Power Hydraulics

Power Hydraulics
اسم المؤلف
Michael J. Pinches, John G. Ashby
التاريخ
2 مارس 2024
المشاهدات
255
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
Loading...

Power Hydraulics
Michael J. Pinches, John G. Ashby

Automation Advisory Service,
Faculty of Technology,
Sheffield City Polytechnic, UKCONTENTS
PREFACE
1 INTRODUCTION I
LI Hydraulic piinciple$ I
LU Properties of fiutcL I
1.1.2 Units I
1.13 Pressure of 4 liquid I
1.1.4 Flow of a fluid 5
1.1,5 Work dene 8
1,2 Hydraulic symbols 9
2 PUMPS 15
2.1 Types of pump ] 5
2.1.1 Rotary pumps 18
2-1.2 Reciprocating pumps 22
2J.3 Variable-displacement pump-control systems 2S
2.L4 Pump selection 3d
2.2 Pumping circuits 34
2.2.1 Single fixed-displacement pump 35
2.2.2 Single fixed-displacement pump with accumulator JO
2.2.3 Multi-pump 38
2.2,4 Variable-delivery pump 4 1
2.3 Pump drives 4 1
2.4 Pump circuit design study 43
3 HYDRAULIC VALVES .57
3.1 Pressure-comtoI valves
3.LI Relief valves -s
3.1.2 Counterbalance valves W
3.1.3 Pressure sequence valves g
3J.4 Pressure-redurmg valvvs
3,2 Flow-comrd valves
J.2.1 Speed control of a cylinder
J.2.2 Threc-pori nr bypass-type llow’cuntrol valve
3.2.3 Priority flow control
3.2.4 Bridge networks
J.2.5 Multi-speed systems using fiow-control valves RS
3.2.6 FIom dividersnii
»3 Diirdioiial coniiol saho 93
A VI l heck salves 9«
3.3.2 PopiWl valves ,
AM Slidhlg spdW-IM* diii’Ct
A .1.4 Iwo Mage diuvihMMl conwl valve* no
a i s Vake M/e* and lumicndalinc 112
A.4 Cartridge sakes HA
A.4.1 Poppet type cartridge sakes 121
A. 4 .2 Spy’ll – 1v |te cm11idpc s aIse* 123
A 5 Mobile hydraulic takes 124
A.5.1 Yakc arrangements
4_ A CTI 1 I.- 141 kJ flkbSm \ . 127
4 1 Hydraulic cs tinders
4.1,1 Displacemeni cylinders
4.1,2 Single-acting cylinders IJi
4.1.3 Double-acting cylinders 1 ‘3
4.1.4 Acceleration and deceleration of cylinder loads 140
4.1,5 Cylinder mountings and strength calculations
4.2 Semi-rotary actuators
4.2-1 Vane-type actuators 152
4.2.2 Piston-type actuators 152
4.2.3 Helical screw actuator 154
4.2.4 Control of semi-rotary actuators 155
43 Hydraulic motors 155
4.3.1 Generated form types 135
4.3.2 Piston-type motors 159
4,4 Hydraulic motor circuits 163
4.4.1 Open circuit transmissions 163
4.4.2 Closed-loop transmissions 168
4.4.3 Multi-motor circuits 1711
4,5 Motor circuit design examples 172
5 FLUIDS FOR HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS 180
5,1 Hydraulic fluids
5.1,1 An outline of the developmem of hydraulic fluids IHU
180
5-1 2 Properties ot hydraulic fluids
ISO
185
18″
189
5.13 Hydraulic fluids survey
5.1.4 Future developments
5.2 Fluid contamination control
5-2.1 Energy contamination
5.2,2 Gaseous contamination 189
5.2.3 Liquid contamination I^i
5.2 4 Microbiological contamination 192
5.2.5 Paniculate contamination (dirt) 194
«ml filtration t«htlo|ogl
5.3 1 Filter construction
194
200
53 2 Fihration technology 200
533 Filter location 202
5.3.4 Filter sizing 20′
212Contents ix
5.4 Leakage eonhoi 214
5.4.1 ilvdrnulii; conduits 214
5-4 2 High pressure tube cmmix nous 217
5 4.3 Hydiaulic how. 225
5.4.4 SuppniK and clamps. 230
5.4.5 Circml accessories 230
5.4.6 Pipewoik elimination and shui’blicaiii’iik 212
5.4.” Seal protecturn 233
5.4.S Rules 1’or leakage control 234
inDRAUl IC SYSTEM DESIGN 235
6.1 Design criteria 235
6.1.1 Design informalion required 236
6.2 Summary of basic formulae and rules 237
6.2.1 Fluid How 237
6.2.2 Pressure losses 240
6.2.3 Cylinder formulae 241
6.2.4 Pump formulae 242
6.2.5 Hydraulic motor formulae 244
6,3 Power -pack design 245
63,1 Layout 245
63.2 Reservoirs 24?
633 Centralized hydraulic systems 253
6.4 Hydraulic accumulators 254
6,4.1 Types of accumulators 254
6.4.2 Accumulator applications 259
6.43 Operation and safety precautions 265
6,5 Hydraulic intensifiers 267
6.6 Design study—a simple hydraulic press 268
6.7 Design study—conveyor feed system 287
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM MAINTENANCE 296
7.1 Equipment and practices which benehi maintenance 296
7.1.1 flood housekeeping practice 296
7.1.2 Fluid storage and handling 300
7.13 Installations and commissioning of hydraulic systems 301
7,1.4 Routine maintenance 303
7,2 Trouble shooting in hydraulic systems 304
7.2.] Test equipment 304
7.2.2 General rules for hydraulic maintenance engineers 305
7.23 The concept of logical fault finding 305
73 Solutions to fault-finding exercises 323
CONTROL SYSTEMS 328
8.i Servo control 329
8.2 Valve servo systems 330
8.2, 1 Valve lap 330
8.23 Mechanical feedback 331
8.23 Sysiem response 333CoH/enfs
s 2,4 Elcctro-bydrantic .servo valves 338
8.2,5 System t espouse mid stability 340
8,3 Pump servo systems 340
8.3,1 Effect of leakage 341
8-3,2 Effect of compressibility 342
8.3.3 Natural frequency 344
8.3.4 Hydraulic stiffness 344
8.3.5 Damping ratio 345
8-4 Proportional valves 350
8.4.1 Force control 350
8.4.2 Force position control 351
8,4.3 Spool positional control 352
8.4.4 Proportional pressure control 354
8,4.5 Two-stage proportional valves 356
8.4.6 Proportional flow control 358
8.4.7 Electrical control of proportional valves 360
8.5 Proportional versus servo valves 360
8.5,1 Response speed and dynamic characteristics 360
8.5 2 Hysteresis effect 361
8.5.3 Null position 361
8.6 Some applications of proportional control valves 362
8.6.1 Control of actuators 362
8.6.2 Pump control systems 363
APPENDIX EXERCISES AND SOLUTIONS 367
A J Circuitry questions 367
A.2 Hydraulic calculations 376
A.3 Design problems 3S3
A.4 Solutions to Section A.2 388
FURTHER READING 391
INDEX 393FURTHER READING
Hitler; rd hydraulics
Pugh, H. (1980) TAe Hydraulic Age. Mechanical Engineering Publications. London
Fluid mechanics
John, J, E. and Haberman, W. L. (1980) to Fluid Mechanics, Prentice Hall.
Englewood Cliff’s, NJ,
Roberson. J. A, and Crowe, C. T. (I9?5) Fluid Mechanics, Houghion Mifflin, New
York.
Reference books
Warring, R. H., ed. (1983) The Hydraulic Handbook, 8th edn, Trade & Technical Press, Morden,
Surrey.
Hydraulic Technical Data, Trade & Technical Press, Morden, Surrey
Pumps
Lambeck, R. P. (1983) Hydraulic Pumps and Motors, Marcel Dekker. New York.
Fluids
Tourrei, R. and Wright. E. P. (1979) Per/owmnte Testing of Hydraulic Fluids. Heyden/lnslttuteof
Petroleum, Loudon.
Cunlrul and servo
Guilion. M. (1969) Hydrutdif Serio Systems. Buiterworth, London.
Harrison, H. L. and Hollinger. J. G. (1969) /lu/omufic Controls, International Textbook Co..
London.
McCloy; D. and Marlin, H. R. (1980) Control Of Fluid Power. Ellis Horwood. New York.
Ptppingtr, J. D. (1984) Hydraulic Falces and Control. Marcel Dekker, New York.
R«d, E. W. and Larman, J. S. (1985) Fitud Power wtth Microprocessor Control: wfroJHt/io/i,
Greinke Hall, Hcmel Hempstead
Stringer, j, D. (1976) Hydraulic System Analysts, Macmillan, London.INDEX
P.sl-j number’, in bold type indicate the main subject reference.
absolute rating, 203. 207, 211, 250, 296
absorption, 193
accumulator. 36, 48 54. 234, 254, 272 6,
293, 302
applications 259 67, 272
back-up bottles, 258. 275
bag. 258
charging. 265-7
circuit. 36. 40, 53. 64. 100, 276. 277, 305
dead load, 254—5
free surface. 256
gas loaded, 255-9
isolating valve. 53
piston, 257, 265
precharge. 49, 259. 273, 293. 303
pressure testing, 266
safety, 265-7, 305
safety circuit. 100, 267
sizing, 260, 273
spring loaded, 25 5
actuators, 127
design information 236
additives, 180, 184. 192
adiabatic expansion and compression of a gas.

  1. 257, 259, 260, 275. 294
    adsorption, 194
    aeration. 95, 190, 251
    aeration control, 191, 251
    air blast cooler, 252
    air bleed valve, 42, 297
    air breather, 199, 211, 250 1, 296. 301
    tur bubbles, 183, 190
    air motor, 42
    a>r saturation. )9|
    analog. 328
    anti.burst valve, 231
    ^li-cavjtaiion check valve, 126, 163, 169
    ^nb-foaming additives, 192
    a»li-]ungc device. 74. 76
    an< -oxidant, J 80 ^li-syphon holes, 191, 251 an’i-vibration mounts, 245, 301 anu wear agents, 185 armature, 99, 105. 106, 351, 361 axial piston pump, 22, 25 axial piston motor, 160 ANSI (American National Standards Institute), 110 bacteriological growth, 194 baffles, 252 balanced vane pump, 21 ball motor, 160 basic formulae (summary), 237 bell housing, 246 bellows, 146 bent axis motor, 160, 162 bent axis pump, 23, 25, 31 beta raring. 203, 204. 211 bite ring, 218. 220 bladder, 192, 258 9 bleed-off filler, 208 blecd’off flow control, 77 block diagrams, 310. 314, 329, 341, 347, 359, 360 bonded washer, 223 boost pump, 169, 179. 319 brake valve. 66. 168, 169, 322 Bramah, Joseph, 268 bridge network. 86, 210 British Standard (US), 139. 181. 214, 220, 288, 297 British Standard Pipe Thread (BSP), 220, 222 bubble point test, 203 buckling length, 147-8, 289 buckling loud. 148, 150, 288 bulk modulus, 18. 183, 262-3, 342-4 bypass tiller, 208 bypass flow control, 83, 176 bypass valve, 204, 206. 213. 269, 303 cam rotor motor, 159 cartridge valve. 99. Ill, 233 (see ufao Valve, cartridge) cavitation, 163, 189, 191, 251, 299 centralized hydraulic systems, 253, 288Index 394 certrifugal pump. CUTOP. IIO, 195, 221. 399 check valve (sec 3 ahe. check) soft seal. 93 chlorinated hydrocarbons, I SI choke pack. 108. 292, 516 circuit breaker, 68 clamps, lube and hose. 250 clean up loop. 207, 210. 211. 5 11, 314 clean hydraulic oil, 19$. 19* cleanliness standards, 195 cleanliness target levels. 212 clearance in components. 198 closed loop control, 329, 360 closed loop transmission. 35. 168-171, 178 commissioning, 301, 302. 365 component malfunction, 309 compressibility, 183. 342 compression fining, 218, 2)9 condition monitoring, 297 constani How control, 29, 175 constant power control, 28. 17$, 179, 286 contamination analysis. 298, 299 contaminant coding, 196, 197 contamination control, 189 control systems, 328 conversion coupling, 219 conveyor feed system, 28* copying device. 332, 336 corrosion inhibitor, 180, 185 counterbalancing. 64, 264 counterbalance valve, 64-6, 76. 95, 297. 309. 315 coupling shaft, 246. 303 tube, 217-25 cracking pressure, 93 crescent seal, 19 cross-line relief. 61. 167, 292, 322 custom built power packs, 245 cylinder, 127 acceleration and deceleration, 140 5 displacement, 127, 128, 132. 138 double acting, 127. 133 51, 153 dynamic thrust , 136. 241 cushioning, 142 5, 155 cushion pressures, M2 formulae, 128, 134, 136 8, 140, 241 maximum speed, 145 mournings. 146 operating temperatures. 145 piston rod buckling strength. M8 piston rod ends. 146 piston rod protective covers, 146 regenerative, 137-9, 149 seal friction, 136 speed control, 75 single acting. 133. 126. 127, 254, 269, 273 standard metric, 139, 142, 151, 285. 288 sialic thrust. 136, 241 strength. H7 50 stop tube, 148 synchronization, 89 telescopic, 130- 2 through rod, 139 wear, 299, 309 damping orifice, 30, 75 damping ratio, 344 5 dead zone, 331. 352 deceleration valve, 72 decompression, 95-7, 184 Delrin, 93 design criteria, 235 information. 236 study, 268 detem, 105 diaphragm (jee Flexible separator) diatomaceous earth, 201 diffuser, 192. 251, 292 digital, 328, ,150, 365 DIN standards, 110, 111, 113. 215. 218, 219, 223 directional control valves, 93 (see also Valve, directional control) dirt in systems effect, 199 origin, 194, 198, 206 dirt fust, 209, 240 size categories, 199 tolerance, 20 displacement cylinder, 127-32, 138 dissolved air, 190 dither control, 338, 359, 360 double acting cylinder, 127, 133 -51 dual relief valve, 61 efficiencies pump and motor, 16, |7, 156, 166 7, 173 9, 243-4. 2912, 346 system. 43 56,271 87 elastomer seals, 101, 128, MS, 187, 259 electrohydraulic servo valve, 338 40 electrostatic contamination, 190 electrostatic filtration, 202 energy contamination, 189 Engler, 181 entrained air, 183, 190, 252 equations of motion, 140 Euler’s strut theory, 14830$ failure tawstropbie. 198. 2(H) dcjradJUioii, 198, 200 fault ^06 finding chart, 312* 315 feedback. 329 33. 338* 353, 361 filler vapacity, 202. 213. 240 constr uet iou. 206 comamination time curves* 206 cold start conditions. 205, 213, 296 ckxiroMatk’, 202 element beta rating. 203 bubble point resi* 203 changing, 211. 303 collapse pressure, 204 condition indicator, 205, 302, 314 depth type, 201* 202 tlo« capacity, 213 media. 201 rating 203, 207. 211, 212, 250, 296 spin-on, 211. 294 surface type. 201. 202 housing, 200 location, 47, 207-12 magnetic, 202 pressure drop through, 213 suing. 212-3. 240 lire resistant fluid. 180, 186-7. 194, 190 Miration technology, 200 first order system, 334 flange connection, 221 flared fittings. 217-9, 223 flapper type servo valve, 339, 361 flexible separator, 192, 199, 250-1, 258-9 float switch, 251, 256 flow control bleed off, 77 bypass, 83 5 meter in 75 B8, J68, 293 meter out. 76-88, 168, 284 vahes, 70 (jfe also Valve, flow control) flow divider, 89-92 flow meter , 304 flow through an orifice, 70 2, 332 Au* velocity, 6. 216 fluid flow. 5, JOS, 237 fluids (see Hydraulic fluid) nuihing* 302 flushing valve, 170 Naming, |8J. ] H4 form tool, 1 12 ^equency response, 336 gas laws, 49, 257, 275 gaseous coiittiimnution, PX) gear moior. 156, 157 gem pump, 19, 31. 45 generated lolnr (geruliir), 20, 155, 157 heal dissipation, 190, 24g heat energy, 190 high Mater-base Hinds (HWBI’1, 186, 188, 189 hi-lo, 39. 63, 271 hose break valve, 231 hydraulic conduits, 214 (see utw Hydraulic tube dwef hydraulic- hose) hydraulic fluids, eno hydraulic fluid additives, 180. 184, 185. 192 characteristics, 188 classification, 180 I compatibility, 188 conditioners, 252 contamination, 189, 298, 304, 305. 309 contamination control, 189-213, 296 future development, 187 handling, 300 mineral oil, 181. 185, 288 oil in water emulsions (HWBF)* 186, 188, 189* 252 operating temperature, 249. 252 phosphate ester, 181, 187, 190 sampling, 195, 297, 302 selection, 187 storage, 300 water glycol, 181. 186. 187 water-in-oil (invert) emulsion* 186-8 water removal, 193 hydraulic hose, 215-9 burst pressure. 226 end fittings, 227, 229 failure, 228 installation, 228, 3OL selection, 228 suction, 229, 301 supports, 229, 230* 301 types. 225 working pressure, 226 hydraulic motor circuits. 163 hydraulic molars, 155 (see u/so Motors) hydraulic power, 8, 9. 17 hvdrauhe press. 24, 39. 63, 65, 91 3, 95-7, 149 design study, 268 hydraulic stillness, 344 hydraulic symbols, 9, 58, 63, 69. 84, 86, 87, 89, 94. 109 hydraulic tube, 114 coned fittings. 220 connections, 217 25 lutings, 217-25396 flanges. 220 flow rating^ 216 installation. 224,. 301 pickling, 225 staple connector, 222 weld fittings, 220 working pressures, 215 hydrocapsuk. 176 hydrostatic braking, !Ci9 hydrostatic transmissions, 62, 103, 163 characteristics, ]65, !7l closed loop, 168 70. 177, 209, .119, 341 constant power, 165 circuit, 163 8. 175 hysteresis effect, 36 1 inhibitors, 185 installation, 224, 301 integrated circuit, 1I2t 123 intensifiesLion, 90, 93. 267 intensifier, 267, 280 interfaces. 11 1 ISO {International Standards Organisation), 1 10, 181. 195, 196 international reference numbers, 110, 195 inlravanc, 2 1 invert emulsion, 186-8 isentropic expansion and compression, 50, 257 isothermal expansion and compression, 49, 257, 275, 2M jet pipe servo, 1 , 339 JIC (Joint Industrial Council), 217, 222, 245 kickdown sequence valve, 68 kinematic viscosity, IBI free p/yo Viscosity) KR tube coupling, 219 laminar tlow, 6, 215, 239 land (spool}, 104, 330 Jap, 330, 331 l.aplacc, 333 8, 342 4. 349 50 Last Chance litter. 209 leakage coefficient, 341 4, 146 50 compensation, 263 conirol. 214. 234 internaI, I56, 159, J6S. 179, 297. 3Mb J4| level switch, 251, 256 linear actuators, 127 transducer, 352 liquid coniaminalion, 192 lock valw, 87 H logic element, J J2 23 (see alm Valve, cartridge) logic valve pilot control sources, 1 19 poppet type, 113-21 Judex remote switching, I 18 spoof type, 123 3 switching of multiple elements, H9 kgleaf fauh finding, 305, 3OH, 315 27 I orxlon Hydraulic ^bwer Co.. 25.1 lubrication. 101, 184-8 magnetic filter, 202 magnetic separator. 202 magnetism, 190 magnitude ratio, 337 maintenance, routine 299, 303 make-up pump. 163, 168, 320 manifold. 123, 232 4, 301 manual overrides, 107, 108 manual servo, 25-7. 179, 320, 322 mean filtration rating. 203 mechanical efficiency’ (fee Torque efficiency) mechanical feedback, 33J mechanical servo valve, 264, 331. 336 mcler in, 75-88, 168, 293 meter out, 76-88, 168, 284 microbiological contamination, 194 mineral oil, 181, 185, 288 mobile hydraulic valves, J23 arrangements, 124-6 modularized package, 113, 123 monoblock valve, 124 motion control vahc, 67, J 70 motor, 155 axial piston, 160 ball, 160 cam rotor, 159 characteristics, 162. 174 circuiu, 163, ?]7, 319 Circuit design examples, 172. 176 eltkkncies, 166 -7, L73-9. 244, 29 f, 346 formulae, 163-6, 244, 346 freewheel, 163, 168 gear, 156 gerotoi, 157 leakage. 156, 159. !?9 141 orbit. 157 radial piston, 5&i 3 sizing, 290 torque. 164, pg xane, ]58 variable displacement, 158-9, 161-6 motors in parallel, 172 motors in series, 17 1 multi-pass test. 204 nnilii-pump ^iicuiu, 38 41 46-8, 65. 27J, 3M, 292. 316 NFPA (National Fluid Power AssOciiM>un)-
    110, 299
    NPT (National Pipe Thread). 222. 223fruits
    natural frequeiKv. 544
    needle valve. ”I
    neon indicatois. 10″
    NC< reference number. LII
    nominal rating, 203. 206
    non-return valve (w Valve, check)
    notched spool, 104, 116, 552
    null point, 331 , ’61
    diagram. 337. 338
    ‘O’ ring compression finings, 219
    oil cooler, 190. 192, 240. 252
    oil healer. 252
    oil immersed solenoid, 106
    oil-irwaier emulsion, 186, 188, 189, 252
    oiI- 1iiuaict micro-emulsion, 189
    open circuit (loop) transmission, 35, 163. 167
    open Loop control, 329
    operating temperature, 145, 249, 298. 306
    orbit motor, 157
    Orifice flow, 7D- 2. 332, 358
    overall efficiency, 17, 166-7, 174-6. 179,
    243-4, 292, 346
    Ovcrccnter valve, 65-7. 168
    overlap. 331
    oxidation, 189
    Oxidation inhibitor, 185
    parallel connection. 124, 172
    panicle
    analysis, 197
    counting, 195, 298
    distribution, 196 7
    sizes, 195. 198, 199
    particulate contamination, 194 200. 206, 297,
    304 (see oho Dirt)
    Pascal’s laws, 4, 268
    patch test. 298
    phase angle, 337
    phosphale ester, 181, 187. 190
    pickling. 225, 301
    pilot control sources, HW. 119. 271
    pilot operated check valve. 94. 95, 99, 103,
    112, 263, 264. 293, 309
    Pilot pressure unloading, 62
    piloi io dose check valve, 97
    Pipe fitting, 217 25
    pipe flow, 238
    pipe supports, 229. 230. 30 1
    piston rod buckling. 147 50
    piston rod ends, 146
    Pneumatics. I. 42, 253
    Polytropic expansion and compression of a
    gas, 257
    Poppi-t valves, 59. 98-100, 112 121
    Port identification, 11
    port relief valve, 61
    .397
    pom point. 183, |R4
    power pack, 245, 292, Wl. 311
    Po/i1larc coupling. 219
    prcfill valve, 95, 96, 281, 285
    pressure compensation
    pumps, 27, 54. 175, 272. 276. 284 6, 292
    valves, 73. 74. «4, 121, 122. 304. 358. 359
    pressure control cartridge valves, 120, 121
    pressure control valves, 57 (see zr/jo Valve.
    pressure control)
    pressure drop, 103, 240
    head, 5
    intensification, 90. 93
    line filter, 169, 208, 211, 296
    losses, 240
    of a liquid. I
    operated directional control valve, 107
    override, 59, 62
    reducing valve, 69. 70. 123
    surge (damping), 262
    switch, 14, 36. 52, 149, 205, 276-9. 320
    zone, 19
    priority flow control, 85
    properties of fluids, I
    proportional amplifier. 360
    proportional flow control. 358 60
    pressure control, 354
    pressure reducing valve, 354
    pressure relief valve, 354
    two stage valves, 356
    versus servo valves, 340
    proportional valves. 121. 123. 350
    proportional valve
    applications, 293, 362 6
    characteristics, 351, 360
    force control. 350
    force, position control, 351
    notched spool, 357
    spool position, 353
    pulsation damper, 225, 261
    pump characteristics, 45, 175
    delivery. 32
    drives, 4!
    drive speed, 32
    cllkicucics, 16, 17, |76, 243 4, 292. 346
    formulae, 15 7. 242 3, 342, 346
    location. 245
    noise, 33. 322
    operating pt essme, 30 2
    selection, 30, 17«, 291
    servo system, 34(1
    pump types, IS
    axial piston, 22, 31, 320
    centrifugal, 15
    gear (external), 19. 31, 45.46
    gear (gerotor), 20
    gear (internal), 19, 31Index
    noii-posiiisc displacement. 15
    plunger, 24. Al
    positive displacement, 15 35
    radial piston, 24, 25
    reciprocating, 22
    rotaty, IS
    tandem, 46
    vane, 20, 21, 31
    variable delivery. 21, 25 31. II, 175, 286.
    292, 302, 345, 363
    pumping circuits. 35, 363
    push rod, 105
    quick release coupling, 230, 231
    Q-pump, 33
    radial piston pump, 24, 25
    radial piston motor. ItI-3
    ramp down’, 359
    ramp input, 334-6
    ramp ’up’, 359
    Redwood, 181
    regeneration, 103
    regenerative circuit, 137-9, 149
    relative density, 180
    relief valve, 27-9, 35, 39, 42, 58-64, 75-85.
    91, 120-3. 168. 176, 270. 277. 284.
    302, 309, 314, 320
    ball, 59
    cracking pressure, 59
    cross line, 61, 167, 292, 322
    differential poppet, 59. 60
    direct acting, 59. 358
    filter, 208
    guided piston, 59
    pilot operated, 59-61. 120, 122. 321
    port relief, 61
    remote operation, 61
    selection, 62
    solenoid controlled. 61, 121
    unloader, 39, 62
    remote switching of cartridge demcni, 1 18
    reservoir
    cooling effect, 248 50
    design, 250 2
    filling, 296 301
    function, 247, 251
    heater, 252
    shape, 248
    size, 33, 247, 249. 295
    types, 247
    restrictor cartridge. J 16
    restrictor check, 97
    return line filler, 176, 208. 211, 296, 314
    reusable fillings, 227
    reverse flow filter, 209
    Reynolds number, 239
    louny actuator Istr motor)
    nisi inhibitor, 180, 185
    sal ct v regulations, 266
    sampling vahe, 297
    sandwich plale (block), 61. 97, 233
    Sayboli, INI
    scavenging, 169, 170
    seal friciion. 136
    seal protection, 233
    sealed reservoir, 192
    semi-rotary actuator, 127, 152,236
    chain and sprocket. 154
    control, 155
    helical screw, 155
    lever arm, 154
    rack and pinion, 153. 154
    vane, 152, 154
    sequence valve, 67 9, 282, 297
    series connection, 125. 170
    servo control, 25. 322, 329, 360 I, 365
    servo system stability. 340
    servo valve, 302, 339, 361
    servo valve filter. 207, 209
    sharp edged orifice, 73, 358
    shear stability, 182
    shut-off valve, 245. 299. 301, 315, 320
    shuttle valve, 98, 169, 293
    side cylinders, 282, 284
    single acting cylinder, 127, 133
    sinusoidal input, 336
    SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers), 217,
    221, 222, 227
    soil scat valve, 93
    soft -switching, 106, 113, 116
    solenoid, 12, 106 ($ee uho Valve, directional
    control)
    controlled relief valve, 61
    manual Override, 107
    operation, 105, 351
    operated cartridge valve, 117
    pilot valve, 47, 53. 60, 99, 108
    specific gravity, ISO
    spool
    notched, 104. 116. 352, 357
    shapes, icm
    spool valve
    cartridge. Ill, 121-3
    center condition, 102-4, 168
    pressure drop, 103
    stroke limiter, 109
    iiunsitiou states, 101, 102
    standby power supply, 253, 262
    standard metric cylinders, 139, 140
    standards organizations, 110, 180, 217
    staple connector. 222
    star-delta starter. 41
    Lprr/C’
    uaH-up “il”?.
    skip ring. 1’1
    stop nibes, 148
    vainer, 192. 20?, 251. 315
    streamline Hois, 6. 215
    stroke limiter, nJ, 109
    suction line filter, 2C\ 208, 211,. 296
    suction /one. 19
    swaged lining, 22
    swash plate, 22, 25 31. 321
    symbols, 9 14 (see Hydraulic symbols)
    synchronizing valve, 89 90
    synthetic fluid, 180, 18?
    system damping, 340
    efficiency, 27] -87
    response, 333 8
    start-up, 302. 305
    stiffness. 191
    tandem connection, 126
    telescopic cylinder, 130-2
    test equipment. 304
    test points, 231, 233, 297, 299. 304, 314
    thermal expansion, 184. 262
    threaded connectors, 217-20. 222 4
    three port flow control valve, 83. 85-6
    through rod cylinder, 139
    Lorque efficiency, 16, 17, 166 7, 243-4
    transition state (valve spool). 100. 102
    transmissions (sec Hydrostatic transmissions)
    tree branching. 314
    Triple-lok” rube fitting, 217
    trouble shooting, 304, 310. 314
    turbulent flow, 6, 239
    two stage directional control valves, 108, 112,
    270, 292. 316. 356
    two stage pressure control valves, 59, 70, 120,
    1. 321, 257
      two stage sequence valve, 68. 122
      underlap, 331, 361
      units, 1 3, 237 8
      unit step input, 331
      unloader valve, 39, 62. 100
      valve,
      cartridge, 99, 112, 233
      flow control, 122
      logic element , J 12 23
      normally dosed, 115
      operation, 114
      orifice, 177
      P’lol control sources. 119
      Puppet type. 113 -21
      pressure control, 121
      pressure reducing, 123
      remote switching, 118
      399
      restrictor poppet, 116
      spool type, 1 1 3, 121 3
      spool valve equivalent. 120
      switching, 1 18 20
      check (non-rcturn), 10, 36, 39, 40, 65. 67,
      71, 93. 99, 109. 112, 113, 123, 163.
      1. 299, 318. 322
        bypass, 204. 206, 213
        pilot operated, 94, 103. 1 12, 263. 264,
        293, 309
        pilot to close, 97
        prefill, 95 7. 28K 285
        restrictor, 97
        sandwich, 61, 97. 233
        shuttle, 98, 169, 293
        direct acting, 101, 309
        directional control. 93
        identification of actuator position, 111
        operators, 105
        pilot operated, 107-9
        poppet solenoid, 99, 112
        sliding spool, 100, 112
        solenoid operated, 36, 47, 101, 105, 106,
        322
        spool center conditions, 102-4, 168
        spool stroke limiter, 109
        spool transition states, 101, 102
        three position, 88, 102
        two stage, 108, 112, 270, 292, 316, 356
        flow control 70 (see also Flow control), 209,
        275, 309
        bypass (three port), 83 -6
        deceleration, 72
        divider, 89, 90
        needle, 7 1
        pressure compensated, 73 6, 83, 122, 293
        priority, 85, 86
        viscosity compensated, 73
        mobile, 123
        monoblock, 124
        paialk-l connection, 124
        scries connection. 125
        tandem connection, 126
        valve actuation, 101, 105, Ml
        valve constant, 71, 332
        valve interfaces, 1 1 1
        valve lap, 330, 361
        valve pressure control, 12, 57, 120, 121, 354
        counterbalaitec, 64 6. 76, 95, 297. 309, 315
        uvercenter, 65 7, 168
        pressure inducing, 69, 70, 123
        iclief, 58 64 (see uh<> Relief valve)
        sequence, 67 9, 282. 297
        valve, servo systems, 330
        valve slack, 61. 97, 232, 233
        vane motor. 158, 159
        vane pump. 20, 21,314 (Ml
        vapor pressure, 186
        vector diagram, 33 7
        vehicle suspensions, 259, 264 5
        velocity fuse. 231
        velocity in pipes, 6, 7, 239
        venting. 41, 61 4, 115
        vent port, 60 4, 120
        viscosity, 6. 73, 102, 152, 159, 181, 182,
        185 9, 288
        viscosity index, 181, 182. 184, 188
        viscosity pressure characteristics, 182
        viscosity temperature characteristics, 182
        viscosity (temperature) compensation, 73. 358
        volumetric efficiency, 16, 156, 166, 173-4,
  2. 179, 243, 290 1
    volumetric strain, 18. 183
    volumetric stress, 18, 183
    water-absorbing polymers. 193 4
    water based fluids, IRO, 186, 194
    water-in-oil (contamination), 193, 300
    water-in-oil (invert) emulsion. 186, 187,
    water glycol, 181. 186, 187
    water hammer, 262
    water removal, 193 4
    wear, 298, 309
    wet pin solenoid, 105. 106
    wire mesh separator, 192, 252
    work done, 4. 8. 164
    welded connections, 220
    welded nipple, 221
    wiper ring, 130. 131, 13.3
    zero lap. 33L 332, 361
    CONTENTS
    PREFACE
    dn, PUMPS
    xi
    1 INTRODUCTION ]
    1.1 Hydraulic principles 1
    1.1.1 Properties of fluids ]
    aleceOmits 1
    1.1.3 Pressure of a liquid 1
    1.1.4 Flow of a fluid 5
    1.1.5 Work done 8
    1.2 Hydraulic symbols 9
    15
    2.1 Types of pump IS
    2.1.1 Rotary pumps \ 18
    2.1.2 Reciprocating pumps WD)
    2.1.3 Variable-displacement pump-control systems 25
    2.1.4 Pump selection 30
    2.2 Pumping circuits 34
    2.2.1 Single fixed-displacement pump 35
    2.2.2 Single fixed-displacement pump with accumulator 36
    2.2.3 Multi-pump 38
    2.2.4 Variable-delivery pump 4]
    2.3 Pump drives 41
    2.4 Pump circuit design study 43
    3 HYDRAULIC VALVES a
    Sa
    3.1 Pressure-control valves yf 57
    3.1.1 Relief valves Li 58
    3.1.2 Counterbalance valves 64
    3.1.3 Pressure sequence valves 67
    3.1.4 Pressure-reducing valves 69
    3.2 Flow-control valves 70
    3.2.1 Speed control of a cylinder 75
    3.2.2 Three-port or bypass-type flow-control valve 83
    3.2.3 Priority flow control 85
    3.2.4 Bridge networks 86
    3.2.5 Multi-speed systems using flow-control valves 88
    3.2.6 Flow dividers 89viii Contents
    3.3 Directional control valves ve 93
    3.3.1 Check valves 93
    3.3.2 Poppet valves 98
    3.3.3 Sliding spool-type directional control valves 100
    3.3.4 Two-stage directional control valves 108
    3.3.5 Valve sizes and nomenclature 110
    3.4 Cartridge valves 112
    3.4.1 Poppet-type cartridge valves L133
    3.4.2 Spool-type cartridge valves 121
    3.5 Mobile hydraulic valves 123
    3.5.1 Valve arrangements 124
    4 ACTUATORS [27
    4.1 Hydraulic cylinders / 127
    4.1.1 Displacement cylinders x 128
    4.1.2 Single-acting cylinders 133
    4.1.3 Double-acting cylinders 133
    4.1.4 Acceleration and deceleration of cylinder loads 140
    4.1.5 Cylinder mountings and strength calculations 146
    4.2 Semi-rotary actuators 152
    4.2.1 Vane-type actuators 2
    4.2.2 Piston-type actuators 2
    4.2.3 Helical screw actuator 154
    4.2.4 Control of semi-rotary actuators P55
    4.3 Hydraulic motors 155
    4.3.1 Generated form types 155
    4.3.2 Piston-type motors 159
    4.4 Hydraulic motor circuits 163
    4.4.1 Open circuit transmissions 163
    4.4.2 Closed-loop transmissions 168
    4.4.3 Multi-motor circuits 170
    4.5 Motor circuit design examples 172
    5 FLUIDS FOR HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS 180
    5.1 Hydraulic fluids 180
    5.1.1 An outline of the development of hydraulic fluids 4 180
    5.1.2 Properties of hydraulic fluids 180
    5.1.3 Hydraulic fluids survey 185
    5.1.4 Future developments 187
    5.2 Fluid contamination control 189
    5.2.1 Energy contamination 189
    5.2.2 Gaseous contamination 190
    5.2.3 Liquid contamination 192
    5.2.4 Microbiological contamination 194
    5.2.5 Particulate contamination (dirt) 194
    5.3 Filter construction and filtration technology 200
    5.3.1 Filter construction 200
    5.3.2 Filtration technology 202
    5.3.3 Filter location 207
    5.3.4 Filter sizing 212Contents
    5.4 Leakage control
    5.4.1 Hydraulic conduits
    5.4.2 High-pressure tube connections
    5.4.3 Hydraulic hoses
    5.4.4 Supports and clamps
    5.4.5 Circuit accessories
    5.4.6 Pipework elimination and simplification
    5.4.7 Seal protection
    5.4.8 Rules for leakage control
    6 HYDRAULIC SYSTEM DESIGN
    6.1 Design criteria
    6.1.1 Design information required
    6.2 Summary of basic formulae and rules
    6.2.1 Fluid flow
    6.2.2 Pressure losses
    6.2.3 Cylinder formulae
    6.2.4 Pump formulae
    6.2.5 Hydraulic motor formulae
    6.3 Power-pack design
    6.3.1 Layout
    6.3.2 Reservoirs
    6.3.3 Centralized hydraulic systems
    6.4 Hydraulic accumulators
    6.4.1 Types of accumulators
    6.4.2 Accumulator applications
    6.4.3 Operation and safety precautions
    6.5 Hydraulic intensifiers
    6.6 Design study—a simple hydraulic press
    6.7 Design study—conveyor feed system
    HYDRAULIC SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
    7.1 Equipment and practices which benefit maintenance
    7.1.1 Good housekeeping practice
    7.1.2 Fluid storage and handling
    7.1.3 Installations and commissioning of hydraulic systems
    7.1.4 Routine maintenance
    7.2 Trouble shooting in hydraulic systems
    7.2.1 Test equipment
    7.2.2 General rules for hydraulic maintenance engineers
    7.2.3 The concept of logical fault finding
    7.3 Solutions to fault-finding exercises
    CONTROL SYSTEMS
    8.1 Servo control
    8.2 Valve servo systems
    8.2.1 Valve lap
    8.2.2 Mechanical feedback
    8.2.3 System response8.2.4 Electro-hydraulic servo valves
    8.2.5 System response and stability
    8.3 Pump servo systems
    8.3.1 Effect of leakage
    8.3.2 Effect of compressibility
    8.3.3 Natural frequency
    8.3.4 Hydraulic stiffness
    8.3.5 Damping ratio
    8.4 Proportional valves
    8.4.1 Force control
    8.4.2 Force position control
    8.4.3 Spool positional control
    8.4.4 Proportional pressure control
    8.4.5 Two-stage proportional valves
    8.4.6 Proportional flow control
    8.4.7 Electrical control of proportional valves
    8.5 Proportional versus servo valves
    8.5.1 Response speed and dynamic characteristics
    8.5.2 Hysteresis effect
    8.5.3 Null position
    8.6 Some applications of proportional control valves
    8.6.1 Control of actuators
    8.6.2 Pump control systems
    APPENDIX EXERCISES AND SOLUTIONS
    A.1 Circuitry questions
    A.2 Hydraulic calculations
    A.3 Design problems
    A.4 Solutions to Section A.2
    FURTHER READING
    INDEX
    Contents
    INDEX
    Page numbers in bold type indicate the main subject reference.
    absolute rating, 203, 207, 211, 250, 296
    absorption, 193
    accumulator, 36, 48—54, 234, 254, 272-6,
    293, 302
    applications 259—67, 272
    back-up bottles, 258, 275
    bag, 258
    charging, 265—7
    circuit, 36, 40, 53, 64, 100, 276, 277, 305
    dead load, 254—5
    free surface, 256
    gas loaded, 255—9
    isolating valve, 53
    piston, 257, 265
    precharge, 49, 259, 273, 293, 303
    pressure testing, 266
    safety, 265-7, 305
    safety circuit, 100, 267
    sizing, 260, 273
    spring loaded, 255
    actuators, 127
    design information 236
    additives, 180, 184, 192
    adiabatic expansion and compression of a gas,
    50, 257, 259, 260, 275, 294
    adsorption, 194
    aeration, 95, 190, 251
    aeration control, 191, 251
    air blast cooler, 252
    air bleed valve, 42, 297
    air breather, 199, 211, 250-1, 296, 301
    air bubbles, 183, 190
    air motor, 42
    air saturation, 191
    analog, 328
    anti-burst valve, 231
    anti-cavitation check valve, 126, 163, 169
    anti-foaming additives, 192
    anti-lunge device, 74, 76
    anti-oxidant, 180
    anti-syphon holes, 191, 251
    anti-vibration mounts, 245, 301
    anti-wear agents, 185
    armature, 99, 105, 106, 351, 361
    axial piston pump, 22, |25
    axial piston motor, 160
    ANSI (American National Standards
    Institute), 110
    bacteriological growth, 194
    baffles, 252
    balanced vane pump, 21
    ball motor, 160
    basic formulae (summary), 237
    bell housing, 246
    bellows, 146
    bent axis motor, 160, 162
    bent axis pump, 23, 25, 31
    beta rating, 203, 204, 211
    bite ring, 218, 220
    bladder, 192, 258—9
    bleed-off filter, 208
    bleed-off flow control, 77
    block diagrams, 310, 314, 329, 341, 347, 359,
    360
    bonded washer, 223
    boost pump, 169, 179, 319
    brake valve, 66, 168, 169, 322
    Bramah, Joseph, 268
    bridge network, 86, 210
    British Standard (BS), 139, 181, 214, 220,
    288, 297
    British Standard Pipe Thread (BSP), 220, 222
    bubble point test, 203
    “buckling length, 147-8, 289
    buckling load, 148, 150, 288
    bulk modulus, 18, 183, 262—3, 342—4
    bypass filter, 208
    bypass flow control, 83, 176
    bypass valve, 204, 206, 213, 269, 303
    cam rotor motor, 159
    cartridge valve, 99, 112, 233 (see also Valve,
    cartridge)
    cavitation, 163, 189, 191, 251, 299
    centralized hydraulic systems, 253, 288394 Index
    centrifugal pump, 15
    CETOP, 110, 195, 221, 299
    check valve (see Valve, check)
    soft seat, 93
    chlorinated hydrocarbons, 181
    choke pack, 108, 292, 316
    circuit breaker, 68
    clamps, tube and hose, 230
    clean up loop, 207, 210, 211, 311, 314
    clean hydraulic oil, 195, 197
    cleanliness standards, 195
    cleanliness target levels, 212
    clearances in components, 198
    closed loop control, 329, 360
    closed loop transmission, 35, 168-171, 178
    commissioning, 301, 302, 365
    component malfunction, 309
    compressibility, 183, 342
    compression fitting, 218, 219
    condition monitoring, 297
    constant flow control, 29, 175
    constant power control, 28, 175, 179, 286
    contamination analysis, 298, 299
    contaminant coding, 196, 197
    contamination control, 189
    control systems, 328
    conversion coupling, 219
    conveyor feed system, 287
    copying device, 332, 336
    corrosion inhibitor, 180, 185
    counterbalancing, 64, 264
    counterbalance valve, 64—6, 76, 95, 297, 309,
    315
    coupling
    shaft, 246, 303
    tube, 217—25
    cracking pressure, 93
    crescent seal, 19
    cross-line relief, 61, 167, 292, 322
    custom built power packs, 245
    cylinder, 127
    acceleration and deceleration, 140—5
    displacement, 127, 128, 132, 138
    double acting, 127, 133-51, 153
    dynamic thrust, 136, 241
    cushioning, 142—5, 155
    cushion pressures, 142
    formulae, 128, 134, 136-8, 140, 241
    maximum speed, 145
    mountings, 146
    operating temperatures, 145
    piston rod buckling strength, 148
    piston rod ends, 146
    piston rod protective covers, 146
    regenerative, 137—9, 149
    seal friction, 136
    speed control, 75
    single acting, 133, 126, 127, 254, 269,
    273
    standard metric, 139, 142, 151, 285, 288
    static thrust, 136, 241
    strength, 147—5S0
    stop tube, 148
    synchronization, 89
    telescopic, 130—2
    through rod, 139
    wear, 299, 309
    damping orifice, 30, 75
    damping ratio, 344—5
    dead zone, 331, 352
    deceleration valve, 72
    decompression, 95—7, 184
    Delrin, 93
    design
    criteria, 235
    information, 236
    study, 268
    detent, 105
    diaphragm (see Flexible separator)
    diatomaceous earth, 201
    diffuser, 192, 251, 292
    digital, 328, 350, 365
    DIN standards, 110, 111, 113, 215; 218, 219,
    223
    directional control valves, 93 (see also Valve,
    directional control)
    dirt in systems
    effect, 199
    origin, 194, 198, 206
    dirt fust, 209, 240
    size categories, 199
    tolerance, 20
    displacement cylinder, 127—32, 138
    dissolved air, 190
    dither control, 338, 359, 360
    double acting cylinder, 127, 133-51
    dual relief valve, 61
    efficiencies
    pump and motor, 16, 17, 156, 166—7,
    173-9, 243-4, 291-2, 346
    system, 43—56, 271-87
    elastomer seals, 101, 128, 145, 187, 259
    electrohydraulic servo valve, 338—40
    electrostatic contamination, 190
    electrostatic filtration, 202
    energy contamination, 189
    Engler, 181
    entrained air, 183, 190, 252
    equations of motion, 140
    Euler’s strut theory, 148Index
    failure
    catastrophic, 198, 200
    degradation, 198, 200
    fault
    diagnosis, 306
    finding chart, 312, 315
    feedback, 329-33, 338, 353, 361
    filter
    capacity, 202, 213, 240
    construction, 206
    contamination time curves, 206
    cold start conditions, 205, 213, 296
    electrostatic, 202
    element
    beta rating, 203
    bubble point test, 203
    changing, 211, 303
    collapse pressure, 204
    condition indicator, 205, 302, 314
    depth type, 201, 202
    flow capacity, 213
    media, 201
    rating 203, 207, 211, 212, 250, 296
    spin-on, 211, 294
    surface type, 201, 202
    housing, 200
    location, 47, 207—12
    magnetic, 202
    pressure drop through, 213
    sizing, 212—3, 240
    fire resistant fluid, 180, 186—7, 194, 190
    filtration technology, 200
    first order system, 334
    flange connection, 221
    flared fittings, 217—9, 223
    flapper type servo valve, 339, 361
    flexible separator, 192, 199, 250-1, 258-9
    float switch, 251, 256
    flow control
    bleed off, 77
    bypass, 83—5
    meter in 75—88, 168, 293
    meter out, 76—88, 168, 284
    valves, 70 (see also Valve, flow control)
    flow divider, 89—92
    flow meter, 304
    flow through an orifice, 70-2, 332
    flow velocity, 6, 216
    fluid flow, 5, 105, 237
    fluids (see Hydraulic fluid)
    flushing, 302
    flushing valve, 170
    foaming, 183, 184
    form tool, 112
    frequency response, 336
    gas laws, 49, 257, 275
    395
    gaseous contamination, 190
    gear motor, 156, 157
    gear pump, 19, 31, 45
    generated rotor (gerotor), 20, 155, 157
    heat dissipation, 190, 248
    heat energy, 190
    high water-base fluids (HWBF), 186, 188, 189
    hi-lo, 39, 63, 271
    hose break valve, 231
    hydraulic conduits, 214 (see also Hydraulic >
    tube and hydraulic hose)
    hydraulic fluids, 180
    hydraulic fluid
    additives, 180, 184, 185, 192
    characteristics, 188
    classification, 180-1
    compatibility, 188
    conditioners, 252
    contamination, 189, 298, 304, 305, 309
    contamination control, 189—213, 296
    future development, 187
    handling, 300
    mineral oil, 181, 185, 288
    oil in water emulsions (HWBF), 186, 188,
    189, 252
    operating temperature, 249, 252
    phosphate ester, 181, 187, 190
    sampling, 195, 297, 302
    selection, 187
    storage, 300
    water glycol, 181, 186, 187
    water-in-oil (invert) emulsion, 186—8
    water removal, 193
    hydraulic hose, 225-9
    burst pressure, 226
    end fittings, 227, 229
    failure, 228
    installation, 228, 301
    selection, 228
    suction, 229, 301
    supports, 229, 230, 301
    types, 225
    working pressure, 226
    hydraulic motor circuits, 163
    hydraulic motors, 155 (see also Motors)
    hydraulic power, 8, 9, 17
    hydraulic press, 24, 39, 63, 65, 91-3, 95-7,
    149
    design study, 268
    hydraulic stiffness, 344
    hydraulic symbols, 9, 58, 63, 69, 84, 86, 87,
    89, 94, 109
    hydraulic tube, 214
    coned fittings, 220
    connections, 217—25
    fittings, 217—25396
    flanges, 220
    flow rating, 216
    installation, 224, 301
    pickling, 225
    staple connector, 222
    weld fittings, 220
    working pressures, 215
    hydrocapsule, 176
    hydrostatic braking, 169
    hydrostatic transmissions, 62, 103, 163
    characteristics, 165, 171
    closed loop, 168—70, 177, 209, 319, 341
    constant power, 165
    open circuit, 163—8, 175
    hysteresis effect, 361
    inhibitors, 185
    installation, 224, 301
    integrated circuit, 112, 123
    intensification, 90, 93, 267
    intensifier, 267, 280
    interfaces, 111
    ISO (International Standards Organisation),
    110, 181, 195, 196
    international reference numbers, 110, 195
    intravane, 21
    invert emulsion, 186—8
    isentropic expansion and compression, 50, 257
    isothermal expansion and compression, 49,
    WSs BIS 2S
    jet pipe servo, 1, 339
    JIC (Joint Industrial Council), 217, 222, 245
    kickdown sequence valve, 68
    kinematic viscosity, 181 (see also Viscosity)
    KR tube coupling, 219
    laminar flow, 6, 215, 239
    land (spool), 104, 330
    lap, 330, 331
    Laplace, 333-8, 342—4, 349-50
    last chance filter, 209
    leakage coefficient, 341—4, 346-50
    compensation, 263
    control, 214, 234
    internal, 156, 159, 168, 179, 297, 304, 341
    level switch, 251, 256
    linear actuators, 127
    transducer, 352
    liquid contamination, 192
    lock valve, 87—8
    logic element, 112—23 (see also Valve,
    cartridge)
    logic valve
    pilot control sources, 119
    poppet type, 113-21
    remote switching, 118
    spool type, 121-3
    switching of multiple elements, 119
    logical fault finding, 305, 308, 315—27
    London Hydraulic Power Co., 253
    lubrication, 101, 184—8
    magnetic filter, 202
    magnetic separator, 202
    magnetism, 190
    magnitude ratio, 337
    maintenance, routine 299, 303
    make-up pump, 163, 168, 320
    manifold, 123, 232—4, 301
    manual overrides, 107, 108
    manual servo, 25—7, 179, 320, 322
    mean filtration rating, 203
    Index
    mechanical efficiency (see Torque efficiency)
    mechanical feedback, 331
    mechanical servo valve, 264, 331, 336
    meter in, 75—88, 168, 293
    meter out, 76—88, 168, 284
    microbiological contamination, 194
    mineral oil, 181, 185, 288
    mobile hydraulic valves, 123
    arrangements, 124—6
    modularized package, 113, 123
    monoblock valve, 124
    motion control valve, 67, 170
    motor, 155
    axial piston, 160
    ball, 160
    cam rotor, 159
    characteristics, 162, 174
    circuits, 163, 317, 319
    circuit design examples, 172, 176
    efficiencies, 166—7, 173-9, 244, 291, 346
    formulae, 163—6, 244, 346
    freewheel, 163, 168
    gear, 156
    gerotor, 157
    leakage, 156, 159, 179, 341
    orbit, 157
    radial piston, 161—3
    sizing, 290
    torque, 164, 178
    vane, 158
    variable displacement, 158—9, 161—6
    motors in parallel, 172
    motors in series, 171
    multi-pass test, 204
    multi-pump circuits, 38—41, 46-8, 65, 271,
    284, 292, 316
    NFPA (National Fluid Power Association),
    110, 299
    NPT (National Pipe Thread), 222, 223Index 397
    natural frequency, 344
    needle valve, 71
    neon indicators, 107
    NG reference number, 111
    nominal rating, 203, 206
    non-return valve (see Valve, check)
    notched spool, 104, 116, 352
    null point, 331, 361
    Nyquist diagram, 337, 338
    ‘O’ ring compression fittings, 219
    oil cooler, 190, 192, 240, 252
    oil heater, 252
    oil immersed solenoid, 106
    oil-in-water emulsion, 186, 188, 189, 252
    oil-in-water micro-emulsion, 189
    open circuit (loop) transmission, 35, 163, 167
    open loop control, 329
    operating temperature, 145, 249, 298, 306
    orbit motor, 157
    orifice flow, 70—2, 332, 358
    overall efficiency, 17, 166—7, 174-6, 179,
    243—4, 292, 346
    overcenter valve, 65—7, 168
    overlap, 331
    oxidation, 189
    oxidation inhibitor, 185
    parallel connection, 124, 172
    particle
    analysis, 197
    counting, 195, 298
    distribution, 196—7
    sizes, 195, 198, 199
    particulate contamination, 194—200, 206, 297,
    304 (see also Dirt)
    Pascal’s laws, 4, 268
    patch test, 298
    phase angle, 337
    phosphate ester, 181, 187, 190
    pickling, 225, 301
    pilot control sources, 109, 119, 271
    pilot operated check valve, 94, 95, 99, 103,
    112, 263, 264, 293, 309
    pilot pressure unloading, 62
    pilot to close check valve, 97
    pipe fitting, 217—25
    pipe flow, 238
    pipe supports, 229, 230, 301
    piston rod buckling, 147—50
    piston rod ends, 146
    pneumatics, 1, 42, 253
    polytropic expansion and compression of a
    gas, 257
    poppet valves, 59, 98-100, 112—121
    port identification, 11
    port relief valve, 61
    pour point, 183, 184
    power pack, 245, 292, 301, 311
    Poziflare coupling, 219
    prefill valve, 95, 96, 281, 285
    pressure compensation
    pumps, 27, 54, 175, 272, 276, 284—6, 292
    Valvester oa 4aS422 304eaS Sees 5o
    pressure control cartridge valves, 120, 121
    pressure control valves, 57 (see also Valve,
    pressure control)
    pressure drop, 103, 240
    head, 5
    intensification, 90, 93
    line filter, 169, 208, 211, 296
    losses, 240
    of a liquid, 1
    operated directional control valve, 107
    override, 59, 62
    reducing valve, 69, 70, 123
    surge (damping), 262
    switch, 14, 36, 52, 149, 205, 276—9, 320
    zone, 19
    priority flow control, 85
    properties of fluids, 1
    proportional amplifier, 360
    proportional flow control, 358—60
    pressure control, 354
    pressure reducing valve, 354
    pressure relief valve, 354
    two stage valves, 356
    versus servo valves, 340
    proportional valves, 121, 123, 350
    proportional valve
    applications, 293, 362—6
    characteristics, 351, 360
    force control, 350
    force, position control, 351
    notched spool, 357
    spool position, 353
    pulsation damper, 225, 261
    pump characteristics, 45, 175
    delivery, 32
    drives, 41
    drive speed, 32
    efficiencies, 16, 17, 176, 243—4, 292, 346
    formulae, 15-7, 242—3, 342, 346
    location, 245
    noise, 33, 322
    operating pressure, 30—2
    selection, 30, 178, 291
    servo system, 340
    pump types, 15
    axial piston, 22, 31, 320
    centrifugal, 15
    gear (external), 19, 31, 45, 46
    gear (gerotor), 20
    gear (internal), 19, 31398
    non-positive displacement, 15
    plunger, 24, 31
    positive displacement, 15—35
    radial piston, 24, 25
    reciprocating, 22
    rotary, 18
    tandem, 46
    Vanes 20 m2 esi
    variable delivery, 21, 25-31, 41, 175, 286,
    292, 302, 345, 363
    pumping circuits, 35, 363
    push rod, 105
    quick release coupling, 230, 231
    Q-pump, 33
    radial piston pump, 24, 25
    radial piston motor, 161—3
    ramp ‘down’, 359
    ramp input, 334-6
    ramp ‘up’, 359
    Redwood, 181
    regeneration, 103
    regenerative circuit, 137—9, 149
    relative density, 180
    relief valve, 27—9, 35, 39, 42, 58—64, 75-85,
    91, 120—3, 168, 176, 270, 277, 284,
    302, 309, 314, 320
    ball, 59
    cracking pressure, 59
    cross line, 61, 167, 292, 322
    differential poppet, 59, 60
    direct acting, 59, 358
    filter, 208
    guided piston, 59
    pilot operated, 59-61, 120, 122, 321
    port relief, 61
    remote operation, 61
    selection, 62
    solenoid controlled, 61, 121
    unloader, 39, 62
    remote switching of cartridge element, 118
    reservoir
    cooling effect, 248—50
    design, 250—2
    filling, 296-301
    function, 247, 251
    heater, 252
    shape, 248
    size, 33, 247, 249, 295
    types, 247
    restrictor cartridge, 116
    restrictor check, 97
    return line filter, 176, 208, 211, 296, 314
    reusable fittings, 227
    reverse flow filter, 209
    Reynolds number, 239
    Index
    SeenEan ee EEEEEEEENEEEEEEEEESETTERS
    rotary actuator (see motor)
    rust inhibitor, 180, 185
    safety regulations, 266
    sampling valve, 297
    sandwich plate (block), 61, 97, 233
    Saybolt, 181
    scavenging, 169, 170
    seal friction, 136
    seal protection, 233
    sealed reservoir, 192
    semi-rotary actuator, 127, 152, 236
    chain and sprocket, 154
    control, 155
    helical screw, 155
    lever arm, 154
    rack and pinion, 153, 154
    vane, 152, 154
    sequence valve, 67—9, 282, 297
    series connection, 125, 170
    servo control, 25, 322, 329, 360—1, 365
    servo system stability, 340
    servo valve, 302, 339, 361
    servo valve filter, 207, 209
    sharp edged orifice, 73, 358
    shear stability, 182
    shut-off valve, 245, 299, 301, 315, 320
    shuttle valve, 98, 169, 293
    side cylinders, 282, 284
    single acting cylinder, 127, 133
    sinusoidal input, 336
    SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers), 217,
    DDNi,PD, PEM
    soft seat valve, 93
    soft-switching, 106, 113, 116
    solenoid, 12, 106 (see also Valve, directional
    control)
    controlled relief valve, 61
    manual override, 107
    operation, 105, 351
    operated cartridge valve, 117
    pilot valve, 47, 53, 60, 99, 108
    specific gravity, 180
    spool
    notched, 104, 116, 352, 357
    shapes, 104
    spool valve
    cartridge, 113, 121-3
    center condition, 102—4, 168
    pressure drop, 103
    stroke limiter, 109
    transition states, 101, 102
    standby power supply, 253, 262
    standard metric cylinders, 139, 140
    standards organizations, 110, 180, 217
    staple connector, 222
    star-delta starter, 41Index
    start-up valve, 42
    stop ring, 131
    stop tubes, 148
    strainer, 192, 207, 251, 315
    streamline flow, 6, 215
    stroke limiter, 74, 109
    suction line filter, 207, 208, 211, 296
    suction zone, 19
    swaged fitting, 227
    swash plate, 22, 25-31, 321
    symbols, 9—14 (see Hydraulic symbols)
    synchronizing valve, 89—90
    synthetic fluid, 180, 187
    system damping, 340
    efficiency, 271—87
    response, 333-8
    start-up, 302, 305
    stiffness, 191
    tandem connection, 126
    telescopic cylinder, 130—2
    test equipment, 304
    test points, 231, 233, 297, 299, 304, 314
    thermal expansion, 184, 262
    threaded connectors, 217—20, 222—4
    three port flow control valve, 83, 85-6
    through rod cylinder, 139
    torque efficiency, 16, 17, 166—7, 243-4
    transition state (valve spool), 100, 102
    transmissions (see Hydrostatic transmissions)
    tree branching, 314
    Triple-lok® tube fitting, 217
    trouble shooting, 304, 310, 314
    turbulent flow, 6, 239
    two stage directional control valves, 108, 112,
    270, 292, 316, 356
    two stage pressure control valves, 59, 70, 120,
    OD. WAR, BWA, Si)
    two stage sequence valve, 68, 122
    underlap, 331, 361
    units, 1-3, 237-8
    unit step input, 331
    unloader valve, 39, 62, 100
    valve,
    cartridge, 99, 112, 233
    flow control, 122
    logic element, 112—23
    normally closed, 115
    operation, 114
    orifice, 177
    pilot control sources, 119
    poppet type, 113-21
    pressure control, 121
    pressure reducing, 123
    remote switching, 118
    399
    restrictor poppet, 116
    spool type, 113, 121-3
    spool valve equivalent, 120
    switching, 118—20
    check (non-return), 10, 36, 39, 40, 65, 67,
    71, 93, 99; 109, 1122S 12349163;
    176; 2589259) 277, 299; 3ilsas22
    bypass, 204, 206, 213
    pilot operated, 94, 103, 112, 263, 264,
    293, 309
    pilot to close, 97
    prefill, 95-7, 281, 285
    restrictor, 97
    sandwich, 61, 97, 233
    shuttle, 98, 169, 293
    direct acting, 101, 309
    directional control, 93
    identification of actuator position, 111
    operators, 105
    pilot operated, 107—9
    poppet solenoid, 99, 112
    sliding spool, 100, 112
    solenoid operated, 36, 47, 101, 105, 106,
    322
    spool center conditions, 102—4, 168
    spool stroke limiter, 109
    spool transition states, 101, 102
    three position, 88, 102
    two stage, 108, 112, 270, 292, 316, 356
    flow control 70 (see also Flow control), 209,
    275, 309
    bypass (three port), 83-6
    deceleration, 72
    divider, 89, 90
    needle, 71
    pressure compensated, 73—6, 83, 122, 293
    priority, 85, 86
    viscosity compensated, 73
    mobile, 123
    monoblock, 124
    parallel connection, 124
    series connection, 125
    tandem connection, 126
    valve actuation, 101, 105, 111
    valve constant, 71, 332
    valve interfaces, 111
    valve lap, 330, 361
    valve pressure control, 12, 57, 120, 121, 354
    counterbalance, 64—6, 76, 95, 297, 309, 315
    overcenter, 65—7, 168
    pressure reducing, 69, 70, 123
    relief, 58—64 (see also Relief valve)
    sequence, 67—9, 282, 297
    valve, servo systems, 330
    valve stack, 61, 97, 232, 233
    vane motor, 158, 159
    vane pump, 20, 21, 31400 Index
    vapor pressure, 186
    vector diagram, 337
    vehicle suspensions, 259, 264—5
    velocity fuse, 231
    velocity in pipes, 6, 7, 239
    venting, 41, 61—4, 115
    vent port, 60—4, 120
    viscosity, 6, 73, 102, 152, 159, 181, 182,
    185—9, 288
    viscosity index, 181, 182, 184, 188
    viscosity pressure characteristics, 182
    viscosity temperature characteristics, 182
    viscosity (temperature) compensation, 73, 358
    volumetric efficiency, 16, 156, 166, 173-4,
    177, 179, 243, 290-1
    volumetric strain, 18, 183
    volumetric stress, 18, 183
    water-absorbing polymers, 193—4
    water based fluids, 180, 186, 194
    water-in-oil (contamination), 193, 300
    water-in-oil (invert) emulsion, 186, 187, 188
    water glycol, 181, 186, 187
    water hammer, 262
    water removal, 193-4
    wear, 298, 309
    wet pin solenoid, 105, 106
    wire mesh separator, 192, 252
    work done, 4, 8, 164
    welded connections, 220
    welded nipple, 221
    wiper ring, 130, 131, 133
    zero lap, 331, 332, 361

كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.net
The Unzip Password : books-world.net

تحميل

يجب عليك التسجيل في الموقع لكي تتمكن من التحميل
تسجيل | تسجيل الدخول

التعليقات

اترك تعليقاً