Polyvinyl Fluoride – Technology and Applications of PVF

Polyvinyl Fluoride – Technology and Applications of PVF
اسم المؤلف
Sina Ebnesajjad
التاريخ
20 مايو 2023
المشاهدات
245
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
Loading...

Polyvinyl Fluoride – Technology and Applications of PVF
Sina Ebnesajjad, PhD
President Fluoro Consultants Group, LLC
Table of Contents
Preface

  1. Introduction and History
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Fluorine: A Unique Element
    1.3 Polyvinyl Fluoride
    References
  2. Production and Market Statistics
    2.1 Applications of PVF
    2.2 Capacity Expansion
    2.3 Film Types
    References
  3. Preparation and Properties of Vinyl Fluoride
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Synthesis of Vinyl Fluoride
    3.3 Commercial Manufacturing of Vinyl Fluoride
    3.4 Properties of Vinyl Fluoride
    3.5 Applications of Vinyl Fluoride
    References
  4. Polymerization and Finishing Polyvinyl Fluoride
    4.1 Background
    4.2 Suspension Polymerization
    4.3 Bulk Polymerization
    4.4 Emulsion Polymerization
    4.5 Radiation-Induced Polymerization
    4.6 Graft Polymerization
    4.7 Vinyl Fluoride Polymerization Development
    4.8 Continuous Polymerization
    4.9 Effect of Polymerization Variables
    References
    Further Reading
  5. Manufacturing of Oriented Polyvinyl Fluoride Film
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 PVF Dispersion in Latent Solvent
    5.3 Film Extrusion
    5.4 Extrusion and Orientation of Polyvinyl Fluoride Films
    5.5 Commercial Processes
    References
  6. Manufacturing of Unoriented Polyvinyl Fluoride Films and Coatings
    6.1 Cast Film Technology
    6.2 Unoriented PVF Films
    6.3 Preparation of Unoriented PVF Films
    6.4 Manufacturing Process
    References
  7. Properties of Commercial Polyvinyl Fluoride Films
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Polymer Properties
    7.3 Characteristics of Commercial PVF Films
    7.4 Chemical Properties
    7.5 Optical Properties
    7.6 Thermal Properties
    7.7 Electrical Properties
    7.8 Weathering Performance
    7.9 Description of Available Product and Properties of Unoriented PVF Films
    7.10 Effect of Radiation
    7.11 NMR Spectrum of Polyvinyl Fluoride
    References
  8. Surface Treatment of Polyvinyl Fluoride Films and Coatings
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Chemical Treatment Method
    8.3 Corona Treatment
    8.4 Plasma Treatment
    8.5 Atmospheric Plasma Treatment
    8.6 Flame Treatment
    References
  9. Adhesive Coating and Lamination of Polyvinyl Fluoride Films
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Priming the PVF Film Surface
    9.3 Polyvinyl Fluoride Adhesives
    9.4 Liquid Adhesive Characteristics
    9.5 Commercial Liquid Adhesives
    9.6 Lamination of PVF Films
    9.7 Film and Shrinkage
    9.8 Continuous Lamination of Fiberglass Panels
    9.9 Painting and Repair of PVF Film Surfaced FRP
    9.10 Lamination of Tedlar® SP Polyvinyl Fluoride Films
    References
  10. Thermoforming of Polyvinyl Fluoride Films and Laminates
    10.1 Description of Thermoforming Process
    10.2 Formability of Oriented Polyvinyl Fluoride Films
    10.3 Thermoforming Unoriented (SP) Polyvinyl Fluoride Films
    References
  11. Release Film Applications
    11.1 Release Film Types and Applications
    11.2 Manufacturing Printed Circuit Boards
    References
  12. Aerospace Applications
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Insulation Bags
    12.3 Interior Panels
    12.4 Improvements of the Flammability Resistance of Aircraft Interiors
    12.5 Ohio State University Heat Release Test
    References
  13. Construction Applications
    13.1 Comparative Architectural Study
    13.2 Vinyl Wall Covering Clad with Tedlar® SP PVF Film
    13.3 Flexible Signs and Awning
    13.4 PVF Clad Plastic Films and Sheets
    References
  14. Polyvinyl Fluoride Films for Photovoltaic Modules
    14.1 History of Tedlar® PVF before Photovoltaic Modules
    14.2 Conversion of Solar Energy into Electricity
    14.3 Introduction to Solar Cells
    14.4 Tedlar® Usage in PV Modules in the 1980s
    14.5 Three Most Common PV Backsheets Made with Tedlar® Film
    14.6 Allocation of Tedlar® Film and the Development of Alternate Backsheets
    14.7 Status of Tedlar® PVF Film
    References
  15. Other Applications
    15.1 Transit Vehicle Interiors
    15.2 Passenger Train Interiors
    15.3 Gas Sampling Bags
    15.4 Transfer Print
    References
  16. Safety, Disposal, and Recycling of Vinyl Fluoride and Polyvinyl Fluoride
    16.1 Vinyl Fluoride Health and Exposure
    16.2 Flammability of Vinyl Fluoride
    16.3 Environmental Fate of Vinyl Fluoride
    16.4 Polyvinyl Fluoride Products
    References
    Appendix I
    Appendix II
    Index
    Index
    Note: Page numbers followed by “f ” and “t” refer to figures and tables, respectively.
    A
    Abrasion resistance, of PVF films, 189
    Accelerated weathering, 180
    test methodology, 298
    test results, 299300
    color change, 300
    gloss change, 300
    thickness change, 299300
    Acetylene, 37
    Acrylic topcoat, 296297
    Acrylics, 216217, 216t, 235
    Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), 254
    Adhesion bond strength
    oxygen plasmajet on, 200t
    and surface composition of PVF, 196t, 205t
    Adhesive coating, of PVF films
    adhesives, for bonding surface-treated PVF
    films, 215, 216t
    commercial liquid adhesives, 218220
    storage and handling, 220
    liquid adhesive characteristics, 216217
    priming, PVF film surface, 214215
    Adhesive types, 306
    Aerospace applications, of PVF
    aircraft interiors flammability resistance,
    284292
    aircraft cabin materials, 285288
    materials fire safety needs for future aircraft,
    289292
    insulation bags, 277279
    interior panels, 280283
    decorative laminates, 282283
    Ohio State University heat release
    test, 292
    Agricola, Georgius, 7
    Aircraft interiors
    cabin fires, 285
    inflight fires, 285
    post-crash fire accidents, 285
    ramp fires, 285
    cabin materials, 285288, 286t
    fire hazards of, 288289
    flammability resistance, improvements of,
    284292
    laminate, 254f
    materials fire safety needs for future aircraft,
    289292
    schematic diagram of, 277f
    wall construction of, 280f, 281f
    Airplane passenger cabin interior materials, smoke
    test for, 362f
    Aldines, 204206
    Alodines, 204206
    Aluminum, 254
    lamination of PVF films to, 226227
    adhesive mixing and application, 226
    lamination, 226
    quality control procedure, 227
    Aluminum-alloy epoxy joints performance, on
    surface pretreatment effect, 223f
    Aluminum fluoride nona-hydrate, 34
    Aluminum honeycomb, 280281
    American Conference of Governmental Industrial
    Hygienists (ACGIH), 341
    Applications, of PVF, 2021
    in construction, 21
    for outdoor vinyl fabrics, 21
    in photovoltaics, 20
    release film, 21
    in transportation, 2021
    Aprotic reaction medium, 35
    Aramid honeycombs, 280281
    A-Si (amorphous silicon), 102
    Atmospheric plasma treatment (APT), 199202
    Azo initiators, 5455
    2,2’-Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN),
    decomposition of, 5556, 56f
    B
    Backsheet construction, of PVF
    TPE, 325
    TP with primer, 325
    Basic attributes of PVF, 9t
    Beilstein Registry Number, 25
    Belt film casting process, 142f
    Benzoyl peroxide, 238
    decomposition of, 5556, 55f
    Biaxial laboratory stretcher, 66f
    Biaxial orientation, of PVF films,
    124125, 131f
    commercial processes, 138139
    drying of, 134t
    properties of, 135t
    Boeing 727, with PVF interiors, 275
    Boiling test, for PVF film
    to aluminum, 227
    379Boiling test, for PVF film (Continued)
    to galvanized steel, 231
    Bulk laminate manufacturing, 267
    Bulk polymerization, 50
    C
    Cabin escape time, 275276
    Cabin fires, in aircraft, 285
    inflight fires, 285
    post-crash fire accidents, 285
    ramp fires, 285
    Capacity expansion, of PVF, 22
    Cast film technology, 141144
    Casting die, of PVF film, 122
    Cellulosic substrates, lamination of PVF films to,
    227229
    adhesive mixing and application, 227228
    approximate adhesive requirements, 229
    board preparation, 227
    heating adhesive, 228
    lamination, 228229
    quality control procedure, 229
    Centaris, 241245
    Chamber cleaning, for airplane cabin material
    smoke test, 373f
    chamber walls, 373f
    optical system windows, 373f
    specimen holders, 373f
    viewing window, 373f
    Char, 278279
    Characteristics, of commercial PVF films,
    157160
    Chemical properties, of commercial PVF films,
    160
    Chemical resistance, of PVF, 167t
    Chemical treatment method, 195197
    Chlorinated polyvinyl fluoride (cPVF), 215
    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 56
    Chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), 91, 99102
    Christoph, F. J., 38
    CIGS (copper-indium-gallium-selenide), 102
    Cleanability, of vinyl-based wall covering
    material, 302
    Clear release film, 318
    Coater, 149
    Coefficients of friction, of commercial olefinic
    fluoropolymers, 12t
    Color matches, for PVF films, 245t
    Commercial oriented PVF films, 138139
    Commercial PVF films
    characteristics of, 157160
    chemical properties of, 153t, 160
    chemical resistance of, 167t
    electrical properties of, 153t, 173179
    piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties,
    173179
    formulations of, 343
    general properties of, 153t
    hydrolytic stability of, 170f
    microstructure in, 48f
    NMR spectrum of, 191
    optical properties of, 160171
    physical properties of, 153t
    polymer properties of, 152157
    conformations and transitions, 152157
    spectral transmission of, 171f
    stain resistance of, 170t
    thermal properties of, 153t, 171172
    unoriented PVF films, properties of, 185189
    abrasion resistance, 189
    adhesion, 189
    chemical properties, 185
    cleaning, ease of
    electrical properties, 186
    formability, 188
    optical and spectral properties, 186187
    physical/thermal properties, 185
    radiation, effect of, 189190
    surface aesthetics, 188189
    weather resistance, 188
    weathering performance, 180185
    Commercial Tedlars film, electrical properties of,
    178t
    Comparative architectural study, of PVF,
    296302
    accelerated weathering test results, 299300
    color change, 300
    gloss change, 300
    thickness change, 299300
    natural weathering test results, 300
    test methodologies, 298299
    accelerated weathering, 298
    materials tested and measurements recorded,
    298299
    natural weathering, 298
    top finishes, for vinyl-coated fabric, 296297
    Construction applications, 21
    comparative architectural study, 296302
    accelerated weathering test results, 299300
    natural weathering test results, 300
    test methodologies, 298299
    top finishes, for vinylcoated fabric, 296297
    flexible signs and awning, 307315
    application of, 309311
    cleaning laminates surfaced with PVF film,
    314315
    construction of vinyl fabrics, 307315
    design criteria, 311314
    PVF clad plastic films and sheets, 315316
    vinyl wall covering clad with Tedlars SP PVF
    film, 302307
    adhesive types, 306
    cleanability, 302
    compliance, 304305
    380 INDEXflammability, 304
    laminating, 306
    laminating Tedlars SP PVF film to, 305
    mold, mildew, and bacteria, 305
    quality control, 306307
    specification guidelines for, 305
    stain removal, 302303
    vinyl wall covering, 306
    Consumption, of HFC-152a, 20t
    Continuous lamination, of fiberglass panels,
    236241
    evaluation, 240241
    materials, 238240
    Conversion efficiency, 320321
    Core, 272, 280281, 281f
    Corlars, 241245
    Corona treatment, 197199
    configurations of, 198f
    schematic diagram of, 197f
    “Critical solvent content” 132133
    Cross, 120
    Cross-linking, of polymer chains, 199
    Cryolith, 35
    CTS (cadmium-tellurium-sulfide), 102
    Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP), 238
    Current, in solar cell, 321
    Curtain coating, for PVF film lamination, 225,
    225f
    Cymels, 99
    D
    Decorative PVF laminates
    in air planes, 282283
    Development, of PVF, 1015
    Dielectric constant versus frequency at various
    temperatures, 176f, 177f
    Diethylaminosulphur trifluoride (DAST), 5
    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), 84
    Diisopropyl peroxydicarbonate, 4950
    2,2’-diguanyl-2,2’-azopropane (DGA), 5658
    Dimethyl acetamide, 342343
    N,N-Dimethylacetamide, 336337
    N,N-Dimethyl formamide, 74
    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 6466, 106108
    Direct reaction, of acetylene and hydrofluoric
    acid, 32t
    Dispersion viscosities, 84
    Disposal and recycling
    of PVF, 344345
    of vinyl fluoride, 344345
    Doctor blade (knife on) roller coating process,
    144f
    Downstack lamination, 248f
    Drilling, 270
    Dry coating, in unoriented PVF films, 145
    DuPont, 810, 19, 22, 39, 149, 226, 318,
    321322, 325327, 337
    liquid acrylic adhesives, characteristics
    of, 218t
    unoriented PVF films, 144145
    DuPont Prep-Sols, 241
    DuPont Tedlars PVF film,
    E
    EconoGrabt, 335f, 336f
    Einstein, Albert, 318
    Electrical applications, PVF films for, 268
    Electrical properties, of PVF, 173179
    Electrolytic fluorine-generating cell, 8f
    Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis
    (ESCA), 85, 8788, 194195
    Emulsion polymerization, 5051
    Epons, 136, 227
    Epoxy, 216t, 235
    Etching, 195
    Extrudate, 121
    Extruded PVF films, 330
    Extruder, 121122
    Extrusion, 121
    of continuous PVF film, 127f
    of PVF films, 126138, 129t
    F
    Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), 334
    Fiberglass panels, continuous lamination of,
    236241
    evaluation, 240241
    materials, 238240
    Fiber glass reinforced polyester (FRP), 2021,
    254
    continuous lamination of PVF film to, 242t
    panel evaluation, 240241
    panel temperature profile, 237f
    process, 237f
    PVF film surfaced
    painting and repair of, 241245
    Fibrillation, 131132
    Film and shrinkage, 236
    Film extrusion, 120125
    biaxial orientation, 124125, 131f
    casting die, 122
    commercial processes, 138139
    extruder, 121122
    quench, 122124
    Film integrity test
    for PVF film to vinyl wall
    covering, 234
    of vinyl-based wall covering, 307
    Film surface tension, 84
    Film types, of PVF, 2223
    Final Kleant, 241
    Fineness of grind, 119
    Flame treatment, 202210
    INDEX 381Flame treatment (Continued)
    and adhesion testing, of PVF films, 208t, 209t,
    210t
    Flashover time, 275276
    Flat die see Casting die, of PVF film
    Flexible signs and awning, 307315
    application of, 309311
    cleaning laminates surfaced with PVF film,
    314315
    construction of vinyl fabrics, 307315
    design criteria, 311314
    PVF clad plastic films and sheets, 315316
    Flexible web, 142143
    Fluoride, 35
    Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), 171,
    335336
    Fluorine, 5
    basic facts of, 6t
    characteristics of, 35
    content, of polymers, 3t
    fluorination, 56
    preparation of, 7
    reactivity, 67
    unique element, 17
    Fluorine-to-carbon ratio (F/C),
    of PVF, 204
    Fluoroethene, 25
    Fluoropolymer-coated films, 102
    Fluoropolymers, 339
    Fluorspar, 35
    Fremy, Edmond, 7
    Freons12, 26
    Fuel equivalence ratio, 204
    G
    Galvanized steel, lamination of PVF films to,
    229231
    adhesive mixing and application, 230
    lamination, 230231
    materials, 230
    quality control procedure, 231
    slitting of laminate, 231
    Gas-phase polymerization, 51
    Gas sampling bags, 335337
    heat-sealing PVF film, 337
    Glossy pigmented film, 318
    Glow discharge see Atmospheric plasma treatment
    (APT)
    Glycidyl acrylate, 218f
    Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), 7478, 218f
    Graft polymerization, 5152
    Gravure coating, 225226, 225f
    H
    Half-life, definition of, 5455, 55t
    Halogen, 12
    Halons, 291
    Hastaloys, 8891
    Haze measurements, 84
    Heat flux, 289, 348f
    Heat of fusion, of polymer, 84
    Heat release, 348f
    Heat release rate test, for cabin materials, 292,
    348f
    air distribution system, 351f
    calibration, 356f
    burner, 356f
    gas, 356f
    gas manifold, 356f
    procedure, 356f
    wet test meter, 356f
    conditioning, 355f
    exhaust stack, 351f
    heat flux sensor, 352f
    pilot burners, 354f
    lower pilot burner, 354f
    upper pilot burner, 354f
    radiant heat source, 348f
    release rate apparatus, 348f, 349f, 350f
    report, 358f
    requirements, 358f
    specimen holders, 352f
    drip pan, 352f
    specimen mounting, 355f
    specimen number, 355f
    specimen orientation, 355f
    specimen size, 355f
    test procedure, 357f
    thermopile, 348f, 351f
    Heat-sealing PVF film, 337
    Hexafluoropropylene (HFP), 7478, 81, 91
    High dielectric strength, of PVF films, 173
    History, of PVF, 10
    “Hopper” 127128
    Hydrofluoric acid, 27, 32t
    Hydrogen chloride, 37
    Hydrolytic stability, of PVF, 170f
    I
    Imrons, 241245
    Inflight fires, 285
    Inherent viscosity, 74, 127
    Initial peel test, for PVF film
    to cellulosic substrates, 229
    Insulation bags
    in air planes, 277279
    Interior panels
    in air planes, 280283
    decorative laminates, 282283
    International Agency for Research on Cancer
    (IARC), 340341
    Invention, of PVF, 10
    382 INDEXK
    Kaptons, 11, 143
    Kraft paper, 271
    Kydexs, 334335
    L
    Lamination of PVF films, 220235, 270
    to aluminum, 226227
    adhesive mixing and application, 226
    lamination, 226
    quality control procedure, 227
    to cellulosic substrates, 227229
    adhesive mixing and application, 227228
    approximate adhesive requirements, 229
    board preparation, 227
    heating adhesive, 228
    lamination, 228229
    quality control procedure, 229
    coating techniques, 222226
    curtain coating, 225
    gravure coating, 225226
    reverse roll coating, 223
    wire-wound rod, 223224
    to galvanized steel, 229231
    adhesive mixing and application, 230
    lamination, 230231
    materials, 230
    quality control procedure, 231
    slitting of laminate, 231
    to PVC for outdoor applications, 231232
    adhesive application, 232
    lamination, 232
    materials, 231232
    solar collector assembly with PVF film, 235
    adhesives and mounting, 235
    surface preparation of metals, 221222
    to thermoplastic sheet, 232233
    adhesive application, 232233
    lamination, 233
    materials, 232
    quality control procedure, 233
    to vinyl wall covering, 233234
    film types, 234
    laminating, 234
    quality control procedure, 234
    vinyl wall covering, 234
    Lamination of Tedlars SP PVF films, 246248
    in-process shrinkage of Tedlars SP PVF film,
    247248
    web tears and web condition, 247
    web tension settings, 246247
    Latent solvents, of PVF, 119120
    drying of, 133f
    Lexans, 315, 315t
    Limiting oxygen index, of PVF film, 278
    d-Limonene, chemical structure of, 40f
    Low-gloss pigmented film, 318
    M
    Machine direction, 120
    Manufacturing, of oriented PVF film
    commercial processes, 138139
    extrusion and orientation of PVF films,
    126138, 129t
    film extrusion, 120125
    biaxial orientation, 124125, 131f
    casting die, 122
    extruder, 121122
    quench, 122124
    latent solvents, of PVF, 119120
    Matched die thermoforming, 252f
    Material safety data sheet (MSDS), 339
    Melting points, measurement of, 84
    Melt viscosity, 84
    Metal substrate surface preparation effect, in
    adhesive bonded joints, 221t
    Methacrylate copolymer, 217f
    Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), 219220
    Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) peroxide, 238
    Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) peroxide, 238
    Meyer rod coating process, 145f
    Modified acrylic, 216t
    Moissan, Henri, 7
    reactions, for fluorine synthesis, 8f
    Molded parts, PVF films for, 268
    Monocrystalline silicon solar panel, 320, 321f
    Monomer characteristics of commercial olefinic
    fluoropolymers, 4t
    Multilayer unoriented PVF film
    structure of, 146f
    Mylars, 11
    N
    National Bureau of Standards (NBS), 282283
    Natural weathering, 298
    materials tested and measurements recorded,
    298299
    test results, 300
    Neoprene (chloroprene) foam, 288
    N-methyl pyrrolidone, 99, 147
    NMR spectrum, of PVF, 191
    Nomexs, 188, 218219, 281f, 282f
    Nucleation
    and polymerization time, 64t
    and vinyl fluoride polymerization trials, 65t
    Nylon, 279
    O
    Ohio State University heat release test, 292
    Olefinic fluoropolymers, 3
    On line formability test, for PVF film to
    aluminum, 227
    Optical and electrical characteristics, of solar
    cells, 320321
    INDEX 383Optical properties, of commercial PVF films,
    160171
    Opulents, 265267
    Oriented PVF films, 142t
    Outdoor vinyl fabrics, of PVF, 21
    Outdoor weathering effect, on PVF film, 190t
    Overlaminating film, properties of PVF films,
    330t
    Oxygen ratio, 204
    P
    Pacothanes, 265267
    Passenger train interior, 334
    Patterning/etching, 269270
    Peel test, for PVF Film to Thermoplastic Sheet,
    233
    Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA), 335336
    Perfluorobutyl ethylene (PFBE), 81
    Perfluoroethyl vinyl ether (PEVE), 81
    Perfluoroplastic gas sampling bags, 335336
    Periodic calibration procedure, for airplane cabin
    material smoke test, 372f
    chamber leak test, 372f
    furnace, 372f
    photometric system, 372f
    total system, 372f
    Phenolic, 216t
    Photoengraving, 270
    Photometric system, for airplane cabin material
    smoke test, 368f
    alignment fixture, 370f
    light source, 368f
    microphotometer, 370f
    optical filters, 370f
    photomultiplier tube, 370f
    recorder, 371f
    Photovoltaic modules, PVF films for
    history of Tedlars PVF before photovoltaic
    modules, 317318
    PVF backsheet construction
    TPE, 325
    TP with primer, 325
    solar cells, 319321
    material, 320321
    solar panels, construction of, 321
    solar energy into electricity, conversion of,
    318319
    Tedlars
    backsheet construction, TPTTM, 324325
    film and development of alternate
    backsheets, 325327
    PVF film, status of, 327328
    usage in PV modules in 1980s, 321323
    Photovoltaics, of PVF, 20
    Piezoelectric materials
    applications of, 177178
    Piezoelectric properties, of PVF films, 173179
    Pinholing, 307
    Plasma treatment, 199
    Plas-Stickt, 241
    Plastisol, 117118
    Plate scumming, 268
    Plunkett, Roy, 10
    Polar solvent see Latent solvents, of PVF
    Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK), 290291
    Polycarbonate, 254
    Polycrystalline silicon solar cells, 320
    Polyester, 279
    Polyester aluminum (PAE), 336
    Polyester film, 324
    Polyester/isocyanate, 216t
    Polyetherether ketone (PEKK), 257
    Polyethylene (PE), chemical structure
    of, 1, 2f
    Polyethylene Terephthalate Glycol
    (PETG), 257
    Polymer
    composition of, 98t
    properties of, 98t
    Polymer blends, surface analysis of, 89t
    Polymer characteristics of commercial olefinic
    fluoropolymers, 4t
    Polymer composition, 84
    Polymerization and finishing PVF
    bulk polymerization, 50
    continuous polymerization, 102104
    emulsion polymerization, 5051
    graft polymerization, 5152
    polymerization variables, effect of, 104109
    reactivity ratio, 108109
    ZieglerNatta and other catalysts, 106108
    radiation-induced polymerization, 51
    suspension polymerization, 4950
    vinyl fluoride polymerization development,
    52102
    Polymerization variables
    catalysts and initiators, 105
    impurities, 105
    medium, 104
    pressure, 104
    telogen, 105
    temperature, 104
    Polymethylacrylate (PMA), chemical structures
    of, 217f
    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), 216217
    chemical structures of, 217f
    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 143, 175,
    335336
    discovery of, 10
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 11, 175, 257
    for outdoor applications, lamination of PVF
    films to, 231232
    adhesive application, 232
    lamination, 232
    384 INDEXmaterials, 231232
    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 176
    Post-crash fire accidents, 285
    Prep-Sols, 241
    Pressure sensitive, 216t
    Pressure thermoforming, 252f
    Prime-N-Sealt, 245
    Priming, of PVF film surface, 214215
    Printed circuit board (PCB), 14
    manufacturing, 269273
    drilling, 270
    lamination, 270
    mass lamination/rigid multilayers, 273
    multilayer, fabrication of, 271273
    patterning/etching, 269270
    photoengraving, 270
    silk screening, 270
    solder plating/solder resist, 270
    testing, 270271
    PVF films for, 265268
    Process flow diagram, of PVF, 103f
    Production and market statistics, of PVF, 19
    Products, of PVF, 342345
    Propylene, 6162
    and vinyl fluoride, 62t
    Pure vinyl fluoride, chemical and physical
    properties of, 340t
    PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride), 297
    Pyroelectric materials, applications of, 178180
    Pyroelectric properties, of PVF films, 173179
    Q
    Quality control, 306307
    of vinyl-based wall covering, 306
    Quench cast film process, 122124
    QUVs Weathering Tester, 180181
    R
    Radiant heat furnace, for airplane cabin material
    smoke test, 363f
    furnace construction, 363f
    furnace control system, 363f
    heat flux density gauge, 364f
    heating element, 363f
    Radiation-induced polymerization, 51
    Ramp fires, 285
    Rayons, 11
    Reactivity ratio, 108109
    Recycling and disposal, 344345
    of PVF, 344345
    of vinyl fluoride, 344345
    Region-irregularity, 4748
    Regiosequence, 4748
    Regnault, Henri Victor, 26
    Regulation
    of PVF, 344
    of vinyl fluoride, 344
    Relative viscosity, 127
    Release film, of PVF, 21, 272
    physical properties of, 266t
    printed circuit board, manufacturing, 269273
    mass lamination/rigid multilayers, 273
    multilayer, fabrication of, 271273
    types and applications, 265269
    for electrical applications, 268
    molded parts, 268
    precautions, 269
    printed circuit boards, 265268
    in rubber industry, 268
    Replacements, for PVF film, 326t
    Reverse gravure roll coating, 142143
    Reverse roll coating, 144f, 223, 224f
    Roll coating technique, for unoriented PVF films,
    144145
    Rubber industry, PVF films uses in, 268
    S
    Safety
    of PVF, 342345
    of vinyl fluoride, 340341
    Selectfluor, 5
    Separator plate, 271
    Shrinkage test
    for PVF film to vinyl wall covering, 234
    of vinyl-based wall covering, 307
    Silica, 136
    Silicone
    adhesives, 235
    pressure sensitive, 216t
    RTV, 216t
    Silk screening, 270
    Single-screw extruder, 121f
    Smoke and flame
    characteristics of PVF film, 333t
    Smoke test, for airplane passenger cabin interior
    materials
    definitions, 362f
    report, 374f
    requirements, 374f
    scope, 362f
    specimen conditioning, 372f
    supplement, 375f
    test apparatus, 362f
    conditioning chamber, 371f
    electric power, 365f
    exhaust hood, 371f
    manometer, 363f
    photometric system, 368f
    pilot burner, 365f
    pilot burner fuel, 365f
    pressure regulator, 363f
    radiant heat furnace, 363f
    INDEX 385Smoke test, for airplane passenger cabin interior
    materials (Continued)
    radiant heat furnace and specimen holder,
    support for, 367f
    recommended equipment, 375f
    specimen holder, 366f
    test chamber, 362f
    test chamber wall thermocouple, 363f
    test chamber calibration, 372f
    chamber cleaning, 373f
    furnace protection, 372f
    periodic calibration procedure, 372f
    test procedure, 373f
    test specimen selection and preparation, 371f
    specimen number, 371f
    specimen orientation, 371f
    specimen preparation, 371f
    specimen selection, 371f
    specimen size, 371f
    Solar cells, 319321
    material, 320321
    monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon
    solar cells, 320
    optical and electrical characteristics,
    320321
    solar panels, construction of, 321
    Solar collector assembly with PVF film, 235
    adhesives and mounting, 235
    Solar energy into electricity, conversion of,
    318319
    Solder plating/solder resist, 270
    Solution film casting, 141
    Specific optical density, 362f, 374f
    Specimen holder, for airplane cabin material
    smoke test, 366f
    aluminum foil, 367f
    retaining spring, 367f
    specimen backing, 367f
    specimen holder frame, 366f
    Spectral transmission, of PVF, 171f
    Stain removal, 302303
    easy procedures (cloth only,
    wet or dry), 302
    mild procedures (soaps, household detergents),
    302
    moderate procedures (solvents), 303
    for unoriented PVF-coated vinyl wall covering,
    303t
    Stain resistance, of PVF films, 170t
    Stoichiometric combustion reaction, 204
    Surface aesthetics, 188189
    unoriented PVF films for, 185189
    Surface composition, 85
    Surface energy of PVF films, 1112
    Surface treatment of PVF films and coatings
    atmospheric plasma treatment, 199202
    chemical treatment method, 195197
    corona treatment, 197199
    flame treatment, 202210
    plasma treatment, 199
    Surlyns, 218219
    Suspension polymerization, 4950
    Swarts, Fre´de´ric, 26
    Swissair MD-11 jumbo jet, 279280
    Syloids, 87
    T
    Tedlars, 89, 14, 19, 22, 103, 144145, 149,
    157159, 185, 234, 267
    backsheet construction, TPTTM, 324325
    ceiling and stow bins, in air planes, 284f
    film and development of alternate backsheets,
    325327
    formulations of, 343
    history, of PVF before photovoltaic modules,
    317318
    laminating Tedlars SP PVF film to vinyl wall
    covering, 305
    mold, mildew, and bacteria, 305
    oriented grades of, 161t
    PVF film
    films with FDA compliance film, 344t
    formable films, properties of, 256t
    release films, 273t
    status of, 327328
    SP, 330
    SP film, ABS sheet clad with, 261t
    SP formable PVF films film, properties of, 257t
    SP PVF films, lamination of, 246248
    in-process shrinkage of, 247248
    web tears and web condition, 247
    web tension settings, 246247
    transparent grades of, 183
    unoriented grades of, 164t
    usage in PV modules in 1980s, 321323
    Teflons, 297
    Temperature effect
    on mechanical properties of PVF films, 175f
    Tensile properties, of PVF film, 67t
    Tenter frame, 124
    clips, 126f
    process for biaxially oriented film, 125f
    Tenterhooks, 124
    Tentering, 124
    Terpolymer Blends, composition of, 87t
    Teslars, 11, 317318
    Testing, of printed circuit board, 270271
    Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE), 7881, 91, 99102
    Thermal aging effect, on mechanical properties of
    PVF films, 174f
    Thermal degradation, of PVF film, 269
    Thermal stability of PVF, 343344
    Thermoforming, of PVF films and laminates
    ABS sheet clad with Tedlars SP film, 261t
    386 INDEXdescription of, 251253
    formability of oriented, PVF films
    unoriented (SP) PVF films, 257263
    processing thermoformed parts, 259263
    troubleshooting, 263
    Thermoforming ABS sheet clad with Tedlars SP
    film, 263
    Thermoplastic sheet, lamination of PVF films to,
    232233
    adhesive application, 232233
    lamination, 233
    materials, 232
    quality control procedure, 233
    Titanium acetylacetonate, 99
    Titanium halides, 106108
    Toluene, 219220
    Tooling plate, 271
    Top finishes, for vinylcoated fabric, 296297
    thickness of, 297
    Tourmaline, 173175
    TPE (Tedlars/Polyester/Ethylene Vinyl Acetate)
    PVF backsheet construction, 325
    TPTTM (Tedlars/Polyester/Tedlars)
    manufacturers, 324325
    Tedlars backsheet construction, 324325
    TP with primer
    PVF backsheet construction, 325
    Transfer print, PVF films in, 337
    Transit vehicle interior, 329334
    cleanability, 331
    fire and smoke, 331334
    Transportation, PVF in, 2021
    Transverse, 120
    Trialkylaluminum (triethylaluminum), 106108
    Trichloroethane, 222
    Trifluoroethylene (TrFE), 72, 91, 99102
    Trifluoromethyltrimethylsilane (CF3SiMe3), 5
    Type 5 PVF films, 254
    Typical properties, of PVF film(s), 9t
    Tyzors, 99
    U
    United States
    post-crash accidents, 285
    PVF consumption in, 19
    weatherability of PVF films, 181
    University of Manchester Institute of Science and
    Technology (Umist), 5
    Unoriented (SP) PVF films, thermoforming of,
    257263
    processing thermoformed parts, 259263
    troubleshooting, 263
    Unoriented PVF-coated vinyl wall covering
    stain removal for, 303t
    Unoriented PVF films, 144146, 185189, 330
    abrasion resistance, 189
    for adhesion, 189
    break elongation of clear, 186f
    break elongation of pigmented, 186f
    chemical properties, 185
    cleaning, ease of, 189
    electrical properties, 186
    formability, 188
    manufacturing process for, 148149
    optical and spectral properties, 186187
    physical/thermal properties, 185
    preparation of, 146148
    radiation, effect of, 189190
    shrinkage of, 186f
    stain removal test on thermoplastic
    sheet, 332t
    surface aesthetics, 188189
    tensile strength of clear, 187f
    ultraviolet light absorbance of
    clear, 188f
    weather resistance, 188
    Upstack lamination, 248f
    Urethane, 216t
    U.S. Food and Drug Administration compliance,
    344
    U.S. Occupational Safety and Health
    Administration (OSHA), 342343
    V
    Vacuum thermoforming, 252f
    for automobile armrests, 253f
    continuous, 253f
    Vinyl chloride (VC), 3537
    Vinyl fluoride (VF), 1011, 25
    applications of, 4243
    commercial manufacturing of, 39
    continuous emulsion polymerization of, 70t,
    71t
    continuous polymerization of
    process conditions and results, 59t, 60t
    copolymers of, 102
    to aluminum, 100t, 101t
    copolymerization, vinyl fluoride, 72, 108109
    reactivity ratios in, 107t, 108t
    decomposition temperature of, 72
    degradation temperatures, 73f
    environmental fate of, 342
    flammability of, 342
    flammability properties of, 42t
    health and exposure, 340341
    interpolymers of, 90t
    properties of, 92t
    levels in workplace, guidance
    of, 341t
    melting point, 73f
    physical properties of, 40t
    polymerization development, 52102
    preparation of, 32t, 34t, 36t
    properties of, 3941
    INDEX 387Vinyl fluoride (VF) (Continued)
    and propylene, 62t
    pure substance, chemical and physical
    properties of, 340t
    safety of, 340341
    solubility
    in organic solvents, 41t
    in water, 41t
    synthesis of, 2639
    terpolymers
    composition of, 85t
    properties of, 86t
    and tetrafluoroethylene, 94t
    thermal conductivity and viscosity
    of, 42t
    thermodynamic properties of, 41t
    toxic effects of, 339, 341
    using benzoyl peroxide initiator
    free radical reaction scheme
    for, 48f
    volatilization of, 342
    yield using aluminum sulfate
    catalyst, 33t
    Vinylidene copolymers
    degradation temperatures, 73f
    melting point, 73f
    Vinylidene fluoride (VDF), 72, 91
    Vinyl wall covering, 306
    lamination of PVF films to, 233234
    film types, 234
    laminating, 234
    quality control procedure, 234
    vinyl wall covering, 234
    with Tedlars SP PVF film, 302307
    adhesive types, 306
    cleanability, 302
    compliance, 304305
    easy procedures (cloth only, wet or dry), 302
    flammability, 304
    laminating, 306
    laminating Tedlars SP PVF film
    to, 305
    mild procedures (soaps, household
    detergents), 302
    moderate procedures (solvents), 303
    mold, mildew, and bacteria, 305
    quality control, 306307
    specification guidelines for, 305
    stain removal, 302303
    for unoriented PVF-coated vinyl wall
    covering, 303t
    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 145
    emissions, 251
    Voltage, 321
    Von Liebig, Justus, 26
    W
    Water soak test
    for PVF film
    to cellulosic substrates, 229
    to vinyl wall covering, 234
    of vinyl-based wall covering, 306
    Weathering performance, of PVF films, 180185
    Weather-O-Meters, 180181
    Web coating, 142143
    Wilson II, J.D.C., 321322
    Wire-wound metering rod, 224
    Wire-wound rod, 223224, 224f
    X
    X-Actos, 245
    Xenotests, 180181
    Z
    ZieglerNatta-type catalysts, 106108, 107

كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.net
The Unzip Password : books-world.net

تحميل

يجب عليك التسجيل في الموقع لكي تتمكن من التحميل
تسجيل | تسجيل الدخول

التعليقات

اترك تعليقاً