Practical Guide to Blow Moulding

Practical Guide to Blow Moulding
اسم المؤلف
Norman C. Lee
التاريخ
12 أكتوبر 2019
المشاهدات
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Practical Guide to Blow Moulding
by
Norman C. Lee
Attractive Design Ltd.
Contents
1 What is Blow Moulding? 1
1.1 Introduction . 1
1.1.1 Definition 1
1.1.2 Basic Process 1
1.1.3 History and Development . 2
1.2 Types of Blow Moulding . 4
1.2.1 Introduction . 4
1.2.2 Stretch Blow Moulding . 6
1.2.3 Extrusion Blow Moulding . 7
1.3 Material Considerations 10
1.3.1 Materials Selection 10
1.3.2 Product Properties and Market Usage . 11
References . 12
2 Design and Engineering . 13
2.1 Design . 13
2.1.1 Product Design and Development System . 14
2.1.2 Process Management Tracking Systems . 14
2.2 Basic Design . 15
2.2.1 Basic Design Considerations . 17
2.2.2 Bottle and Container Design 22
2.2.3 Structural Design . 27
2.2.4 Design Details 29
2.3 Selection of Materials . 32
2.3.1 Polymer Principles . 32
2.3.2 Types of Polymers 32
2.3.3 Amorphous and Crystalline 34
2.3.4 Fundamental Properties 34
2.4 Characteristics For Blow Moulding 39
2.4.1 HDPE . 39
2.4.2 Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) . 40
2.4.3 Polycarbonate (PC) 41
2.4.4 Polypropylene . 42
2.4.5 Polyphenylene Oxide 43
2.5 Colouring Plastic Materials . 44
2.6 Regrind 45
2.6.1 Re-grind Specifications 45
2.6.2 Process Performance . 45
2.6.3 Physical Properties . 45
2.7 Post Consumer and Industrial Recycled Materials . 45
References . 46
General Reading 46
3 Mould Design and Engineering 47
3.1 Main Characteristics of the Mould . 47
3.2 Basic Design and Construction Considerations 47
3.2.1 Mould Materials 48
3.2.2 Selection of Materials . 50
3.2.3 Characteristics of Mould Materials . 50
3.3 Cut Mould versus Cast Moulds . 52
3.3.1 Cast Aluminium Moulds 52
3.3.2 Cut Moulds . 53
3.3.3 Cast and Cut Moulds . 53
3.4 Importance of Fast Mould Cooling 534
Practical Guide to Polyethylene
3.4.1 Fast Heat Transfer Material Considerations . 53
3.4.2 Manifolds . 59
3.4.3 Control of Flash . 60
3.4.4 Rate of Cooling 61
3.4.5 Remedies for Flash 61
3.5 The Pinch Off . 62
3.5.1 Importance . 62
3.6 High Quality, Undamaged Mould Cavity Finish 64
3.6.1 Mould Cavity Finish . 64
3.7 Effects of Air and Moisture Trapped in the Mould . 66
3.7.1 Polished Moulds 66
3.7.2 Moisture . 66
3.8 Injection of the Blowing Air . 66
3.8.1 Injection Blowing Air 66
3.8.2 Blowing Devices . 67
3.9 Ejection of the Piece from the Mould 67
3.9.1 Ejection Methods . 67
3.9.2 Manual Ejection . 68
3.9.3 Automatic Ejection 68
3.9.4 Hydraulic Systems 68
3.10 Pre-Pinch Bars 68
3.10.1 Top Pinch 68
3.10.2 Bottom Pinch . 68
3.11 Bottle Moulds 68
3.11.1 Neck Ring and Blow Pin Design 68
3.12 Dome Systems 70
3.12.1 Dome Blow Pin 70
3.12.2 Trimming Types 71
3.13 Pre-Finished System . 71
3.13.1 Pre-Finished Neck Rings 71
3.14 Unusual Problems 71
3.14.1 Special Features . 71
3.14.2 Irregular Shaped Parts . 72
3.15 Computer Aided Design and Engineering for Mould Making . 73
3.15.1 Application in Mould Making 73
3.15.2 Systems and Methods 73
3.16 General Mould Buying Practices . 77
3.16.1 Mould Procurement 77
3.16.2 Request for Quotation 77
3.17 Mould Maintenance Program . 78
3.17.1 The Moulds Used to Produce Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and
Polyethylene Terephthalate 78
3.17.2 Moulds for PE 78
3.17.3 Mould Cooling Lines . 78
3.17.4 Guide Pins and Bushings 78
3.17.5 Striker Plates and Blow Pin Plates 78
3.17.6 Pinch off . 79
3.17.7 Shut Down . 79
Acknowledgements 79
References . 79
Further Reading 79
4 The Extrusion Blow Moulding System . 81
4.1 Extruder . 81
4.2 Drive . 82
4.2.1 Motors 825
Practical Guide to Polyethylene
4.3 Gear Box 83
4.4 Screw Support Bearings 83
4.4.1 Life of Thrust Bearings 83
4.5 Extruder Feed 84
4.5.1 Feed 84
4.6 Hopper 85
4.6.2 Feed Throat 85
4.7 Single-Screw Extruder . 86
4.7.1 Barrel Construction . 86
4.7.2 Zone Heating . 86
4.7.3 Venting 86
4.7.4 Wear Resistant Barrels 87
4.7.5 Grooved Barrels . 87
4.7.6 Pressure Generation 87
4.8 Melt Filtration . 87
4.9 The Screw . 87
4.9.1 General-Purpose Screw . 87
4.9.2 Screw Zones . 88
4.9.3 Dedicated Screws . 88
4.9.4 Barrier Screws 89
4.9.5 Wear-Resistant Screws . 89
4.9.6 Mixing Pins and Sections . 90
4.9.7 Distributive and Dispersive Mixing . 90
4.10 The Extrusion Blow Moulding Head and Die Unit 91
4.10.1 Centre-Feed Die 92
4.10.2 Side-Feed Dies 93
4.10.3 Wall Thickness . 93
4.10.4 Accumulator Head 93
4.10.5 Die and Mandrel 93
4.10.6 Die Swell 94
4.10.7 Parison Adjustment 94
4.10.8 Die Shaping 95
4.10.9 Parison Programming 96
4.10.10 Blow-up Ratio 97
4.11 Mould Clamping Systems 98
4.11.2 Clamping System Requirements . 98
4.11.3 Clamp Operation . 98
4.11.4 Press Types . 98
5 Extrusion Blow Moulding Advanced Systems 103
5.1 Co-Extrusion Blow Moulding 103
5.1.1 Arrangement of Extruders for Co-Extrusion 103
5.1.2 Multi-Layered Structures . 103
5.1.3 Co-Extrusion Systems . 103
5.2 Three-Dimensional Blow Moulding . 105
5.2.1 Introduction to 3-D . 105
5.2.2 3-D Extrusion Processes . 106
5.2.3 Suction Blow Moulding . 106
5.2.4 Parison Manipulation 110
5.2.5 3-D Extrusion Systems . 111
5.2.6 Head Adapter Radial Wall System 114
5.3 Double Walled Parts and Containers . 116
6 Injection and Stretch Blow Moulding Machines . 117
6.1 Introduction . 117
6.1.1 Injection Moulding Process . 118
6.2 Process Characteristics . 1186
Practical Guide to Polyethylene
6.2.1 One step Machine . 118
6.2.2 Two Step Process . 120
6.2.3 Moulding Process 120
6.3 Tooling . 121
6.3.1 Introduction . 121
6.4 Stretch Blow Moulding . 127
6.4.1 Introduction . 127
References . 129
7 Safe and Effi cient Set-up, Start-up, Operation, Shutdown
Procedures and Safety 131
7.1 Start-up 131
7.1.1 Start-Up Preparations 131
7.1.2 Melt Temperature . 131
7.1.3 Warming up an Empty Machine . 132
7.1.4 Warming up a Full Machine . 132
7.1.5 Initial Operation and Purging 132
7.1.6 Commencing Moulding – Manual Operation 133
7.1.7 Commencing Moulding – Automatic Operation . 133
7.1.8 Changing Conditions and Dimension Verification 133
7.1.9 Recording Production Conditions 134
7.2 Safety in Normal Machine Operation 134
7.2.1 Operation . 134
7.2.2 Safety Considerations 134
7.3 Shutting Down 135
7.3.1 Temporary Stops 135
7.3.2 Overnight Stops . 136
7.3.3 High Temperature Work . 137
7.3.4 Heat-Sensitive Materials . 137
7.3.5 Purge Materials . 137
7.3.6 Shutting Down an Injection Blow Moulding Machine . 137
7.3.7 Check Recommendations 138
References . 138
8 Fault Finding – Causes and Effects . 139
8.1 Introduction . 139
8.2 Troubleshooting 139
8.3 Brainstorming 139
8.4 Problems and Causes . 140
8.4.1 Background Sounds of the Plant 142
8.4.2 Quality Problems . 142
8.4.3 Machine and Equipment Problems 142
8.4.4 Importance of Consistent Material . 143
8.4.5 Process Settings . 143
8.4.6 Ambient Conditions 143
8.5 Preventive and Corrective Actions . 143
8.5.1 Corrective Actions . 143
8.5.2 Corrective-Action Team 145
8.5.3 Root Cause . 145
8.6 Packaging 146
8.7 Scrap . 147
8.7.1 Contaminated Material . 147
8.7.2 Reworked Parts 147
9 Auxiliary Equipment: Design, Function, Operation, and Safety 149
9.1 Bulk Material Handling Systems . 149
9.2 Dryer 149
9.2.1 Hot Air Dryers 1497
Practical Guide to Polyethylene
9.2.2 Dryer Operation 150
9.2.3 Dryer Safety . 151
9.3 Blenders and Metering Equipment (Feeders) 151
9.3.1 A Volumetric Blender 152
9.3.2 Gravimetric Systems . 152
9.3.3 Metering and Blending Equipment . 152
9.3.4 Machine Operation . 152
9.4 Machine Safety . 153
9.5 Hopper Loader 153
9.5.1 Loader Operation 154
9.6 Water Temperature Controllers . 154
9.6.1 Operation . 155
9.7 In-line Inspection and Testing Equipment 155
9.7.1 Laser Measurement . 155
9.7.2 Ultrasonic Testing 155
9.7.3 Vision Systems . 156
9.7.4 Mechanical . 157
9.8 Conveyors 157
9.9 Granulators 158
9.10 Safety 158
10 Finishing 161
10.1 Planning for the Finishing of a Blow Moulded Part . 161
10.1.1 Product Design 161
10.1.2 Mould Engineering . 162
10.1.3 Process Planning 163
10.2 Removing Domes and Other Sections 167
10.3 Flash Removal 167
10.3.1 The Cutting Machine – Round Parts versus Parts with Corners 167
11 Decoration of Blow Moulded Products . 169
11.1 Testing Surface Treated Parts 169
11.2 Spray Painting . 170
11.3 Screen Printing 170
11.4 Hot Stamping 172
11.5 Pad Printing . 172
11.6 Labels and Decals 174
12 Glossary
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