Ashrae Handbook 2015

Ashrae Handbook 2015
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التاريخ
17 أبريل 2021
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Ashrae Handbook 2015
Heating, Ventilating, and Air-conditioning Applications
Inch-pound Edition
Ashrae Technical Committees, Task Groups, and
Technical Resource Groups
Section 1.0—fundamentals and General
1.1 Thermodynamics and Psychrometrics
1.2 Instruments and Measurements
1.3 Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow
1.4 Control Theory and Application
1.5 Computer Applications
1.6 Terminology
1.7 Business, Management, and General Legal Education
1.8 Mechanical Systems Insulation
1.9 Electrical Systems
1.10 Cogeneration Systems
1.11 Electric Motors and Motor Control
1.12 Moisture Management in Buildings
1.13 Optimization
SECTION 2.0—ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
2.1 Physiology and Human Environment
2.2 Plant and Animal Environment
2.3 Gaseous Air Contaminants and Gas Contaminant Removal
Equipment
2.4 Particulate Air Contaminants and Particulate Contaminant
Removal Equipment
2.5 Global Climate Change
2.6 Sound and Vibration Control
2.7 Seismic and Wind Resistant Design
2.8 Building Environmental Impacts and Sustainability
2.9 Ultraviolet Air and Surface Treatment
TG2 Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning Security (HVAC)
SECTION 3.0—MATERIALS AND PROCESSES
3.1 Refrigerants and Secondary Coolants
3.2 Refrigerant System Chemistry
3.3 Refrigerant Contaminant Control
3.4 Lubrication
3.6 Water Treatment
3.8 Refrigerant Containment
SECTION 4.0—LOAD CALCULATIONS AND ENERGY
REQUIREMENTS
4.1 Load Calculation Data and Procedures
4.2 Climatic Information
4.3 Ventilation Requirements and Infiltration
4.4 Building Materials and Building Envelope Performance
4.5 Fenestration
4.7 Energy Calculations
4.10 Indoor Environmental Modeling
TRG4 Indoor Air Quality Procedure Development
SECTION 5.0—VENTILATION AND AIR DISTRIBUTION
5.1 Fans
5.2 Duct Design
5.3 Room Air Distribution
5.4 Industrial Process Air Cleaning (Air Pollution Control)
5.5 Air-to-Air Energy Recovery
5.6 Control of Fire and Smoke
5.7 Evaporative Cooling
5.8 Industrial Ventilation
5.9 Enclosed Vehicular Facilities
5.10 Kitchen Ventilation
5.11 Humidifying Equipment
SECTION 6.0—HEATING EQUIPMENT, HEATING AND
COOLING SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS
6.1 Hydronic and Steam Equipment and Systems
6.2 District Energy
6.3 Central Forced Air Heating and Cooling Systems
6.5 Radiant Heating and Cooling
6.6 Service Water Heating Systems
6.7 Solar Energy Utilization
6.8 Geothermal Heat Pump and Energy Recovery
Applications
6.9 Thermal Storage
6.10 Fuels and Combustion
SECTION 7.0—BUILDING PERFORMANCE
7.1 Integrated Building Design
7.2 HVAC&R Construction and Design Build Technologies
7.3 Operation and Maintenance Management
7.4 Exergy Analysis for Sustainable Buildings (EXER)
7.5 Smart Building Systems
7.6 Building Energy Performance
7.7 Testing and Balancing
7.8 Owning and Operating Costs
7.9 Building Commissioning
SECTION 8.0—AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION
SYSTEM COMPONENTS
8.1 Positive Displacement Compressors
8.2 Centrifugal Machines
8.3 Absorption and Heat Operated Machines
8.4 Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Transfer Equipment
8.5 Liquid-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers
8.6 Cooling Towers and Evaporative Condensers
8.7 Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF)
8.8 Refrigerant System Controls and Accessories
8.9 Residential Refrigerators and Food Freezers
8.10 Mechanical Dehumidification Equipment and
Heat Pipes
8.11 Unitary and Room Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps
8.12 Desiccant Dehumidification Equipment and
Components
SECTION 9.0—BUILDING APPLICATIONS
9.1 Large Building Air-Conditioning Systems
9.2 Industrial Air Conditioning
9.3 Transportation Air Conditioning
9.4 Justice Facilities
9.6 Healthcare Facilities
9.7 Educational Facilities
9.8 Large Building Air-Conditioning Applications
9.9 Mission Critical Facilities, Data Centers, Technology
Spaces and Electronic Equipment
9.10 Laboratory Systems
9.11 Clean Spaces
9.12 Tall Buildings
SECTION 10.0—REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS
10.1 Custom Engineered Refrigeration Systems
10.2 Automatic Icemaking Plants and Skating Rinks
10.3 Refrigerant Piping, Controls and Accessories
10.5 Refrigerated Distribution and Storage Facilities
10.6 Transport Refrigeration
10.7 Commercial Food and Beverage Refrigeration
Equipment
10.8 Refrigeration Load Calculations
SECTION MTG—MULTIDISCIPLINARY TASK GROUPS
MTG.BD Building Dampness
MTG.BIM Building Information Modeling
MTG.CCDG Cold Climate Design Guide
MTG.ET Energy Targets
MTG.HCDG Hot Climate Design Guide
MTG.LowGWP Lower Global Warming Potential Alternative
Refrigerants
MTG.O&MEE Operation and Maintenance Activities that Impact
Energy Efficiency
Thi
COMPOSITE INDEX
This index covers the current Handbook series published
by ASHRAE. The four volumes in the series are identified as
follows:
S = 2012 HVAC Systems and Equipment
F = 2013 Fundamentals
R = 2014 Refrigeration
A = 2015 HVAC Applications
Alphabetization of the index is letter by letter; for
example, Heaters precedes Heat exchangers, and Floors
precedes Floor slabs.
The page reference for an index entry includes the
book letter and the chapter number, which may be followed
by a decimal point and the beginning page in the chapter.
For example, the page number S31.4 means the information
may be found in the 2012 HVAC Systems and Equipment
volume, Chapter 31, beginning on page 4.
Each Handbook volume is revised and updated on
a four-year cycle. Because technology and the interests of
ASHRAE members change, some topics are not included in
the current Handbook series but may be found in the earlier
Index Terms
A
Abbreviations
Absorbents
liquid
refrigerant pairs
Absorption
ammonia/water
hydrogen cycle
technology
chillers
turbines
coefficient of performance (COP)
dehumidification
equipment
evolving technologies
ideal thermal
industrial exhaust gas cleaning
refrigeration cycles
ammonia/water
calculations
cascadedIndex Terms
Absorption
refrigeration cycles (Cont.)
coupling
double-effect
lithium bromide/water
modeling analysis and performance
phase constraints
representations
solar cooling
water/lithium bromide technology
components
control
double-effect chillers
maintenance
operation
single-effect chillers
single-effect heat transformers
terminology
working fluids
Acoustics. See Sound
Activated carbon adsorption
Adaptation, environmental
ADPI. See Air diffusion performance index (ADPI)
Adsorbents
Impregnated
solid
Adsorption
dehumidification
indoor air cleaning
industrial exhaust gas cleaning
moisture
solid-vapor sorption
Aeration, of farm crops
Aerosols
AFDD. See Automated fault detection and
diagnostics (AFDD)
Affinity laws for centrifugal pumps
AFUE. See Annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE)Index Terms
AHU. See Air handlers
Air
age of, and ventilation
changes per hour (ACH)
drying
flux
liquefaction
permeability
permeance
separation
transfer
Air barriers
Airborne infectious diseases
Air cleaners. (See also Filters, air; Industrial
exhaust gas cleaning)
gaseous (indoor air)
adsorbers
chemisorbers
economics
energy consumption
environmental effects on
installation
media selection
operation and maintenance
safety
sizing
terminology
testing
types
industrial exhaust systems
particulate
contaminants
industrial ventilation
particle collection mechanisms
penetration
residential
safety requirements
selectionIndex Terms
Air cleaners
particulate (Cont.)
standards
test methods
types
air washers
combination
electronic
evaporative coolers
maintenance
media filters
Air conditioners. (See also Central air conditioning)
packaged terminal (PTAC)
design
heavy-duty commercial grade
sizes and classifications
testing
residential
split systems
through-the-wall room units
unitary
retail stores
rooftop units
room
codes and standards
design
features
filters
installation and service
noise
performance
sizes and classifications
split systems
coil placement
residential and light-commercial
unitary
air handlers
applicationIndex Terms
Air conditioners
unitary (Cont.)
capacity control
certification
circuit components
codes and standards
desuperheaters
efficiency
electrical design
installation
mechanical design
multizone
piping
refrigerant circuit control
service
space conditioning/water heating
types
unit ventilators
window-mounted
Air conditioning. (See also Central air conditioning)
airports
animal buildings
arenas
atriums
auditoriums
automobiles
bakeries
buses
bus terminals
changeover temperature
clean spaces
commercial buildings
computer rooms
concert halls
convention centers
data centers
desiccant dehumidification and
dormitoriesIndex Terms
Air conditioning (Cont.)
educational facilities
engine test facilities
equipment
outdoor
refrigeration
exhibition centers
fairs
fixed-guideway vehicles
gymnasiums
health care facilities
hospitals
nursing facilities
outpatient
hotels and motels
houses of worship
ice rinks
industrial environments
kitchens
laboratories
mass transit
mines
natatoriums
nuclear facilities
office buildings
paper products facilities
photographic processing and storage areas
places of assembly
plant growth chambers
power plants
printing plants
public buildings
rail cars
retrofitting, contaminant control
solar energy systems
subway stations
swimming areasIndex Terms
Air conditioning (Cont.)
systems
decentralized
floor-by-floor
forced-air, small
packaged
outdoor equipment
rooftop
radiant panel
selection
self-contained
space requirements
split
telecommunication facilities
temporary exhibits
textile processing plants
theaters
transportation centers
warehouses
wood products facilities
Air contaminants
(See also Contaminants)
Aircraft
air conditioning
air distribution
air filters
air quality
cabin pressurization
control
performance
carbon dioxide concentration
environmental control system (ECS)
air-conditioning packs
air-cycle machine
cabin pressure control
design conditions
engine bleed air system
load determinationIndex Terms
Aircraft
environmental control system (ECS) (Cont.)
outside air
pneumatic system
regulations
heating
humidity
oxygen levels
ozone concentration
ventilation
Air curtains, display cases
Air diffusers
sound control
testing
Air diffusion
air jets
Archimedes number
axial
behavior
centerline velocity
Coanda effect
drop
entrainment ratios
expansion zones
fundamentals
isothermal
multiple
nonisothermal
spread
surface (wall and ceiling)
throw
velocity, terminal
vena contracta
applications
aspect ratio
core area
diffuser
discharge, coefficient ofIndex Terms
Air diffusion (Cont.)
distribution
draft
effective area
equipment
free area
induction
induction ratio
neck area
occupied zone
outlet
primary air
space
stratification height
stratified zone
terminology
total air
upper zone
Air diffusion performance index (ADPI)
Air distribution
aircraft cabins
air terminals
animal environments
applications
buildings
central system
control
ductwork
equipment
fixed-guideway vehicles
forced-air systems, small
industrial environments
in-room terminal systems
isovels
kitchen makeup air
laboratories
mapping
occupied zoneIndex Terms
Air distribution (Cont.)
places of assembly
rail cars
retail stores
ships
sound control
systems
design considerations
fully stratified
mixed
partially mixed
rooms
terminal boxes
testing, adjusting, balancing
textile processing plants
zone control
Air exchange rate
air changes per hour (ACH)
modeling
multizone measurement
time constants
tracer gas measurement method
Air filters. See Filters, air
Airflow
air-to-transmission ratio
around buildings
air intake contamination estimation
coefficients wind pressure
computational modeling
internal pressure
LES model
modeling and testing
patterns
RANS model
through building components
clean spaces
computational fluid dynamics
computer-aided modelingIndex Terms
Airflow (Cont.)
condensers
air-cooled
evaporative
control
and convection
displacement flow
entrainment flow
exhaust hoods
furnaces
with heat and moisture flow
laminar
measurement of
modeling
in buildings
hygrothermal
nonunidirectional
perfect mixing
pressure differentials
solar energy systems
terminology
tracking
transport velocity
unidirectional
velocity measurement
and water vapor flow
wind
data
effects on system operation
velocity pressure (Bernoulli equation)
wind tunnels
Airflow retarders
Air flux
(See also Airflow)
Air handlers
all-air systems
cooling
dampersIndex Terms
Air handlers (Cont.)
dehumidification
distribution systems
draw-through
economizers
fans
filter
heating
humidification
location
mixing plenum
psychrometrics
reheat
sequencing
set point reset
sound levels
strategies
unitary, air conditioners
vibration isolation
Air inlets
applications
types
Air intakes
design
hospitals
location to avoid contamination
outdoor
vehicular facilities, enclosed
Air jets. See Air diffusion
Air leakage. (See also Infiltration)
area
building distribution
commercial buildings
controlling, air-vapor retarder
leakage function
measurement
Air outlets
accessoriesIndex Terms
Air outlets (Cont.)
dampers
location
selection
smudging
sound level
supply
surface effects
temperature differential
types
Airports, air conditioning
Air quality. [See also Indoor air quality (IAQ)]
aircraft cabins
animal buildings
bus terminals
diesel locomotive facilities
parking garages
road tunnels
tollbooths
Airtightness
Air-to-air energy recovery
Air-to-transmission ratio
Air transport
altitude effects
animals
commodity requirements
design considerations
galley refrigeration
ground handling
perishable cargo
refrigeration
shipping containers
Air washers
air cleaning
coolers
dehumidification performance factor
heat and mass transfer, simultaneous
high-velocity spray typeIndex Terms
Air washers (Cont.)
humidification
maintenance
spray type
textile processing plants
water treatment
Algae, control
All-air systems
advantages
air distribution
air handlers
buildings
constant-volume
control
cooling
costs
dehumidification
disadvantages
dual-duct
economizers
heating
humidification
multizone
primary equipment
single-duct
variable-air-volume (VAV)
zoning
Altitude, effects of
air-cooling and dehumidifying coils
air transport
ambient temperature
chimney, vent, and fireplace draft calculations
combustion and fuel calculations
fans
hydronic heat-distributing units and radiators
load calculations
outdoor air thermal loads
psychrometricsIndex Terms
Ammonia
absorption
ammonia/water
ammonia/water/hydrogen
in animal environments
properties F3
system practices
and water F3
Anchor bolts, seismic restraint
Anemometers
air devices
types
Animal environments
air contaminants
ammonia
carbon dioxide
air distribution
air inlets
air quality control
air transport
cattle, beef and dairy
cooling
design
disease control
evaporative cooling
fans
heating
hydrogen sulfide
insulation
laboratory conditions
moisture control
particulate matter (PM)
poultry
shades
swine
temperature control
ventilation
Annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE)Index Terms
Antifreeze
coolants, secondary
ethylene glycol
hydronic systems
propylene glycol
Antisweat heaters (ASH)
Apartment buildings
service water heating
ventilation
Aquifers, thermal storage
Archimedes number
Archives. See Museums, galleries, archives, and libraries
Arenas
air conditioning
smoke control
Argon, recovery
Asbestos
ASH. See Antisweat heaters (ASH)
Atriums
air conditioning
smoke control
Attics, unconditioned
Auditoriums
Automated fault detection and diagnostics (AFDD)
benefits
controller-embedded
detection
diagnosis
evaluation
methods
tools
Automobiles
engine test facilities
HVAC
design factors
subsystems
Autopsy rooms
Avogadro’s law, and fuel combustionIndex Terms
B
Backflow-prevention devices
BACnet®
Bacteria
control
food, growth in
humidifiers, growth in
pathogens
Bakery products
air conditioning
bread
cooling
dough production
freezing
ingredient storage
refrigeration
slicing
wrapping
Balance point, heat pumps
Balancing. (See also Testing, adjusting, and balancing)
air distribution systems
dual-duct systems
HVAC systems
hydronic systems
induction systems
kitchen ventilation systems
refrigeration systems
steam distribution systems
temperature controls
variable-air-volume (VAV) systems
BAS. See Building automation systems (BAS)
Baseboard units
application
design effects
finned-tube
heating equipment
nonstandard condition corrections
radiant
ratingIndex Terms
Basements
conditioned
heat loss
heat transfer
moisture control
unconditioned
Beer’s law
Bernoulli equation
generalized
kinetic energy factor
steady flow
wind velocity pressure
Best efficiency point (BEP)
Beverages
beer
storage requirements
carbonated
coolers
fruit juice
liquid carbon dioxide storage
refrigeration systems
refrigerators for
thermal properties
time calculations
cooling
freezing
wine
production
storage temperature
BIM. See Building information modeling (BIM)
Bioaerosols
airborne
bacteria
fungus spores
microbiological particulate
mold
pollen
sampling
virusesIndex Terms
Bioaerosols (Cont.)
origins
particles
Biocides, control
Biodiesel
Biological safety cabinets
Biomanufacturing cleanrooms
Bioterrorism. See Chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive (CBRE) incidents
Boilers
air supply
burners
burner types
carbonic acid
central
multifamily
plants
classifications
codes
combination
condensing
construction materials
controls
flame safeguard
draft types
dry-base
efficiency
electric
equipment
gas-fired
venting
integrated
modeling
noncondensing
oil-fired venting
piping
rating
residentialIndex Terms
Boilers (Cont.)
scotch marine
selection
service water heating
sizing
standards
steam
systems
stokers
venting
wall-hung
waste heat
water
water treatment
blowdown
wet-base
wet-leg
working pressure
Boiling
critical heat flux
evaporators
flow mechanics
heat transfer
film
natural convection systems
nucleate
pool
Brake horsepower
Brayton cycle
cryogenics
gas turbine
Bread
Breweries
carbon dioxide production
refrigeration
fermenting cellar
Kraeusen cellar
stock cellarIndex Terms
Breweries
refrigeration (Cont.)
systems
wort cooler
storage tanks
vinegar production
Brines. See Coolants, secondary
Building automation systems (BAS)
Building energy monitoring
(See also Energy, monitoring)
Building envelopes
air barrier
requirements
air intrusion
air leakage control
attics
bound water
building assembly
building enclosure
component
condensation
convective loop
driving rain load
dropped ceiling
durability
energy conservation
exfiltration
existing buildings
changing HVAC equipment in
envelope modifications in
face-sealed systems
fenestration
foundations
heat transfer through
moisture effects
historic buildings
hygrothermal design analysis
infiltrationIndex Terms
Building envelopes (Cont.)
insulation
interstitial spaces
interzonal environmental loads
material properties
moisture content
moisture control
museums, galleries, archives, and libraries
plenum
return air
rain screen designs
roofs
insulated sloped assemblies
low-slope assemblies
steep-roof assemblies
vegetated roofing
R-value
clear-wall
material
system
total
sorption
structural failure, from moisture
surface condensation
terminology
thermal
break
bridges
insulation
mass
performance
transmittance
U-factor (thermal transmittance)
U-value
vapor
barrier, continuous
diffusion control
retarder (vapor barrier)Index Terms
Building envelopes (Cont.)
wall/window interface
walls
curtain
precast concrete panels
steel-stud
water-resistive barrier (WRB)
wind washing
zone method
Building information modeling (BIM)
Building materials, properties
Buildings
air barrier
airtight duct connections
damp
human health
dampness risk
dew point
drainage plane
flashing
moisture
content
risk
mold
mold-resistant gypsum board
positive pressure
problems
causes
dampness
roof overhang
sill pans
vinyl wall covering
water barrier
Building thermal mass
charging and discharging
effects of
precoolingIndex Terms
Burners
air supply
controls
conversion
dual-fuel gas/oil
gas-fired
altitude compensation
combustion and adjustments
commercial
industrial
residential
venting
oil-fired
commercial
fuel handling
industrial
residential
venting
venting
Buses
air conditioning
garage ventilation
Bus terminals
air conditioning
physical configuration
ventilation
effects of alternative fuel use
equipment
operation areas
platforms
Butane, commercial
C
CAD. See Computer-aided design (CAD)
Cafeterias, service water heating
Calcium chloride brines
Candy
chocolateIndex Terms
Candy (Cont.)
manufacture
storage
Capillary action, and moisture flow
Capillary tubes
capacity balance
characteristic curve
pressure-reducing device
restrictor orifice
selection
Carbon dioxide
in aircraft cabins
in animal environments
combustion
greenhouse enrichment
liquefaction
measurement
refrigerant
storage
Carbon emissions
Carbon monoxide
analyzers
health effects
parking garages
road tunnels
tollbooths
Cargo containers
airborne sound
air circulation
ambient design factors
commodity precooling
control
controlled atmosphere
costs, owning and operating
design
equipment
attachment provisions
design and selection factorsIndex Terms
Cargo containers
equipment (Cont.)
operating efficiency
qualification testing
selection
system application factors
types
heating only
insulation barrier
load calculations
maintenance
mechanical cooling and heating
operations
qualification testing
safety
sanitation
shock and vibration
space considerations
system application
temperature-controlled transport
temperature settings
use
vapor barrier
ventilation
Carnot refrigeration cycle
Cattle, beef, and dairy
(See also Animal environments)
CAV. See Constant air volume (CAV)
Cavitation
pumps, centrifugal
valves
CBRE. See Chemical, biological, radiological,
and explosive (CBRE) incidents
Ceiling effect. See Coanda effect
Ceilings
natural ventilation
sound correction
sound transmissionIndex Terms
Central air conditioning
(See also Air conditioning)
Central plants
boiler
chiller
distribution design
district heating and cooling
emission control
heating medium
hotels and motels
thermal storage
Central systems
cooling and heating
features
furnaces
humidifiers
residential forced air
space requirements
in tall buildings
acoustical considerations
economic considerations
location
ventilation, with in-room terminal systems
Cetane number, engine fuels
CFD. See Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
Charge minimization
Charging, refrigeration systems
Chemical, biological, radiological, and
explosive (CBRE) incidents
biological events
building envelope as protection
chemical agent types
gases and vapors
incapacitating
irritants
toxic
chemical events
commissioningIndex Terms
Chemical, biological, radiological, and
explosive (CBRE) incidents (Cont.)
explosive events
design considerations
loading description
radiological events
Chemical plants
automation
energy recovery
flow sheets
instrumentation and controls
outdoor construction
piping
pumps
refrigeration
compressors
condensers
cooling towers
equipment
evaporators
load
safety requirements
spray ponds
systems
safety requirements
specifications
tanks
Chemisorption
Chilled beams
Chilled water (CW)
combined heat and power (CHP) distribution
district heating and cooling
optimal temperature
pumping system
pump sequencing
reset
systems
central plantIndex Terms
Chilled water (CW)
systems (Cont.)
heat transfer vs. flow
one-pipe
testing, adjusting, balancing
two-pipe
thermal storage
water treatment
Chillers
absorption
ammonia/water
heat-activated
water/lithium bromide
blast
central plants
centrifugal
air-cooled
controls
equipment
fouling
free cooling
hot-gas bypass
maintenance
purge units
rating
refrigerant
selection
transfer units
selection methods
temperature lift
control
capacity
considerations
regulating
safety
costs
direct expansionIndex Terms
Chillers (Cont.)
economizing
expansion turbines
flash
heat recovery
injection
liquid-chilling systems
liquid heads
load distribution
maintenance
marine water boxes
noise generation
optimization
prerotation vanes
reciprocating
components
control
equipment
performance
refrigerant selection
selection methods
refrigeration cycle
screw
applications
capacity control
components
equipment
maintenance
performance
selection methods
sequencing
standards
subcooling
and turbines
vapor compression model
variable-flow
variable-speed
vibration control
walk-inIndex Terms
Chilton-Colburn j-factor analogy
Chimneys
accessories
capacity calculation examples
caps
codes
design equations
draft
altitude effects
available
theoretical
fireplace
flue gas
functions
gas, appliance venting
masonry
materials
standards
terminations
wind effects
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC)
Chocolate
(See also Candy)
Choking
CHP systems. See Combined heat and power (CHP)
Cinemas
CKV. See Commercial kitchen ventilation (CRV)
Claude cycle
Cleanrooms. See Clean spaces
Clean spaces
aerospace
air filters
airflow
applications
biomanufacturing
construction
contaminant control
coolingIndex Terms
Clean spaces (Cont.)
energy conservation
fire safety
high-bay
humidity control
makeup air
noise control
operation
particle sources
pharmaceutical
aseptic
biomanufacturing
contaminant control
control and monitoring
design
isolators
nonaseptic
unidirectional hoods
pharmaceutical
pressurization
process exhaust
semiconductor
start-up
system sizing and redundancy
temperature control
terminology
testing
vibration control
Clear-sky solar radiation, calculation
Climate change, effect on climatic design conditions
Climatic design information
annual design conditions
calculation of
changes in
climate change’s effect on
cooling
data sources
heatingIndex Terms
Climatic design information (Cont.)
monthly design conditions
precipitation
return period of extremes
uncertainties in design data
Clinics
Clothing
insulation, clo units
moisture permeability
CLTD/CLF. See Cooling load temperature
differential method with solar cooling load
factors (CLTD/CLF)
Coal
classification
handling facilities
heating value
stokers
types
Coanda effect
Codes
(See also Standards)
air conditioners, room
air distribution
boilers
building codes
chilled-beam system
chimneys, fireplaces, and gas vents
condensers
evaporative
water-cooled
coolers, liquid
dehumidifiers, room
duct construction
electrical
furnaces
makeup air units
motors
nuclear facilitiesIndex Terms
Codes (Cont.)
piping
tall buildings
Coefficient of performance (COP)
absorption
compressors
economic (ECOP), combined heat and power (CHP)
refrigeration
room air conditioners
Cogeneration. See Combined heat and power (CHP)
Coils
air-cooling
airflow resistance
applications
aqueous glycol coils
construction and arrangement
control
direct-expansion coils
fluid flow arrangement
heat transfer
load determination
maintenance
performance
rating
refrigerant coils
selection
on ships
water coils
air-heating
aqueous glycol
construction
design
electric
installation
maintenance
rating
refrigerant
selectionIndex Terms
Coils
air-heating (Cont.)
shipboard
steam
water
altitude effects
condensers
evaporative
dehumidifying
desuperheating
energy recovery loops
halocarbon refrigeration systems
heat and mass transfer, simultaneous
heat reclaim
preheat
reheat
Colburn’s analogy
Colebrook equation
friction factor
pressure drop
Collectors, solar
(See also Solar energy)
Colleges and universities
Combined heat and power (CHP)
economic feasibility
estimate
load duration curve
simulation
electrical systems
expansion engines/turbines
heat-activated chillers
heat recovery
engines
turbines
load profiling
maintenance
modular systemsIndex Terms
Combined heat and power (CHP) (Cont.)
packaged systems
peak shaving
prime movers
fuel cells
selection
thermal output
turbines
combustion
steam
thermal energy storage
utilization systems
air
district heating and cooling
hydronic
service hot water
vibration control, foundations
Combustion
air pollution
air required for
altitude compensation
calculations
air required for
carbon dioxide, theoretical
efficiency
flue gas
coals
classification
heating value
types
condensation in
continuous
corrosion in
diesel fuel
efficiency
engine fuels, cetane number
excess airIndex Terms
Combustion (Cont.)
flammability limits
flue gas
fuel oils
gaseous fuels
illuminants
liquefied petroleum gas
natural gas
types and properties
gas turbine fuel
heating value
ignition temperature
illuminants
liquid fuels
engines
noise
oscillation
pollution
principles
pulse
reactions
resonance
solid fuels
soot
sound
stoichiometric
types
Combustion air systems
air required
analysis
burners
gas
oil
control
efficiency boilers
industrial exhaust gas cleaning
ventingIndex Terms
Combustion turbine inlet cooling (CTIC)
thermal storage
Comfort. (See also Physiological principles, humans)
environmental indices
environmental parameters
air velocity
asymmetric thermal radiation
draft
floor temperature
radiant temperature
vertical air temperature difference
humidity
local discomfort
models
adaptive
multisegment
two-node
nonuniform conditions
predicted mean vote (PMV)
predicted percent dissatisfied (PPD)
productivity
radiant heating
special environments
extreme cold
hot and humid environments
infrared heating
personal environmental control (PEC) systems
radiant heating, comfort equations
steady-state energy balance
multisegment models
two-node model
task performance
thermal sensation scale
zones
Commercial and public buildings
air leakage
airportsIndex Terms
Commercial and public buildings (Cont.)
burners
gas
oil
bus terminals
central cooling systems
cruise terminals
design concepts
ducts
furnaces
general design considerations
humidifiers
ice rinks
kitchen ventilation
load characteristics
malls
materials
office buildings
retail facilities
service water heating
transportation centers
warehouses
Commercial kitchen ventilation (CKV)
Commissioning
acceptance
basis of design (BOD)
certification
checklist
construction
control systems
costs
desiccant dehumidifiers
design
design review
existing buildings
in integrated building design
issues log
laboratoriesIndex Terms
Commissioning (Cont.)
makeup air units
new construction
objectives
occupancy and operations
owner’s project requirements (OPR)
predesign
pumps, centrifugal
recommissioning
retrocommissioning
systems manual
team
test procedures
Compressors
air conditioners, room
ammonia refrigeration systems
bearings
centrifugal
reciprocating
rotary
scroll
single-screw
twin-screw
centrifugal
chemical industry refrigeration
drives
dynamic
engine-driven
halocarbon refrigeration systems
heat pump systems
motors
noise generation
operation and maintenance
orbital
positive-displacement
reciprocating
crankcase
rotaryIndex Terms
Compressors (Cont.)
screw
single
twin
scroll
trochoidal (Wankel)
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
assessing predictions
boundary conditions for
inlet
outlet
reporting
sources/sinks
surfaces
walls
considerations
grids
mathematical approaches
meshing
reporting
steps
turbulence modeling
validation
verification
viscosity modeling
Computer-aided design (CAD)
Computers
abbreviations for programming
BACnet®
building automation systems (BAS)
computational fluid dynamics
computer-aided design (CAD)
for control
design tools
acoustic calculations
building information modeling (BIM)
combined heat and power (CHP)
computational fluid dynamicsIndex Terms
Computers
design tools (Cont.)
computer-aided design (CAD)
duct design
equipment selection and simulation
load calculations
piping design
refrigerant properties
smoke control analysis
ventilation
road tunnel
equipment
graphics
hardware
HVAC simulation
Internet
modeling
monitoring and control
networking components
peripherals
smoke control analysis
software
antispyware
custom programming
development tools
energy analysis
firewall
graphics
HVAC
readymade
road tunnel
terminology
utilities
supervisory control
World Wide Web
Concert halls
Concrete
coolingIndex Terms
Concrete (Cont.)
pozzolanic admixtures
selection
thermal design
water heating for
Condensate
steam systems
water treatment
Condensation
in building components
in combustion systems
concealed
control, with insulation
dew-point analysis
dropwise
energy recovery equipment
film
heat transfer coefficients
interstitial, and drying
noncondensable gases
with oil
oil-fired appliances
prevention, dehumidification for
surface
in tubes
visible
Condensers
air conditioners, room
air-cooled
control
installation
machine room
maintenance
noise
rating
types
ammonia refrigeration systems
cascadeIndex Terms
Condensers (Cont.)
chemical industry refrigeration
in chillers
evaporative
airflow
capacity control
codes
coils
freeze prevention
heat transfer
liquid subcoolers
location
maintenance
multicircuiting with liquid coolers
multiple-condenser installations
purging
rating
standards
water
halocarbon refrigeration systems
air-cooled
evaporative
piping
pressure control
water
retail food store refrigeration
water-cooled
codes
Darcy-Weisbach equation
fouling factor
heat removal
heat transfer
liquid subcooling
maintenance
noncondensable gases
pressure drop
standards
types
water circuitingIndex Terms
Conductance, thermal
Conduction
display cases
steady-state
thermal
Conductivity, thermal
apparent
of thermal insulation
foods
soils
Constant air volume (CAV)
all-air systems
dual-duct
single-duct
terminal units
control
supply air temperature reset
versus variable-air-volume (VAV)
Construction. (See also Building envelopes)
curtain wall
glass block wall
in integrated building design
Containers. (See also Cargo containers)
air transport
marine transport
Contaminants
clean spaces
food
gaseous
combustion
concentration, indoor, measurement
control
environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)
flammable
indoor air
industrial
inorganic
measurementIndex Terms
Contaminants
gaseous (Cont.)
microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs)
nuclear facilities
outdoor air
ozone
polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs)
radioactive
radon
removal
semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs)
soil gases
vapors, flammable
volatile organic compounds (VOC)
total (TVOC)
volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
indoor, concentration prediction
organism destruction
particulate
aerosols
asbestos
classification
coarse
collection mechanisms
combustion
dusts
environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)
fine
fogs
fumes
measurement
mists
pollen
polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs)
radioactive
size distribution
smogs
smokesIndex Terms
Contaminants
particulate (Cont.)
suspended particles, counters
synthetic vitreous fibers
ultrafine
refrigerant systems
dirt
field assembly
filter-driers
generation by high temperature
lubricants
metallic
moisture
motor burnout
noncondensable gases
residual cleaning agents
sampling
sludge, tars, and wax
solvents
special system characteristics
textile processing
Continuity, fluid dynamics
Control. (See also Controls, automatic; Supervisory control)
absorption units
aircraft cabin pressure
air-handling systems
all-air systems
authority
automobile air conditioning
boilers
building automation systems (BASs)
building pressurization
burners
bus terminal ventilation
central air conditioning
chemical plants
chilled beams
chilled-water pumpsIndex Terms
Control (Cont.)
chillers
combustion turbines
components
condensers
air-cooled
evaporative
cooling
coils
tower fans
towers
corrosion
dehumidifying coils
demand-controlled ventilation (DCV)
design principles
controlled area size
energy conservation
load matching
sensor location
system selection
direct expansion (DX)
economizers
electric heating slabs
energy recovery equipment
engines
fans
air volume
fire
fixed-guideway vehicle air conditioning
freezestat
functional performance testing (FPT)
fundamentals
furnaces
heaters
infrared
heat exchangers
heating coils
heat pumpsIndex Terms
Control (Cont.)
heat recovery systems
heat timers
humidifiers
humidity
hydronic heating systems
induction VAV terminals
justice facilities
laboratory systems
liquid chillers
low-temperature
makeup air units
measurement and verification (M&V)
morning warm-up
motors
protection
nuclear facilities
optimization
outdoor air quantity
paper moisture content
parking garage ventilation
performance monitoring
photographic materials processing
pipe-tracing systems
plant growth chambers
pneumatic
pressurization
radiant panels
radioactivity
rail car air conditioning
refrigerant flow
residential heating and cooling
return fan
road tunnel ventilation
scale
sequence of operation
ship air conditioning
merchant
naval surfaceIndex Terms
Control (Cont.)
smoke
snow-melting systems
solar energy
differential temperature controller
hot-water dump
overtemperature protection
solid-state
sound
static pressure, and variable flow rates
steam coils
steam systems
system selection
terminal units
thermal storage systems
unit heaters
unit ventilators
variable-air-volume (VAV) systems
ventilation reset control (VRC)
vibration
zone systems
zone valves
Controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage
apples
apricots
berries
cherries, sweet
figs
grapes
nectarines
peaches
pears
plums
refrigerated facilities
strawberries
vegetables
Controlled-environment rooms (CERs), and plant growthIndex Terms
Controls, automatic
(See also Control)
actuator
authority
classification
closed loop (feedback)
commissioning
components
controlled devices
controllers
sensors
transducers, electronic-to-pneumatic (E/P)
computers
control action types
dampers
actuator mounting
actuators
types
direct digital (DDC)
explosive atmospheres
extraordinary incidents
feedback (closed loop)
fuzzy logic
mobile applications
modeling
modulating
open loop
positive positioners
proportional/integral (PI)
proportional-integral-derivative (PID)
proportional-only (P)
refrigerant flow
safety
sensors
location
static pressure
switches
systemsIndex Terms
Controls, automatic (Cont.)
terminology
testing
thermostats
transducers, pressure
transmitters
tuning
two-position
valves
actuators
flow characteristics
selection and sizing
Convection
flow, fully developed turbulent
forced
condensation in tubes
evaporation in tubes
laminar
transition region
turbulent
free
mass
natural
steam heating systems
thermal
Convectors
application
design effects
heat-distributing unit
nonstandard condition corrections
rating
Convention centers
Conversion factors
Coolants, secondary
brines
corrosion inhibition
properties
calcium chloride solutionsIndex Terms
Coolants, secondary (Cont.)
d-limonene
ethyl alcohol solutions
halocarbons
inhibited glycols
corrosion inhibition
ethylene glycol
propylene glycol
service considerations
low-temperature refrigeration
nonhalocarbon nonaqueous fluids
polydimethylsiloxane
potassium formate solutions
refrigeration systems
sodium chloride solutions
sodium nitrate and nitrite solutions
Coolers. (See also Refrigerators)
beverage
cryocoolers
forced-circulation air
installation and operation
liquid (See also Evaporators)
Baudelot
brazed (semiwelded) plate
in chillers
evaporative, with evaporative condensers
flooded
freeze prevention
heat transfer
coefficients
fouling factor
maintenance
oil return
piping
pressure drop
refrigerant flow control
residential
shell-and-tube
tube-in-tube
vessel design requirementsIndex Terms
Coolers (Cont.)
retail food store
walk-in
water
Cooling. (See also Air conditioning)
absorption equipment
animal environments
bakery products
concrete
active systems
air blast
chilled water
embedded coils
inundation
passive
controls
foods and beverages, time calculations
fruits and vegetables
evaporative
forced-air
hydrocooling
load calculation
package icing
vacuum cooling
geothermal energy systems
greenhouses
radiant panel systems
radiative
solar energy systems
water systems
dynamometers
Cooling load
calculations
central plant
coil
cooling load temperature differential method
with solar cooling load factors (CLTD/CLF)Index Terms
Cooling load (Cont.)
nonresidential
conduction transfer functions
heat balance (HB) method
heat gain
fenestration
infiltration
internal
latent
heat sources
radiant time series (RTS) method
sol-air temperature
system effects
total equivalent temperature differential
method with time averaging (TETD/TA)
transfer function method (TFM)
residential
heat balance (RHB) method
load factor (RLF) method
space
Cooling load temperature differential method
with solar cooling load factors (CLTD/CLF)
Cooling towers
approach to wet bulb
capacity control
airflow
fan cycling
fan sequencing
flow modulation
two-speed fans
variable-frequency fan drives
variable- vs. fixed-speed fans
construction materials
design conditions
drift
eliminators
economics
fillIndex Terms
Cooling towers (Cont.)
fogging
free cooling
freeze protection
heat and mass transfer, simultaneous
hybrid
indirect evaporative coolers
inspections
Legionella pneumophila
maintenance
model
number of transfer units (NTU)
performance
curves
monitoring
thermal
tower coefficients
piping
plumes
principle of operation
recommissioning
selection
shutdown
siting
sound, attenuators
start-up
testing
theory
counterflow integration
cross-flow integration
heat and mass transfer
types
direct contact
hybrid
indirect contact
open systems
water treatment
start-up and shutdownIndex Terms
Cooling towers (Cont.)
winter operation
inspections
Cool storage
COP. See Coefficient of performance (COP)
Corn, drying
Correctional facilities. See Justice facilities
Corrosion
brines
in combustion systems
concentration cell corrosion
contributing factors
control
in boilers
cathodic protection
buried pipe
in cooling towers
coupons
cycles of concentration
in geothermal energy systems
inhibitors
materials selection
passivation
protective coatings
in steam and condensate systems
energy recovery equipment
galvanized metals
glycol degradation
inhibited glycols
under insulation
of insulation jacketing
microorganism influence
oil-fired appliances
oxygen corrosion
secondary coolant systems
service water systems
tuberculation
types
white rustIndex Terms
Costs. (See also Economics)
all-air systems
analysis period
economic analysis techniques
computer analysis
inflation
internal rate of return
life-cycle cost analyses
payback
present value (worth)
savings-to-investment ratio (SIR)
energy
financing alternatives
inflation
interest and discount rate
laboratory systems
life-cycle
energy recovery equipment
operation and maintenance
piping insulation
maintenance
operating
actual
electrical energy
natural gas
other fuels
snow-melting systems
owning
initial cost
insurance
taxes
periodic
refrigerant phaseout
Cotton, drying
Courthouses
Courtrooms
CPVC. See Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC)Index Terms
Crawlspaces
heat loss
insulation
vented vs. unvented
wall insulation
Critical spaces
data centers
forensic labs
health care
justice facilities
Crops. See Farm crops
Cruise terminals
Cryogenics
biomedical applications
cryomicroscopy
cryopreservation
cryoprotective agents
cryosurgery
induced hypothermia
refrigeration
specimen preparation
Brayton cycle
cascade cycle
Claude cycle
cryobiological
cryocoolers
recuperative
regenerative
cryopumping
equipment
coiled-tube exchanger
compressors
expansion devices
heat exchangers
regenerators
systems
turboalternators
turboexpandersIndex Terms
Cryogenics (Cont.)
fluids
cold burns
flammability
storage vessels
transfer
freezers, industrial
hazards
Heylandt cycle
instrumentation
insulation
low-temperature
selection (table)
thermal conductivity (table)
isenthalpic expansion
isentropic expansion
Joule-Thomson cycle
Kleemenko cycle
Linde cycle
liquefaction
balanced flow condition
of gases
liquid-level sensors
mixed refrigerant cycle
natural gas processing
properties
electrical
magnetic
mechanical
thermal
purification of gases
recovery of gases
separation of gases, Gibbs phase rule
staging
Stirling cycle
storage systems
transfer systems
Curtain walls
CycloparaffinsIndex Terms
D
Dairy products
aseptic packaging
butter
manufacture
refrigeration load
buttermilk
cheese
cheese room refrigeration
manufacture
cream
display refrigerators
ice cream
freezing
hardening
milkfat content
mix preparation
refrigeration
equipment
requirements
milk
dry
evaporated
fresh
sweetened condensed
thermal properties
UHT sterilization
yogurt
Dampers
air outlet
controls, automatic
fire and smoke
furnaces
opposed-blade
outdoor air
parallel-blade
return air
sound controlIndex Terms
Dampers (Cont.)
splitter
vehicular facilities, enclosed
vent
Dampness, problems in buildings
Dams, concrete cooling
Darcy equation
Darcy-Weisbach equation
ductwork sectional losses
pressure drop
water-cooled condensers
water systems
Data centers
Data-driven modeling
black-box
calibrated simulation
empirical
examples
gray-box
neural network
steady-state
Daylighting
interior building illumination
light transmittance
solar radiation
DDC. See Direct digital control (DDC)
Dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS)
Definitions, of refrigeration terms
Defrosting
air coolers, forced-circulation
air-source heat pump coils
ammonia liquid recirculation systems
household refrigerators and freezers
meat coolers
retail food store refrigerators
Degree-days
Dehumidification
absorptionIndex Terms
Dehumidification (Cont.)
adsorption
air washers
all-air systems
desiccant
applications
capacity
equipment
high-pressure
liquid
solid
evaporative cooling
performance factor
residential
Dehumidifiers
dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS)
desiccant
capacity
commissioning
high-pressure
liquid
operation
rotary solid
solid
ice rinks
indoor swimming pool
industrial
installation
mechanical
components
psychrometrics
types
service
wraparound heat exchangers
Dehydration
of eggs
farm crops
industrial systems for
refrigeration systemsIndex Terms
Density
fluids
modeling
Dental facilities
Desiccants
adsorption
cosorption of water vapor and air contaminants
dehumidification
glycols
isotherms
life
liquid
lithium chloride
materials
refrigerant systems
equilibrium curves
moisture
types
liquid absorbents
solid adsorbents
wheel
Design-day climatic data
Desorption isotherm
Desuperheaters
air conditioners, unitary
in ammonia refrigeration
condensers, evaporative
heat pumps, unitary
Dew point
analysis
method
Diamagnetism, and superconductivity
Diesel fuel
Diffusers, air, sound control
Diffusion
coefficient
eddy
moisture flowIndex Terms
Diffusion (Cont.)
molecular
space air
Diffusivity
thermal, of foods
water vapor
Dilution
exhaust
smoke
ventilation
Dining halls, in justice facilities
DIR. See Dispersive infrared (DIR)
Direct digital control (DDC)
Direct numerical simulation (DNS), turbulence modeling
Dirty bombs. See Chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive (CBRE) incidents
Discharge coefficients, in fluid flow
Dispersive infrared (DIR)
Display cases
District energy (DE)
costs
economics
final design
financial feasibility
flow control
metering
utility rates
District heating and cooling (DHC)
applicability
central plants
boiler
chiller
distribution design
emission control
equipment
heating medium
thermal storage
combined heat and power (CHP)Index Terms
District heating and cooling (DHC) (Cont.)
components
consumer interconnections
chilled water
components
direct connection
energy transfer station
flow control
hot water
indirect, with heat exchangers
steam
temperature differential control
costs
distribution system
aboveground systems
condensate drainage and return
conduits
constant-flow
construction
entry pits
hydraulic design
insulation, pipe
pipe
thermal design conditions
underground systems
valve vaults
variable-flow
water hammer
economics
geothermal heating systems
heating conversion to
heat transfer analysis
ground to air
pipes
single buried pipe
soil temperature calculation
two pipes buried
meteringIndex Terms
District heating and cooling (DHC) (Cont.)
pressure losses
thermal storage
water systems
d-limonene
DNS. See Direct numerical simulation (DNS)
Doors
air exchange
U-factors
Dormitories
air conditioning
design criteria
energy systems
load characteristics
service water heating
Draft
burners
chimney
comfort affected by
cooling towers
Drag, in fluid flow
Driers
(See also Dryers)
Drip station, steam systems
Dryers. (See also Driers)
commercial and industrial
adsorption
agitated-bed
calculations
conduction
constant-moisture solvent
convection
dielectric
drying time determination
flash
fluidized-bed
freeze drying
mechanismIndex Terms
Dryers
commercial and industrial (Cont.)
microwave
psychrometrics
radiant infrared
selection
superheated vapor
tunnel
ultraviolet (UV)
vacuum drying
desiccant, high-pressure
farm crops
Drying
air
desiccant, high-pressure
dew-point control
farm crops
gases
DTW. See Dual-temperature water (DTW) system
Dual-duct systems
all-air systems
control
terminal boxes
testing, adjusting, balancing
Dual-temperature water (DTW) system
DuBois equation
Duct connections
Duct design
air leakage
all-air systems
balancing dampers
Bernoulli equation
commercial, small applications
computer analysis
Darcy equation
Darcy-Weisbach equation
duct fitting databaseIndex Terms
Duct design (Cont.)
dynamic losses
duct fitting database
local loss coefficients
fan-system interface
fitting loss coefficients
flexible ducts
friction losses
industrial exhaust systems
methods
noise
pressure
procedures
residential
roughness factors
stack effect
testing, adjusting, and balancing
Ducts
acoustical lining
in hospitals
air dispersion (fabric) systems
airflow measurement in
antimicrobial
classifications (pressure)
cleaning
commercial
(See also Commercial and public buildings)
construction
codes
commercial
industrial
kitchen exhaust
master specifications
outdoor ducts
residential
seismic qualification
sheet metal welding
standardsIndex Terms
Ducts
construction (Cont.)
thermal insulation
underground
desiccant dehumidifiers
efficiency testing
fibrous glass
flat oval
flexible
fluid flow
forced-air systems, small
friction chart
grease systems
industrial
(See also Industrial applications)
industrial exhaust systems
insulation
insulation, thermal
leakage, system
(See also Leakage, HVAC air systems)
moisture-laden vapor systems
noise in
noncircular
outdoor
plastic‚ rigid
rectangular
residential
(See also Residential systems)
road tunnels
roughness factors
round
security concerns
seismic
ships
sound
attenuation
control
undergroundIndex Terms
Ducts (Cont.)
velocity measurement in
vibration control
welding sheet metal
Duct sealing
Dust mites
Dusts
synthetic
Dynamometers
E
Earth, stabilization
Earthquakes, seismic-resistant design
Economic analysis
computer analysis
inflation
internal rate of return
life-cycle cost analyses
payback
improved
simple
present value (worth)
savings-to-investment ratio (SIR)
Economic coefficient of performance (ECOP)
Economic performance degradation index (EPDI)
Economics. (See also Costs)
district heating and cooling
energy management planning
evaporative cooling
indoor gaseous contaminant removal
insulation thickness, pipe
laboratory systems
owning and operating costs
Economizers
air-side
compressors, single-screw
control
humidification load calculationIndex Terms
Economizers (Cont.)
kitchen ventilation
water-side
ECOP. See Economic coefficient of performance (ECOP)
ECS. See Environmental control system (ECS)
Eddy diffusivity
Educational facilities
air conditioning
service water heating
EER. See Energy efficiency ratio (EER)
Effectiveness, heat transfer
Effective radiant flux (ERF)
Efficiency
air conditioners
room
unitary
boilers
combustion
compressors
centrifugal
positive-displacement
reciprocating
rotary
scroll
single-screw
fins
furnaces
heat pumps, unitary
industrial exhaust gas cleaning
infrared heaters
motors
pumps, centrifugal
refrigerating
Eggs
composition
dehydration
processing plant sanitation
productsIndex Terms
Eggs (Cont.)
shell eggs
packaging
processing
refrigeration
spoilage prevention
storage
structure
transportation
storage
thermal properties
EIFS. See Exterior insulation finishing system (EIFS)
Electricity
billing rates
building electrical systems
codes
costs
emergency and standby power systems
generation, on-site
grid
imbalance
measurement
motors
motor starting
performance
power quality variations
principles
safety
smart grid
utility strategies
voltage
wiring
Electric thermal storage (ETS)
Electrostatic precipitators
Elevators
smoke control
in tall buildings
Emissions, pollutionIndex Terms
Emissivity
Emittance, thermal
Enclosed vehicular facilities
Energy
audit
balance
comfort
refrigeration systems
conservation
air conditioners, room
building envelopes
building supervisory control
clean spaces
educational facilities
farm crop drying
greenhouses
hospitals
industrial environments
infrared heaters
kitchen ventilation
pumps, centrifugal
refrigerators‚ commercial
temperature and ventilation control
textile processing
thermal insulation
consumption
benchmarking
building HVAC, control effect on
emergency reduction
gaseous contaminant removal
humidifiers
United States
world
costs
efficiency
in commercial and food service refrigerators
energy efficiency ratio (EER)
and humidityIndex Terms
Energy (Cont.)
emergency use reduction
estimating
analysis
balance point temperature
correlation
degree-day methods
forecasting
general considerations
integration of systems
models
seasonal efficiency of furnaces
simulating
software selection
field survey audit
forecasting building needs
management
cost control
emergency energy use reduction
energy audits
energy-efficiency measures (EEM), comparing
implementation
improving discretionary operations
resource evaluation
modeling
calculating
classical approach
data-driven approach
data-driven models
forward models
general considerations
in integrated building design
primary system components
secondary system components
system controls
monitoring
applications
data AIndex Terms
Energy
monitoring (Cont.)
design and implementation methodology
documentation
planning
quality assurance
production, world
recovery (See also Heat recovery)
air-to-air
in chemical industry
industrial environments
renewable
resources
demand-side management (DSM)
electricity
fossil fuel
integrated resource planning (IRP)
nonrenewable
renewable
United States
world
savings verification
self-imposed budgets
wheels
Energy efficiency ratio (EER)
Energy savings performance contracting (ESPC)
Energy transfer station
Engines
air systems, compressed
applications
centrifugal compressors
heat pumps
reciprocating compressors
screw compressors
continuous-duty standby
controls and instruments
exhaust systems
expansion enginesIndex Terms
Engines (Cont.)
fuels
cetane number
heating values
selection
heat recovery
exhaust gas
jacket water
lubricant
reciprocating
turbocharger
heat release
jacket water system
lubrication
noise control
performance
reciprocating
vibration control
water-cooled
Engine test facilities
air conditioning
dynamometers
exhaust
noise levels
ventilation
Enhanced tubes. See Finned-tube heat transfer coils
Enthalpy
calculation
definition
foods
water vapor
wheels
Entropy
calculation
Environmental control
animals. See Animal environments
humans. See Comfort
plants. See Plant environments
retail food stores, store ambient effectIndex Terms
Environmental control system (ECS)
Environmental health
biostatistics
epidemiology
exposure
industrial hygiene
microbiology/mycology
physical hazards
electrical hazards
electromagnetic radiation
noise
thermal comfort
vibrations
standards
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)
contaminants
secondhand smoke
sidestream smoke
superheated vapors
EPDI. See Economic performance degradation index (EPDI)
Equipment vibration
ERF. See Effective radiant flux (ERF)
ESPC. See Energy savings performance contracting (ESPC)
Ethylene glycol, in hydronic systems
ETS. See Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS);
Electric thermal storage (ETS)
Evaluation. See Testing
Evaporation, in tubes
forced convection
natural convection
Evaporative coolers. (See also Refrigerators)
liquid (See also Evaporators)
in chillers
Evaporative cooling
applications
air cleaning
animal environmentsIndex Terms
Evaporative cooling
applications (Cont.)
combustion turbines
commercial
dehumidification
gas turbines
greenhouses
humidification
industrial
air conditioning
area cooling
process cooling
spot cooling
laundries
makeup air pretreatment
motors
power generation facilities
precooling
produce storage
residential
wood and paper products facilities
cooling towers
direct
economics
entering air condition
equipment
indirect
maintenance
two-stage
exhaust requirement
heat recovery and
indirect
psychrometrics
staged
booster refrigeration
two-stage (indirect/direct)
water treatment
Legionella pneumophilaIndex Terms
Evaporators. (See also Coolers, liquid)
air conditioners, room
ammonia refrigeration systems equipment
automobile air conditioning
chemical industry refrigeration
halocarbon refrigeration systems, piping
liquid overfeed systems
Exfiltration
Exhaust
animal buildings
clean spaces
engines
heat recovery
installation recommendations
engine test facilities
industrial environments
kitchens
laboratories
stack height
photographic processing areas
stacks
buildings
design strategies
exhaust dilution prediction equations
exhaust velocity
industrial exhaust systems
location relative to air intake
wake downwash
vehicular facilities, enclosed
Exhibit buildings, temporary
Exhibit cases
Exhibition centers
smoke control
Expansion joints and devices
bends
joints
district heating and cooling
packed
packless
loopsIndex Terms
Expansion tanks
hydronic systems
closed
diaphragm
expansion chamber
functions of
open
sizing equations
secondary coolant systems
solar energy systems
Explosions. See Chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive (CBRE) incidents
F
Fairs
Family courts
(See also Juvenile facilities)
Fan-coil units
capacity control
maintenance
performance under varying load
systems
types
ventilation
wiring
Fans
air conditioners, room
all-air systems
altitude effects
animal environments
control
cooling tower capacity control
draft
fixed- vs. variable-speed
flow control
furnaces
industrial exhaust systems
isolationIndex Terms
Fans (Cont.)
kitchen exhaust
laws
operating principles
parallel operation
plenum
plug
pressure relationships
effect of duct system on
rating
selection
ships, naval surface
smoke exhaust
sound level
system effects
testing
types
unstable operation
variable- vs. fixed-speed
vehicular facilities, enclosed
Farm crops, drying and storing
aeration
dryeration
drying
combination
corn
cotton
deep-bed
energy conservation
equipment
full-bin
hay
layer
peanuts
rice
shallow-layer
soybeans
specificIndex Terms
Farm crops, drying and storing (Cont.)
microbial growth
recirculation
storing
grain aeration
moisture migration
Faults, system, reasons for detecting
f-Chart method, sizing heating and cooling systems
Fenestration. (See also Windows)
air leakage
area
attachments
building envelopes
codes
components
condensation resistance
control of rain entry
cooling load
draperies
durability
energy flow
energy performance, annual
exterior shading
glazing (glass)
occupant comfort
opaque elements
shading devices
solar gain
solar heat gain
standards
thermal radiation
U-factors
Fick’s law
and moisture flow
Filters, air
(See also Air cleaners)
air conditioners, room
aircraftIndex Terms
Filters, air (Cont.)
clean spaces
demisters
desiccant dehumidifiers
dry, extended surface
electronic
furnaces
high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters
hospitals
industrial air-conditioning
industrial exhaust gas
fabric
granular bed
installation
kitchens
laboratories
maintenance
nuclear facilities
panel
places of assembly
printing plants
renewable media, moving-curtain
residential
safety requirements
selection
ships
standards
test methods
types
ultralow-penetration air (ULPA) filters
viscous impingement
Finned-tube heat-distributing units
design
nonstandard condition corrections
ratingIndex Terms
Finned-tube heat transfer coils
energy recovery loops
two-phase flow in
Fins
Fire/smoke management. See Smoke control
Firearm laboratories
Fire management
Fireplaces
chimney design
altitude effects
Fire safety
clean space exhaust systems
industrial exhaust gas cleaning
insulation fire resistance ratings
justice facilities
kitchens
laboratories
nuclear facilities
penetration fire stopping
smoke control
thermal insulation
Fish
fresh
frozen
thermal properties
Fitness facilities. (See also Gymnasiums)
in justice facilities
Fittings
duct fitting database
effective length
halocarbon refrigeration systems
loss coefficients
local
pipe
sizing
standards
tees
Fixed-guideway vehicles
(See also Mass-transit systems)Index Terms
Fixture units
pipe sizing
Flammability limits, gaseous fuels
Flash tank, steam systems
Floors
coverings
panel systems
temperature comfort
slabs, heat loss
Flowers, cut
air transport
cooling
refrigerators
storage, temperatures
Flowmeters
bypass spring impact meters
in conduits
devices
district heating and cooling systems
flow nozzles
hoods
orifice plates
positive-displacement meters
rotameters
turbine meters
ultrasonic
velocity impact meters
venturi meters
Fluid dynamics computations
Fluid flow
analysis
Bernoulli equation
kinetic energy factor
pressure variation
boundary layer
cavitation
chokingIndex Terms
Fluid flow (Cont.)
compressible
expansion factor
pressure
continuity
Darcy-Weisbach equation
devices
discharge coefficients
drag
friction factors
incompressible
laminar
measurement
noise
nonisothermal effects
parabolic velocity profile, Poiseuille
patterns
pipe friction
Poiseuille
properties
Reynolds number, Re
section change losses
sensors
separation
turbulent
two-phase
boiling
condensation
evaporation
pressure drop
unsteady
valve losses
vena contracta
wall friction
Food. (See also specific foods)
codes
cooling times
freezing timesIndex Terms
Food (Cont.)
industrial freezing methods
long-term storage
microbial growth
control
generalized
requirements
plants
poultry products
freezing
refrigeration
processing facilities
contamination prevention
dairy
fruits .
main dishes
meat
organism destruction
potato products
poultry
precooked foods
refrigeration systems
regulations and standards
sanitation
vegetables
refrigeration
dairy products
eggs and egg products
fishery products
fruits, fresh
meat products
vegetables
refrigerators
commercial
retail food store
storage requirements
canned foods
citrus fruitIndex Terms
Food
storage requirements (Cont.)
commodities
dried foods
fruit
thermal properties
enthalpy
heat of respiration
ice fraction
surface heat transfer coefficient
thermal conductivity
thermal diffusivity
transpiration coefficient
water content, initial freezing point
Food service
refrigerators for
service water heating
vending machines
Forced-air systems, residential
multifamily
Forensic labs
autopsy rooms
critical spaces
firearm labs
intake air quality
Fouling factor
condensers, water-cooled
coolers, liquid
Foundations, moisture control
Fountains, Legionella pneumophila control
Fourier’s law, and heat transfer
Four-pipe systems
load
room control
zoning
Framing
materials
solar gainIndex Terms
Freeze drying
biological materials
Freeze prevention. (See also Freeze protection systems)
condensers, evaporative
coolers, liquid
cooling tower
basin water
piping
energy recovery equipment
hydronic systems
insulation for
solar energy systems
Freeze protection systems
Freezers
blast
household
cabinet construction
cabinets
defrosting
durability
efficiency
performance evaluation
refrigerating systems
safety
testing
industrial
walk-in
Freezing
beverages
biomedical applications
foods
bakery products
egg products
fish
freezing time calculations
ice cream
meat products
poultry products
processed and prepared foodIndex Terms
Freezing (Cont.)
industrial
soil
Friction, in fluid flow
conduit
wall
Fruit juice
Fruits
dried
storage
thermal properties
fresh
air transport
apples, storage
apricots
avocados
bananas
berries
cherries, sweet
citrus
cooling
deciduous tree
desiccation
deterioration rate
display refrigerators
figs
grapes
mangoes
nectarines
peaches
pears
pineapples
plums
storage diseases
strawberries
thermal properties
vine fruits
frozenIndex Terms
Fuel cells, combined heat and power (CHP)
Fuels
classification
combustion
altitude effects
engines
flammability limits
gaseous
heating value
ignition temperature
liquid
oil. See Oil, fuel
systems
solid
turbines
Fume hoods, laboratory exhaust
Fungi
and moisture
pathogens
spores
Furnaces
air cleaners and filters
airflow configurations
air supply
burners
casings
codes
commercial
efficiency
components
controls
derating
duct
duct furnaces
electric
fans and motors
floor furnacesIndex Terms
Furnaces (Cont.)
gas-fired
codes
commercial
installation
residential
standards
upflow
humidifiers
installation
location
natural gas
draft hoods
residential
vent dampers
venting
oil
venting
performance criteria
propane
regulating agencies
residential
annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE)
floor furnaces
indoor or outdoor
performance criteria
selection
selection
standards
stokers
thermal storage
unducted
upflow
venting
wall furnaces
G
Galleries. See Museums, galleries, archives, and librariesIndex Terms
Garages
automotive repair
bus
contaminant criteria
parking
ventilation
airflow rate
control
equipment
residential
system configuration
Gases
compressed, storage
drying
liquefaction
purification
separation
gaseous oxygen
Gibbs phase rule
Gas-fired equipment
(See also Natural gas)
noise
Gas vents
GCHP. See Ground-coupled heat pumps (GCHP)
Generators
absorption units
combined heat and power (CHP)
Geothermal energy
corrosion control
direct-use systems
cooling
equipment
heating
service water heating
district heating
geothermal fluids
disposal
temperatureIndex Terms
Geothermal energy (Cont.)
ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems
heat exchangers
materials performance
resources
valves
water wells
flow rate
pumps
terminology
water quality testing
Geothermal heat pumps (GHP)
Glaser method
Glazing
angular averaging
glass
plastic
solar-optical properties
spectral averaging
spectral range
systems
Glossary, of refrigeration terms
Glycols, desiccant solution
Graphical symbols
Green design, and sustainability
Greenhouses. (See also Plant environments)
evaporative cooling
plant environments
Grids, for computational fluid dynamics
Ground-coupled heat pumps (GCHP)
closed-loop ground-source
heat exchanger
Ground-source heat pumps (GSHP)
Groundwater heat pumps (GWHP)
GSHP. See Ground-source heat pumps (GSHP)
Guard stations, in justice facilities
GWHP. See Groundwater heat pumps (GWHP)
GWP. See Global warming potential (GWP)Index Terms
Gymnasiums
H
HACCP. See Hazard analysis and critical
control point (HACCP)
Halocarbon
coolants, secondary
refrigerant systems
Hartford loop
Hay, drying
Hazard analysis and control
Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP)
in meat processing facilities
Hazen-Williams equation
HB. See Heat balance (HB)
Health
airborne pathogens
asbestosis
carbon monoxide
coalworker’s pneumoconiosis
in justice facilities
Legionella pneumophila
and moisture problems
silicosis
synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs)
Health care facilities
(See also specific types)
air quality
design criteria
disease prevention
regulatory requirements
sustainability
Health effects
mold
Heat
flow rates
latent
respiratory loss
skin lossIndex Terms
Heat (Cont.)
sensible
respiratory
skin
space extraction rate
timers
transfer
Heat and moisture control
Heat balance (HB)
air
conduction transfer function
cooling load calculation methods
equations
input procedure
model
studies
surface
Heat capacity
Heat control
Heaters
automobiles
catalytic
control
direct-contact
electric
fireplaces
gas
control valves
efficiency requirements
infrared
room
thermostats
wall furnaces
hot-water
hydronic snow melting
infrared
indirect
oil-fired
radiantIndex Terms
Heaters (Cont.)
in-space
kerosene
oil
radiant
electric
gas-fired
infrared
oil-fired infrared
panels
quartz
residential
room
solid fuel
standards
steam
stoves
testing
unit
control
location
maintenance
piping
ratings
selection
sound level
types
ventilators
water
Heat exchangers
air-to-air energy recovery
heat pipes
liquid desiccant cooling systems
rotary enthalpy wheels
thermosiphon
twin-tower enthalpy recovery loops
animal environments
antifreeze effect onIndex Terms
Heat exchangers (Cont.)
chimneys
counterflow
district heating and cooling
double-wall construction
effectiveness, capacity rate ratio
enhanced surfaces
fouling
furnaces
geothermal energy systems
halocarbon refrigeration systems
heat transfer
installation
liquid suction
number of transfer units (NTU)
parallel flow
plate
brazed
components
gasketed
plate-and-frame
pressure drop in
welded
selection
shell-and-coil
shell-and-tube
components
converters
straight-tube
tube-in-tube
U-tube
solar energy
systems
solar energy
steam
water, medium- and high-temperature
wraparoundIndex Terms
Heat flow
(See also Heat transfer)
and airflow
through flat building component
hygrothermal modeling
and moisture
paths, series and parallel
Heat flux
radiant panels
Heat gain. (See also Load calculations)
appliances
calculation
solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC)
standard air values
control
electric motors
engine test facilities, dynamometers
fenestration
floors
hospital and laboratory equipment
humans
laboratories
latent, permeable building materials
lighting
office equipment
radiant panels
space
Heating
absorption equipment
animal environments
control
equipment
baseboard units
boilers
convectors
finned-tube units
furnaces
radiatorsIndex Terms
Heating (Cont.)
geothermal energy systems
greenhouses
industrial environments
infrared
radiant
nonresidential
places of assembly
plant growth chambers
power plants
residential
solar energy
systems
all-air
selection
small forced-air
solar energy
steam
thermal storage
Heating load
calculations
central plant
residential calculations
crawlspace heat loss
Heating values of fuels
Heat loss. (See also Load calculations)
basement
crawlspaces
floor slabs
latent heat loss
radiant panels
Heat pipes, air-to-air energy recovery
Heat pumps
absorption
air-source
add-on
air-to-air
air-to-waterIndex Terms
Heat pumps
air-source (Cont.)
balance point
compressor selection
control
defrost cycle
installation
refrigerant circuits
selection
boosters
cascade systems
components
compression cycles
control
efficiency
engine-driven
ground-source
ground-coupled
groundwater
surface water
terminology
heat recovery heat pumps
design principles
waste heat recovery
heat sources and sinks
ice-source
industrial process
closed-cycle systems
design
heat recovery
open-cycle systems
semi-open-cycle systems
multisplit system
packaged terminal heat pumps (PTHPs)
testing
room
split systems
supplemental heatingIndex Terms
Heat pumps (Cont.)
through-the-wall
types
unitary
application
certification
codes
desuperheaters
installation
service
space conditioning/water heating
standards
types
water heaters
water-source
certification
design
entering water temperature
groundwater
indirect systems
surface water
testing
water loop
water-to-air
water-to-water
window-mounted
Heat recovery. (See also Energy, recovery)
balanced heat recovery
cascade systems
coils
combined heat and power (CHP)
combustion turbines
evaporative cooling
heat-activated chillers
heat balance
heat pumps
industrial exhaust systems
kitchen ventilationIndex Terms
Heat recovery (Cont.)
laboratories
liquid chillers
multiple buildings
reciprocating engines
service water heating
steam
systems
turbines
supermarkets
terminology
waste heat
water loop heat pump systems
Heat storage. See Thermal storage
Heat stress
index (HSI)
industrial environments
thermal standards
Heat transfer
(See also Heat flow)
across air space
antifreeze effect on water
apparent transfer coefficient
augmentation
active
passive
coefficients
condensation
convective
convective evaporation
evaporative
foods
Lewis relation
low-temperature
overall
coils
air-cooling and dehumidifying
air-heatingIndex Terms
Heat transfer (Cont.)
condensers
water-cooled
conductance
conduction
shape factors
control
convection
buffer layer
coefficient
external
flow, fully developed laminar
forced, boundary layer
free
internal
laminar sublayer
natural
turbulent region
definition
diffuse radiators
district heating and cooling pipes
effectiveness
extended surfaces
factor, friction
film
coefficient
resistance
fins
forced convection, air coolers
Fourier’s law
ground
heat exchangers
insulation
lakes
mass transfer
convection
molecular diffusion
simultaneous with
cooling coilsIndex Terms
Heat transfer (Cont.)
number of transfer units (NTU)
radiant balance
radiation
actual, gray
angle factor
Beer’s law
blackbody
black surface
energy transfer
exchange between surfaces
in gases
gray surface
hemispherical emissivity
Kirchoff’s law
monochromatic emissive power
spectral emissive power
Stefan-Boltzmann law
thermal
Wien’s displacement law
simultaneous with mass transfer
snow-melting systems
fluids
solar energy systems
steady-state
surface
terminology
thermal bridging
transient
cooling time estimation
cylinder
radiation
slab
sphere
transmission data
water
Heat transmission
doorsIndex Terms
Heat transmission (Cont.)
floor slabs
windows
Heat traps
Helium
in air
recovery
and thermal radiation
High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter
High-rise buildings. See Tall buildings
High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization
High-temperature water (HTW) system
Homeland security. See Chemical, biological,
radiological, and explosive (CBRE) incidents
Hoods
draft
gaseous contaminant removal
industrial exhaust systems
canopy hoods
capture velocities
compound hoods
design principles
entry loss
overhead hoods
sidedraft hoods
volumetric flow rate
kitchen exhaust
ductless
recirculating systems
residential
type I
type II
laboratory fume
sound control
unidirectional
Hospitals
air conditioning
air movementIndex Terms
Hospitals (Cont.)
air quality
control measures
cooling
design criteria
administration
airborne infection isolation
ancillary spaces
autopsy rooms
diagnostic and treatment
intensive care units
laboratories
nursery suites
nursing areas
operating rooms
patient rooms
pharmacies
protective isolation
recovery rooms
service areas
sterilizing and supply
surgery and critical care
disease prevention
energy conservation
heating and hot-water standby
indoor air quality (IAQ)
infection sources
insulation
Legionella pneumophila
smoke control
sustainability
ventilation
zoning
Hot-box method, of thermal modeling
Hotels and motels
accommodations
back-of-the-house (BOTH) areas
central plantIndex Terms
Hotels and motels (Cont.)
design criteria
guest rooms
indoor air quality (IAQ)
load characteristics
makeup air units
public areas
service water heating, showers
sound control
systems
Hot-gas bypass
Houses of worship
HSI. See Heat stress, index (HSI)
HTST. See High-temperature short-time
(HTST) pasteurization
Humidification
air washers
all-air systems
control
design
direct evaporative cooling
evaporative coolers
in health care facilities
load calculations
Humidifiers
all-air systems
bacterial growth
central air systems
industrial and commercial
residential
commercial
controls
energy considerations
equipment
evaporative cooling
furnaces
industrial
Legionella pneumophila controlIndex Terms
Humidifiers (Cont.)
load calculations
nonducted
portable
residential
scaling
supply water
terminal
Humidity (See also Moisture)
building envelope affected by
control
disease prevention and treatment
human comfort conditions
measurement
odors affected by
sound transmission affected by
sources of
static electricity affected by
HVAC security
commissioning
owner’s project requirements (OPR)
risk evaluation
system design
design measures
maintenance management
modes of operation
Hydrogen, liquid
Hydronic systems
(See also Water systems)
central multifamily
combined heat and power (CHP)
heating and cooling design
altitude effects
heat transfer vs. flow
pipe sizing
residential
snow meltingIndex Terms
Hydronic systems (Cont.)
testing, adjusting, balancing
units
baseboard
convectors
finned-tube
heaters
makeup air
pipe coils
radiant panels
radiators
ventilators
water treatment
Hygrometers
Hygrothermal loads
Hygrothermal modeling
criteria
dew-point method
transient analysis
I
IAQ. See Indoor air quality (IAQ)
IBD. See Integrated building design (IBD)
Ice
commercial
delivery systems
manufacture
storage
thermal storage
Ice makers
commercial
heat pumps
household refrigerator
large commercial
storage
thermal storage
typesIndex Terms
Ice rinks
conditions
dehumidifiers
energy conservation
floor design
heat loads
pebbling
surface building and maintenance
water quality
ID50‚ mean infectious dose
Ignition temperatures of fuels
IGUs. See Insulating glazing units (IGUs)
Illuminance
Indoor air quality (IAQ). (See also Air quality)
bioaerosols
health effects
particles
sources
environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)
gaseous contaminant removal
hospitals
hotels and motels
humidity
microbial volatile organic chemicals (MVOCs)
modeling
particulate matter
polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs)
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
radon action levels
semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs)
sensors
standards
synthetic vitreous fibers
volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
Indoor environmental modeling
computational fluid dynamic (CFD)
contaminant transport
multizone network
verification and validationIndex Terms
Indoor environmental quality (IEQ). (See also Air quality)
kitchens
Induction
air-and-water systems
systems
units under varying load
Industrial applications
burners
gas
oil
ducts
gas drying
heat pumps
humidifiers
process drying
process refrigeration
thermal storage
service water heating
steam generators
Industrial environments
air conditioning
cooling load
design
evaporative systems
maintenance
refrigerant systems
spot cooling
ventilation
air distribution
air filtration systems
commissioning
contaminant control
control systems
energy
conservation
recovery
sustainability
evaporative coolingIndex Terms
Industrial environments (Cont.)
heat control
heat exposure control
heating systems
heat stress
local exhaust systems
air cleaners
airflow near hood
air-moving devices
ducts
energy recovery
exhaust stacks
fans
hoods
hot processes
operation and maintenance
system testing
pressurization
process and product requirements
safety
spot cooling
thermal control
ventilation systems
Industrial exhaust gas cleaning
(See also Air cleaners)
auxiliary equipment
equipment selection
gaseous contaminant control
absorption
adsorption
incineration
spray dry scrubbing
wet-packed scrubbers
gas stream
monitoring
operation and maintenance
particulate contaminant control
collector performanceIndex Terms
Industrial exhaust gas cleaning
particulate contaminant control (Cont.)
electrostatic precipitators
fabric filters
inertial collectors
scrubbers (wet collectors)
settling chambers
regulations
safety
scrubbers (wet collectors)
Industrial hygiene
Infiltration. (See also Air leakage)
air exchange
rate
air leakage
air-vapor retarder
building data
controlling
calculation, residential
climatic zones
commercial buildings
direct flow through doorways
driving mechanisms
examples
fenestration
indoor air quality (IAQ)
infiltration degree-days
latent heat load
leakage function
measurement
refrigerated facilities
residential buildings
sensible heat load
terminology
thermal loads
ventilation
Infrared applications
comfortIndex Terms
Infrared applications (Cont.)
drying
energy generators
greenhouse heating
heaters
electric
gas-fired
industrial environments
oil-fired
system efficiency
snow-melting systems
In-room terminal systems
changeover temperature
performance under varying load
primary air
Instruments
(See also specific instruments or applications)
Insulating glazing units (IGUs)
Insulation, thermal
airflow retarders
animal environments
below-ambient system
clothing
compressive resistance
condensation control
corrosion under
cryogenic
ducts
flexible
process
economic thickness, in mechanical systems
electrical, motor, breakdown of
energy conservation
fire resistance ratings
fire safety
flame spread index
foundations
freeze protectionIndex Terms
Insulation, thermal (Cont.)
green buildings
heat gain
heat loss
heat transfer
hospitals
insertion loss
limited combustible
materials
cellular
fibrous
foil, scrim, and kraft paper (FSK)
foil-reinforced kraft (FRK)
granular
reflective
moisture control
noise control
noncombustible
operating temperature
performance
personnel protection
pipes
economic thickness
hangers
underground
properties
refrigerant piping
design
installation
jacketing
joint sealant
maintenance
thickness tables
vapor retarders
refrigerated facilities
smoke developed index
solar energy systems
tanks, vessels, and equipmentIndex Terms
Insulation, thermal (Cont.)
thermal conductivity
thermal storage systems, water
water absorption
water vapor
permeability
permeance
retarders
weather barriers
weather protection
Integrated building design (IBD)
budgeting
commissioning
communication
construction
contract administration
document phase
post-construction activities
design
basis
criteria
development
intent
team
design-phase contract
documentation
drawings
preliminary
working
energy modeling
building optimization
equipment selection
system optimization
objectives
organization
programming
project
closeoutIndex Terms
Integrated building design (IBD)
project (Cont.)
delivery
design
manual
predesign
quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC)
schematic design
specifications
outline
project manual
training
Intercoolers, ammonia refrigeration systems
J
Jacketing, insulation
Jails
Joule-Thomson cycle
Judges’ chambers
Juice
Jury facilities
Justice facilities
control rooms
courthouses
courtrooms
dining halls
energy considerations
fire/smoke management
firearm laboratories
fitness facilities
forensic labs
guard stations
health issues
heating and cooling plants
jail cells
jails
judges’ chambers
jury roomsIndex Terms
Justice facilities (Cont.)
juvenile
kitchens
laundries
libraries
police stations
prisons
shooting ranges, indoor
system controls
system requirements
tear gas and pepper spray
terminology
types of
U.S. Marshals
Juvenile facilities
(See also Family courts)
K
K-12 schools
Kelvin’s equation
Kirchoff’s law
Kitchens
air balancing
multiple-hood systems
air filtration
cooking effluent
control of
generation of
thermal plume behavior
dishwashers, piping
energy conservation
economizers
reduced airflow
residential hoods
restaurants
exhaust hoods
ductless
recirculating systemsIndex Terms
Kitchens
exhaust hoods (Cont.)
replacement air
residential
systems
type I
type II
exhaust systems
downdraft
ducts
effluent control
fans
hoods
maintenance
multiple-hood systems
residential
terminations
fire safety
fire suppression
multiple-hood systems
prevention of fire spread
residential
grease removal
heat recovery
high-performance green design
indoor environmental quality (IEQ)
in justice facilities
integration and design
maintenance
makeup air systems
air distribution
maintenance
replacement
residential
operation
replacement air
residential
service water heating
ventilationIndex Terms
Kleemenko cycle
Krypton, recovery
L
Laboratories
air distribution
air filtration
air intakes
animal labs
cage environment
ventilation performance
biological safety cabinets
biosafety levels
clean benches
cleanrooms
clinical labs
commissioning
compressed gas storage
containment labs
controls
design parameters
duct leakage rates
economics
exhaust devices
exhaust systems
fire safety
fume hoods
controls
performance
hazard assessment
heat recovery
hospitals
loads
nuclear facilities
paper testing labs
radiochemistry labs
safety
scale-up labsIndex Terms
Laboratories (Cont.)
stack heights
supply air systems
system maintenance
system operation
teaching labs
types
ventilation
Laboratory information management systems (LIMS)
Lakes, heat transfer
Laminar flow
air
fluids
Large eddy simulation (LES), turbulence modeling
Laser Doppler anemometers (LDA)
Laser Doppler velocimeters (LDV)
Latent energy change materials
Laundries
evaporative cooling
in justice facilities
service water heating
LCR. See Load collector ratio (LCR)
LD50‚ mean lethal dose
LDA. See Laser Doppler anemometers (LDA)
LDV. See Laser Doppler velocimeters (LDV)
LE. See Life expectancy (LE) rating
Leakage
air-handling unit
ducts
HVAC air systems
responsibilities
sealants
testing
Leakage function, relationship
Leak detection of refrigerants
methods
Legionella pneumophila
air washersIndex Terms
Legionella pneumophila (Cont.)
control
cooling towers
evaporative coolers
hospitals
Legionnaires’ disease
service water systems
Legionnaires’ disease. See Legionella pneumophila
LES. See Large eddy simulation (LES)
Lewis relation
Libraries. See Museums, galleries, archives, and libraries
Life expectancy (LE) rating, film
Lighting
cooling load
greenhouses
heat gain
plant environments
sensors
Light measurement
LIMS. See Laboratory information
management systems (LIMS)
Linde cycle
Liquefied natural gas (LNG)
vaporization systems
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
Liquid overfeed (recirculation) systems
ammonia refrigeration systems
circulating rate
evaporators
line sizing
liquid separators
overfeed rate
pump selection
receiver sizing
recirculation
refrigerant distribution
terminology
Lithium bromide/waterIndex Terms
Lithium chloride
Load calculations
altitude effects
cargo containers
coils, air-cooling and dehumidifying
computer calculation
humidification
hydronic systems
internal heat load
nonresidential
precooling fruits and vegetables
refrigerated facilities
air exchange
direct flow through doorways
equipment
infiltration
internal
product
transmission
residential cooling
residential heat balance (RHB) method
residential load factor (RLF) method
residential heating
snow-melting systems
Load collector ratio (LCR)
Local exhaust. See Exhaust
Loss coefficients
control valves
duct fitting database
fittings
flexible ducts
Louvers
Low-temperature water (LTW) system
LPG. See Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
LTW. See Low-temperature water (LTW) system
Lubricants
(See also Lubrication; Oil)
additivesIndex Terms
Lubricants (Cont.)
ammonia refrigeration
component characteristics
evaporator return
halocarbon refrigeration
compressor floodback protection
liquid indicators
lubricant management
moisture indicators
purge units
receivers
refrigerant driers
separators
strainers
surge drums or accumulators
mineral oil
aromatics
naphthenes (cycloparaffins)
nonhydrocarbons
paraffins
miscibility
moisture content
properties
floc point
viscosity
refrigerant
contamination
sampling
solutions
requirements
retrofitting
separators
solubility
air
hydrocarbon gases
refrigerant solutions
water
testing
wax separationIndex Terms
Lubrication
combustion turbines
compressors
centrifugal
reciprocating
rotary
single-screw
twin-screw
engines
M
Mach number
Maintenance. (See also Operation and maintenance)
absorption units
air cleaners
air conditioners, retail store
air washers
Automated fault detection and diagnostics (AFDD)
chillers
coils
air-cooling and dehumidifying
air-heating
combined heat and power (CHP) systems
commissioning
condensers
air-cooled
evaporative
water-cooled
cooking equipment
coolers, liquid
cooling towers
costs
documentation
energy recovery equipment
evaporative coolers
filters, air
gaseous air cleaners
industrial air-conditioning systemsIndex Terms
Maintenance (Cont.)
infrared heaters
kitchen ventilation systems
laboratory HVAC equipment
liquid chillers
makeup air units
manual
renovations and retrofits
solar energy systems
staffing
training
turbines
combustion
steam
unit heaters
Makeup air units
applications
codes
commissioning
controls
design
maintenance
selection
standards
types
Malls
Manometers, differential pressure readout
Manufactured homes
airflow modeling example
Masonry, insulation
(See also Building envelopes)
Mass transfer
convection
eddy diffusion
Lewis relation
energy recovery, air-to-air
heat transfer simultaneous with
air washersIndex Terms
Mass transfer
heat transfer simultaneous with (Cont.)
cooling coils
cooling towers
dehumidifying coils
direct-contact equipment
enthalpy potential
molecular diffusion
in liquids and solids
two-film theory
Mass-transit systems
buses
bus garages
bus terminals
diesel locomotive facilities
enclosed vehicular facilities
environmental control
fixed-guideway vehicles
rail cars
rapid transit
stations
thermal comfort
thermal load analysis
tunnels
railroad
rapid transit
subway
ventilation
McLeod gages
Mean infectious dose (ID50)
Mean lethal dose (LD50)
Mean radiant temperature (MRT)
Mean temperature difference
Measurement
(See also Instruments)
air exchange rates
airflow
air infiltrationIndex Terms
Measurement (Cont.)
air leakage
airtightness
carbon dioxide
combustion analysis
contaminants
data acquisition
electricity
fluid flow
gaseous contaminants
heat transfer in insulation
humidity
light levels
moisture content
in refrigeration systems
moisture transfer
odors
pressure
rotative speed
sound
temperature
thermal comfort
uncertainty analysis
velocity
vibration
Meat
display refrigerators
food processing
frozen
packaged fresh cuts
processing facilities
boxed beef
carcass coolers
energy conservation
pork trimmings
processed meats
sanitation
shipping docks
variety meatsIndex Terms
Meat (Cont.)
retail storage
thermal properties
Mechanical equipment room, central
central fan room
floor-by-floor fan rooms
floor-by-floor units
multiple floors
Mechanical traps, steam systems
Medium-temperature water (MTW) system
Megatall buildings
Meshes, for computational fluid dynamics
refining
Metabolic rate
Metals and alloys, low-temperature
Microbial growth
Microbial volatile organic chemicals (MVOCs)
Microbiology of foods
Microphones
Mines
heat sources
mechanical refrigeration plants
spot coolers
ventilation
wall rock heat flow
Modeling. (See also Data-driven modeling; Energy, modeling)
airflow
around buildings
in buildings
contaminant transport
multizone
turbulence
wind tunnels
boilers
compressor
condenser and evaporator
controls
cooling towerIndex Terms
Modeling (Cont.)
moisture in buildings
systems
thermal (hot-box method)
validation
Moist air
psychrometrics
thermodynamic properties
standard pressure
temperature scale
transport properties
viscosity
Moisture (See also Humidity)
in animal facilities
barriers
in buildings
in building materials
capacity
combustion
condensation
content
control
terminology
diffusivity
farm crops content
flow
and air- and heat flow
isothermal
mechanisms
modeling
flux
hygrothermal modeling
in insulation
for refrigeration piping
measurement
meters
paint, effects on
permeabilityIndex Terms
Moisture (Cont.)
permeance
problems, in buildings
ratio
in refrigerant systems
control
desiccants
driers
drying methods
effects
hydrocarbon gases’ solubility
indicators
lubricant solubility
measurement
solubility
sources
solar vapor drive
sorption isotherms
storage in building materials
transfer
examples
transient
transmission data
water vapor retarders
Mold
Mold-resistant gypsum board
Montreal Protocol
Morgues
Motors
air volume control
bearing currents, VFD-induced
codes
compressors
controls
current imbalance
efficiency
evaporative cooling
field assembly and refrigerant contaminationIndex Terms
Motors (Cont.)
furnaces, residential
general purpose
harmonics
hermetic
burnout
impedance
induction
integral thermal protection
inverter duty
noise
operation above base speed
power factor correction capacitors
power supply (ac)
protection
pumps, centrifugal
service factor
standards
starting, and electricity
switching times
torque
in variable-frequency drives
voltage imbalance
Movie theaters
MRT. See Mean radiant temperature (MRT)
Multifamily residences
Multiple-use complexes
air conditioning
design criteria
load characteristics
systems
energy inefficient
total energy
Multisplit unitary equipment
Multizone airflow modeling
applications example
approaches
verification and validationIndex Terms
Museums, galleries, archives, and libraries
air distribution
air filtration
artifact deterioration
building construction
dehumidification
exhibit cases
humidification
mold growth
outside air
relative humidity, effect on artifacts
system selection
temperature, effect on artifacts
MVOCs. See Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs)
N
Natatoriums. (See also Swimming pools)
air conditioning
dehumidifiers
duct design
envelope design
load estimation
pool water chemistry
ventilation requirements
Natural gas
liquefaction
liquefied
pipe sizing
processing
separation
Navier-Stokes equations
Reynolds-averaged
NC curves. See Noise criterion (NC) curves
Net positive suction head (NPSH)
Night setback, recovery
Nitrogen
liquid
recoveryIndex Terms
Noise
(See also Sound)
air conditioners, room
combustion
compressors
centrifugal
scroll
single-screw
condensing units
control, with insulation
controls
engine test facilities
fans
fluid flow
health effects
valves
water pipes
Noise criterion (NC) curves
Noncondensable gases
condensers, water-cooled
refrigerant contamination
NPSH. See Net positive suction head (NPSH)
NTU. See Number of transfer units (NTU)
Nuclear facilities
air filtration
codes
criticality
decommissioning
Department of Energy facilities requirements
confinement systems
ventilation
fire protection
HVAC design considerations
Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements
boiling water reactors
laboratories
medical and research reactors
other buildings and rooms
power plants
pressurized water reactorsIndex Terms
Nuclear facilities (Cont.)
radioactive waste facilities
safety design
standards
terminology
tornado and wind protection
Number of transfer units (NTU)
cooling towers
heat transfer
Nursing facilities
service water heating
Nuts, storage
O
Odors
analytical measurement
control of, in industrial exhaust gas cleaning
factors affecting
odor units
olf unit
sense of smell
sensory measurement
acceptability
sources
suprathreshold intensity
threshold
ODP. See Ozone depletion potential (ODP)
Office buildings
air conditioning
space requirements
service water heating
Oil, fuel
characteristics
distillate oils
handling
heating value
pipe sizing
preparationIndex Terms
Oil, fuel (Cont.)
residual oils
storage buildings
storage tanks
sulfur content
viscosity
Oil. (See also Lubricants)
in refrigerant systems
in two-phase flow
Olf unit
One-pipe systems
chilled-water
steam convection heating
1993 Fundamentals, Chapter 33, pp. 18-19
(See explanation on first page of index.)
Operating costs
Operation and maintenance
(See also Maintenance)
automated fault detection and diagnostics (AFDD)
commissioning
compressors
desiccant dehumidifiers
documentation
industrial exhaust systems
exhaust gas cleaning equipment
laboratory HVAC equipment
manuals
new technology
renovations and retrofits
responsibilities
staffing
training
Optimization
applications
dynamic
static
dynamic
staticIndex Terms
Outdoor air, free cooling
cooling towers
liquid chillers
Outpatient health care facilities
Owning costs
Oxygen
in aircraft cabins
liquid
recovery
Ozone
activated carbon air cleaner
in aircraft cabins
catalytic converters
limits
electronic air filters
health effects
P
Packaged terminal air conditioners (PTACs)
residential
Packaged terminal heat pumps (PTHPs)
residential
PACs. See Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC)
PAH. See Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
Paint, and moisture problems
Panel heating and cooling
(See also Radiant heating and cooling)
advantages
air-heated/cooled panels
capillary tube mats
control
cooling
design
calculations
disadvantages
electric heating systems
ceiling
floor
wallIndex Terms
Panel heating and cooling (Cont.)
heat flux
combined
natural convection
thermal radiation
heating
hybrid HVAC
hydronic systems
ceiling
design considerations
distribution and layout
floor
wall
Paper
moisture content
photographic
storage
Paper products facilities
air conditioning
conduction drying
control rooms
evaporative cooling
finishing area
machine area
system selection
testing laboratories
Paraffins
Parallel compressor systems
Particulate matter, indoor air quality (IAQ)
Pasteurization
beverages
dairy products
eggs
juices
Peak dew point
Peanuts, drying
PEL. See Permissible exposure limits (PEL)
Performance contractingIndex Terms
Performance monitoring
Permafrost stabilization
Permeability
clothing
vapor
water vapor
Permeance
air
thickness
water vapor
Permissible exposure limits (PELs)
Personal environmental control (PEC) systems
Pharmaceutical manufacturing cleanrooms
Pharmacies
Phase-change materials, thermal storage of
Photographic materials
processing and printing requirements
storage
unprocessed materials
Photovoltaic (PV) systems
(See also Solar energy)
Physical properties of materials
boiling points
density
liquids
solids
vapors
emissivity of solids
freezing points
heat of fusion
heat of vaporization
solids
specific heat
liquids
solids
vapors
thermal conductivity
solids
vaporsIndex Terms
Physical properties of materials (Cont.)
viscosity
liquids
vapors
Physiological principles, humans. (See also Comfort)
adaptation
age
body surface area (DuBois)
clothing
cooling load
DuBois equation
energy balance
heat stress
heat transfer coefficients
convective
evaporative
Lewis relation
radiative
hypothalamus
hypothermia
latent heat loss
mechanical efficiency
metabolic rate
models
respiratory heat loss
seasonal rhythms
sensible heat loss
sex
skin heat loss
skin wettedness
thermal exchanges
thermoregulation
vasodilation
Pigs. See Swine
Pipes
(See also Piping)
buried, heat transfer analysis
codesIndex Terms
Pipes (Cont.)
cold springing
computer analysis
copper tube
expansion
expansion bends
expansion joints
expansion loops
fittings
fluid flow
heat transfer analysis
insulation
hangers
installation
underground
iron
joining methods
plastic
selection
sizing
ammonia systems capacity tables
fittings
fuel oil
gas
hydronic systems
insulation and vapor retarders
isolated line sections
pressure drop equations
refrigerant, retail food store refrigeration
service water
steam
valves
water
standards, fittings
steel
stress calculations
supporting elementsIndex Terms
Piping. (See also Pipes)
boilers
capacity tables
codes
cooling towers
district heating and cooling
distribution system
heat transfer
hydraulics
insulation thickness
leak detection
valve vaults
geothermal energy systems
heat carrying capacity
hydronic snow melting
insulation
radiant panels, hydronic
refrigerant
ammonia systems
below-ambient
halocarbon systems
heat gain limits
insulation
jacketing
pipe preparation
supports and hangers
vapor retarders
service hot water
solar energy
sound
control
transmission
standards
system identification
systems
ammonia refrigerationIndex Terms
Piping
systems (Cont.)
halocarbon refrigeration
capacity tables
compressor
defrost gas supply lines
discharge lines
double hot-gas risers
draining prevention
evaporator
gas velocity
hot-gas
(discharge) mufflers
bypass
insulation
liquid cooler, flooded
location and arrangement
minimum gas velocities
oil transport up risers
refrigerant feed devices
single riser and oil separator
vibration and noise
solar energy
steam
water
unit heaters
vibration control
vibration transmission
Pitot-static tubes
Pitot tubes
Places of assembly
air conditioning
air distribution
air filtration
air stratification
arenas
atriums
auditoriumsIndex Terms
Places of assembly (Cont.)
concert halls
convention centers
exhibition centers
fairs
gymnasiums
houses of worship
lighting loads
mechanical equipment rooms
movie theaters
natatoriums
playhouses
precooling
sound control
space conditions
stadiums
temporary exhibit buildings
vibration control
Planes. See Aircraft
Plank’s equation
Plant environments
controlled-environment rooms
design
greenhouses
carbon dioxide enrichment
cooling
energy conservation
evaporative cooling
heating
heat loss calculation
humidity control
photoperiod control
shading
site selection
supplemental irradiance
ventilation
other facilities
photoperiod controlIndex Terms
Plant environments (Cont.)
phytotrons
plant growth chambers
supplemental irradiance
Plenums
construction
mixing
sound attenuation
stratification in
PMV. See Predicted mean vote (PMV)
Police stations
Pollutant transport modeling. See Contaminants,
indoor, concentration prediction
Pollution, air, and combustion
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
Polydimethylsiloxane
Ponds, spray
Pope cell
Positive building pressure
Positive positioners
Potatoes
processed
storage
Poultry. (See also Animal environments; Chickens; Turkeys)
chilling
decontamination
freezing
packaging
processing
processing plant sanitation
recommended environment
refrigeration, retail
storage
tenderness control
thawing
Power grid
Power-law airflow modelIndex Terms
Power plants
buildings
oil pump
oil storage
steam generator
turbine generator
coal-handling facilities
combined heat and power (CHP)
combustion turbine areas
control center
cooling
design criteria
dust collectors
evaporative cooling
fuel cells
heating
safety
substations
switchyard control structures
turbines
combustion
steam
ventilation
rates
PPD. See Predicted percent dissatisfied (PPD)
Prandtl number
Precooling
buildings
flowers, cut
fruits and vegetables, load calculation
indirect evaporative
places of assembly
Predicted mean vote (PMV)
comfort
Predicted percent dissatisfied (PPD)
Preschools
Pressure
absoluteIndex Terms
Pressure (Cont.)
aircraft cabins
clean spaces
differential
conversion to head
hospitals
readout
dynamic
gage
measurement
sensors
smoke control
stairwells
static control
steam systems
units
vacuum
Pressure drop. (See also Darcy-Weisbach equation)
correlations
district heating and cooling
pipe sizing
in plate heat exchangers
two-phase fluid flow
Primary-air systems
Printing plants
air conditioning
air filtration
binding areas
collotype printing rooms
letterpress areas
lithographic pressrooms
paper moisture content control
platemaking rooms
relief printing areas
rotogravure pressrooms
salvage systems
shipping areas
ink dryingIndex Terms
Prisons
Produce
desiccation
deterioration rate
display refrigerators
Product load
Propane
commercial
furnaces, residential
Propylene glycol, hydronic systems
Psychrometers
Psychrometrics
air handlers
altitude effects
chart
adiabatic mixing
heat absorption and moisture gain
moist air, cooling and heating
thermodynamic properties
evaporative cooling systems
humidity parameters
industrial drying
moist air
standard atmosphere, U.S.
thermal conductivity
thermodynamic properties
transport properties
viscosity
perfect gas equations
water at saturation, thermodynamic properties
PTACs. See Packaged terminal air conditioners (PTACs)
PTHPs. See Packaged terminal heat pumps (PTHPs)
Public buildings. See Commercial and public
buildings; Places of assembly
Pumps
centrifugal
affinity laws
antifreeze effect onIndex Terms
Pumps
centrifugal (Cont.)
arrangement
compound
pumping
standby pump
two-speed motors
casing
cavitation
commissioning
construction
efficiency, best efficiency point (BEP)
energy conservation
impellers, trimming
installation
mixing
motors
operation
performance
power
radial thrust
selection
types
variable-speed
chilled-water
sequencing
condenser water
as fluid flow indicators
geothermal wells
lineshaft
submersible
horsepower
hydronic snow melting
liquid overfeed systems
solar energy systems
systems, water
variable-speed
Purge units, centrifugal chillersIndex Terms
R
Radiant heating and cooling
(See also Panel heating and cooling)
applications
asymmetry
beam heating design
control
design
direct infrared
equations
floor reradiation
infrared
beam heater design
control
efficiency
electric
energy conservation
gas-fired
indirect
maintenance
oil-fired
precautions
reflectors
installation
intensity
panels
applications
control
heating
hydronic systems
radiation patterns
snow-melting systems
terminology
adjusted dry-bulb temperature
ambient temperature
angle factor
effective radiant flux (ERF)
fixture efficiencyIndex Terms
Radiant heating and cooling
terminology (Cont.)
mean radiant temperature (MRT)
operative temperature
pattern efficiency
radiant flux distribution
radiation-generating ratio
test instruments
total space heating
Radiant time series (RTS) method
factors
load calculations, nonresidential
Radiation
atmospheric
diffuse
electromagnetic
ground-reflected
optical waves
radiant balance
radio waves
solar
thermal
angle factors
blackbody
black surface
display cases
energy transfer
exchange between surfaces
in gases
gray
heat transfer
infrared
Kirchoff’s law
monochromatic emissive power
nonblack
spectral emissive power
transientIndex Terms
Radiators
design
nonstandard condition corrections
types
Radioactive gases, contaminants
Radiometers
Radon
control
indoor concentrations
removal
Rail cars
air conditioning
air distribution
heaters
vehicle types
Rail cars
(See also Cargo containers)
Railroad tunnels, ventilation
design
diesel locomotive facilities
equipment
locomotive cooling requirements
tunnel aerodynamics
tunnel purge
Rain, and building envelopes
RANS. See Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation
Rapid-transit systems. See Mass-transit systems
Rayleigh number
RC curves. See Room criterion (RC) curves
Receivers
ammonia refrigeration systems, high-pressure
halocarbon refrigerant
liquid overfeed systems
Recycling refrigerants
Refrigerant/absorbent pairs
Refrigerant control devices
air conditioners
automobile air conditioningIndex Terms
Refrigerant control devices (Cont.)
capillary tubes
coolers, liquid
heat pumps
system
unitary
lubricant separators
pressure transducers
sensors
short-tube restrictors
switches
differential control
float
pressure control
valves, control
check
condenser pressure regulators
condensing water regulators
expansion
electric
expansion
float
pressure relief devices
solenoid
suction pressure regulators
Refrigerants
absorption solutions
ammonia F3
chemical reactions
refrigeration system practices
refrigeration systems
ammonia/water
analysis
automobile air conditioning
azeotropic
bakeries
carbon dioxide F3
refrigeration systemsIndex Terms
Refrigerants (Cont.)
cascade refrigeration systems
charge minimization
chemical evaluation techniques
compatibility with materials
computer analysis
contaminants in
cryogenic fluids F3
effect on materials
emissions
environmental acceptability
flammability
halocarbons
azeotropic blends
charge minimization
ethane series F3
flow rate
hydrolysis
methane series
propane series
propylene series F3
refrigeration system practices
thermal stability
zeotropic blends F3
hydrocarbons
ethane F3
ethylene F3
isobutane F3
methane F3
n-butane F3
propane F3
propylene F3
insulation for piping
leak detection
lines, oil management
lithium bromide/water
lubricant solutions
moisture inIndex Terms
Refrigerants (Cont.)
performance
phaseout, costs
piping
pressure drop
discharge lines
suction lines
properties
electrical
global environmental
physical
rail car air conditioning
reclamation
removing contaminants
recovery
recycling
safety
classifications
sampling
sound velocity
sustainability
system chemistry
system reactions
systems, lubricants
thermodynamic properties
thermophysical properties
transport properties
water/steam F3
zeotropic
Refrigerant transfer units (RTU), liquid chillers
Refrigerated facilities
air handling and purification
automated
construction
controlled-atmosphere storage
controls
design
building configurationIndex Terms
Refrigerated facilities
design (Cont.)
initial building considerations
location
shipping and receiving docks
single-story structures
specialized storage facilities
stacking arrangement
utility space
freezers
insulation
load calculations
refrigerated rooms
refrigeration systems
condensate drains
defrosting
fan-coil units
multiple installations
unitary
valves
sanitation
temperature pulldown
vapor retarders
Refrigeration
(See also Absorption; Adsorption)
absorption cycle
adsorption cycle
air coolers, forced-circulation
air transport
ammonia systems
compressors
controls
converting systems
equipment
liquid recirculation (overfeed)
lubricant management
multistage systems
pipingIndex Terms
Refrigeration
ammonia systems (Cont.)
safety
system selection
two-stage screw compressor
valves
vessels
autocascade systems
azeotropic mixture
beverage plants
biomedical applications
breweries
carbon dioxide systems
cascade systems
chemical industry
coefficient of performance (COP)
compression cycles
Carnot cycle
Lorenz cycle
multistage
zeotropic mixture
concrete
condensers, cascade
food
eggs and egg products
fish
vegetables
food processing facilities
banana ripening rooms
control of microorganisms
meat plants
food service equipment
fruits, fresh
halocarbon systems
accessories
charge minimization
heat exchangers
lubricant managementIndex Terms
Refrigeration
halocarbon systems (Cont.)
refrigerant receivers
subcoolers
valves
heat reclaim, service water heating
ice rinks
insulation
liquid overfeed systems
loads
low-temperature
autocascade systems
cascade systems
heat transfer
material selection
secondary coolants
single-refrigerant systems
lubricant coolers
marine
fishing vessels
ships’ stores
refrigerant systems chemistry
refrigerated-facility design
retail food store systems
secondary coolant systems
applications
coolant selection
design
soils, subsurface
systems
charging, factory
component balancing
contaminant control
sampling
dehydration, factory
design balance points
energy and mass balance
moisture inIndex Terms
Refrigeration
systems (Cont.)
performance
testing, factory
ultralow-temperature
wineries
Refrigeration oils
(See also Lubricants)
Refrigerators
commercial
blast
energy efficiency
freezers
temperatures
types
cryocoolers
food service
household
absorption cycle
cabinets
defrosting
durability
ice makers
performance evaluation
refrigerating systems
safety
mortuary
retail food store
display
storage
walk-in
Regulators. (See also Valves)
condenser pressure
condensing water
draft
pressure, steam
suction pressure
Residential health care facilitiesIndex Terms
Residential systems
air cleaners
air leakage
calculation
climatic infiltration zones
codes
dehumidifiers
duct construction
equipment sizing
forced-air systems
design
distribution design
ducts
efficiency testing
furnace
zone control
furnaces
gas burners
heating and cooling systems
humidifiers
kitchen ventilation
materials
oil burners
ventilation
water heating
Resistance, thermal
(See also R-values)
calculation
contact
of flat assembly
of flat building components
overall
radiant panels
surface film
Resistance temperature devices (RTDs)
Resistivity, thermal
Resource utilization factor (RUF)
Respiration of fruits and vegetablesIndex Terms
Restaurants
energy conservation
kitchen ventilation
service water heating
Retail facilities
air conditioning
convenience centers
department stores
design considerations
discount and big-box stores
load determination
malls
multiple-use complexes
refrigeration
shopping centers
small stores
supermarkets
refrigerators
service water heating
Retrofit performance monitoring
Retrofitting refrigerant systems, contaminant control
Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation
airflow around buildings simulation
Reynolds number
Rice, drying
RMS. See Root mean square (RMS)
Road tunnels
carbon monoxide
allowable concentrations
analyzers and recorders
computer analysis
vehicle emissions
ventilation
air quantities
computer analysis
controls
ducts
emergency
air quantitiesIndex Terms
Road tunnels
ventilation (Cont.)
enclosed facility
enhancements
equipment
hybrid
mechanical
natural
normal air quantities
normal conditions
pressure evaluation
temporary
Roof overhang
Roofs, U-factors
Room air distribution
air terminals
chilled beams
classification
fully stratified
mixed
occupant comfort
occupied zone
partially mixed
Room criterion (RC) curves
Root mean square (RMS)
Roughness factors, ducts
RTDs. See Resistance temperature devices (RTDs)
RTS. See Radiant time series (RTS)
RTU. See Refrigerant transfer units (RTU)
RUF. See Resource utilization factor (RUF)
Rusting, of building components
R-values
(See also Resistance, thermal)
zone method of calculation
S
Safety
air cleanersIndex Terms
Safety (Cont.)
automatic controls
burners
chemical plants
cryogenic equipment
electrical
filters, air
industrial exhaust gas cleaning
nuclear facilities
refrigerants
service water heating
solar energy systems
thermal insulation and fires
thermal insulation for
UVGI systems
water systems
wood stoves
Sanitation
food production facilities
control of microorganisms
egg processing
HACCP
meat processing
poultry processing
regulations and standards
refrigerated storage facilities
Savings-to-investment-ratio (SIR)
Scale
control
humidifiers
service water systems
water treatment
scaling indices
Schneider system
Schools
air conditioning
service water heating
elementary
high schoolsIndex Terms
Security. See Chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive (CBRE) incidents
Seeds, storage
Seismic restraint
anchor bolts
design
design calculations
examples A
static analysis
duct construction
dynamic analysis
installation problems
snubbers
terminology
weld capacities
Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs)
Sensors
automatic controls
location
Separators, lubricant
Service water heating
combined heat and power (CHP)
commercial and institutional
corrosion
design considerations
distribution system
for commercial kitchens
manifolding
piping
pressure differential
return pump sizing
two-temperature service
geothermal energy
indirect
industrial
Legionella pneumophila
pipe sizing
requirementsIndex Terms
Service water heating (Cont.)
residential
safety
scale
sizing water heaters
instantaneous and semi-instantaneous
storage heaters
solar energy
steam
system planning
thermal storage
water heating equipment
placement
sizing
types
water quality
SES. See Subway environment simulation (SES) program
Shading
devices, indoor
fenestration
Ships
air conditioning
air distribution
controls
design criteria
equipment selection
systems
cargo holds
cargo refrigeration
coils
ducts
fish freezing
fish refrigeration
icing
refrigerated seawater
merchant
naval surface
refrigerated storesIndex Terms
Ships (Cont.)
refrigeration systems
regulatory agencies
Shooting ranges, indoor
Short-tube restrictors
Single-duct systems, all-air
SIR. See Savings-to-investment ratio (SIR)
Skating rinks
Skylights, and solar heat gain
Slab heating
Slab-on-grade foundations
SLR. See Solar-load ratio (SLR)
Smart building systems
actuators
diagnostics
levels of intelligence
Smart grid
basics
interconnections
sensors
strategy
Smoke control
acceptance testing
atriums
commissioning
compartmentation
computer analysis
design fires
dilution
elevators
extraordinary incidents
fire and smoke dampers
fire management
hospitals
pressurization
rapid-transit systems
road tunnelsIndex Terms
Smoke control (Cont.)
smoke movement
buoyancy
elevator piston effect
expansion
forced ventilation
stack effect
wind
stairwells
analysis
compartmentation
open doors
pressurized
tenability systems
testing
weather data
zones
Snow-melting systems
back and edge heat losses
control
electric system design
constant wattage systems
electrical equipment
gutters and downspouts
heat flux
idling
heating elements
infrared systems
installation
mineral insulated cable
free area ratio
freeze protection systems
heat balance
heating requirement
annual operating data
heat flux equations
hydronic and electric
load frequenciesIndex Terms
Snow-melting systems
heating requirement (Cont.)
surface size
transient heat flux
weather data
wind speed
hydronic system design
components
controls
fluid heater
heat transfer fluid
piping
pump selection
thermal stress
operating costs
slab design, hydronic and electric
snow detectors
Snubbers, seismic
Sodium chloride brines
Soft drinks
Software
AFDD
antispyware
custom programming
development tools
energy analysis
firewall
graphics
HVAC
readymade
road tunnel
terminology
utilities
Soils. (See also Earth)
stabilization
temperature calculation
thermal conductivityIndex Terms
Solar energy
(See also Solar heat gain; Solar radiation)
active systems
airflow
collectors
array design
concentrating
construction
design and installation
efficiency
flat plate
module design
mounting
performance
selection
testing
types
combi systems
constant
control
automatic temperature
differential temperature
hot-water dump
overtemperature protection
cooling systems
absorption refrigeration
sizing
types
design, installation, operation checklist
design values, solar irradiation
domestic hot water
equipment
f-Chart method
freeze protection
heat exchangers
external
freeze protectionIndex Terms
Solar energy
heat exchangers (Cont.)
internal
performance
requirements
heating systems
active
air
components
control
design
direct circulation
hybrid
indirect
integral collector storage systems
liquid
passive
pool heating
recirculation
residential
sizing
thermosiphon
heat pump systems
hybrid systems
hydraulics
installation
irradiation
maintenance
overheat protection
passive systems
photovoltaic (PV) systems
quality and quantity
radiation at earth’s surface
radiative cooling
safety
service water heating systems
sizing heating and cooling systemsIndex Terms
Solar energy (Cont.)
solar angles
solar-combi systems
solar time
spectrum
start-up procedure
thermal storage systems
short circuiting
sizing
time
types
uses
Solar heat gain
calculation
coefficient
residential load calculations
roof overhangs
skylights
Solar-load ratio (SLR)
Solar-optical glazing
Solar radiation
daylighting
flux
optical properties
Solid fuel
burners
coal
coke
Solvent drying, constant-moisture
Soot
Sorbents
Sorption isotherm
Sound
(See also Noise)
air outlets
attenuators
bandwidths
combustionIndex Terms
Sound (Cont.)
compressors
computerized analysis
cooling towers
ducts
loudness
measurement
basics
instrumentation
level meter
power
pressure
speed
terminology
bandwidths
controlling
decibel
frequency
frequency spectrum
intensity
level
loudness
pressure
quality
wavelength
testing
time averaging
transmission
humidity affecting
paths
troubleshooting
typical sources
unit heaters
Sound control
(See also Noise)
acoustical design of HVAC systems
air handlers
A-weighted sound level (dBA)Index Terms
Sound control (Cont.)
barriers
ceiling sound transmission
chillers
clean spaces
combustion turbines
cooling towers
data reliability
design
ducts
sound attenuation
enclosures
engines
engine test facilities
equipment sound levels
fans
fume hood duct design
hotels and motels
insertion loss
justice facilities
mechanical equipment rooms
noise criterion (NC) curves
outdoor equipment
piping
places of assembly
return air system sound transmission
rooftop air handlers
room criterion (RC) curves
room sound correction
standards
terminology
troubleshooting
variable-air-volume (VAV) systems
Soybeans, drying
Specific heat
equation
foods
liquids
materialsIndex Terms
Spot cooling
evaporative
industrial environments
makeup air units
mines
Spot heating
Stack effect
duct design
multizone airflow modeling
smoke movement
Stadiums
Stairwells, smoke control
Standard atmosphere, U.S.
Standards
(See also Codes)
air cleaners
air conditioners
packaged terminal
room
unitary
air distribution
boilers
chilled-beam system
chimneys, fireplaces, and gas vents
condensers
evaporative
water-cooled
coolers, liquid
dehumidifiers, room
duct construction
commercial
industrial
residential
electrical
filters, air
furnaces
heatersIndex Terms
Standards (Cont.)
heat pumps
packaged terminal
unitary
water-source
indoor air quality (IAQ)
liquid chillers
makeup air units
motors
nuclear facilities
pipe fittings
piping
sound control
tall buildings
ventilation
vibration control
Static electricity and humidity
Steam
quality
sources
testing, adjusting, balancing
thermophysical properties F3
Steam systems
air, effects of
boilers
classification
coils, air-heating
combined heat and power (CHP) distribution
combined steam and water
condensate removal
drainage and return
drip stations
return pipes
convection heating
design
piping
pressureIndex Terms
Steam systems (Cont.)
distribution
district heating and cooling
valve vaults
district heating and cooling
flash steam
percentage
flash tank
gas, effects of
generator buildings
heat exchangers
heating
heat recovery
direct recovery
flash steam
waste heat boilers
makeup air units
one-pipe systems
1993 Fundamentals, Chapter 33, pp. 18-19
(See explanation on first page of index.)
piping
distribution
Hartford loop
inlet orifices
return
sizing
supply
terminal equipment
temperature control
terminal equipment
forced-convection
natural convection
units
piping design
radiant panel
traps
turbines
two-pipe systemsIndex Terms
Steam systems (Cont.)
unit
heaters
ventilators
valves
pressure-reducing
safety
temperature control
water, effects of
Steam traps
Stefan-Boltzmann equation
Stevens’ law
Stirling cycle
Stokers
Storage
apples
controlled-atmosphere
bakery ingredients
candy
carbon dioxide
citrus
cold, facility design
compressed gases
controlled-atmosphere (CA)
cryogenic fluids
desiccant dehumidification
high-pressure
design, refrigerated-facility
eggs
farm crops
fish
fresh
frozen
flowers, cut
food, canned or dried
fruit
dried
freshIndex Terms
Storage (Cont.)
furs and fabrics
ice
meat products, frozen
milk
nursery stock
nuts
photographic materials
unprocessed
potatoes
poultry products
refrigerated-facility design
seeds
tanks, secondary coolant systems
vegetables
dried
wine
wood products
Stoves, heating
Stratification
of air
in places of assembly
in plenums
of water, in thermal storage tanks
Stroboscopes
Subcoolers
condensers
evaporative
water-cooled
two-stage
Subway environment simulation (SES) program
Subway systems. (See also Mass-transit systems)
car air conditioning
station air conditioning
ventilation
Suction risers
Sulfur content, fuel oils
Superconductivity, diamagnetismIndex Terms
Supertall buildings
Supervisory control
air-handling systems
air distribution
sequencing
set point reset
boilers
building temperature set point
night setback recovery
precooling
chilled-water pumps
chillers
load distribution
sequencing
computerized
cooling tower fans
cool thermal storage systems
ice storage control optimization
forecasting energy requirements
optimization methods
Supply air outlets
(See also Air outlets)
Surface effect. See Coanda effect
Surface transportation
automobiles
buses
fixed-guideway vehicles
rail cars
Surface water heat pump (SWHP)
heat exchanger
Sustainability
and air, noise, and water pollution
chimney
chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) production
climate
design process
energy resources
factors impactingIndex Terms
Sustainability (Cont.)
global warming
and green design
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
infiltration
in integrated building design
material resources
ozone
and refrigerant systems
renewable energy
and solid and liquid waste disposal
standards of care
unitary systems
ventilation
water use
SVFs. See Synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs)
SVOCs. See Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs)
SWHP. See Surface water heat pump (SWHP)
Swimming pools. (See also Natatoriums)
dehumidifiers
solar heating
water chemistry
water heating for
Swine, recommended environment
Symbols
Synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs)
T
Tachometers
Tall buildings
codes
HVAC design process
hydrostatic considerations
life safety
low-temperature air VAV systems
megatall buildings
refrigeration machine location
reverse stack effectIndex Terms
Tall buildings (Cont.)
stack effect
elevator doors
heating problems
manual doors
minimizing
smoke and odor propagation
standards
supertall buildings
system selection
underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems
vertical transportation
water distribution systems
Tanks, secondary coolant systems
Telecomunication facilities
air-conditioning systems
Temperature
ambient
changeover
dew-point
dry-bulb, adjusted
effective
humid operative
mean radiant
measurement
odors affected by
operative
plane radiant
radiant asymmetry
sensors
sol-air
and task performance
vertical differences
wet-bulb
wet-globe
wind chill index
Temperature-controlled transport
Temperature indexIndex Terms
Terminal units
air distribution
boxes
reheat
variable-air-volume (VAV)
bypass
ceiling
chilled beams
constant volume
dual-duct
fan-coil
fan-powered
humidifiers
induction
induction units
radiant floor heat
radiant panels
reheat
steam systems
throttling
unit ventilators
variable-air-volume (VAV)
Terminology, of refrigeration
Terrorism. See Chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive (CBRE) incidents
TES. See Thermal energy storage (TES)
Testing
air cleaners
air conditioners, packaged terminal
air leakage, fan pressurization
clean spaces
compressors
centrifugal
positive-displacement
condensers
evaporative
water-cooled
cooling towersIndex Terms
Testing (Cont.)
desiccant dehumidification for
duct efficiency
fans
filters, air
heaters
heat pumps
packaged terminal air conditioners (PTACs)
water-source
industrial exhaust systems
radiant heating system
refrigeration systems
compressor
leak detection
performance testing
refrigerators, household
smoke control systems
solar collectors
sound
instrumentation
procedure
transmission problems
vibration
equipment
instrumentation
isolators
piping transmission
procedure
Testing, adjusting, and balancing. (See also Balancing)
air diffusers
air distribution systems
reporting results
airflow measurement
balancing procedure
central plant chilled-water systems
cooling towers
design considerations
dual-duct systemsIndex Terms
Testing, adjusting, and balancing (Cont.)
duct design
energy audit field survey
fluid flow measurement
HVAC systems
hydronic systems
heat transfer vs. flow
water-side balancing
instrumentation
proportional method
rated differential method
sizing balancing valves
temperature difference method
total heat transfer method
induction systems
instruments
sound transmission problems
steam distribution systems
temperature controls
terminology
variable-air-volume (VAV) systems
TETD/TA. See Total equivalent temperature
differential method with time averaging (TETD/TA)
TEWI. See Total equivalent warning impact (TEWI)
Textile processing plants
air conditioning
air cleaning
air distribution
collector systems
health considerations
energy conservation
fabric making
fiber making
yarn making
TFM. See Transfer function method (TFM)
Theaters
Thermal bridges
Thermal comfort. See ComfortIndex Terms
Thermal emittance
Thermal energy storage (TES)
Thermally activated building systems (TABS)
Thermal properties
air spaces
of food
insulation materials
safety
Thermal resistivity
Thermal storage
applications
benefits
building mass
combined heat and power (CHP)
controls
sequence
strategies
cool storage
district cooling
district heating
district heating and cooling
electrically charged storage
brick storage heaters
central furnace
heat pump boosters
room units
underfloor heat
water heaters
equipment
cooling
heating
heat storage
ice
ice storage
charging and discharging
control optimization
encapsulated ice
harvesting systemIndex Terms
Thermal storage
ice storage (Cont.)
ice on coil
piping
slurries
industrial refrigeration
insulation
latent energy change
media
mission-critical operations
off-peak, heating
operation
phase-change materials
piping, ice storage
process cooling
retrofits
solar energy systems
system sizing
terminology
water storage
aquifers
performance
tank insulation
temperature range
thermal stratification
water heaters
water systems, medium- and high-temperature
water treatment
Thermal transmission data
Thermistors
Thermodynamics
absorption refrigeration cycles
bubble point
compressed liquid
compression refrigeration cycles
cooling and freezing of foods
cycleIndex Terms
Thermodynamics (Cont.)
dew point
dry saturated vapor
enthalpy
entropy
equations of state
laws
liquid
multicomponent systems
principles
process
properties
calculation
zeotropic mixture
pure substance
of refrigerants
refrigeration cycle analysis
saturated liquid or vapor
subcooled liquid
superheated vapor
terminology
vapor
Thermometers
black globe
error sources
infrared
radiometers
thermography
liquid-in-glass
resistance
semiconductors
temperature devices (RTDs)
thermistors
thermocouples
Thermopile
Thermosiphons
heat exchangers
solar energy systemsIndex Terms
Thermostats
heater control
heating/cooling
location
types
Three-pipe distribution
Tobacco smoke
contaminants
environmental (ETS)
Tollbooths
air quality criteria
ventilation
Total equivalent temperature differential
method with time averaging (TETD/TA)
Trailers and trucks, refrigerated
(See also Cargo containers)
Transducers, pneumatic pressure
Transfer function method (TFM)
Transmittance, thermal
of flat building component
thermal bridging
Transmitters, pneumatic pressure
Transpiration
Transportation centers
commercial and public buildings
ventilation
Transport properties of refrigerants
Traps
ammonia refrigeration systems
liquid level indicators
purge units
suction accumulator
vertical suction
steam systems
thermostatic
Trucks, refrigerated
(See also Cargo containers)Index Terms
Tuning automatic control systems
Tunnels, vehicular
fires
railroad
rapid transit
road
Turbines
benefits
chiller systems
absorption
mechanical
thermal energy storage (TES)
combustion
Brayton cycle
components
controls
dual-shaft
emissions
evaporative cooling applications
exhaust gas systems
fuels
heat recovery
inlet cooling
instruments
lubrication
maintenance
noise control
performance
single-shaft
split-shaft
starting systems
thermal output
engine test facilities, gas
expansion
fogging
gas
evaporative cooling
hybridIndex Terms
Turbines (Cont.)
microturbines
steam
applications
axial flow
heat recovery
maintenance
wet compression
wetted media
Turbochargers, heat recovery
Turbulence modeling
identification
Turbulent flow, fluids
Turndown ratio, design capacity
Two-node model, for thermal comfort
Two-pipe systems
air-to-transmission ratio
central ventilation
changeover temperature
chilled-water
electric heat
nonchangeover design
steam convection heating
zoning
U
U.S. Marshal spaces
U-factor
center-of-glass
doors
edge-of-glass
fenestration products
of flat building assembly
frame
thermal transmittance
windows
Ultralow-penetration air (ULPA) filtersIndex Terms
Ultraviolet (UV) lamp systems
in-duct
lamps
germicidal
cooling and heating effects
maintenance
photodegradation
safety
surface disinfection
terminology
upper-air
Ultraviolet air and surface treatment
Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI)
[See also Ultraviolet (UV) lamp systems]
in health care facilities
terminology
Uncertainty analysis
measurement
statistical regression
Underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems
Unitary systems
floor-by-floor systems
heat pumps
outdoor equipment
self-contained
split systems
through-the-wall
window-mounted
Unit heaters. See Heaters
Units and conversions
Unit ventilators
Utility interfacing, electric
Utility rates
demand response
UV. See Ultraviolet (UV) lamp systems
UVGI. See Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI)Index Terms
V
Vacuum cooling, of fruits and vegetables
Validation, of airflow modeling
Valves
(See also Regulators)
actuators
ammonia refrigeration systems
control
relief
solenoid
stop
authority
automatic
actuators
applications
control
expansion
flow characteristics
sizing
types
backflow-prevention devices
balancing
sizing
body styles
cavitation
check
compressors, reciprocating
condensing-pressure-regulating
constant-pressure expansion
control valves
coefficient
discharge bypass
expansion
constant-pressure
electric
thermostatic
float control
flow coefficientIndex Terms
Valves (Cont.)
friction losses
geothermal energy
halocarbon refrigeration systems
equivalent lengths
float control
hydronic systems
control
safety relief
manual
selection
materials
multiple-purpose
noise
pressure drop
pressure-reducing makeup water
pressure relief
safety
ratings
refrigerant control
regulating and throttling
safety
solar energy systems
solenoid
steam system
stop-check
suction pressure regulating
thermostatic
water hammer
zone control
Vaporization systems
liquefied natural gas (LNG)
Vapor pressure
Vapor retarders, jackets
Variable-air-volume (VAV) systems
all-air
dual-duct
single-ductIndex Terms
Variable-air-volume (VAV) systems (Cont.)
control
diversity
dual-duct systems
duct static pressure control
fan
selection
sequencing
unstable operation
humidity control
museums, galleries, archives, and libraries
pressure-dependent systems
pressure-independent systems
single-duct
sound control
static pressure control
static pressure reset
system types
terminal boxes
testing, adjusting, balancing
variable-speed drives
versus constant air volume (CAV)
Variable-frequency drives
and bearing currents
carrier frequencies
conductor impedance
control
generator-powered
harmonic disturbances
motors
impedance
pulse width modulation
transistors
voltage waveform distortion
Variable refrigerant flow (VRF)
applications
life-cycle analysis tools
life-cycle operating costsIndex Terms
Variable refrigerant flow (VRF) (Cont.)
multisplit system
system design example
VAV. See Variable-air-volume (VAV) systems
Vegetables
air transport
cooling
deterioration rate
display refrigerators
dried, storage
frozen
refrigeration
storage
thermal properties
transport
Vehicles
ac- or dc-powered, transit
design
equipment attachment provisions
sanitation
temperature-controlled
use
Vena contracta
Vending machines
Ventilation
age of air
air change effectiveness
aircraft
air exchange rate
airflow
animal environments
bus garages
bus terminals
cargo containers
climatic infiltration zones
dilution
displacement
driving mechanismsIndex Terms
Ventilation (Cont.)
effectiveness
engine test facilities
forced
garages, residential
gaseous contaminant removal
greenhouses
health care facilities
hospitals
nursing facilities
outpatient
hybrid
indoor air quality (IAQ)
industrial environments
exhaust systems
kitchens
laboratories
latent heat load
leakage function
mechanical
mines
multiple spaces
natatoriums
natural
airflow
guidelines
stack effect
wind
nuclear facilities
odor dilution
power plants
railroad tunnels
rapid-transit systems
residential
road tunnels
roof ventilators
security concerns
sensible heat loadIndex Terms
Ventilation (Cont.)
ships
shooting ranges, indoor
standards
tear gas and pepper spray
terminology
thermal loads
tollbooths
wind effect on
Ventilators
roof
unit
capacity
control
location
selection
types
Venting
altitude effects
furnaces
gas appliances
oil-fired appliances
Verification, of airflow modeling
Vessels, ammonia refrigeration systems
Vibration
compressors
centrifugal
positive-displacement
scroll
single-screw
control
air handlers
clean spaces
criteria
data reliability
ducts
engines
equipment vibration
analysisIndex Terms
Vibration
control (Cont.)
fans
floor flexibility
isolators
noise
resonance
specifications
testing
piping
connectors
noise
resilient hangers and supports
places of assembly
resonance
seismic restraint
standards
troubleshooting
critical speeds
health effects
measurement
instrumentation
testing
Viral pathogens
Virgin rock temperature (VRT), and heat release rate
Viscosity
fuel oils
lubricants
modeling
moist air
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
contaminants
Voltage
imbalance
utilization
Volume ratio, compressors
rotary vane
single-screw
twin-screwIndex Terms
VRF. See Variable refrigerant flow (VRF)
VRT. See Virgin rock temperature (VRT)
W
Walls
glass block
masonry construction
steel frame construction
wood-frame construction
Warehouses
Water
activity
alkalinity
anion
anode
biological growth
boiler thermal models
cathode
cation
coils
air-heating
coolers
corrosion
corrosivity
distribution
central plants
district heating and cooling
electrolyte
filtration
fungi
galvanic corrosion
hammer
pipe stress
hardness
heating
geothermal energy systems
solar energy systems
water treatment forIndex Terms
Water (Cont.)
humidifier supply
inhibitor
ion
Legionnaires’ disease
passivity
properties
refrigerant F3
in refrigerant systems. See Moisture, in refrigerant systems
sludge
systems, pipe sizing
thermal storage systems
treatment
tuberculation
use and sustainability
vapor (See also Moisture)
control
flow
resistance
retarders
terminology
transmission
Water heaters
blending injection
boilers (indirect)
circulating tank
combination
electric
gas-fired
heat pump
indirect
instantaneous
oil-fired
placement
refrigeration heat reclaim
semi-instantaneous
sizingIndex Terms
Water heaters (Cont.)
solar energy
storage
terminology
usable hot-water storage
waste heat recovery
Water horsepower, pump
Water/lithium bromide absorption
components
control
double-effect chillers
maintenance
operation
single-effect chillers
single-effect heat transformers
terminology
Water-source heat pump (WSHP)
Water systems
air elimination
antifreeze
precautions
capacity control
chilled-water
combined heat and power (CHP) distribution
district heating and cooling
closed
components
condenser water
closed
once-through
open cooling tower
overpressure precautions
systems
water economizer
control valve sizing
Darcy-Weisbach equation
district heating and cooling
dual-temperature (DTW)Index Terms
Water systems (Cont.)
equipment layout
expansion tanks
functions of
sizing equations
fill water
four-pipe
freeze prevention
hot-water
boilers
combined heat and power (CHP) distribution
district heating and cooling
high-temperature (HTW)
loads
low-temperature (LTW)
design considerations
heating systems
loads
nonresidential
terminal equipment
medium- and high-temperature
air-heating coils
boilers
cascade systems
circulating pumps
control
design
direct-contact heaters
direct-fired generators
distribution
expansion tanks
heat exchangers
piping design
pressurization
safety
space heating
thermal storage
water treatmentIndex Terms
Water systems (Cont.)
loads
makeup
open
pipe sizing
piping
water distribution
pressure drop determination
pumps
pump curves
pumping
standby pump
two-speed motors
safety relief valves
steam and, combined
in tall buildings
temperature classifications
turndown ratio
two-pipe
water horsepower
Water treatment
air washers
biological control
Legionella pneumophila
boilers
brine systems
closed recirculating systems
condensers, evaporative
condenser water
cooling towers
corrosion control
evaporative coolers
fundamentals
medium- and high-temperature systems
nonchemical (physical)
once-through systems
open recirculating systems
scale controlIndex Terms
Water treatment (Cont.)
sprayed-coil units
steam and condensate systems
terminology
thermal storage
Water vapor control
Water vapor permeance/permeability
Water vapor retarders
Water wells
Weather data
residential infiltration zones
Welding sheet metal
Wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT), heat stress
Wheels, rotary enthalpy
Whirlpools and spas
Legionella pneumophila control
service water heating
Wien’s displacement law
Wind. (See also Climate design information; Weather data)
data sources
effect on
chimneys
smoke movement
system operation
pressure
Wind chill index
Windows. (See also Fenestration)
air leakage
solar gain
U-factors
Wind restraint design
minimum design wind load
Wineries
refrigeration
temperature control
fermentation
storage
wine productionIndex Terms
Wireless sensors
Wood construction, and moisture
dimensional changes
Wood products facilities
evaporative cooling
process area
storage
Wood pulp
Wood stoves
World Wide Web (WWW)
WSHP. See Water-source heat pump (WSHP)
WWW. See World Wide Web (WWW)
X
Xenon
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