Rubber Seals for Fluid and Hydraulic Systems

Rubber Seals for Fluid and Hydraulic Systems
اسم المؤلف
Chellappa Chandsekaran
التاريخ
19 مايو 2023
المشاهدات
339
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Rubber Seals for Fluid and Hydraulic Systems
Chellappa Chandsekaran
Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Rubber Properties for seal functional requirements
  3. Seals for Radioactive media – Nuclear plants
  4. Airborne Rubber seals
  5. Rubber seals for oil field service
  6. Rubbers chemical and compounding for ‘O’ rings & seals
  7. Rubber expansion Joints
  8. Swelling Aspects of Rubber related to seal performance
  9. Rubber to Metal bonding
  10. Manufacture of seals & ‘O’ rings
  11. Storage and service life of rubber seals
    x
    2,2-dichloro-l,l,l-trifluoroethane
    (HCFC-123), 65
    A
    Abrasion, 133–4
    Acrylate elastomers
    advantages and limitations, 87
    Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber
    (NBR), 60–1
    Adhesive-metal failure, 100
    Adhesive-primer coat failure, 101
    Airborne rubber seals, 37
    design of, 43–4
    hydraulic systems, in aircraft, 40
    molds and parting lines,
    design of, 41–3
    sealing materials, 40–1
    Aircraft fluid seal, 37, 40
    Angular deflection, 76
    Angular rotation, 76
    Antidegradants, 59, 69
    Anti-extrusion rings, 14, 15
    Antioxidants, 69
    Atomic electrical stations
    (AES), 34
    Autotransmission cable
    seals, 66–7
    Axial compression/extension, 76
    B
    Becquerel equals, 25
    Blends of rubber, 58
    masterbatches, 58
    rubber, choice of, 58
    acrylonitrile butadiene
    rubber, 60–1
    bromobutyl rubbers, 62
    butyl rubbers, 61–2
    chlorobutyl rubbers, 62
    chloroprene rubber, 69–70
    EPDM rubbers, 63–4
    ethylene acrylic rubber, 67–8
    fluorocarbon rubbers, 64–7
    halobutyl rubbers, 62
    isobutylene–isoprene
    rubbers, 61–2
    natural rubber, 58–9
    polybutadiene rubber, 60
    pre-cross-linked butyl
    rubber, 63
    reclaimed rubber, 70
    silicone rubber, 68–9
    styrene butadiene rubber, 59
    Blistering, 2, 48
    British Nuclear Group Sellafield
    Limited (BNGSL), 71
    Brittle point, 131–2
    Brominated butyl compound, 117
    ‘O’ ring compound, 117–18
    rotary seal compound, 117–18
    Bromobutyl rubber (BIIR), 62
    Butadiene acrylonitrile
    compounds, 112
    ‘O’ ring compound, 112–14
    rotary seal compound, 112–14
    Butadiene acrylonitrile/polyvinyl
    chloride blend, 123
    ‘O’ ring compound, 123–4
    rotary seal compound, 123–4
    Butadiene rubber, 57
    Butyl rubber, 57, 61–2
    advantages and limitations, 89
    C
    Calcium stearate, 62
    Carcass/body, 77
    Chemical compatibility, 2, 9
    Chemical properties, 135
    Chlorinated polyethylene
    advantages and limitations, 88
    Chlorinated rubber, 96
    Chlorobutyl rubbers (CIIR), 62
    Chloroprene compounds, 114
    ‘O’ ring compound, 116–17
    rotary seal compound, 114–16
    Chloroprene rubber (CR), 57,
    69–70
    Chlorosulfonated polyethylene
    compounds, 121–2
    ‘O’ ring compound, 122
    rotary seal compound, 121–2
    Completion fluid, 45
    Compression set, 7, 41, 136
    Creep, 132–3
    Creep behavior of metal, 8
    Cross-link density, 48, 50
    versus vulcanizate
    properties, 49
    Cross-linking of rubbers,
    27–9, 48
    Crystallization, 131–2
    Curie, 25
    D
    ‘Diesel effect’, 99
    Double arch expansion joint, 73
    E
    Elasticity of rubber, 7, 11–12,
    129–30
    Elastomer, 4
    bondability index of, 96
    Ethylene acrylate elastomers
    advantages and limitations, 87
    Ethylene acrylic rubber, 67–8
    Ethylene–propylene copolymer
    (EPM), 64
    145Ethylene–propylene terpolymer
    (EPDM), 63–4
    advantages and limitations, 89
    Explosive decompression,
    48, 49
    F
    Fabric reinforced inflatable seals,
    29–33
    Failure mode and effects analysis
    (FMEA), 137–8
    Feed clarification cell, 71
    Fillers, 47, 48, 49, 128
    Fluid leaks, 1
    and seal failures, 2–5
    Fluid resistance, of rubber sealing,
    11–12, 51
    Fluid sealing technology, 5
    Fluid types, in oil field service,
    51–3
    Fluids effects, on rubber, 132
    Fluorocarbon elastomers
    advantages and limitations, 89
    Fluorocarbon rubber compounds,
    41, 64–7, 125
    ‘O’ ring compound, 126
    rotary seal compound, 126–7
    Fluororubbers, see Fluorocarbon
    rubber compounds
    Friction of rubber, 133–4
    G
    Garter springs, 18, 19
    Gaskets, 37, 38
    Glass transition temperature, of
    various rubbers, 10–11, 90
    Gray, 23, 24
    H
    Halobutyl rubbers, 62
    HCFC-123, 65
    High temperature behavior, of
    rubber seals, 11
    Hildebrand solubility
    parameter, 12
    Hydraulic systems, in aircraft,
    37, 40
    Hypalon rubbers
    advantages and limitations, 87
    Hysteresis, 8, 133, 134
    I
    Incompressibility of rubbers, 12
    Inflatable seals
    fabric reinforced inflatable seals,
    29–33
    non-reinforced inflatable seals,
    33
    operation and capabilities, 34
    Irradiation vulcanization, 29
    Isobutylene–isoprene (butyl
    rubber) compounds, 117
    ‘O’ ring compound, 117
    rotary seal compound, 117
    Isobutylene–Isoprene Rubbers
    (IIR), 61–2
    J
    Japan, nuclear power generation
    in, 29
    Japan Atomic Energy Agency
    (JAEA), 27
    Joule’s effect, 16
    L
    Labyrinth seal, 75
    Light aging, 136
    Low temperature behavior, of
    rubber seals, 10–11
    M
    Magnesium oxide, 62
    Masterbatches, 58
    Mechanical engineers, 3–4
    Mechanical seals, 21–2
    Metal bonding, rubber to, 95
    bonding agents, 96
    compounding of rubber, 99–100
    factors, 97
    process, 97
    bonding agents, application
    of, 98
    mold design, 99
    rubber molding, 98–9
    substrate cleaning, 97–8
    rejections, 100–1
    Metal bonded oil seals,
    manufacture of, 104–5
    Mold design, 99
    Molds and parting lines, design of,
    41–3
    M/s Dupont USA, 67
    M/s Hayakawa Rubber Co Ltd,
    26–7
    N
    Natural rubber (NR), 10, 57, 58–9
    advantages and limitations, 89
    Natural rubber compounds, 109
    ‘O’ ring compound, 110
    rotary seal compound, 109–10
    Neoprene-based adhesive
    solution, 77
    Neoprene rubbers
    advantages and limitations, 86
    Neoprenes, see Chloroprene
    rubber
    The New York Times, 25
    Nitrile rubber, 57
    advantages and limitations, 86
    Nitrite rubber, 60
    Non-oil-resistant elastomers, 81
    Non-reinforced inflatable seals, 33
    Nuclear plants, 23
    cross-linking by radiation,
    chemical mechanism
    of, 27–9
    fabric reinforced inflatable seals,
    29–33
    inflatable seal operation and
    capabilities, 34
    non-reinforcedinflatableseals, 33
    pump assemblies, seals in, 34–5
    radiation units, 23
    gama irradiation dosage units,
    24–5
    radioactive source, activity of,
    25
    radiation-resistant rubber seals,
    26–7
    rubber seal failures in, 25–6
    O
    Oil field service, rubber seals
    for, 45
    completion fluid, 45
    explosive decompression, 48, 49
    fluid types in, 51–3
    increased molecular weight,
    effect of, 48, 50
    physical property trends, 53–4
    Index
    146stimulation fluid, 46–7
    stretching crystallization, 50–1
    well fluid, 45
    Oil-resistant elastomers, 81
    Oil-resistant synthetic rubbers
    and polymerization type, 92
    Oxygen, 11, 85
    attack, 135
    Oil seals, 18–20
    Ozone attack, 136
    ‘O’rings, 7, 12–13, 37–8
    compounds design for, 57
    cross-section, 14–15
    for rotary sealing application,
    16–18
    precautions, handling, 138–9
    reciprocating applications, 13–14
    static application, 13
    ‘O’ rings, manufacture of, 103
    blank preparation, 107–8
    filler effects, on permeability of
    rubbers, 128
    fluid seal rubber formulations,
    109
    brominated butyl compound,
    117–18
    butadiene acrylonitrile
    compounds, 112–14
    butadiene acrylonitrile/
    polyvinyl chloride blend,
    123–4
    chloroprene compounds,
    114–17
    chlorosulfonated polyethylene
    compounds, 121–2
    fluorocarbon rubber
    compounds, 125–7
    isobutylene–isoprene (butyl
    rubber) compounds, 117
    natural rubber compounds,
    109–10
    poly-acrylic ester compounds,
    119
    polysulfide rubber compounds,
    120–1
    polyurethane compounds,
    124–5
    silicone rubber compounds,
    118–19
    styrene butadiene compounds,
    110–11
    seal molding shop productivity,
    106–7
    static seals against gases, 127–8
    trimming/deflashing, 108–9
    P
    Packings, 37
    Permanent set, 8
    Peroxide vulcanization, 62
    Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resins,
    60, 96
    Phenolic resins, 60
    Poly-acrylic ester compounds, 119
    Polybutadiene rubber (BR), 60
    advantages and limitations, 90
    Polyisocyanates, 96
    Polyisoprene rubber
    advantages and limitations, 90
    Polysulfide rubber compounds,
    41, 120
    ‘O’ ring compound, 120–1
    rotary seal compound, 120–1
    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 97
    Polyurethane compounds,
    124–5
    advantages and limitations, 88
    ‘O’ ring compound, 125
    rotary seal compound, 124–5
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 60–1
    PPA (polypropylene adipate), 112
    Pre-cross-linked butyl rubber, 63
    Properties of rubber, for seal
    functional requirements,
    7–10
    fluid resistance, 11–12
    high temperature behavior, 11
    incompressibility, 12
    low temperature behavior, 10–11
    mechanical seals, 21–2
    oil seals, 18–20
    ‘O’rings, 12–18
    sealing lip design, 20
    stretching, 11
    Pump assemblies in nuclear
    plants, seals in, 34–5
    R
    Rad, 24
    Radiation, cross-linking by
    chemical mechanism of, 27–9
    Radiation units, 23–5
    Radiation-resistant rubber seals,
    26–7
    Rated movements, 78
    Reclaimed rubber, 70
    Reinforcing fillers, 59, 60
    Rem (radiation equivalent man), 24
    Roentgen, 23
    Rotary seal compound
    brominated butyl compound,
    117–18
    butadiene acrylonitrile
    compounds 112–14
    butadiene acrylonitrile/polyvinyl
    chloride blend, 123–4
    chloroprene compounds,
    114–16
    chlorosulfonated polyethylene
    compounds, 121–2
    fluorocarbon rubber compounds,
    125–7
    isobutylene–isoprene (butyl
    rubber) compounds, 117
    natural rubber compounds,
    109–10
    poly-acrylic ester compounds,
    119
    polysulfide rubber compounds,
    120–1
    polyurethane compounds, 124–5
    silicone rubber compounds,
    118–19
    styrene butadiene compounds,
    110–11
    Rotary shaft seals, 29
    Rubber expansion joints, 71, 74
    advantages, 75–6
    in chemical process industry, 73
    constructional features, 76–8
    expansion and compression
    strains, 76
    in food and beverages
    industry, 73
    in heating and air conditioning
    systems, 74
    in hydrocarbon process
    industry, 74
    manufacture of, 78–9
    multiple bellows in industrial
    plants, 74
    Rubber failure, 101
    Index
    147Rubber molding, 98–9
    Rubber-/top coat failure, 101
    S
    Sealing lip design, 20
    Sealing materials, 40–1
    Seals of rubber, storage and
    service life, 129
    abrasion, 133–4
    brittle point, 131–2
    chemical properties, 135
    compression set, 136
    creep, 132–3
    crystallization, 131–2
    failure mode and effects analysis,
    137–8
    fluids effects, 132
    friction, 133–4
    hysteresis, 133
    light aging, 136
    ‘O’ rings, handling precautions,
    138–9
    oxygen attack, 135
    ozone attack, 136
    rubber elasticity, 129–30
    second order transition, 131–2
    storage specification, 137
    stress relaxation, 132–3
    tearing, 133–4
    thermal effects, 134–5
    vulcanization, 130
    water resistance, 136
    Second order transition, 131–2
    Shape factor effects, 12
    Side-chain group versus oil
    resistance, 91–2
    Sievert, 24, 25
    Silicone rubber compounds, 68–9,
    118–19
    advantages and limitations, 88
    ‘O’ ring compound, 118–19
    rotary seal compound, 118–19
    Silicones, 41
    Single arch expansion joint, 72
    Society of Automotive Engineers’
    (SAE) straight thread, 2–3
    Solubility parameters, 12
    for common rubbers, 91
    for some common solvents, 91
    Squeeze type seals, 7
    Stimulation fluid, 46–7
    Storage specification, 137
    Strain, under swelling, 83–4
    Strain crystallization, see
    Stretching crystallization
    Stress decay, 8
    Stress relaxation, 8, 132–3
    Stretching, 11
    Stretching crystallization
    of elastomers, 51
    of rubbers, 50–1
    Styrene butadiene compounds,
    110
    ‘O’ ring compound, 111
    rotary seal compound, 110–11
    Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR),
    57, 59
    advantages and limitations, 90
    Substrate cleaning, 97–8
    Swelling aspects of rubber, to seal
    performance, 81
    side-chain group versus oil
    resistance, 91–2
    under strain, 83–4
    structures versus oil, 92
    temperature effects, 85–6
    tests, 84–5
    by various solvents, 92
    volume change, 82–3
    Synthetic elastomers, 81–2
    Synthetic rubbers, 57, 58
    T
    Tearing of rubber, 133–4
    Temperature effects, on rubber
    seal, 85–6
    Thermal effects, on rubber seal,
    134–5
    Thermal Oxide Reprocessing
    Plant (THORP), 71
    Transverse deflection, 76
    Trichloroethylene, 104
    V
    Vamac, 67
    Van der Waals’ forces, 129
    Vibration fatigue, 1
    Viton, 41, 126
    Volume change, in rubber
    swelling, 82–3
    Vulcanization, 27–9, 130
    W
    Water, resistance to, 136
    Well fluid, 45
    Z
    Zinc diethyl dithiocarbomate
    (ZDC) accelerator, 62
    Zinc oxide, 62

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