Printing on Polymers – Fundamentals and Applications

Printing on Polymers – Fundamentals and Applications
اسم المؤلف
Joanna Izdebska , Sabu Thomas
التاريخ
22 مايو 2023
المشاهدات
229
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Printing on Polymers – Fundamentals and Applications
Joanna Izdebska , Sabu Thomas
Table of Contents
Preface

  1. Printing on Polymers: Theory and Practice
    1.1. Introduction—The Impact of Printing
    1.2. Printing Techniques
    1.3. Printing Bases
    1.4. Printability
    1.5. Surface Wettability
    1.6. Print Quality
    1.7. Plastic Printing Industry
  2. Polymeric Materials—Structure, Properties, and Applications
    2.1. Introduction
    2.2. Structure of a Polymer
    2.3. Properties of Polymers
    2.4. Application of Polymers
    2.5. Conclusion
  3. Printing Ink Formulations
    3.1. Introduction
    3.2. Individual Ink Components
    3.3. Inks Manufacture
    3.4. Selected Inks for Individual Printing Processes
    3.5. Functional Inks
    3.6. Summary
  4. Additives for Ink Manufacture
    4.1. Definition of an Additive
    4.2. Surfactants: Wetting and Dispersing Agents
    4.3. Adhesion Promoters
    4.4. Waxes
    4.5. Driers
    4.6. Rheology Modifier
    4.7. Other Additives
    4.8. Additives for Radiation-Curing Inks
    4.9. Performance Additives
  5. Advanced Nanoscale Materials for Ink Manufacture
    5.1. Introduction
    5.2. Nanoscale Materials for Ink Manufacture
    5.3. Conclusions and Outlook
  6. Rheology of Printing Inks
    6.1. Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids
  7. Low-Pressure Plasma-Assisted Polymer Surface Modifications
    7.1. Low-Pressure Oxygen Plasma
    7.2. Reactive Plasma Species and their Interaction with Polymers for Printing
    7.3. Flowing Afterglow
    7.4. Peculiarities of Particular Polymers
    7.5. Etching, Nanostructuring, and Wettability
    7.6. Concluding Remarks
  8. Corona Treatment
    8.1. Corona Discharge Treatment: Introduction
    8.2. Surface Changes, Film Wettability, and Printability
    8.3. Peculiarities of Particular Polymers
    8.4. Aging Process of Corona-Treated Films
    8.5. Concluding Remarks
  9. Polymer Surface Modifications by Coating
    9.1. Organic Modifications of Polymer Surface
    9.2. Inorganic Coating
    9.3. Metallurgical Coating
  10. Other Methods of Polymer Surface Modifications
    10.1. Introduction
    10.2. Laser Beam Processing for Polymer Surface Modifications
    10.3. Micromachining
    10.4. Other Energy Beam Processing Techniques
  11. Flexographic Printing
    11.1. Fundamentals of Flexographic Printing
    11.2. Production Materials
    11.3. Flexographic Printing Benefits
    11.4. Flexographic Market and its Future
  12. Gravure Printing
    12.1. Market of Gravure Printing
    12.2. Printing Process
    12.3. Gravure Printing Inks
    12.4. Gravure Cylinder Manufacturing
    12.5. Structure of Gravure Printing Presses
    12.6. Applications and Further Developments
  13. Offset Printing
    13.1. Fundamentals of Offset Printing
    13.2. Offset Inks
    13.3. Construction of Printing Presses for Offset Printing
    13.4. Print Quality Control in Waterless Offset on Polymer Materials
  14. Inkjet Printing
    14.1. Fundamentals of Inkjet Printing Technology
    14.2. Physical and Chemical Properties of Inkjet Printing Inks
    14.3. Droplet Ink Behavior on the Substrate
    14.4. Polymer in Inkjet Ink Formulation
    14.5. Polymers as Inkjet Printing Substrate
    14.6. Future in Inkjet Printing
  15. Screen Printing
    15.1. Fundamentals of Screen Printing
    15.2. Stencil/Plate Making
    15.3. Imaging, Hand-Cut Stencils, Photostencils, Computer to Screen Systems
    15.4. Printing Process
    15.5. Screen Printing Industry
  16. Pad Printing
    16.1. History
    16.2. Basics of Pad Printing
    16.3. Basic Elements of Pad Printing
    16.4. Application of the Pad Printing
  17. Embossing Process
    17.1. Fundamentals of Embossing
    17.2. Hot Embossing Modes
    17.3. Influence of Polymer Performance on Embossing Features
    17.4. Application Example: R2R Hot Embossing Holographic Images on BOPP Shrink Film
    17.5. Outlook
  18. 3-D Printing
    18.1. Introduction
    18.2. Fundamentals of 3-D Printing
    18.3. Applications
    18.4. 3-D-Printing Process
    18.5. 3-D Printable Materials
    18.5. Electrically Conductive Polymers
    18.6. 3-D Bioprinting
    18.7. Conclusions
  19. Theory, Modeling, and Simulation of Printing
    19.1. Introduction
    19.2. Measuring and Modeling Reflection Properties for Color Prediction
    19.3. Light Scattering and Absorption
    19.4. Spectral Reflectance Prediction Models for Colored Halftones
    19.5. Multilayer Constructions
    19.6. Surface and Interface Reflections
    19.7. Transparent and Translucent Substrates
    19.8. Conclusions
  20. Characterization of Print Quality in Terms of Colorimetric Aspects
    20.1. Colorimetric Aspects
    20.2. Characterization of Print Quality
  21. Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Prints
    21.1. Introduction
    21.2. Ink Abrasion Resistance of Polymer Substrates
    21.3. Scratch Resistance of Polymer Substrates
    21.4. Summary
  22. Aging and Degradation of Printed Materials
    22.1. Aging and Degradation: Definitions
    22.2. Models of Artificial Aging
    22.3. Degradation of Polymer Materials
    22.4. Methods of Testing the Aging Process and Degradation
    22.5. Polymeric Substrate Degradation
    22.6. Impact of Radiation Artificial Aging on Print
    22.7. Summary
  23. Applications of Printed Materials
    23.1. Introduction
    23.2. Packaging
    23.3. Labels
    23.4. Printed Electronics
    23.5. Household Equipment
    23.6. Promotional Gifts and Materials
    23.7. Others
  24. Microcapsules in Printing
    24.1. Introduction
    24.2. Microcapsules and Microspheres
    24.3. Types of Release Mechanism
    24.4. Microencapsulation
    24.5. Application of Microcapsules in Graphic and Paper Industry
  25. Environmental and Safety Issues of Polymers and Polymeric Material in the Printing Industry
    25.1. Introduction
    25.2. Sustainable Development
    25.3. Life-Cycle Assessment
    25.4. LCA and Toxic Risk Assessment
    25.5. Printing Industry and Sustainability
    25.6. Assessment of Polymers and Polymeric Materials
    25.7. Summary
    Index
    Index
    Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” indicate figures and tables respectively.
    A
    Abrasion process, 348, 348f
    Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS),
    3, 36, 301
    Additives, 203
    adhesion promoters, 59e60
    alkalis, 62
    antioxidants and antiskinning agents, 62
    biocides and fungicides, 62
    chelating agents, 62
    definition, 57e58
    deodorants, 62
    driers, 61
    performance, 63e65
    hyperbranched polymers, 63e65,
    64fe65f
    ionic liquids (ILs), 63, 64f
    rheology modifier, 61
    surfactants
    antifoaming agents, 59
    wetting and dispersing agents,
    57e58, 59f
    waxes, 60e61
    Aging process
    artificial aging, models of
    chemical aging, 356
    complex aging, 356
    radiation, 355e356
    thermal aging, 356
    defined, 353e354
    print, radiation artificial aging on,
    366e368, 367f
    testing methods, 359e362
    polymeric materials tests, 359e361
    prints tests, 361e362
    Aluminum oxide, 219
    Aluminum printing forms, 270
    Ammonium ion, 45e46
    Antioxidants, 62
    Antiskinning agents, 62
    Atmospheric pressure plasma (APP),
    123e124
    Atomic force microscope (AFM),
    116e117
    B
    Ballard copper skin, 201e202
    Benzophenone (BP), 144, 144f
    Benzoyl peroxide (BPO), 144
    Binding agents, 203e204
    Biodegradation, 358e359
    Biomedical applications, 37
    Bis (4-hydroxyethoxy) phenyl sulfone
    (BHEPS), 148e149
    Block copolymers, 27
    BOPP shrink film, R2R hot embossing
    holographic images on,
    284e289, 285f, 287f, 288t
    Brookfield viscometers, 92
    C
    Carbonless copy paper, 393
    Cellaxy, 208, 208f
    Central impression printing press,
    187e188, 187f
    Ceramics, 302
    printing forms, 269e270
    Chemical degradation, 357
    Chloromethylated polymer film, 147e148
    Chrome plating, 214
    Chrome printing forms, 270
    CIJ printing systems. See Continuous
    inkjet (CIJ) printing systems
    Circumferential pad, 277
    Coating methods
    inorganic coating, 149e153
    diamond-like carbon/SiOx and oxide
    coatings, 150e151, 150f
    industrial applications, wettability and
    properties for, 151e153, 151f
    magnetron sputtering, 150, 150f
    plasma-enhanced chemical vapor
    deposition, 149e150, 149fe150f
    metallurgical coating
    chemical electro-less plating
    techniques, 153, 153f
    polymers, additional properties on,
    153e154, 154f
    vapor plating techniques, 153, 153f
    polymer surface, organic modifications,
    143e149
    applications, 148e149
    initiated chemical vapor deposition
    (iCVD), 146, 146f
    photo-iniferters layer, photo-grafting
    polymerization from, 147e148,
    147fe148f
    photo-initiators, photo-grafting
    polymerizations by, 144e146,
    144f
    UV-curable polymer coating,
    146e147
    Coefficient of viscosity, 87e88
    Colored halftones, spectral reflectance
    prediction models for,
    314e320
    cellular implementation, 317e318
    dot surface coverage and ink spreading,
    319e320, 319f
    fluorescence, 318e319
    Murray-Davis model, 314
    probabilistic models, 316e317, 316f
    Spectral Neugebauer model, 315, 315f
    Yule-Nielsen model, 315, 315f
    Colorimetric aspects
    CIE lab data, spectral data to, 335e336,
    336f
    color deviation formulas,
    336e337, 337t
    color measurement, 333e335,
    333fe335f
    color perception, 329e333, 330fe332f
    print quality, characterization of,
    337e344
    continuous quality control, inline
    spectral measurements for,
    343e344, 344t
    different materials, different
    perception, 343, 343f
    ink transfer, influence of, 338e343,
    338fe342f
    unprinted substrate, homogeneity of,
    338
    417Color measurement, 16, 333e335
    Commercial antifoaming agents, 59
    Commodity polymers
    polyethylene, 34
    polypropylene, 34e35
    polystyrene, 35
    polyvinylchloride (PVC), 35
    Compatibilization, 32e33
    Computer numerical control (CNC),
    170e171
    Computer to screen systems, 257e258
    Condensation reactions, 25
    Conductive inks, 50e51
    Conductivity sheen, 153e154
    Configuration, 25e26, 25fe26f
    Conformation, 26
    Contact angel, 13e14, 130e132
    Continuous inkjet (CIJ) printing systems,
    232, 233f
    Cylinder cell, 209
    Conventional procedure, 266
    Conventional wet offset printing, 218,
    218f
    Copolymers
    block, 27
    graft, 27
    random, 27
    Copper-based inks, 51
    Copper engraving, 201e202
    Copper phthalocyanine, 43
    Corona treatment
    aging process, 138e139
    course and effectiveness, factors
    influencing, 126e127
    particular polymers, peculiarities of,
    133e138
    ethylene vinyl acetate, 137
    polyethylene (PE), 135e136
    polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 136
    polylactide (PLA), 137e138
    polypropylene (PP), 133e135
    polystyrene (PS), 137
    polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 136e137
    printability, 132e133, 133f
    surface changes and film wettability,
    129e133
    contact angle, 130e132, 131fe132f
    surface chemistry, 130, 130f, 130t
    topography and morphology, 129,
    129f
    treatment, 125e126, 125f
    upper layer
    changes in, 127e128, 128f
    methods controlling correctness of,
    128e129
    CtP technology, 219e220
    Cylindrical steel printing forms, 269
    D
    Decoration technology, 3
    Degradation
    defined, 353e354
    polymeric substrates, 362e366
    biodegradable polymers,
    365e366
    polyethylene terephthalate, 364
    polyvinyl chloride, 365
    polyamide, 364
    polyethylene-co-vinyl acetate
    copolymer, 365
    polyethylene, 362e363
    polypropylene, 363e364
    polystyrene, 364e365
    polymer materials, 356e359
    biodegradation, 358e359
    chemical degradation, 357
    mechanical degradation, 358
    oxidative degradation, 357e358
    radiation degradation, 356e357
    thermal degradation, 358
    testing methods, 359e362, 361f
    polymeric materials tests,
    359e361
    prints tests, 361e362
    Dendritic polymers, 63
    Diamond-like carbon (DLC),
    150e151
    Diamond microchiselling (DMC),
    174e175, 174f
    Diamond stylus, 206, 207f
    Dielectric barrier discharged (DBD),
    123e124
    DigiLas pico system, 208e209
    Dirac points, 52
    Direct laser system, 209
    DMC. See Diamond microchiselling
    (DMC)
    Doctor blade, 212
    Drop on Demand inkjet printing systems
    acoustic inkjet printing, 236, 236f
    electrostatic inkjet printing,
    234e235, 235f
    piezoelectric inkjet printing,
    233e234, 235f
    thermal inkjet printing, 233, 234f
    Drying system, 212
    Dyes, 203
    Dynamic mechanical properties, 32
    Dynamic viscosity. See Coefficient of
    viscosity
    E
    Electron beam (EB), 50
    machining, 177
    Electron energy, 102
    Electronic applications, 37
    Electron spectroscopy for chemical
    analysis (ESCA), 130
    Electrophotography, 6
    Electrostatic assist (ESA), 200e201
    Embossing process
    BOPP shrink film, R2R hot embossing
    holographic images on,
    284e289, 285f, 287f, 288t
    fundamentals, 279e280, 279fe280f
    hot embossing modes, 280e282, 281f
    P2P mode, 280e281, 281f
    R2P mode, 281e282, 281f
    R2R mode, 281f, 282
    polymer performance, influence of,
    282e284
    polymer deformation, 283e284
    polymeric materials, thermal behavior
    of, 282e283, 282f
    Emulsion polymers, 45
    Energy beam processing techniques, 177
    Engineering polymers
    acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
    (ABS), 36
    polyamides, 35
    polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 36
    polyoxymethylene/polyacetals,
    36e37
    Epoxy amphiphilic block copolymer
    blend systems, 32e33
    Epoxy-based azo-polymers, 166f, 167
    Epoxy-based precursor polymers, 167
    Ethylene molecule, different
    confirmations of, 26, 26f
    F
    Femtosecond laser, 162e166
    laser-induced surface hydrophilicity and
    hydrophobicity
    laser-induced wettability
    modification, mechanism of,
    163e164, 163f, 163t, 164f
    wettability modification, 162,
    162f, 163t
    laser-induced wettability modification,
    fluid flow control microfluidic
    channels, 164e166
    liquid flow effect, 164fe165f,
    165e166
    microchannels, fabrication of,
    164e165, 164f
    418 INDEXFinite difference time domain
    (FDTD), 169
    Fixed-axle cylinders, 214
    Flatbed screen printing, 258e259,
    259f
    Flat-to-flat method, 247e249, 249f
    Flexible packaging, 372e375, 373f
    Flexographic inks, 49e50, 50t
    Flexographic printing
    fundamentals, 179e189
    anilox rollers, 183e186,
    183fe184f, 185t
    principle, 179, 179f
    printing machines, 187e189,
    187fe189f
    printing plates, 179e183,
    180fe181f
    printing units, 186e187, 186f
    production materials, 189e193
    inks. See Inks
    plastic substrates. See Plastic
    substrates
    Flexography, 49e50. See also
    Flexographic printing
    Flexural testing, 32
    Foam, 59
    Food packaging, 376e377, 376f, 377t
    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
    (FTIR), 129
    Free radicals, 128
    Functional ceramic oxides, 73e74
    Functional inks, 50e52
    G
    Gaseous plasma, 105
    Glass transition, 28e29, 30t
    Glycerol, 46
    Graft copolymers, 27
    grafting chemical vapor deposition
    (gCVD), 146
    Graphene, 52
    nanosheet inks, 78e80
    Gravure printing
    applications and developments,
    213e215
    cylinder costs, 199e200, 200f
    cylinder manufacturing, 204e210,
    206f
    electromechanical engraving,
    206e208, 206fe207f
    etching and laser-made masks,
    210, 210f
    pulsed laser, copper with, 208e209,
    208f
    zinc layer, direct laser system with,
    209e210, 209f
    innovations, 214
    market of, 199e200, 199f
    principle of, 200, 200f
    printing inks, 202e204, 203t
    printing process, 200e202, 200f
    structure of, 210e213,
    211fe213f
    Gypsum, 302
    H
    Hand-cut stencils, 255, 255f
    HDPE. See High-density polyethylene
    (HDPE)
    Heat-shrinkable wrapping, 374
    Heterogeneous surface recombination,
    104
    Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), 151
    High-density polyethylene (HDPE), 34
    HLB. See Hydrophile-lipophile balance
    (HLB)
    Homopolymers, 27
    Hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB),
    58e59
    Hydrophobic coatings, 152
    Hyperbranched azo-polymers,
    167e168
    I
    Impression roller, 212
    Imprinted solegel surface textures,
    168, 170f
    Indirect relief printing, 5
    Indium tin oxide (ITO), 80e81,
    151e152
    Industrial packaging, 379
    initiated chemical vapor deposition
    (iCVD), 146, 146f
    Ink abrasion resistance
    polymers abrasion resistance testing,
    different methods of, 348e349,
    348fe349f
    printed polymers abrasion resistance,
    evaluation methodology of,
    349e351, 349f, 350t, 351f
    Ink formulation
    components, individual ink
    additives, 47
    pigments, 42e44, 43f
    polymers/resins, 44e46, 45f, 45t
    solvents, 46e47
    functional inks, 50e52
    individual printing processes, selected
    inks for, 48e50
    flexographic inks, 49e50, 50t
    inkjet ink, 48e49, 48t
    inks manufacture, 47
    Inking system, 274e275
    closed inkwell system, 274e275,
    274fe275f
    open inkwell system, 274, 274f
    Inking unit, 212, 224e225
    Ink-jet ink, 48e49, 48t
    Ink-jet printing, 6
    fundamentals, 231e236
    CIJ printing systems, 232, 233f
    Drop on Demand inkjet printing
    systems. See Drop on Demand
    inkjet printing systems
    future aspects, 241
    inkjet ink formulation, polymer in,
    240
    physical and chemical properties,
    236e239
    particle size, 237e238
    solute properties, 238e239
    surface tension, 237
    viscosity, 236e237
    substrates
    droplet ink behavior on, 239e240,
    239f
    polymers as, 240e241
    Inks, 189e191, 271e273
    manufacture
    additives. See Additives
    nanoscale materials. See Nanoscale
    materials
    types of, 189, 202, 272e273
    solvent-based ink, 190e191
    UV-curable ink, 191
    water-based ink, 190
    In-line printing press, 188, 189f
    In-mold decoration (IMD), 3
    In-mold labeling (IML), 3
    Inorganic nonmetallic inks, 72e80
    carbon family nano-inks, 76e80,
    77fe79f
    ceramic nano-inks, 73e74, 74f
    MOF inks, 76, 76f
    semiconductor quantum dot inks,
    74e75, 75f
    Inorganic thickeners, 61
    Instant wetting agents, 60
    Internal friction, 32
    Intersystem crossing (ISC), 143e149
    Isopropylthioxanthone (ITX), 144
    L
    Labels, 380e382
    glue applied, 381
    in-mold labels, 381e382
    pressure sensitive, 381
    sleeve labels, 382
    INDEX 419Laminate printing, 10, 10f
    Laser beam
    polymer surface modifications,
    162e169
    azo-polymers, Ar+ laser-induced
    surface relief gratings on,
    166fe168f, 167e168
    polymer surface replication, laser
    micromachining silicon surface
    for, 168e169, 169fe172f
    wettability modification, femtosecond
    laser textured PMMA surfaces
    for, 162e166
    Laser engraved cells, 204e206
    LCA. See Life cycle assessment (LCA)
    LDPE. See Low-density polyethylene
    (LDPE)
    Life cycle assessment (LCA), 401e403
    opportunities and limitations, 403
    structure, 401e403, 402f
    toxic risk assessment. See Toxic risk
    assessment
    Light emitting diode (LED), 223
    Light scattering/absorption, 308e314
    bulk scattering, 310e312
    fluorescence, 312e314, 312f
    Monte Carlo methods, 314
    surface scattering, 309e310,
    309f, 311t
    Lithography, 4
    inks, 41
    printing, 217
    Living radical-graft polymerizations,
    144e145
    LMWOM. See Low molecular weight
    oxidized materials (LMWOM)
    Long-term mechanical properties, 32
    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE), 34
    Low molecular weight oxidized materials
    (LMWOM), 125, 127,
    133e134
    Low-pressure oxygen plasma, 101e104
    M
    Master screen, 209e210
    Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, 101e102
    Mechanical degradation, 358
    Mechanical engraving, 266
    Metaleorganic frameworks (MOFs),
    72e73
    Metallic sheen, 153e154
    Metallic thin films, 153
    Metal nanomaterials, 80e82
    metal nanoparticle inks, 80e81,
    80fe81f
    metal nanowire inks, 81e82, 82f
    Metal screen printing frames, 251e252,
    252f
    Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK),
    190e191
    MIBK. See Methyl isobutyl ketone
    (MIBK)
    Microcapsules
    graphic and paper industry, application
    in, 393e394, 393f
    microencapsulation, 392e393
    microspheres, 389e391, 390f
    release mechanism, types of,
    391e392, 392f
    singlecore and multicore, 390
    thermally expandable microcapsules,
    393, 394f
    Microgrooving. See Microshaping
    Micromachining
    conventional CNC, 170e171, 173f
    defined, 170e176
    ultra-precision machining (UPM),
    171e176, 173fe176f
    Micromilling, 176
    Microshaping, 173e174, 176f
    Modern packaging, 2
    Monomers, 25, 45e46, 45f
    Monte Carlo methods, 314
    Multicolor pad printing machines
    carousel, 275, 276f
    CNC, 275e276, 276f
    linear, 275, 275f
    Multilayer films, 10, 193
    Murray-Davis model, 314
    N
    Nanoparticles, 44
    Nanoscale materials
    functional polymer inks, 68e72
    monodispersed polymer nanoparticle
    latexes, 68e70, 69fe70f
    semiconductive and conductive
    polymer suspensions, 70e72,
    71fe73f
    inorganic nonmetallic inks, 72e80
    carbon family nano-inks, 76e80,
    77fe79f
    ceramic nano-inks, 73e74, 74f
    MOF inks, 76, 76f
    semiconductor quantum dot inks,
    74e75, 75f
    metal nanomaterials, 80e82
    metal nanoparticle inks, 80e81,
    80fe81f
    metal nanowire inks, 81e82, 82f
    Natural polymers, 44e45
    Natural waxes, 61
    Nitrocellulose, 202
    Nonimpact printing (NIP), 48e49
    Nonluminous color, 329e330
    Normalized absorption curves, 330
    O
    Offset printing
    fundamentals
    conventional wet offset printing,
    218, 218f
    principle, 217e218, 217f
    printing plates. See Printing plates
    waterless offset printing, 218,
    218f
    inks, 220e223
    oxidation dried inks and drying
    method, 221e222
    wet offset/waterless offset inks and
    drying method, 222e223
    printing plates, 219
    printing presses, construction of. See
    Printing presses, construction of
    waterless offset, print quality control in,
    226e228
    Optimal application, 16
    Organic pigments, 43
    Organic thickeners, 61
    Overlying silicone layer, 219
    Oxidative degradation, 357e358
    Oxidation dried inks, drying method,
    221e222
    Oxidation level (O/C), 130
    Oxidative dried inks, 221
    Oxygen, 225
    Ozone, 128
    P
    Packaging trends, 379e380
    Pad printing, 5
    application, 277e278
    basic elements, 265e277
    printing form. See Printing form
    printing inks. See Printing inks
    printing machines, technology of. See
    Printing machines, technology of
    printing pad. See Printing pad
    basics, 264e265
    machines, 265
    pad, 264
    printing form, 264
    printing ink, 264e265
    history, 263
    Petroleum waxes, 61
    Photo-curable resins, 301
    Photoelectric effect, 108e109
    Photo-iniferter method, 147
    420 INDEXPhoto-initiators, photo-grafting
    polymerizations by, 144e146,
    144f
    Photonic crystals, 69
    Photopolymer printing forms, 268e269,
    268fe269f
    Photosensitive layer (polymer), 219
    Photostencils, 255e257, 256f
    Pigment red (PY 57), 43, 43f
    Pigment yellow (PY12), 43, 43f
    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor
    deposition (PECVD), 149e150
    Plastic substrates, 191e193
    benefits, 193e194
    films, 9, 192, 192f
    laminates, 10, 192e193, 193f
    market and future, 194e195
    plastic sheets, semirigid and rigid, 10
    requirements for, 193
    synthetic papers and polymer-coated
    boards, 11
    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE),
    151e152
    Polyamides, 35, 301
    Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 36
    Polyethylene, 34
    waxes, 61
    Polyisoprene, cis and trans forms of,
    26, 26f
    Polylactic acid bioplastic, 301
    Polymer blends, 32e33
    Polymer composites, 33
    Polymeric materials, 356e359
    application, 33e37
    commodity polymers. See
    Commodity polymers
    engineering polymers. See
    Engineering polymers
    specialty applications. See Specialty
    applications
    biodegradation, 358e359
    chemical degradation, 357
    classification of, 26e27
    crystalline and amorphous
    polymers, 26
    homopolymers and copolymers, 27
    thermoplastics and thermosetting
    plastics, 26e27, 27f
    mechanical degradation, 358
    oxidative degradation, 357e358
    properties
    electrical properties, 32, 32t
    mechanical properties, 31e32,
    31f
    polymer blends, 32e33
    polymer composites, 33
    polymer nanocomposites, 33
    thermal properties. See Thermal
    properties
    radiation degradation, 356e357
    structure of, 25e28
    configuration, 25e26, 25fe26f
    conformation, 26
    designing, 27e28
    thermal degradation, 358
    Polymerization reactions, 22, 25
    Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLED),
    70e71
    Polymer nanocomposites, 33
    Polymer substrates. See also Plastic
    substrates
    biodegradable polymers, 365e366
    ink abrasion resistance, 347e351
    polymers abrasion resistance testing,
    different methods of, 348e349,
    348fe349f
    printed polymers abrasion resistance,
    evaluation methodology of,
    349e351, 349f, 350t, 351f
    polyethylene terephthalate, 364
    polyvinyl chloride, 365
    polyamide, 364
    polyethylene-co-vinyl acetate
    copolymer, 365
    polyethylene, 362e363
    polypropylene, 363e364
    polystyrene, 364e365
    scratch resistance, 351e352,
    351fe352f
    Polymer surface
    etching/nanostructuring and wettability,
    116e118, 117fe118f
    flowing afterglow, 107e108, 107f
    organic modifications, 143e149
    peculiarities, 108e116, 109f
    polyamide, 115e116, 115f,
    115t, 116f
    polyethylene terephthalate (PET),
    109e110, 109fe110f, 110t,
    111f
    polypropylene and polyethylene,
    113, 114f
    polystyrene, 112e113, 112f
    polyvinyl chloride, 114e115, 114f,
    114t
    Polyoxymethylene/polyacetals, 36e37
    Polypropylene, 34e35
    Polystyrene, 35
    Polystyrene (PS), 68
    microspheres, 68
    Polyurethane (PUR) thickeners, 61
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 35, 222
    Porosity, 12
    P2P mode, 280e281, 281f
    Printed materials
    household equipment, 384
    labels, 380e382
    glue applied, 381
    in-mold labels, 381e382
    pressure sensitive, 381
    sleeve labels, 382
    packaging, 372e380, 373t
    flexible packaging, 372e375, 373f
    food packaging, 376e377, 376f, 377t
    industrial packaging, 379
    packaging trends, 379e380
    pharmacy and personal care
    packaging, 377e379, 378f
    rigid packaging, 375e376
    printed electronics, 382e384
    promotional gifts and materials, 384
    Printability, 11e12, 129e133
    Printing
    bases, 7e11, 191
    films, 9e10
    injection moldings, 11
    multilayer films, 10
    semirigid and rigid plastic
    sheets, 10
    synthetic papers and polymer-coated
    boards, 11
    colored halftones, spectral reflectance
    prediction models for, 314e320
    cellular implementation, 317e318
    dot surface coverage and ink
    spreading, 319e320, 319f
    fluorescence, 318e319
    Murray-Davis model, 314
    probabilistic models, 316e317, 316f
    Spectral Neugebauer model, 315,
    315f
    Yule-Nielsen model, 315, 315f
    color prediction, measuring and
    modeling reflection properties
    for, 308, 308f
    cylinders, 5
    impact, 1e2, 2f
    light scattering and absorption, 308e314
    bulk scattering, 310e312
    fluorescence, 312e314, 312f
    Monte Carlo methods, 314
    surface scattering, 309e310,
    309f, 311t
    multilayer constructions, 320e321, 320f
    plastic printing industry, 17e18, 18f
    plates
    CtP technology, 219e220
    structure, 219
    INDEX 421Printing (Continued)
    printability, 11e12
    process, 2e7, 4f, 258e260
    3-D printing (three-dimensional
    printing), 7, 307e308
    digital printing, 2e7
    electrophotography, 6
    ink-jet, 231e236
    termal-transfer, 6
    flat printing, 3e4
    litography, 4
    offset printing, 217e220
    gravure (intaglio), 5
    rotogravure, 200e202
    pad printing, 264e265
    hybrid printing, 7
    relief printing, 4e5
    flexography, 179
    typography, 5
    typoofset, 5
    stencil printing, 247
    flatbed screen printing, 258e259, 259f
    rotary screen printing, 259e260, 259f
    quality, 15e17
    factors, 15
    impact, 15
    parameters used, 16e17
    substrates, surface free energy of, 13e15
    contact angle, devices for
    measurement of, 13e14, 14f
    measurement liquid/pens, 14e15
    surface and interface reflections,
    321e322
    surface wettability, 12e15, 12f
    inks, surface tension of, 12e13, 13f
    printing substrates, surface free
    energy of. See Printing
    substrates, surface free energy of
    techniques, 2e7, 3f
    digital printing, 4f, 6
    division of, 3, 4f
    flat printing, 3e4, 3f
    gravure printing, 3f, 5
    hybrid printing, 7
    polymer decoration, various printing
    techniques for, 7, 8t
    relief printing, 3f, 4e5
    stencil printing, 3f, 5e6
    three-dimensional printing, 7
    transparent and translucent substrates,
    322e323, 323fe324f
    Printing form
    engraving, 265e266, 266f
    screen ruling, use of, 266e267, 267f
    types, 267e270
    aluminum printing forms, 219, 270
    ceramics printing forms, 269e270
    chrome printing forms, 270
    cylindrical steel printing forms, 269
    photopolymer printing forms, 180,
    268e269, 268fe269f
    thick steel printing form, 267e268,
    267fe268f
    thin steel printing forms, 268, 268f
    Printing industry
    life cycle assessment (LCA),
    401e403
    opportunities and limitations, 403
    structure, 401e403, 402f
    toxic risk assessment. See Toxic risk
    assessment
    polymers and polymeric materials,
    assessment of, 408e411
    polymeric films, LCA of, 408e410
    UV printing varnishes, risk
    assessment, 410e411, 411f
    sustainable development, 398e401,
    406e408, 406f
    complex/simple information, 401
    ecological/economic methods,
    399e401, 400f
    energy, 406e407
    hazardous waste, 408
    materials, 407e408
    model, 398e399, 399f
    Printing machines, technology of,
    273e277
    accessories, 277
    drive type, 274
    inking system, 274e275
    closed inkwell system, 274e275,
    274fe275f
    open inkwell system, 274, 274f
    multicolor pad printing machines. See
    Multicolor pad printing
    machines
    special machine designs. See Special
    machine designs
    Printing pad, characteristics of, 270e271
    hardness, 271
    shape, 270
    size, 270e271
    surface finish, 271
    Printing presses, construction of,
    187e189, 210e213, 223e226,
    224f
    sheet-fed offset printing presses,
    224e226
    feeding unit/transport of substrate and
    delivery unit, 224
    inking unit, 224e225
    UV-curing systems, 225
    waterless offset presses, 225e226
    sheet-fed gravure printing presses,
    5, 211
    sheet-fed flexographic printing presses,
    189
    web-fed offset printing presses, 226
    web-fed gravure printing presses, 212
    web-fed flexographic printing presses,
    187e189
    with central impression cylinder (IC),
    187e188
    stack printing presses, 188
    inline printing presses, 188
    Propagation process, 22
    Publication gravure presses, 211e212
    PVC. See Polyvinylchloride (PVC)
    R
    Radiation degradation, 356e357
    RAFT. See Reversible addition
    fragmentation transfer (RAFT)
    Random copolymers, 27
    Reactive plasma species
    free electrons and negatively charged
    ions, 105
    metastables and ozone, 105e106
    neutral oxygen atoms, 105
    polymer surface, fluxes/reactive
    particles onto, 106, 106f, 107t
    positively charged molecular and atomic
    ions, 105
    UV radiation, 104
    Reversible addition fragmentation
    transfer (RAFT), 27e28
    Rheology
    defined, 87
    flow behavior and printability, 98
    flow behavior, measurements of,
    90e93
    concentric cylinder geometry, rational
    rheometers with, 92
    cone to plate geometry, rational
    rheometers with, 92e93
    flow curve, 91e92, 92f
    flow time, 91, 91t
    low-viscosity printing inks, 93e97, 94t
    flexographic printing inks, 93e96, 96f
    gravure printing inks, 96
    inkjet printing inks, 97
    Newtonian fluids, 87e88, 88f, 88t
    non-Newtonian fluids, 88e90, 89f
    power-law model, 89
    shear-thickening flow behavior, 89, 89f
    shear-thinning flow behavior, 88, 89f
    shear viscosity, 89, 90f
    thixotropy, 89e90, 90f
    viscoelasticity, 90, 91f
    422 INDEXpaste inks
    offset printing inks, 97
    pad printing inks, 98
    screen printing inks, 97e98
    paste inks, tack of, 93
    Rheology modifier, 61
    Rigid packaging, 375e376
    Roll-to-roll printing techniques, 67
    Rotary gravure pad, 277, 277f
    Rotary printing. See Round-to-round
    method
    Rotary screen printing, 259e260, 259f
    drying equipment, 259e260
    Rotogravure printing process, 41, 201
    Round-to-round method, 249, 249f
    R2P mode, 281e282, 281f
    R2R mode, 281f, 282
    S
    Scanning electron microscope (SEM),
    116e117
    Scratch resistance, 351e352,
    351fe352f
    Screen printing
    computer to screen systems, 257e258
    on a curved surface, 249, 249f
    emulsion, 254
    frame, 251e252
    metal screen printing frames,
    251e252, 252f
    wooden screen printing frames, 251,
    251f
    fundamentals, 247e249
    hand-cut stencils, 255, 255f
    imaging, 254e258, 254fe255f
    industry, 260e261
    mesh, 249e250
    photostencils, 255e257, 256f
    printing inks, 260
    printing process, 258e260
    flatbed screen printing, 258e259,
    259f
    polymer substrates and inks, 260
    rotary screen printing, 259e260, 259f
    screen printing industry, 260e261
    squeegee, 252e254
    types, 253e254, 253f
    stencil/plate making, 248f, 249e254
    screen printing emulsion, 254
    screen printing frame. See Screen
    printing frame
    screen printing mesh, 249e250
    screen printing squeegee. See Screen
    printing squeegee
    Secondary ion mass spectrometry
    (SIMS), 130
    Segmented polyurethane (SPU) film,
    147e148
    Semicrystalline polymers, 26
    Sensor applications, 37
    Shear forces, 97
    Sheppers DigiLas laser engraving
    system, 208
    Silver-based inks, 51
    Sleeve labels, 382
    Small molecule surface modification
    (SMSM), 47
    SMSM. See Small molecule surface
    modification (SMSM)
    Solvents, 203e204
    Special pad printing machine designs
    circumferential pad, 277
    rotary gravure pad, 277, 277f
    total color pad, 276e277, 276f
    Specialty applications, 37
    biomedical applications, 37
    electronic applications, 37
    sensor applications, 37
    Spectral Neugebauer model, 315, 315f
    Spectrophotometricmeasurements,16,333
    Specular gloss, 17
    Squeegee, 247
    SRGs. See Surface relief-gratings (SRGs)
    Stable inkjet inks, 236
    Stack printing presses, 188, 188f
    Stainless steel, 302
    Steel engraving printing, 5
    Stencil/plate making, 248f, 249e254
    screen printing emulsion, 254
    screen printing frame. See Screen
    printing frame
    screen printing mesh, 249e250
    screen printing squeegee. See Screen
    printing squeegee
    Super-half-autotypical cell, 209
    Superwide-format printers, 49
    Surface free energy, 13e15
    Surface oxidation, 43e44
    Surface relief-gratings (SRGs), 166f, 167
    Surface tension, 12e13, 218
    Surfactant molecules, 58
    Synthetic waxes, 61
    T
    Taber device, 348, 348f
    Tacticity, 25e26
    Technical Association of the Pulp and
    Paper Industry (TAPPI), 393
    Temperature-sensitive substrates, 225
    Tetrahydronaphthalene (THN), 238
    Thermal degradation, 358
    Thermally expandable microcapsules, 393
    Thermal properties, 28e31
    thermal expansion and thermal
    conductivity, coefficient of,
    29e31, 31t
    thermal stability, 29
    thermal transitions of, 28e29, 30t
    Thermal transfer printing, 6
    Thermoshrink films, 9
    Thickeners, 61
    Thick steel printing form, 267e268,
    267fe268f
    Thin steel printing forms, 268, 268f
    3-D-bioprinting
    basis of, 302e303
    concepts, 302e303
    Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM) proteins,
    305
    importance, 302
    step-by-step process, 303e304
    3-D printing
    applications, 299e300, 299f
    bioprinting, 302e305, 303fe304f
    components, 293, 294f
    defined, 293e295
    electrically conductive polymers,
    302, 302f
    fundamentals, 295e298
    fused deposition manufacturing
    (FDM), 295e296, 295fe296f
    selective laser sintering (SLS),
    298, 298f
    stereo lithography (SLA), 296e298,
    296fe297f
    materials, 301e302
    micro-channels, 293e294, 294f
    process, 300e301, 300fe301f
    Titanium, 302
    Titanium indium zinc oxide (TIZO),
    154
    Toluene/tetrahydrofuran (THF), 238
    Total color pad, 276e277, 276f
    Toxic risk assessment
    methods, 404e405
    opportunities and limitations, 405
    Traditional inks, 41e42
    Typography, 5
    U
    Ultra-precision machining (UPM),
    171e176
    Unsaturated monomers, 22
    UV-curable inkjet inks, 49
    UV-curable flexographic inks, 191
    UV-curable offset inks, 222e223
    UV-curable pad printing inks, 273
    UV-curable screen printing inks, 260
    INDEX 423UV-curable polymer coating, 146e147
    UV-curing systems, 225
    V
    Vinyl ether-oxirane, 49
    Viscosity, 237
    Visual assessment, 16
    Volatile solvents, 96
    W
    Water-based flexography inks
    technology, 50, 190
    Water-based inks, 45, 65
    Waterless offset presses, 225e226
    Waterless offset printing, 218,
    218f
    Web-fed gravure printing, 212
    Web-fed flexographic printing,
    187e188
    Web-fed offset printing, 226
    Weissenberg effect, 90, 91f, 92
    Wettability, 12e15, 129e133
    WolfeWilburn pencil hardness tester,
    351, 351f
    Wooden screen printing frames, 251,
    251f
    X
    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),
    108e109
    Xtreme engraving method, 207e208
    p-xylene bis(N,N-diethyl
    dithiocarbamate) (XDT), 148
    Y
    Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG), 209
    Yule-Nielsen model, 315, 315f
    Z
    Zinc oxide (ZnO), 152e153

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