Process Selection – From Design to Manufacture

Process Selection – From Design to Manufacture
اسم المؤلف
K. G. Swift and J. D. Booker
التاريخ
17 أبريل 2021
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Process Selection – From Design to Manufacture
Second Edition
K. G. Swift
Department of Engineering, University of Hull, UK
and
J. D. Booker
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, UK
Contents
Preface to second edition ix
Preface to first edition xi
Notation used xiii
Part I A strategic view 1
1.1 Problems 1
1.2 Manufacturing information for design 2
1.3 Competitive product introduction processes 4
1.4 Techniques in design for manufacture and assembly 5
1.5 Process selection strategy 13
Part II Selecting candidate processes 19
2.1 Introduction 19
2.2 PRIMAs (Process Information Maps) 19
2.3 PRIMA selection strategies 20
2.3.1 Manufacturing process selection 21
2.3.2 Assembly system selection 24
2.3.3 Joining process selection 27
2.4 PRIMA categories 34
1 Casting processes 35
1.1 Sand casting 36
1.2 Shell molding 39
1.3 Gravity die casting 42
1.4 Pressure die casting 45
1.5 Centrifugal casting 48
1.6 Investment casting 51
1.7 Ceramic mold casting 54
1.8 Plaster mold casting 57
1.9 Squeeze casting 60
2 Plastic and composite processing 63
2.1 Injection molding 64
2.2 Reaction injection molding 672.3 Compression molding 69
2.4 Transfer molding 72
2.5 Vacuum forming 74
2.6 Blow molding 77
2.7 Rotational molding 80
2.8 Contact molding 83
2.9 Continuous extrusion (plastics) 86
3 Forming processes 89
3.1 Forging 90
3.2 Rolling 94
3.3 Drawing 99
3.4 Cold forming 102
3.5 Cold heading 106
3.6 Swaging 109
3.7 Superplastic forming 112
3.8 Sheet-metal shearing 114
3.9 Sheet-metal forming 117
3.10 Spinning 121
3.11 Powder metallurgy 124
3.12 Continuous extrusion (metals) 128
4 Machining processes 131
4.1 Automatic and manual turning and boring 132
4.2 Milling 136
4.3 Planing and shaping 139
4.4 Drilling 142
4.5 Broaching 145
4.6 Reaming 148
4.7 Grinding 151
4.8 Honing 154
4.9 Lapping 157
5 Non-Traditional Machining (NTM) processes 161
5.1 Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) 162
5.2 Electrochemical Machining (ECM) 165
5.3 Electron Beam Machining (EBM) 167
5.4 Laser Beam Machining (LBM) 169
5.5 Chemical Machining (CM) 171
5.6 Ultrasonic Machining (USM) 174
5.7 Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM) 176
6 Assembly systems 179
6.1 Manual assembly 180
6.2 Flexible assembly 183
6.3 Dedicated assembly 186
vi Contents7 Joining processes 189
7.1 Tungsten Inert-Gas Welding (TIG) 190
7.2 Metal Inert-Gas Welding (MIG) 193
7.3 Manual Metal Arc Welding (MMA) 196
7.4 Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) 199
7.5 Electron Beam Welding (EBW) 202
7.6 Laser Beam Welding (LBW) 205
7.7 Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) 208
7.8 Resistance welding 211
7.9 Solid state welding 215
7.10 Thermit Welding (TW) 218
7.11 Gas Welding (GW) 220
7.12 Brazing 223
7.13 Soldering 226
7.14 Thermoplastic welding 229
7.15 Adhesive bonding 231
7.16 Mechanical fastening 235
2.5 Combining the use of the selection strategies and PRIMAs 240
2.5.1 Manufacturing processes 240
2.5.2 Assembly systems 241
2.5.3 Joining processes 244
Part III Costing designs 249
3.1 Introduction 249
3.2 Component costing 250
3.2.1 Development of the model 250
3.2.2 Basic processing cost (Pc) 251
3.2.3 Relative cost coefficient (Rc) 253
3.2.4 Material cost (Mc) 272
3.2.5 Model validation 273
3.2.6 Component costing case studies 275
3.2.7 Bespoke costing development 282
3.3 Manual assembly costing 285
3.3.1 Assembly costing model 285
3.3.2 Assembly structure diagram 291
3.3.3 Manual assembly costing case studies 291
3.4 Concluding remarks 293
Sample questions for students 301
Appendices 304
References 309
Index
Index
Abrasive jet machining (AJM) 176
water jet machining (WJM) 176
Additional assembly processes index 291
Adhesive bonding 231
types of adhesive 231, 232
Assembly costing (see costing assemblies)
Assembly-orientated design 7
Assembly structure diagrams 291
Assembly systems 179
classification 13
selection strategy 14
Basic processing cost (Pc) 251
Blank costing tables 307, 308
Blow molding 77
injection 64, 77
Braze welding 221, 224
Brazing 223
braze welding 221, 224
diffusion brazing (DFB) 224
dip brazing (DB) 223
furnace brazing (FB) 223
gas brazing 223
induction brazing (IB) 223
infra red brazing (IRB) 224
resistance brazing (RB) 223
Broaching 145
Casting processes 35
Centrifugal casting 48
semi-centrifugal 48
centrifuge 48
Ceramic mold casting 54
Chemical machining 171
blanking 171
chemical jet machining 171, 176
electropolishing 171
milling 171
photochemical blanking 171
thermochemical machining 171
Classification 11
of assembly systems 13
of joining processes 14
of manufacturing processes 12
of materials 11
of surface engineering processes 15
Coefficients (see relative cost coefficient) 253
Cold forming 102
Cold heading 106
Component fitting analysis (F) 288
Component handling analysis (H) 286
Compression molding 69
Conformability analysis (CA) 5
Contact molding 83
hand lay-up 83
spray lay-up 84
Continuous extrusion (plastics) 86
pultrusion 86
Continuous extrusion (metals) 128
Costing 249
assemblies 285
examples 291
model development 285
benefits of 249
components 250
bespoke development 282
examples 275
model development 250
factors affecting success 273
relative benefits for different manufacturing
processes 16
CNC machining 133
machining centres 133
milling 137CNC machining – continued
grinding 151
sheet-metal shearing 114
Dedicated assembly systems 186
Design 1
and competitiveness 1
costs 1, 4
costing methodologies 249
manufacturing information for 2
opportunities for change 1, 3
team approach 5
Design for assembly (DFA) 5, 6, 7, 10, 304
example 6, 7
guidelines 304
for part-count reduction 305
product studies 7
techniques 6, 7
Design for manufacture (DFM) 2, 5, 7, 9, 10
guidelines 9
Design of experiments (DOE) 5
Die casting
gravity (permanent mold) 42
low pressure 42
high pressure 45
cold-chamber 45
hot-chamber 45
injection metal assembly 45
vacuum die casting 45
slush casting 42
Diffusion bonding (welding) (DFW) 216
and superplastic forming 112, 216
Drawing 99
Drilling 142
Electrical discharge machining (EDM) 162
Electrochemical machining (ECM) 165
Electron beam machining (EBM) 167
Electron beam welding (EBW) 202
Extrusion:
blow molding 77
hydrostatic 102
of metals 128
of plastics 86
in powder metallurgy 124
Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) 5
Fastening systems (see mechanical fastening
systems)
Fitting penalties 288
Flexible assembly systems 183
Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) 193
Forging 90
closed die forging 90
hand forging 91
of powders 124
open die forging 90
precision forging 91
roll forging 90
upset forging 90
Forming processes 89
Gas welding 220
braze welding 221
gas cutting 221
pressure gas welding 221
Gravity die casting (permanent mold casting) 42
Grinding 151
Handling penalties 286
Honing 154
laser beam 154, 169
superfinishing 154
Injection molding 64
co-injection 64
injection blow molding 64, 77
reaction injection molding 67
Insertion penalties 289
Investment casting (lost wax process) 51
Joining processes 189
classification 14
fastening systems (see mechanical fastening
systems)
selection strategy 27
welding processes (see individual processes)
Labor rate 286
Lapping 157
Laser beam processes
honing 154, 169
machining (LBM) 169
seam welding 205
soldering 205, 227
spot welding 205
welding (LBW) 205
Lost wax process (see investment casting)
Machinability index definition 134
Machining processes 131
Manual assembly systems 180
314 IndexManual metal arc welding (MMA) 196
stud arc welding (SW) 196
Manufacturing processes
classification 12
PRIMAs (see process information
maps)
selection strategies (see process selection
strategies)
Material cost (Mc) 272
Materials classification 11
Material to process suitability coefficient
(Cmp) 255, 258
Mechanical fastening systems 235
permanent 235
semi-permanent 235
non-permanent 236
Metal inert-gas welding (MIG) 193
Milling 136
Non-traditional manufacturing (NTM)
processes 161
Part-count reduction
examples 6, 7, 8
guidelines 305
and DFA 6
Planing 139
Plasma arc welding (PAW) 208
plasma arc cutting 208
plasma arc spraying 209
Plaster mold casting 57
Plastic and composite processing 63
Powder metallurgy 124
Pressure die casting (see also die
casting) 45
Process capability
charts (and see individual
processes) 20
index 20
Process information maps (PRIMAs)
elements of 19
use in selection strategies 20, 24, 27
categories 34
assembly systems 179
casting processes 35
forming processes 90
joining processes 189
machining processes 131
non-traditional machining (NTM)
processes 161
plastic and composite processing 63
Process selection
drivers 10
strategies 20
assembly systems 24
manufacturing processes 20
joining processes 27
use of PRIMAs 20
Product design specification (PDS) 10, 21
Product introduction process 3–6
Quality:
considerations 20
costs 1
Quality function deployment (QFD) 5
Reaction injection molding 67
Reaming 148
Relative cost coefficient (Rc) 253
material to process suitability (Cmp) 253
section thickness (Cs) 256
shape complexity (Cc) 255
surface finish (Cf) 257
tolerance (Ct) 257
waste coefficient (Wc) 272
Resistance welding processes 211
electrogas welding (EGW) 212
electroslag welding (ESW) 211
flash welding (FW) 212
percussion resistance welding 212
projection welding (RPW) 212
seam welding (RSEW) 212
spot welding (RSW) 212
upset resistance welding 212
Roll forming 95, 117
Rolling 95
Rotational molding 80
slush molding 80
Sand casting 36
Section coefficient (Cs) 256
Selecting candidate processes 19
Shape complexity coefficient (Cc) 255
Shaping 139
Sheet-metal forming 117
Sheet-metal shearing 114
Shell molding 39
Simultaneous engineering 5
Soldering 226
contact (iron) soldering (INS) 227
dip soldering (DS) 227
furnace soldering (FS) 226
Index 315Soldering – continued
gas soldering 226
induction soldering (IS) 226
infra red soldering (IRS) 227
laser beam soldering 205, 227
resistance soldering (RS) 226
ultrasonic soldering 216, 227
wave soldering (WS) 227
Solid state welding processes 215
cold welding (CW) 215
cold pressure spot welding 216
diffusion bonding (welding)
(DFW) 216
explosive welding (EXW) 216
forge welding 216
friction welding (FRW) 216
friction stir welding 215
superplastic diffusion bonding 216
thermocompression welding 112, 216
ultrasonic welding (USW) 216
ultrasonic seam welding (USEW) 216
ultrasonic soldering 216, 227
ultrasonic insertion 216
ultrasonic staking 216
Spinning 121
Spot welding
cold pressure 216
laser beam 205
resistance 212
MIG 193
TIG 190
Squeeze casting 60
Submerged arc welding (SAW) 199
Superplastic forming 112
and diffusion bonding (DFW) 112, 216
Surface engineering processes
classification 15
Surface finish coefficient (Cf) 257
Swaging 109
Teamwork 5
Thermit welding (TW) 218
Thermoplastic welding 229
Tolerance coefficient (Ct) 257
Transfer molding 72
vacuum assisted resin injection 72
Tungsten inert-gas welding (TIG) 190
Turning and boring 132
automatic machines 133
CNC machines 133
manually operated machines 133
Ultrasonic processes:
machining (USM) 174
cleaning 174
insertion 216
rotary USM 174
seam welding (USEW) 216
soldering 216, 227
staking 216
welding (USW) 216
of thermoplastics 229
Vacuum forming 74
thermoforming 74
Volume calculations 272
Waste coefficient 272
Water jet machining (WJM) 176
Weldability definition 192
Welding processes (see individual processes)
Weld joint configurations 306
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