83
    Generating cutters, 667
    Generating line, 659
    Genetic properties, 1016-1018
    circle, 1016
    cylinder, 1018
    hollow circle, 1016
    hollow cylinder, 1018
    quarter-circle, 1017
    rectangle, 1016
    rectangular prism, 1018
    right triangle, 1017
    rods, 1018
    round disk, 1018
    Geometrix stress-concentration
    factor, 105
    Geometry factors
    bevel gears, 773, 774
    spur and helical gears, 731—736
    Gerber, 298
    Gerber failure criterion, 297-299
    Gere, J. M., 182n
    Gib-head key, 380
    Gilding brass, 52
    Glass, 58, 987
    Global instabilities, 182
    Goodier, J. N., 103n
    Goodman failure criterion, 297-299
    Goodman line, 297
    Gordon, S. A., 275, 322n, 1030
    Gough’s data, 322
    Gravitational system of units, 21
    Gravity loading, 945
    Gray cast iron, 49, 106, 987, 1026
    Green, I., 415n, 416
    Grinding, 670
    Grip, 411
    Groove welds, 460
    Grooved pulleys, 860
    Grossman, M. A., 47n
    Grover, H. J., 275, 296, 322n, 1030
    Guest theory, 211
    H
    Hagen-Poiseuille law, 600
    Hard-drawn wire, 506-5081046 Mechanical Engineering Design
    Hardness, 36-37
    Hardness-ratio factor
    bevel gears, 776, 777
    spur and helical gears, 741-742
    Haringx, J. A., 504n
    Haugen, E. B., 284n, 1029
    HD spring, 506-508
    Heading, 44
    Heat-treated steel, 44-47, 1021-1022
    Heavy hexagonal screws, 1034
    Helical coil compression springs. See
    Compression springs
    Helical coil extension spring, 524—532
    Helical coil torsion springs, 532-539
    bending stress, 534
    deflection, 534-536
    end location, 533-534
    fatigue strength, 536-537
    spring rate, 534
    static strength, 536
    where used, 533
    Helical gears, 654, 671-675, 692-694.
    See also Spur and helical gears
    Helical rollers, 552
    Helical springs. See Mechanical
    springs
    Helical-gear geometry factors, 734
    Helix angle, 672
    Hellan, Kare, 231n
    Hertzian endurance strength, 320
    Hertzian stress, 117, 724
    Hexagonal nuts, 409, 1035
    Hexagonal socket head, 409, 410
    Hexagon-head bolt, 408, 409
    Hexagon-head cap screw, 409, 1034
    Heywood, R. B., 327n
    Heywood’s parameter, 327
    Hidden cycle, 313, 314
    High-cycle fatigue, 267
    High-leaded brass, 53
    Hobbing, 669
    Holding power, 376
    Hole basis, 383
    Hollow circle, 1016
    Hollow cylinder, 1018
    Hooke’s law, 29
    Hoop stress, 108
    Hopkins, Bruce R., 370n
    Horger, Oscar J., 279n, 280, 296, 518n
    Horizontal shear stress, 94
    Hot rolling, 43
    Hot-rolled (HR) steel, 1020
    Hot-working processes, 43
    HR steel, 1020
    Hrennikoff, A., 935n
    Hybrid materials, 58
    Hydraulic clutch, 812
    Hydrodynamic lubrication, 598
    Hydrodynamic theory, 605-609
    Hydrostatic lubrication, 599
    Hypoid gears, 767, 768
    I
    Identification of need, 5—6
    Idle arc, 864
    Impact, 183-184
    Impact load, 37
    Impact properties, 37-39
    Impact value, 38
    Impact wrenching, 422
    Inch-pound-second system (ips), 21
    Inconel, 987
    Inconel alloy, 508
    Indexing, 514
    Indirect mounting, 571, 573
    Induction motor, 850
    Infinite-life region, 267
    Influence coefficients, 372
    Information sources, 9
    Injection molding, 668
    Instrument bearings, 553
    Interference, 240
    defined,19
    gears, 665-667
    static loading, 244-246
    Interference fits, 385-388
    Intermediate load
    cantilever, 993
    fixed supports, 1000
    one fixed and one simple support,
    998
    simple supports, 995
    Internal expanding clutches/brakes,
    812-820
    Internal gear and pinion, 662, 663
    Internal shear force, 71
    Internal-friction theory, 219
    Internal-shoe device, 812-820
    International System of Units. See
    SI units
    International tolerance grades, 383, 384,
    1002, 1004
    Intersecting-shaft bevel-type gearings,
    768
    Invention of the concept, 6-7
    Investment casting, 42, 667
    Involute curve, 659
    Involute helicoid, 671
    Involute profile, 657
    Involute properties, 658
    Involute-toothed pinion and rack, 662
    ips system, 21-22
    Ishai, O., 55n
    IT numbers, 383, 384, 1002, 1004
    Tromyer4 sin
    Izod notched-bar test, 38, 39
    J
    J. B. Johnson formula, 176
    Jackson, L. R., 275, 322n, 1030
    Jam nut, 410
    Jensen, J. K., 760n
    J-groove weld, 460
    Joerres, Robert E., 309, 507n, 508
    Johnson, J. E., 182n
    Johnston, E. R., Jr., 102n, 147n, 173n
    Joint, 395-497. See also Screws and
    fasteners—nonpermanent joints
    Jominy test, 47
    Journal, 598
    Journal bearings. See Lubrication and
    journal bearings
    Joyce worm-gear screw jack, 400
    Juvinall, R. C., 267, 294n
    K
    Karelitz, G. B., 625n
    Kelsey, S., 935n
    Kennedy, J. B., 325n
    Key, 378-382, 928-929
    Kilopound, 21
    Kinematic viscosity, 600
    Kinloch, A. J., 489
    Kip, 21
    Krause, D. E., 37n
    Kuguel, R., 281n
    Kurtz, H. J., 423n
    L
    Lio life, 554
    Labyrinth seal, 590
    Lamont, J. L., 47n
    Landgraf, R. W., 268n, 270n
    Langer line, 297-300
    Lang-lay ropes, 896
    Lapping, 670
    Law of action and reaction, 69
    lbf-s/ft, 21 Ibf-s/in, 21
    LCR helical gears, 732
    Lead, 396, 676, 987
    Lead angle, 676
    Lead-base babbitt, 637
    Leaded bronze, 637
    Leather, 869
    Lees, W. A., 489
    LEFM, 231, 270-274
    Leibensperger, R. L., 587n
    Lemmon, D. C., 625n
    Lengthwise curvature factor for bending
    strength, 773
    beny, Ss, SSSLewis bending equation, 714-723
    Lewis form factor, 717, 718
    Lewis, Wilfred, 714
    Light-duty toothed coupling, 845
    Limits, 19
    Limits and fits, 383-388
    Line elements, 937
    Line of action, 657, 659, 662
    Line of contact, 120
    Linear damage hypothesis, 566
    Linear damage theory, 564
    Linear elastic fracture mechanics
    (LEFM), 231, 270-274
    Linear regression, 974-977
    Linear sliding wear, 641-643
    Linear spring, 142
    Lined bushing, 638
    Link plates, 891
    Link-type V belts, 880
    Lipp, Robert, 665n, 674n
    Lipson, C., 279n, 280
    Little, R. E., 414n
    Load. See Load/loading
    Load and stress analysis, 67-139
    beams—bending stresses, 85—90
    beams—shear stresses, 90-95
    bending moments (beams), 71-72
    Cartesian stress components, 75—76
    contact stress, 117-120
    curved beams in bending, 112-116
    elastic strain, 83-84
    equilibrium, 68
    free-body diagrams, 69
    general three-dimensional stress, 82-83
    Mohr’s circle, 76-82
    press and shrink fits, 110-111
    pressurized cylinders—stress,
    107-109
    rotating rings—stress, 110
    shear force (beams), 71—72
    singularity functions, 73—75
    stress, 75
    stress concentration, 105—107. See
    also Stress concentration
    temperature effects, 111-112
    torsion, 95-104
    uniformly distributed stresses, 84-85
    Load factor, 425
    Load intensity, 71
    Load zone, 572
    Load-distribution factor
    bevel gears, 773
    spur and helical gears, 739-740
    Loading factor, 282
    Load/loading
    ball bearings—combined radial and
    thrust loading, 559-564
    ball bearings—variable loading,
    564-568
    central. See Central loading
    critical buckling load, 949-951
    direct load, 440
    eccentric. See Eccentric loading
    end load, cantilever, 993
    fatigue. See Fatigue loading
    FEA, 944-945, 949-95]
    impact load, 37
    intermediate load. See Intermediate
    load
    journal bearings, 636-638
    overhanging load, simple supports, 997
    proof load, 417
    reverse loading, 780
    shear. See Shear, moment and
    deflection of beams
    static load, 206. See also Failure—
    static loading
    suddenly applied loading, 184-186
    transmitted load, 686, 689, 693
    twin loads, simple supports, 997
    uniform load. See Uniform load
    variable load. See Fatigue failure—
    variable loading
    Load-sharing ratio, 733
    Load-stress factor, 320
    Local instabilities, 182
    Locational clearance fit, 385
    Locational interference fit, 385
    Locational transition fit, 385
    Logan, D. L., 953n
    Logarithmic strain, 30
    Lognormal distribution, 967-969
    Long-time creep test, 39
    Loose running fit, 385
    Loose-side tension, 864
    Low brass, 53
    Low-contact-ratio (LCR) helical gears,
    732
    Low-cycle fatigue, 267
    Lower deviation, 383
    Low-leaded brass, 53
    Lubricant, 598
    Lubricant flow, 619-621
    Lubricant sump, 621, 622, 625
    Lubricant temperature rise, 622-624
    Lubrication and journal bearings,
    597-651. See also Rolling-constant
    bearings
    angular speed, 610
    boundary-lubricated bearings,
    640-648. See also
    Boundary—lubricated bearings
    bushing, 638
    clearance, 628-630
    coefficient of friction, 618, 619
    design, 609-625
    film pressure, 621-622
    fitted bearing, 605
    Index 1047
    full bearing, 605
    groove patterns, 638, 639
    hydrodynamic theory, 605-609
    interpolation, 624-625
    loads, 636
    lubricant flow, 619-621
    lubricant temperature rise, 622-624
    materials, 637-638
    minimum film thickness, 616-618
    nomenclature, 604
    partial bearing, 604, 605
    Petroff’s equation, 601-603
    pressure-fed bearings, 630-636
    radial clearance, 628-630
    Raimondi-Boyd analysis, 611-612,
    616-625
    relationships between variables,
    609-610, 611-625
    roller bearings, 587-588
    self-contained bearings, 625-628
    stable lubrication, 603-604
    thick-film lubrication, 604-605
    thrust bearings, 639, 640
    Trumpler’s design criteria, 610-611
    types of lubrication, 598-599, 640-641
    viscosity, 599-601
    viscosity charts, 612-615
    Liider lines, 211
    M
    M profile, 396, 397
    Mabie, H. H., 723n
    Macaulay functions, 72-75, 150-156
    Macaulay, W. H., 72n
    McHenry, D., 935n
    Machine-screw head styles, 409, 410
    McKee, S. A., 603n
    McKee, T. R., 603n
    McKee abscissa, 603
    Magnesium, 52, 987
    Magnesium alloys, 52
    Magnetic clutch, 812
    Major diameter, 396, 397
    Major Poisson’s ratio, 56
    Malkus, D. S., 953n
    Malleable cast iron, 50
    Manganese, 48
    Manson, S. S., 318n
    Manson method, 318
    Manson-Coffin relationship, 270
    Manual-control shaft, 904
    Margin of safety, 240
    Marin equation, 279
    Marin factors, 278-286, 323-326. See
    also Endurance limit
    Marin, Joseph, 222n, 279n
    Marin loading factor, 325, 326
    Marshek, K. M., 294n1048 Mechanical Engineering Design
    Martensite, 45, 46, 275
    Martin, H. C., 936n
    Material efficiency coefficient, 60
    Material families and classes, 57-58
    Material index, 61
    Material selection, 56-63
    Materials, 27-65
    alloy steels, 47-48
    aluminium. See Aluminum
    belt drives, 869
    boundary-lubricated bearings, 641
    brakes/clutches, 841-844
    cast iron, 41, 49-50. See also Gray
    cast iron
    casting, 49-51
    cold working, 33-35
    cold-working processes, 44
    composite, 55-56
    corrosion-resistant steels, 48-49
    finite life fatigue tests, 1029
    flat metal belts, 877
    hardness, 36-37
    heat-treated steel, 44-47
    hot-working processes, 43
    impact properties, 37-39
    investment casting, 42
    journal bearings, 636-638
    nonferrous metals, 51—54
    numbering systems, 40-41
    physical constants, 987
    plastics, 54—55
    powder-metallurgy process, 42—43
    sand casting, 41-42
    selection, 56-63
    shaft, 348-349
    shell molding, 42
    spring, 505-510
    stainless steel. See Stainless steel
    statistical significance, 32
    steel. See Steel
    stochastic yield, 1028
    strength and stiffness, 28-31
    temperature effects, 39-40
    ultimate strength, 1028
    wire rope, 897
    Materials selection charts, 57
    Matrix, 55
    Matthews, F. L., 489
    Maximum load, 618
    Maximum-normal-stress (MNS) theory,
    226-227
    Maximum-shear-stress (MSS) theory,
    211-212
    Maxwell’s reciprocity theorem,
    194, 372
    Mean coil diameter, 500
    Mechanical engineering design, 5
    Mechanical springs, 499-547
    Belleville springs, 539, 540
    compression springs. See
    Compression springs
    conical spring, 540
    constant-force spring, 540, 541
    critical frequency, 516-518
    curvature effect, 501-502
    deflection, 502
    extension springs, 524-532
    materials, 505-510
    spring ends, 503, 525
    stability, 504
    stresses, 500-501
    surge, 516-518
    torsion springs, 532-539. See also
    Helical coil torsion springs
    translational vibration, 516
    volute spring, 540, 541
    Median life, 554
    Medium drive fit, 385
    Member stiffness, 413-417
    Mesh, 942
    Mesh density, 942
    Mesh generation, 941
    Mesh refinement, 942
    Metal belts, 875-878
    Metal spraying, 286
    Metal-mold castings, 42
    Metals, 57
    Metric system. See SI units
    Metric threads, 397, 398
    Microreyn (mreyn), 600
    Millimeters (preferred sizes), 1015
    Milling, 668
    Miner, M. A., 314n
    Miner rule, 314-317, 884
    Minimum coefficient of friction, 618
    Minimum film thickness, 604, 605,
    616-618
    Minimum life, 554
    Minimum parasitic power loss, 618
    Minimum weld-metal properties, 472
    Minor diameter, 396, 397
    Minor Poisson’s ratio, 56
    Miscellaneous-effects factor, 285-286
    Mischke, Charles R., 35n, 46n, 47n,
    147n, 165n, 167n, 228n, 275n,
    280n, 322n, 349n, 370n, 379n,
    480n, 507n, 508, 738n, 971n,
    1023
    Mitchiner, R. G., 723n
    Mixed-film lubrication, 640-641
    MJ profile, 396-397
    MM theory, 227-228
    LN/P, 603
    MNS theory, 226-227
    Modal analysis, 951-952
    Mode I crack, 233
    Mode I, plane strain fracture
    toughness, 236
    Modern Steels and Their Properties
    Handbook, 47
    Modified Goodman diagram, 295
    Modified Goodman failure criterion,
    297-299
    Modified Goodman line, 298
    Modified Mohr (MM) theory, 227-22
    Modified Neuber equation, 327
    Modified phenolic adhesive, 482
    Module, 656
    Modulus of elasticity, 29, 83
    Modulus of resilience, 65
    Modulus of rigidity, 31
    Modulus of rupture, 31
    Modulus of toughness, 65
    Mohr theory of failure, 219
    Mohr’s circle, 76-82
    Mohr’s circle diagram, 78, 79
    Molded-asbestos lining, 843
    Molded-asbestos pads, 843
    Molybdenum, 48, 987
    Moment. See Shear, moment and
    deflection of beams
    Moment connection, 464
    Moment load, 441
    cantilever, 994
    simple supports, 996
    Moment of area, 86
    Moment-area method, 147
    Monel metal, 987
    Monte Carlo computer simulations, 21
    Mounting antifriction bearings, 571,
    573, 587-590
    pereyn, 600
    MSC/NASTRAN, 953
    MSS theory, 211-212
    Multiple-threaded, 396
    Multipoint constraint equations, 946
    Muntz metal, 53
    Murakami, Y., 234n
    Music wire, 506-508
    N
    Nachtigall, A. J., 318n
    Nagata, S., 413n
    NASA/FLAGRO 2.0, 273
    NASTRAN, 934
    Naval brass, 53
    Neale, M. J., 630
    Necking, 30
    Needle bearings, 552, 553
    Neuber constant, 288
    Neuber equation, 288
    Neutral axis, 85
    Neutral plane, 85
    Neville, A. M., 325n
    Newmark, N. M., 935n
    Newton (N), 21ewtonian fluids, 600
    ewton’s cooling model, 838
    ewton’s energy loss equation, 838-839
    ewton’s third law, 69
    ewton’s viscous effect, 599
    ickel, 48
    ickel silver, 987
    ickel steel, 987
    Nine-hoist problem, 901—902
    Nitralloy, 731
    Nitriding, 730
    Nodal loads, 945
    Node, 935, 937
    N
    N
    N
    ZiZ Ze
    Yodular cast iron, 50
    Voll, C. J., 279n, 280
    Nominal mean stress method, 294
    Nominal size, 19
    Nominal stress, 105
    Nominal stresses/strengths, 31
    Nonferrous metals, 51—54
    Nonlinear softening spring, 142, 143
    Nonlinear stiffening spring, 142
    Nonpermanent joints. See Screws and
    fasteners—nonpermanent joints
    Nonprecision bearings, 553
    Nonreversing open belt, 861
    Nonsinusoidal fluctuating stress, 293
    Normal circular pitch, 672
    Normal coupling equation, 241
    Normal diametral pitch, 672
    Normal distribution, 965-966, 1001-1002
    Normal stress, 75
    Normalizing, 45
    Norris, C. H., 462n
    Notch sensitivity, 287-292, 326-330
    Notched-bar tests, 38
    Notch-sensitivity charts, 287, 288
    Numbering systems, 40-41
    Numerical integration, 147
    Nylon, 54
    Oo
    Octahedral shear stress, 215
    Octahedral surfaces, 216
    Octahedral-shear-stress theory, 215
    Offset method, 29
    Offset-shaft bevel-type gearings, 768
    Oil quench, 45
    Oil-actuated multiple-disk clutch-brake,
    826
    Oiles bearings, 641
    Oiliness agents, 640
    Oilite bearings, 641
    Oil-tempered wire, 506-508
    One fixed and one simple support
    center load, 998
    intermediate load, 998
    uniform load, 999
    One-dimensional flow, 609
    Open thin-walled sections, 103-104
    Open-belt drive, 861, 863
    Opening crack propagation mode, 233
    OQ&T wire, 506-508
    Osgood, C. C., 414n
    Oval head screw, 410
    Overhanging load, simple supports, 997
    Overload factor
    bevel gears, 771
    spur and helical gears, 738
    Overload release clutch, 844, 845
    Overview of book, 4
    P
    P, 600
    Palmgren, A., 314n
    Palmgren-Miner cycle-ratio summation
    rule, 314
    Parabolic formula, 176
    Parallel fillet welds, 463
    Parallel helical gears, 671-675. See also
    Spur and helical gears
    Parent distribution, 967
    Paris, P. C., 231n, 234n
    Partial bearing, 604, 605
    Particulate composite, 56
    Partitioning, 941
    Pa-s, 600
    Pascal-second (Pa:s), 600
    RDES959
    Pedestal bearings, 625
    Performance factors, 610
    Permanent joints. See Welding and
    bonding—permanent joints
    Permanent-mold casting, 667
    Peterson, R. E., 210, 723n. See also
    Pilkey, Walter D.
    Petroff’s bearing model, 602
    Petroff’s equation, 602
    Phenolics, 55
    Phenylene oxide, 54
    Phosphor bronze, 53, 987
    Phosphor-bronze wire, 507, 508
    Physical constants of materials, 987
    Piecewise differential equations, 184
    Pilkey, Walter D., 210n, 234n, 380n,
    429n, 948n
    Pillow-block bearings, 625
    Pin, 378-379
    Pinion, 655, 656
    Pinion cutter, 668
    Piotrowski, George, 467n
    Pipe (American Standard Pipe), 1019
    Pitchy 396397
    Pitch circle, 655, 656, 657
    Pitch diameter, 396, 397, 655, 656, 675
    Pitch length, 880
    Index 1049
    Pitch point, 657, 659
    Pitch radius, 657
    Pitch-line velocity, 687, 691, 698
    Pitting, 723
    Pitting resistance geometry factor, 734,
    773, 174
    Pitting resistance stress-cycle factor,
    743
    Plane slider bearing, 606
    Plane stress, 76
    Plane-stress transformation
    equations, 76
    Planetary gear trains, 683, 684
    Plastics, 54-55
    Plastic-strain line, 270
    Pleshay Mabe 953n
    Pneumatic clutch, 812
    Pocius, A. V., 481, 489
    Poisson’s ratio, 56, 63, 84, 387, 724,
    876
    Polyamide, 869
    Polycarbonate, 54
    Polyester, 54
    Polyimide, 54
    Polyimide adhesive, 482
    Polymeric adhesives, 481
    Polymers, 58
    Polyphenylene sulfide, 54
    Polystyrene group, 54
    Polysulfone, 54
    Polyvinyl chloride, 54
    Popes JsAme22n
    Population, 960
    Positioning drives, 875
    Potential energy, 156
    Powder-metallurgy process, 42-43,
    667
    Power screws, 400-408
    Power transmission case study, 913-931
    bearings, 927-928
    design requirements, 23
    design sequence, 915-916
    design specifications, 24
    final analysis, 931
    force analysis, 925
    gears, 916-923
    key, 928-929
    power requirements, 916
    retaining ring, 929-931
    shaft design for deflection, 926-927
    shaft design for stress, 926
    shaft layout, 923-925
    shaft material selection, 925
    torque, 916
    Power-drive shaft, 904
    Preferred sizes, 1015
    Preload, 421, 425-428
    Preloading, 590
    Presentation, 71050 Mechanical Engineering Design
    Presetting, 503
    Press and shrink fits, 1 10-111, 353
    Pressure angle, 659
    Pressure line, 659
    Pressure-fed bearings, 630-636
    Pressure-sensitive adhesives, 482
    Pressurized cylinders, 107-109
    Pretension, 411
    Primary shear, 440, 464
    Principal directions, 77
    Principal distribution, 967
    Principal shear stresses, 83
    Principal stresses, 77
    Probability density, 32
    Probability density function (PDF), 32,
    959
    Probability distribution, 959, 965-972
    Probability function, 959
    Problems, answers, 1039-1043
    Product liability, 15
    Professional responsibilities, 10-11
    Professional societies, | |
    Proof load, 417
    Proof strength, 417
    Propagation of dispersion, 19
    Propagation of error, 19, 972-974
    Propagation of uncertainty, 19
    Proportional limit, 29
    Protein-based adhesive, 482
    Puck-pad caliper brake, 832, 833
    Pugh method, 7n
    Pugh, Stuart, 7n
    Pulley correction factor, 869, 871
    Pulsating torsional fatigue, 309
    Punch press, 849-850
    Pure compression, 84
    Pure shear, 84
    Pure tension, 84
    PVAc emulsion adhesive, 482
    Q
    Quarter-circle, 1017
    Quarter-twist belt drive, 862
    Quasi-static fracture, 232
    Quenching, 45
    R
    R. R. Moore high-speed rotating-beam
    machine, 266
    Rack, 662
    Rack cutter, 668, 669
    Radial clearance, 19, 604, 628-630
    Radial clearance ratio, 602
    Radial interference, 110
    Raimondi, Albert A., 611-612
    Raimondi-Boyd analysis, 611-612,
    616-625
    Rain-flow counting technique, 314
    Random experiment, 958
    Random variables, 958
    Randomly oriented short fiber
    composite, 56
    Rao, S. S., 952n
    Rating life, 554
    Rayleigh’s equation, 371
    RB&W, 426-427, 447
    Real numbers, 22
    Rectangle, 1016
    Rectangular prism, 1018
    Red brass, 52
    Reddy, J. N., 953n
    Reece, C. K., 760n
    Reemsnyder, Harold S., 272n, 273
    Regression, 974-977
    Regular-lay ropes, 896
    Relatively brittle, 231
    Reliability, 18-19, 240
    Reliability factors, 284, 285
    bevel gears, 777, 778
    spur and helical gears, 743, 744
    Reliability method of design, 19
    Remote-control shaft, 904
    Renard numbers, 1015
    Repeated stress, 293
    Residual stress, 285
    Residual stress method, 294
    Resistance welding, 480
    Retaining ring, 382, 929-93]
    Reverse loading, 780
    Reversing crossed belt, 861
    Reversing open-belt drive, 861
    Reyn, 600
    Reynolds equation for one-dimensional
    flow, 609
    Reynolds, Osborne, 600, 605—606
    Right triangle, 1017
    Right-hand rule, 396
    Rigid elements, 946
    Rim clutches/brakes, 812-820
    Rim-thickness factor, 744—745
    Ring gear, 662
    Rippel, Harry C., 639n
    Riveted and bolted joints loaded in
    shear, 435-443
    Roark’s formulas, 147
    Rockwell hardness, 36
    Rockwell hardness scales, 36
    Rods, 1018
    RolieySale 272
    Roll threading, 44
    Roller chain, 887-895
    capacities, 890-89|
    chain velocity, 889
    dimensions, 888
    failure, 890
    horsepower capacity, 891-892
    link plates, 891
    lubrication, 895
    maximum speed, 894
    multiple-strand factors, 893
    nomenclature, 887
    sprocket, 889
    tooth correction factors, 893
    tooth counts, 892
    Rolling bearings. See Rolling-constant
    bearings
    Rolling-constant bearings, 549-595. See
    also Lubrication and journal
    bearings
    bearing-life recommendations, 563
    boundary dimensions, 560
    catalog load rating, 554
    combined radial and thrust loading,
    559
    design assessment, 582-586
    dimensions/load ratings, 561, 562
    distributional curve fit, 555
    equivalent radial load, 559, 560
    fatigue criterion, 553
    life measures, 553-554
    load life at rated reliability,
    554-555
    load-application factors, 563
    load-life-reliability relationship,
    557-558
    lubrication, 587-588
    matters of fit, 586
    mounting, 571, 573, 587-590
    reliability-life relationship,
    554-557
    sealing methods, 590-591
    selection of ball and cylindrical roller
    bearings, 568-571
    tapered roller bearings. See Tapered
    roller bearings
    types of bearings, 550-553
    variable loading, 564-568
    Rolovic, R. D., 210n
    Rope. See Wire rope
    Rotating ring, 110
    Rothbart, H. A., 407, 408
    Rotscher’s pressure-cone method, 414
    Round belts, 860. See also Flat belts
    Round disk, 1018
    Round head screw, 410
    Round key, 378
    Round pin, 378
    Round tubing, 992
    Rounding off, 22
    R-series numbers, 1015
    Rubber-based adhesive, 482
    Rubber-modified acrylic adhesive, 482
    Rubber-moditied epoxy adhesive, 482
    Russell, Burdsall & Ward Inc. (RB&W)
    426-427, 447
    5Ss
    SAE approximate, 276
    SAE Fatigue Design and Evaluation
    Steering Committee report, 268-270
    SAE specifications (steel bolts), 418
    Safety factors, 240, 299, 300
    bevel gears, 771
    spur and helical gears, 745
    wire rope, 898-899
    Saint-Venant, Jean Claude, 97, 944
    Salakian, A. G., 462n
    Salmon, C. G., 182n
    Samonoy, Cyril, 501n, 502n, 504n
    Sample, 960
    Sample mean, 960
    Sample space, 958
    Sample standard deviation, 961
    Sample variance, 960
    Sand casting, 667
    Sand casting, 41-42
    Sand-cast gears, 790
    Saybolt universal viscosimeter, 600
    Saybolt universal viscosity (SUV), 600
    Scale (of spring), 502
    Scarf lap joint, 483
    Schmidt, Richard J., 117n, 215n
    Schwerdlin, Howard B., 738n
    Scoring, 723
    Screw bearing pressure, 407
    Screw threads, 396—400
    Screws and fasteners—nonpermanent
    joints, 395-456
    bolt strength, 417-421
    bolt torque/bolt tension, 422-425
    bolted and riveted joints loaded in
    shear, 435-443
    fastener stiffness, 410-413
    fatigue loading of tension joints,
    429-435
    gasketed joints, 429
    member stiffness, 413-417
    power screws, 400-408
    preload, 421, 425-428
    shear joints with eccentric loading,
    439-443
    statically loaded tension joint with
    preload, 425-428
    tension joints—external load,
    421-422
    thread standards/definitions, 396-400
    threaded fasteners, 408-410
    Sealant, 481. See also Adhesive bonding
    Sealed bearing, 551
    Sealing methods (bearings), 590-591
    Seam welding, 480
    Secant column formula, 177
    Secondary shear, 441, 464
    Section modulus, 86
    Seireg, A. S., 615
    Self-acting/self-locking phenomenon,
    402, 809
    Self-aligning bearing, 551, 559
    Self-aligning thrust bearing, 551
    Self-contained bearings, 625-628
    Self-deenergization, 807
    Self-energization, 807, 829
    Self-locking, 402, 809
    Semiautomatic mesh generation, 943
    Set removal, 503
    Setscrews, 376-378
    Shaft, 347-394
    assembly/disassembly, 353-354
    axial layout of components, 351
    critical speeds, 371-376
    defined, 348
    deflection, 367-370
    deviations, 1003, 1005
    fundamental durations, 1003, 1005
    keys, 378-382
    layout, 349
    limits and fits, 383-388
    materials, 348-349
    pins, 378-379
    power transmission system, 923-927
    retaining ring, 382
    setscrews, 376-378
    stress, 354-367
    stress concentration, 360-361
    supporting axial loads, 351
    torque transmission, 351-353
    Shaft basis, 384
    Shaft couplings, 845
    Shaping, 668-669
    Shaving, 670
    Shear. See also Shear stress
    beams. See Shear, moment and
    deflection of beams
    internal shear force, 71
    MSS theory, 211-212
    primary, 440, 464
    pure, 84
    secondary, 441, 464
    Volkersen shear-lag model, 483,
    486, 487
    Shear, moment and deflection of beams,
    993-1000
    cantilever—end load, 993
    cantilever—intermediate load, 993
    cantilever—moment load, 994
    cantilever—uniform load, 994
    fixed supports—center load, 999
    fixed supports—intermediate load,
    1000
    fixed supports—uniform load, 1000
    one fixed and one simple support—
    center load, 998
    one fixed and one simple support—
    intermediate load, 998
    Index 1051
    one fixed and one simple support—
    uniform load, 999
    simple supports—center load, 995
    simple supports—intermediate load,
    995
    simple supports—moment load, 996
    simple supports—overhanging load,
    997
    simple supports—twin loads, 997
    simple supports—uniform load, 996
    Shear force (beams), 71-72
    Shear joints with eccentric loading,
    439-443
    Shear loading of bolted/riveted
    connection, 435—443
    Shear modulus, 31
    Shear stress
    beams in bending, 90-95
    horizontal, 94
    octahedral, 215
    principal, 83
    tangential, 75
    vertical, 94
    Shear tear-out, 436
    Shear-energy theory, 215
    Shear-lag model, 483
    Shear-stress correction factor, 501
    Sheet-metal gauges, 1031-1032
    Shell molding, 42, 667
    Shigley, Joseph E., 35n, 46n, 47n, 147n,
    165n, 167n, 275n, 349n, 370n,
    379n, 480n, 507n, 508, 735n,
    738n, 971n, 1023
    Shock, 183-184
    Short compression members, 180-181
    SI units, 21-22
    conversion factors, 986
    deflection, 987
    deviations—shafts, 1003
    international tolerance grades, 1002
    prefixes, 985
    stress, 987
    washers, 1037
    Sib, G. C., 234n
    Significance figures, 22
    Silicon, 48
    Silicon bronze, 53
    Silicones, 55
    Silver plus overlay, 637
    Simple compression, 84, 85
    Simple supports
    center load, 995
    intermediate load, 995
    moment load, 996
    overhanging load, 997
    twin loads, 997
    uniform load, 996
    Sines failure criterion, 518
    Sines, George, 2871052 Mechanical Engineering Design
    Single bevel weld, 460
    Single V-groove weld, 460
    Single-enveloping worm-gear set,
    655, 675
    Single-lap joint, 483
    Single-row bearings, 552
    Single-row deep-groove bearings, 550
    Singularity functions, 73-75
    Sintered-metal pads, 843
    Sinusoidal fluctuating stress, 293
    Size factor, 279-280
    bevel gears, 773
    spur and helical gears, 739
    Sizes, preferred, 1015
    Sleeve bearings. See Lubrication and
    journal bearings
    Sleeve bushings, 638
    Slenderness ratio, 174
    Sliding bearings. See Lubrication and
    journal bearings
    Sliding fit, 384, 385
    Sliding mode, 233
    Smith, G. M., 517n
    Smith, James O., 309n
    Smith-Dolan failure criterion, 331
    Smith-Dolan locus, 306
    S-N diagram, 266-267
    Snug-tight condition, 422
    Socket setscrews, 377
    Soderberg failure criterion, 297-298
    Soderberg line, 298
    Softening spring, 142, 143
    Solid bushing, 638
    Solid elements, 938
    Solid-film lubricant, 599
    Sommerfeld, A., 609n
    Sommerfeld number, 602, 610, 617,
    634
    Sorem, J. R., Jr., 210n
    Sources of information, 9
    Special-purpose elements, 938
    Speed ratio, 734
    Spherical contact, 117-118
    Spherical-roller thrust bearing, 552, 553
    Spinning, 44
    Spiral angle, 766
    Spiral bevel gears, 766-768
    Spiroid gearing, 767, 768
    Splines, 353
    Split tubular spring pin, 378
    Spot welding, 480
    Spotts, M. E., 884n
    Spring. See also Mechanical springs
    classification, 500
    defined, 142
    linear, 142
    softening, 142, 143
    stiffening, 142
    Spring constant, 143
    Spring ends, 503, 525
    Spring materials, 505-510
    Spring rate, 411, 502
    Spring surge, 516
    Spring wires, 505-508
    Spur and helical gears, 654, 671-675,
    713-763. See also Gears
    AGMA strength equations, 727-731
    AGMA stress equations, 725—726
    AGMA symbols, 715-716
    analysis, 745-755
    bending equations (summary), 746
    crossed helical gears, 789. See also
    Worm gears
    design of gear mesh, 755—760
    dynamic factor, 736-738
    elastic coefficient, 736, 737
    force analysis (helical gears),
    692-694
    force analysis (spur gears), 685-689
    geometry factors, 731-736
    hardness-ratio factor, 741-742
    Lewis bending equation, 714—723
    load-distribution factor, 739-740
    overload factor, 738
    parallel helical gears, 671-675
    reliability factors, 743, 744
    rim-thickness factor, 744-745
    safety factors, 745
    size factor, 739
    stress cycle factors, 742, 743
    stresses/strengths, 725-731, 746, 750,
    752-573
    surface condition factor, 738
    surface durability, 723-725
    temperature factor, 744
    tooth system, 676, 677
    wear equations (summary), 747
    Spur-gear geometry factors, 733
    Square bolts, 1033
    Square butt-welded, 460
    Square key, 379
    Square threads, 398, 399
    Square-jaw clutch, 844, 845
    St, 600
    Stable lubrication, 603-604
    Stage I fatigue, 258, 270
    Stage II fatigue, 258-259, 270
    Stage III fatigue, 259, 271
    Stainless steel
    friction drives, 876
    major characteristics, 48
    physical constants, 987
    springs, 507, 508
    tensile tests, 1023
    types, 48-49
    UNS designations, 41
    Stamping, 44
    Standard, 12
    Standard deviation, 961
    Standard Handbook of Machine
    Design, 47
    Standard sizes, 13
    Standard-setting organizations, 12
    Starch-based adhesive, 482
    Static equilibrium, 68
    Static load, 37, 206. See also Failure—
    static loading
    Static strength, 208-209
    Statically indeterminate problems,
    168-173
    Statically loaded tension joint with
    preload, 425-428
    Statistical considerations, 957-982
    arithmetic mean, 960
    basic structures, 959, 960
    Gaussian distribution, 965-966,
    1001-1002
    linear regression, 974-977
    lognormal distribution, 967—969
    normal distribution, 965-966,
    1001-1002
    notation, 962
    probability distributions, 965-972
    propagation of error, 972-974
    random variables, 958
    standard deviation, 961
    uniform distribution, 969-970
    variance, 960
    Weibull distribution, 970-972
    Statistical tolerance system, 20
    Steel
    alloy, 47-48
    ASTM minimum values, 1020
    carbon, 1030
    cast, 51
    corrosion-resistant, 48-49
    heat treatment, 44-47
    heat-treated, 1021
    numbering system, 40-41
    springs, 505-508
    stainless. See Stainless steel
    stress-strain properties, 1024-1025
    tensile tests, 1023
    Steel bolts, 417-421
    Steep-angle tapered roller, 552
    Step lap joint, 483
    Stephens, R. I., 272n
    Stiffening spring, 142
    Stiffness, 28-31. See also Deflection
    and stiffness
    fastener, 410-413
    member, 413-417
    tension joints – external load, 422
    Stiffness constant, 421
    Stochastic analysis, 17. See also
    Statistical considerations
    design factor in fatigue, 334-336endurance limit, 322—326
    fluctuating stresses, 330-334
    interference, 244-246
    normal-normal case, 242-244
    notch sensitivity, 326-330
    Static loading, 240-246
    stress concentration, 326-330
    variable loading, 322-336
    Stochastic variable, 962
    Stock key, 379
    Stoke (St), 600
    Straight bevel gears, 670-671, 689, 766.
    See also Bevel gears
    Straight roller bearings, 552
    Straight two-piece bearings, 638
    Strain
    elastic, 83-84
    stress-strain curve, 209
    stress-strain diagram, 29-31
    true, 30
    Strain energy, 156-158
    Strain-hardened, 34
    Strain-life method, 268-270
    Strength, 15-16
    bevel gears, 768-771, 781
    bolt, 417-421
    cold work, and, 33—35
    compressive, 30-31
    contact, 320
    fatigue, 267, 275-278
    proof, 417
    spur and helical gears, 727-731, 737,
    750 oS
    static, 208-209
    surface fatigue, 267, 275-278
    tensile, 29, 30-31
    torsional, 31
    welded joints, of, 471-473
    worm gears, 789-792
    Strength versus density, 62, 63
    Strength versus temperature chart, 39
    Strength-to-stress ratio, 238
    Stress, 16. See also Load and stress
    analysis
    bearing, 437
    bending. See Bending stress
    bevel gears, 768-771, 778-782,
    787-788
    Cartesian coordinate system, 75—76
    compressive, 75, 182
    contact, 117-120
    fluctuating, 292-309, 330-334
    helical springs, 500-501
    Hertzian, 117
    hoop, 108
    nominal, 105
    normal, 75
    plane, 76
    power transmission system, 926
    pressurized cylinders, 107—109
    principal, 77
    residual, 285
    rotating rings, 110
    shaft, 354-367
    shear. See Shear stress
    SI units, 987
    spur and helical gears, 725~731, 736
    symbols, 16
    tensile, 75
    thermal, 949
    three-dimensional, 82-83
    true, 30
    uniform distribution, 84—85
    von Mises, 214
    welded joints in bending, 469-471
    welded joints in torsion, 464-468
    Stress analysis. See Load and stress
    analysis
    Stress concentration, 105—107
    bolted and riveted joints loaded in
    shear, 436
    fatigue loading of tension joints, 429
    FEA, 943, 948
    keys, 380
    retaining ring, 382
    shaft, 360-361
    splines, 353
    static loading, 106, 209-210
    stochastic analysis, 326-330
    tables, 1006-1014
    variable loading, 287-292, 326-330
    welded joints, 472
    Stress correction factor, 733
    Stress cycle factors
    bevel gears, 775, 776
    spur and helical gears, 742, 743
    Stress intensity factor, 234
    Stress intensity modification factor, 234
    Stress raisers, 105
    Stress relieving, 46
    Stress-concentration factors, 105,
    1006-1014
    Stress-life method, 266-268
    Stress-strain curve, 209
    Stress-strain diagram, 29-31
    Stress-strength comparison, 15-16
    Strict liability, 15
    Structural adhesives, 481
    Structural-steel angles, 988-989
    Structural-steel channels, 990-991
    Strut, 180-181
    Stud, 411
    Subsidiary distribution, 967
    Suddenly applied loading, 184-186
    Superimposition, 147-150
    Surface elements, 938
    Surface endurance shear, 319
    Surface endurance strength, 320
    Index 1053
    Surface factor, 279
    Surface fatigue strength, 319-322
    Surface loading, 945
    Surface-strength geometry factor,
    734-736
    Surge of helical springs, 516-518
    SUV, 600
    Synthesis, 7
    Synthetically designed hot melt
    adhesive, 482
    T
    Tada, H., 231n, 234n
    Tangential shear stress, 75
    Tape drives, 875
    Taper pin, 378
    Tapered fits, 353
    Tapered roller bearings, 550, 552, 553,
    571-583
    components, 571
    dynamic equivalent radial loads,
    578-579
    form, 571-572
    indirect/direct mounting, 573
    load-life-reliability relationship,
    573-583
    nomenclature, 572
    notation, 572, 574-575
    power transmission systems, 927-928
    Timken catalog pages, 574-575
    Tavernelli, J. F., 270n
    Taylor, R. L., 953n
    Tearing mode, 233
    Tearing of member, 436, 437
    Temper carbon, 50
    Temperature
    boundary-lubricated bearings, 646-648
    clutches, brakes, etc., 837—841
    journal bearings, 622-624
    load and stress analysis, 111—112
    materials, and, 39-40
    Temperature factor, 282-284
    bevel gears, 776
    spur and helical gears, 744
    Tempered martensite, 46
    Tempering, 46
    Tensile strength, 29, 30-31
    Tensile strength correlation method, 322
    Tensile stress, 75
    Tensile tear-out, 436
    Tensile-stress area, 397
    Tension joints—external load, 421-422
    T-groove weld, 460
    Theoretical stress-concentration factor,
    105, 1006-1014
    Thermal loading, 945
    Thermal stress, 949
    Thermoplastics, 541054 Mechanical Engineering Design
    Thermoset, 54, 55
    Thick-film lubrication, 604-605
    Thin flat metal belts, 875-878
    Thin-film bearings, 641
    Thin-film lubrication, 640
    Thin-walled vessels, 108-109
    Thomson, William T., 184n, 371n, 372n
    Thread angle, 396, 397
    Thread standards/definitions, 396—400
    Threaded fasteners, 408-410
    Thread-sealing adhesives, 48]
    3-D truss element, 939
    Three-dimensional stress, 82-83
    Three-jaw coupling, 845
    Three-parameter Weibull distribution, 970
    Through-hardening, 782
    Thrust bearings, 551, 639, 640
    Thrust-collar friction coefficients, 408
    Tight-side tension, 864
    Timing belts, 860, 862-863, 886-887
    Timing or positioning drives, 875
    Timken catalog pages, 574-575
    Timkin Company, 553-555, 571-579
    Timoshenko, S. P., 97n, 103n, 182n
    Tin-base babbitt, 637
    Tipton, S. M., 210n
    Titanium, 52
    Titanium alloys, 987, 1027
    Tolerance
    absolute tolerance system, 20
    bilateral, 19
    defined, 19, 383
    large, 13
    IT numbers, 383, 384, 1002, 1004
    statistical tolerance system, 20
    unilateral, 19
    Tolerance grades, 383, 384, 1002, 1004
    Tolerance position letters, 384
    Tooth systems, 676-678
    Tooth thickness, 655, 656
    Toothed wheels, 860
    Top land, 656
    Topp, L. J., 936n
    Torque
    bolt, 422-425
    power transmission systems, 916
    shaft, 351-353
    Torque coefficient, 423
    Torque transmission, 351-353
    Torque vector, 95
    Torque wrenching, 422
    Torque-twist diagram, 31
    Torsion, 95—104
    closed thin-walled tubes, 102
    defined, 95
    helical coil torsion springs, 532-539
    open thin-walled sections, 103-104
    tension, compression, 143
    welded joints, 464-468
    Torsion springs, 532-539. See also
    Helical coil torsion springs
    Torsional fatigue strength (fluctuating
    stress), 309
    Torsional properties (fillet welds), 466
    Torsional strengths, 31
    Torsional yield strength, 31
    Total strain amplitude, 270
    Toughness, 65
    Tower, Beauchamp, 605-606
    Toyoda, J., 413n
    Train value, 679
    Transition fits, 385
    Transmission accuracy number, 772
    Transmission of power. See Power
    transmission case study
    Transmitted load, 686, 689, 693
    Transverse circular pitch, 672, 675
    Transverse fillet weld, 461
    Tredgold’s approximation, 671
    Tresca theory, 211
    Trimetal 77, 637
    Trimetal 88, 637
    Triple-threaded, 396
    Truare Co., 929
    True strain, 30
    True stress, 30
    True stress-strain diagram, 30, 31
    Trumpler, Paul Robert, 610n
    Trumpler’s design criteria, 610-611
    Truss head screw, 410
    Tubular lap joint, 483
    Tungsten, 48
    Turner, M. J., 936n
    Turn-of-the-nut method, 422, 447
    Twin loads, simple supports, 997
    Two-bearing mountings, 589
    Two-piece bushings, 638
    Two-plane bending, 88
    Two-stage compound gear train, 679,
    680
    -groove weld, 460
    icker John J.Jn, 735n
    Ilman, David G., 7n
    Irich, Karl T., 15n
    Itimate strength, 29n
    N series threads, 397
    NC threads, 399
    ncertainty, 16-17
    ndamaged material, 316
    ndercutting, 665
    NF threads, 399
    nidirectional continuous fiber
    composite, 56
    nified numbering system for metals
    and alloys (UNS), 40-41
    Cie GC eieiece ecCGced Qe
    Se
    Unified thread series, 396-399
    Uniform distribution, 969-970
    Uniform load
    cantilever, 994
    fixed supports, 1000
    one fixed and one simple support,
    999
    simple supports, 996
    Uniformly distributed stresses, 84-85
    Unilateral tolerance, 19
    Unmodified phenolic adhesive, 482
    UNR series threads, 397
    UNS, 40-41
    Unstable crack growth, 232
    Unstable lubrication, 603
    Upper deviation, 383
    Urethane, 869
    Urethane adhesive, 482
    Vv
    V belts, 860, 862, 878-886
    analysis, 885
    angle of contact correction factor,
    882
    belt length, 879
    durability (life) correlations,
    883, 884
    efficiency, 863
    horsepower ratings, 881
    inside circumferences, 879
    lettered sections, 878, 879
    service factors, 882
    tensions, 883
    Valve spring, 508
    Van Gerpen, H. W., 760n
    Vanadium, 48
    Variable load. See Fatigue failurevariable loading
    Variable-cross-section punch-press
    frame, 166-167
    Variable-speed belt drives, 862
    Variance, 960
    Variate, 962
    Velocity factor, 718
    Vertical shear stress, 94
    Vertical worm-gear speed reducer, 350
    Vibration analysis, 951-952
    Virgin material, 316
    Virtual number of teeth, 671, 673
    Viscosity, 599-601
    Viscosity charts, 612-615
    Volkersen, O., 483
    Volkersen shear-lag model, 483,
    486, 487
    Volute spring, 540, 541
    von Mises, R., 214
    von Mises stress, 214, 943
    von Mises-Hencky theory, 215WwW
    Wahl, A. M., 504n, 534
    Wahl factor, 501
    Waisman, J. L., 287
    Wake, W. C., 483, 489
    Wallin, A. W., 863n
    Walton, Charles F., 37n, 229
    Washer-faced regular nut, 410
    Washers, 1036, 1037
    Wear, 723
    Wear factor, 320
    Weibull distribution, 555—556, 970-972
    Weibullian statistics, 550
    Weld bonding, 487
    Welding and bonding—permanent
    joints, 457-497
    adhesive bonding, 480-489
    butt and fillet welds, 460-463. See
    also Fillet welds
    fatigue loading, 478-480
    resistance welding, 480
    static loading, 474-477
    strength of welded joints, 471-473
    stress in welded joints in bending,
    469-471
    stress in welded joints in torsion,
    464-468
    welding symbols, 458—460
    Welding symbols, 458-460
    White cast iron, 50
    Whole depth, 656
    Width of space, 655, 656
    Width series, 560
    Wileman, J., 415n, 416
    Wire and sheet-metal gauges,
    1031-1032
    Wire diameter, 500
    Wire rope, 896-904
    bearing pressure, 899-900
    factors of safety, 898-899
    failure, 897
    fatigue diagram, 899-900
    materials, 897
    nine-hoist problem, 901-902
    properties, 901
    service-life curve, 901
    static load, 898
    strength loss, 898
    types, 896
    Wire springs, 500
    Wirsching, P. H., 284n
    Wolford, J. C., 517n
    Woodruff key, 380, 381
    Worm face width, 792
    Worm gears, 655, 675-676, 789-801.
    See also Gears
    AGMA strength/durability equations,
    789-792
    Buckingham wear load, 800-801
    designing the mesh, 797—800
    force analysis, 694-697
    gear teeth, 798
    Index 1055
    mechanical efficiency, 793
    single-enveloping/double-enveloping
    Scismoso Mole
    tooth system, 678
    Worm outside diameter, 791
    Worm root diameter, 791
    Worm-gear face width, 792
    Worm-gear root diameter, 792
    Worm-gear throat diameter, 791
    Woven fabric composite, 56
    Woven-asbestos lining, 843
    Woven-cotton lining, 843
    Wrought alloys, 51
    Y
    Yellow brass, 53
    Yield (Langer) line, 297-300
    Yield point, 29
    Yield strength, 29
    Young, W. C., 97n
    Young, Warren C., 147n
    Young’s modulus, 29, 56, 59-62, 83,
    387, 415, 876
    Z
    Zerol bevel gear, 766
    Zienkiewicz, O. C., 953n
    Zimmerli

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