Chemical Hazards in the Workplace

Chemical Hazards in the Workplace
اسم المؤلف
Ronald M. Scott
التاريخ
2 مارس 2024
المشاهدات
280
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Chemical Hazards in the Workplace
Ronald M. Scott
CONTENTS
SECTION I: BASIC TOXICOLOGY

  1. Kinds of Toxic Effects 3
    Local Effects and Systemic Poisons 3
    DNA: The Blueprint of the Organism 5
    Epidemiology 11
    Effects of Chemicals on Fertility 12
    Neurotoxins 13
    Other Toxic Effects 14
  2. Generating Safety Recommendations 15
    Tolerance of Toxic Substances 15
    The Target Population 16
    Animal Testing 16
    Designing Toxicological Experiments 18
    OSHA Standards 27
  3. Toxicants and the Human Body 29
    Skin Structure 29
    Eye and Skin Hazards 30
    Entry of Toxicants into the Body 33
    Distribution of Toxicants in the Body 37
    Removal of Toxicants from the Body 38
    Summary 41
    viiSECTION II: HAZARDS IN THE WORKPLACE
  4. Inhalation Toxicology 45
    Introduction 45
    Particulate Materials 45
    Warning Properties of Gases and Vapors 49
    Recommended Maximum Exposures 55
  5. Solvents 57
    Solvent Properties 57
    Uses in Industry 58
    Toxicology of Solvents 62
    Specific Solvents 62
  6. Metals 73
    Manufacturing Processes Involving Metals 74
    Details About Specific Metals 76
  7. Plastics 91
    The Chemistry of Plastics 91
    Hazards in Plastics Manufacturing 99
    Comments on Specific Compounds 100
    Summary 109
  8. Elastomers 111
    The Use of Elastomers 111
    Hazards of Specific Elastomers 112
  9. Adhesives 119
    Introduction 119
    Hazards of Adhesive Use 120
    Surface Preparation 124
    SECTION III: REGULATION AND PROTECTION
  10. Government Regulation 129
    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration
    The Toxic Substances Control Act 137
  11. Monitoring the Plant Atmosphere 139
    Analytical Chemistry 139
    ••©
    Vlll
    129Sampling 141
    Analysis of Samples 150
    Deciding About the Safety of the Workplace
  12. Protecting the Worker 157
    Identifying Hazards 158
    Corrective Action 158
    Monitoring 164
    Glossary 167
    Appendices
    A. Principles of Adhesive Bonding 175
    B. Simple Statistical Calculations 177
    C. Selection of Detection Tubes 179
    D. Unit Conversion Factors 187
    154
    ixINDEX
    ABS 97
    Acceptable ceiling See Exposure
    guidelines
    Acceptable maximum peak See
    Exposure guidelines
    Acetaldehyde 63, 70
    Acetone 26, 59, 63, 70
    Acetonitrile 63, 71
    Acetylaminofluorene 136
    Acetylene tetrachloride 67
    ACGIH See American Conference
    of Governmental Industrial
    Hygienists
    Acids 31
    Acroosteolysis 101
    Acrylamide 102, 104
    Acrylic acid 104
    Acrylonitrile 94, 101-102, 113-114,
    136
    ACS 97
    Action level 132
    Acute lethal dose 21
    Acute testing 20
    Addition polymers 93
    Adsorption tubes 145
    AIHA See American Industrial
    Hygiene Association
    Aldehydes 70
    Alkalis 31
    Alkoxysilanes 114
    Alkyl aluminum 77, 105-106, 113
    Alkyl mercury 85
    Allergic response 24, 30
    Aluminum 76
    alkyls 77, 105-106, 113
    aluminum-dust lungs 77
    chloride 115
    oxide 76
    Alveoli 34
    American Conference of
    Governmental Industrial
    Hygienists (ACGIH) 26, 129,
    154
    American Industrial Hygiene
    Association (AIHA) 155
    American National Standards
    Institute (ANSI) 135, 154
    4-Aminodiphenyl 136
    Ammonia 31, 53, 112
    Amyl acetate 59, 63
    Amyl alcohol 59
    Amyl chloride 59
    Anesthesia 66
    Angiosarcoma 101
    Animal testing 16
    Anionic detergent 31, 33
    ANSI See American National
    Standards Institute
    Anthracene 59, 63
    Antimony 77, 83
    spots 77
    Antioxidants 108
    Aromatic hydrocarbons 65-66
    Aromatic polyester 95
    189190 CHEMICAL HAZARDS IN THE WORKPLACE
    Arsenic 74, 78, 83, 87-88, 136
    sulfide 77
    trioxide 78
    Arsine 74, 78, 82, 88
    ASA 97
    Asbestos 46, 117, 136
    Asphyxiants 50
    Atomic absorption spectrometry
    145, 153
    Autoignition temperature 58
    Azo bis-isobutyronitrile 117
    Azocarbonamide 117
    Barium soap 107
    Bauxite 77
    Benign tumor 9
    Benzene 59, 63, 65, 136
    Benzenesulfonyl hydrazide 117
    Benzidine 136
    Benzothiazoyl disulfide 107
    Benzoyl peroxide 105-106
    Beryllium 79
    Bias 140
    Bile 41
    Bisphenol A 95, 103, 106
    Blood-brain barrier 13
    Boiling point 54
    Bone marrow 65
    Breakthrough capacity 146
    Bromine 53
    Bronchial carcinoma 47
    Bronchiole 36
    Brown lung disease 49
    Butadiene 102, 113-114
    Butanediol 95
    w-Butyl acetate 59, 63
    rt-Butyl alcohol 59, 63, 69
    rt-Butyl catechol 101
    Butyl cellosolve 59, 69
    terf-Butyl peroctoate 106
    Butyl rubber See Rubber
    Cadmium 79, 88
    oxide 80
    soap 107
    Calcium
    oxide 32
    soap 107
    Cancer 8
    Caprolactam 95, 104
    Carbon
    black 116
    dioxide 51
    disulfide 59, 63, 71, 105
    monoxide 16, 51, 56, 68, 74, 82
    tetrachloride 66
    Carcinogen 8
    co- 9
    primary 9
    pro- 9
    secondary 9
    Casein 122
    Cellosolve 59, 63, 69
    Cellosolve acetate 59, 63
    Central nervous system (CNS) 62
    Chemical asphyxiants 51
    Chloracne 66, 109
    Chlorobenzene 59, 63
    Chloroform 67
    bis-Chloromethyl ether 136
    Chloromethyl methyl ether 136
    Chloronaphthalene 109
    Chloroprene 113-114
    Chlorosilanes 114
    Chlorosulfonated polyethylenes 111
    Chromates 80
    Chromium 80-82
    oxides 106
    Chronic beryllium disease 79
    Chronic testing 20
    Cilia See Lungs
    Cirrhosis 4
    Clays 108
    CNS See Central nervous system
    (CNS)
    Coal 48
    Cobalt 81-82
    naphthanoate 107
    Cocarcinogen See Carcinogen
    Coke oven emissions 136
    Collection efficiency 145
    Condensation polymers 93
    95% Confidence limit 140
    Conjugation, metabolic 39
    Copper 81
    Cornea 31
    Corrosive 31INDEX 191
    Cotton 49
    Cresol 103
    Crocidolite 47
    Cryolite 77
    Cumene 65
    Cyanoacrylics 121
    Cyanosis 46
    Cyclohexane 59, 63
    DDT 37
    Degreasing 58, 66
    Department of Health and Human
    Services 130
    Department of Labor 129
    Desorption efficiency 145
    Detergents 31, 33, 124
    Determinate error 140
    Diamines 104
    Diaminohexane 95
    1.2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane 13,
    136
    tris-(Dibromopropyl)phosphate 108
    Dibutylphthalate 19
    3,3′-Dichlorobenzidine 136
    1.2-Dichloroethylene 59
    Dichromate 80, 124
    Diethylaluminum chloride 115
    Diethylenetriamine 113
    Diethyl ether 59, 63, 69
    Diglycidyl ether 102
    Dihydroxybiphenyl 95
    Diisopropyl ether 69
    4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene 136
    Dimethylaniline 107
    Dimethylformamide 63, 71
    Dimethylsulfoxide 70
    Dioxane 63, 70, 104
    Diphenylguanine phthalate 107
    Disulfiram 107, 116
    DNA 5
    Dolomite 48
    Dose-response curve 22
    Dry cleaning 58, 66
    Dusts 45, 74, 100
    Dyspnea 46
    Edema 24, 50
    EEA 97
    Electron capture detector 152
    EMA 97
    Emphysema 80
    Environmental Protection Agency
    (EPA) 137
    EP 111
    EPA See Environmental Protection
    Agency (EPA)
    EPDM 111-112
    Epichlorohydrin 102, 111
    Epidemiology 11, 164
    Epidermis 29
    Epoxyphenolics 120
    Epoxy resins 120-121
    Ethers 69
    Ethyl acetate 59, 63
    Ethyl alcohol 59, 63, 67, 68
    Ethylbenzene 65
    Ethyl chloride 59, 63
    Ethylene 113
    Ethylene dichloride 113, 115
    Ethylene glycol 63, 69, 95
    Ethylene oxide 136
    Ethyleneimine 136
    Ethyl formate 59, 63
    EVA 97
    Exposure guidelines
    acceptable ceiling 27
    acceptable maximum peak 27
    Immediately Dangerous to Life
    and Health (IDHL) 28
    maximum allowable
    concentration (MAC) 26
    No Effect Level (NEL) 26
    No Observed Adverse Effect
    Level (NOAEL) 26
    No Observed Effect Level .
    (NOEL) 26
    Permissible Exposure Levels
    (PEL) 28, 131, 154
    short-term exposure limit (STEL)
    27
    short-term public limit (STPL)
    154
    Threshold Limit Value (TLV) 26,
    55, 131
    threshold toxicity values 22
    time weighted average (TWA)
    26, 55192 CHEMICAL HAZARDS IN THE WORKPLACE
    Fiberglass 48
    Fibrosis 96
    Fillers (plastics) 98, 107
    Filters 143-145
    Fire retardants 108
    Flame ionization detector 152
    Flammability 58
    Flash point 58
    Fluorine 53
    Fluorocarbons 61
    Fluorosis 77
    Fluorospar 82
    Flux 77
    Formaldehyde 95, 102, 121, 136
    Foundries 75
    FTIR See Spectrophotometry
    Fumes 45, 48, 74
    Furfural 59, 63, 103
    Furfuryl alcohol 63
    Gas chromatography 139, 150-153
    See also Flame ionization
    detector; Electron capture
    detector
    Gases 48
    Genetic damage 7
    Genotoxic carcinogen 9
    Glass fibers 108
    Glomerulus 41 See also Kidney
    Gloves 31, 160-162
    Glycol 69
    Glycol ether 69
    Grab sample 141
    Gypsum 49
    Half-life 38
    Hard metal disease 87
    Hazard Communication Standard
    132, 134
    Hazard identification 158
    Health exposure records 164
    Hepatotoxin 4
    Heptane 59, 63
    Hexamethylenetetramine 103, 107
    Hexane 59, 63-64, 113
    2-Hexanone 63
    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) 139, 153
    Hydrazines 112
    Hydrogen
    bromide 53
    chloride 49, 53, 100
    cyanide 52, 100
    fluoride 53
    sulfide 52, 115
    Hydroquinone 101
    Hydroquinone monobenzylether
    109, 116
    Hypersensitive response 24
    Ignition temperature 58
    Immediately Dangerous to Life and
    Health (IDHL) See Exposure
    guidelines
    Imminent danger 132
    Indeterminate error 140
    Indium 87
    Infrared spectrophotometry 153
    Instantaneous sample 141
    Integrated sample 141
    lonomer 97
    Iron 82
    Irritants 52
    Isobutene 114
    Isobutyl alcohol 59, 63
    Isocyanates 24
    Isoprene 133
    Isopropyl acetate 63
    Isopropyl alcohol 60, 63, 67-68
    Isopropyl glycidyl ether 102
    Itai-itai disease 80
    Kerosene 59
    Ketones 76
    Kidney 40
    Latex 112
    LC50 22
    LD50 22
    Lead 76, 78, 83-84, 87-88, 136
    oxide 116
    palsy 84
    Leukemia 65
    Lime 32
    Limestone 49INDEX 193
    Linear low-density polyethylene
    (LLDPE) 97
    Lower respiratory tract irritant 52
    Lubricants 117
    Lungs 34-36
    cilia 34, 46
    Magnesium
    alkyls 106
    soap 107
    Maleic anhydride 102, 104
    Malignant mesothelioma 47
    Manganese 82, 84, 87-88
    oxide 84
    Manganism 84
    Mass spectrometry 154
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
    31, 133, 136, 158
    Maximum allowable concentration
    (MAC) See Exposure
    guidelines
    MDI See Methylene diphenyl
    diisocyanate (MDI)
    MEK See Methyl ethyl ketone
    (MEK)
    MEK peroxide 105
    Melanin 95
    Melanin-formaldehyde 95
    Mercaptobenzothiazole 107
    Mercury 84-85
    amalgam 85
    fulminate 85
    vapors 85
    Metabolic conjugation See
    Conjugation, metabolic
    Metabolism 38
    Metal
    fume fever 48, 75, 77, 81
    refining 74
    soaps 107
    Methyl acetate 59, 63
    Methyl alcohol 59, 63, 67-68, 123
    Methyl butyl ketone 63, 70
    Methyl cellosolve 59, 63, 69
    Methyl chloride 64, 66
    Methyl chloroform 60, 67
    Methyl cyclohexanone 59, 64
    Methylene chloride 60, 64, 66-67,
    123
    Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate
    (MDI) 103
    Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) 59, 64,
    70, 123
    Methyl methacrylate 94
    Mica 48
    Mine Safety and Health
    Administration 154
    Molybdenum 82
    MSDS See Material Safety Data
    Sheet (MSDS)
    Mucous 46
    Muscovite 48
    Mutagen 6
    Naphtha 60, 64
    Naphthalene 60
    alpha-Naphthylamine 136
    beta-Naphthylamine 136
    NAS-NRC See National Academy
    of Science-National Research
    Council (NAS-NRC)
    Nasal passages 35
    National Academy of
    Science-National Research
    Council (NAS-NRC) 154
    National Institute of Occupational
    Safety and Health (NIOSH)
    130, 140, 146, 154, 158
    Proficiency Analytical Testing
    (PAT) Program 155
    Natural rubber See Rubber
    Neoprene 111, 114, 116
    Neurotoxin 4, 13
    Nickel 85
    carbonyl 85
    NIOSH See National Institute of
    Occupational Safety and
    Health (NIOSH)
    Nitrile rubber See Rubber
    4-Nitrobiphenyl 136
    Nitrocellulose 121
    Nitrogen dioxide 53
    N-Nitrosodimethylamine 136
    No Effect Level (NEL) See
    Exposure guidelines
    No Observed Adverse Effect Level
    (NOAEL) See Exposure
    guidelines194 CHEMICAL HAZARDS IN THE WORKPLACE
    No Observed Effect Level (NOEL)
    See Exposure guidelines
    Nylon 95
    OAS 97
    Occupational Safety and Health
    Administration (OSHA) 27,
    129-137, 140, 146
    Octane 60, 64
    Oncogene 9
    Ore processing 74
    Organotin 86, 107
    Orion 94
    OSHA See Occupational Safety and
    Health Administration
    (OSHA)
    Oxidation 38-39
    p,p’-Oxy-bis(benzenesulfonyl)
    hydrazide 117
    Ozone 53, 76
    PAH See Polycyclic aromatic
    hydrocarbons (PAH)
    Paraldehyde 60
    Particulates 45
    PBB 37
    PCB 37
    Percarbonates 105-106
    Percent respirability 150
    Peresters 105
    Permissible Exposure Levels (PEL)
    See Exposure guidelines
    Peroxides 105, 107, 121
    Personal air sampler 142-146
    Phenol 95, 102-103
    Phenol-formaldehyde 95
    p-Phenylene diamine 102-103
    pH meter 152
    Phosgene 49, 53-54, 100, 102, 104
    Phosphine 82
    Phyhalic anhydride 102
    Pigments 96, 108
    Plasticizers 96, 107
    Plumbism 83
    Polyacrylonitrile 94
    Polyalcohol 104
    Polyamide 120-121
    Polyamine 120
    Polybutadiene 111-112
    Polybutylene terephthalate 95
    Polycarbonate 95, 121
    Polychloroprene 11, 112
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
    (PAH) 38, 116
    Polyester 121-122
    Polyethylene 94
    Polyethylene-terephthalate 95
    Polyglycol 95
    Polyimines 120
    Polyisoprene 111-112
    Polymethylmethacrylate 94
    Polypropylene 94
    Polysulfides 11, 115
    Polytetrafluoroethylene 94
    Polyurethane 95, 115, 120-121
    Polyvinyl acetate 122
    Polyvinylchloride 94
    Precancerous cell 10 See also
    Carcinogen
    Proficiency Analytical Testing
    (PAT) Program See National
    Institute for Occupational
    Safety and Health (NIOSH)
    Promoter 9 See also Carcinogen
    Radium 87
    Radon 87-88
    Random error 140
    Records, health exposure See
    Health exposure records
    Red lead 83
    Refining, metals See Metal refining
    Renotoxin 4
    Replication 6
    Resorcinol 103
    Respirable dust 150
    Respirable particulates 144
    Respirator 166
    Right-to-Know standard 132, 157
    Rubber
    butyl 111-112
    natural 112, 121
    nitrile 112
    silicone 11, 120
    SAN 97INDEX 195
    SB 97
    Secondary carcinogen See
    Carcinogen
    Self-contained breathing apparatus
    160
    Sensitization 74
    Serious violation 132
    Shavers disease 77
    Short-term exposure limit (STEL)
    See Exposure guidelines
    Short-term public limit (STPL) See
    Exposure guidelines
    Silicone rubber See Rubber
    Silicosis 47, 82
    Silicon tetrafluoride 82
    Simple asphyxiants 50
    Skin 27, 29
    creams 31, 162
    irritation 30, 162
    Smelting 74
    Smokes 45
    Solvents 32-33, 57-71
    nonpolar 57
    Stoddard’s 65
    Spectrophotometry
    Fourier transform infrared
    (FTIR) 154
    ultralviolet 153
    visible 153
    Spraying 61
    Stabilizers 96
    Stain tubes 146-149
    Standard deviation 140
    Standard Industrial Classification
    (SIC) code 133
    Standards Compensation Program
    28
    STEL See Exposure guidelines
    Stibnine 78
    STPL See Exposure guidelines
    Styrene 94, 101-102, 113
    sickness 101, 113
    Sulfur dioxide 31, 53, 75, 113-114
    Sulfuric acid 124
    Systemic poison 3
    Talc 48, 75, 117
    Teflon® 94
    Teratogen 10
    Tetrachloroethane 64, 67
    Tetrachloroethylene 64, 67
    Tetraethyllead 84
    Tetraethylthiuram bisulfide 107
    Tetrahydrofuran 70
    Tetramethyllead 84
    Tetramethylsuccinonitrile 117
    Thalidomide 11-12
    Thermal conductivity detector 152
    Thermo plastics 91
    Thermoset plastics 92
    Thiocarbanilide 107
    Thiram 107, 116
    Threshold Limit Value (TLV) See
    Exposure guidelines
    Threshold toxicity values See
    Exposure guidelines
    Time weighted average (TWA) See
    Exposure guidelines
    Tin 83, 86
    soap 107
    Titanium 86
    chloride 86
    oxide 83
    tetrachloride 106
    TLV See Exposure guidelines
    Toluene 60, 64-65, 122
    diisocyanate 55, 95, 102-103, 113
    Toxic Substances Control Act
    (TSCA) 137
    Trachea 35
    Tributyl tin 86
    Trichloroethane 64, 66
    Trichloroethylene 60, 64, 66
    Trichlorotrifluoroethane 61
    Triethylenetriamine 102
    Tungsten 82, 87
    carbide 87
    TWA See Exposure guidelines
    Ultraviolet spectrophotometry See
    Spectrophotometry
    Unsaturated ethers 69
    Upper respiratory tract irritants 52
    Uranium 87
    — 88
    hexafluoride 87
    Uranous fluoride 87
    Urea 95
    Urea-formaldehyde 95196 CHEMICAL HAZARDS IN THE WORKPLACE
    Urethanes 111
    Vanadium 82, 87-88
    oxychloride 106, 115
    trichloride 106
    Vapor 34, 54
    pressure 54, 58
    VDA copolymers 97
    Very low-density polyethylene
    (VLDPE) 97
    Ventilation 159
    Vinyl 94
    acetate 105
    chloride 94, 101-102, 136
    Vinylidine chloride 105
    Viscose rayon 105
    Visible spectrophotometry See
    Spectrophotometry
    Volatility 54, 58
    Welding 75
    White lead 83
    Whole-lung irritants 52
    Wholly aromatic copolyester 95
    X-ray diffraction 153
    Xylene 60, 64-65, 122
    Xylenol 103
    Zinc 88
    oxide 83, 116
    oxide fume 88

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