Pack Project Management in Practice for Certificate IV and Diploma

Pack Project Management in Practice for Certificate IV and Diploma
اسم المؤلف
NEIL PEARSON, EW LARSON, CF GRAY
التاريخ
27 ديسمبر 2023
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231
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Pack Project Management in Practice for Certificate IV and Diploma
NEIL PEARSON, EW LARSON, CF GRAY
Modern project management
Popular frameworks and methodologies
The Scrum (Agile) approach
Organisational strategy and project selection
Project organisational structures and cultures
Project integration management
PART 3 Defining and ma11agi11g projects
Defining the scope of a project
Estimating time, costs and resources
Project schedule management
Project cost management
Progress and performance measurements
Project quality management
Project resource management
The project manager and project teams
Project stakeholder management
Project information and communications management
Project risk management
Project procurement management
Project closure
Project management career paths (online)
-…….,one
Preface v
About the authors xv,
Acknowledgments xv,
Text at a glance xv11
Digital resources x,x
Text overview xx
PMBOK and competencies matrix xx11
CHAPTER1
Modem project management
Introduction
What is a project?
What a project is not
‘Program’ versus ‘project’
‘Program’ versus ‘portfolio’
Standards, frameworks and methodologies
Standard
Framework
Methodology
Project life cycle
The project manager
The importance of project management
Compression of the product life cycle
Complexity
Triple bottom line (planet, people, profit)
Corporate downsizing
Increased customer focus
Organisational change management
Small projects represent big problems
Project management today: a holistic approach
Alignment of projects with
organisational strategy
Management of projects through portfolio
management
The technical and socio-cultural dimensions
of implementing projects
Summary
CHAPTER2
Popular frameworks and methodologies
Introduction
Life cycle types and their selection
An introduction to PRINCE2
Principles
Themes
Processes
Tailoring
PRINCE2 around the world
An overview of ISO 21500:2012 Guidance
on Project Management
An introduction to the Scrum approach
An introduction to the APM framework
An introduction to Lean Six Sigma
and the DMAIC process
An introduction to the Praxis framework
An introduction to PMBOK
Applying the life cycle approach
Integrative project management
Governance and gates
PMBOK 6th edition key updates
PRINCE2 and PMBOK compared
Summary
ONLINE►
Case: Introducing scrum at P2P
CHAPTER3
The Scrum (Agile) approach
Introduction
So what is Scrum?
Overview of Scrum
Scrum roles
The product owner
The Scrum master
The development team
Scrum events
The sprint
C t nts
PART 1 Setting the scene
PART 2 Positioning projectsSprint planning
The daily Scrum
Sprint review
Sprint retrospective
Epics, increments and sprints
Scrum artefacts
Product backlog
Sprint backlog
Final product
Burndown, velocity and burnup techniques
Sprint velocity
Scrum (Agile), PRINCE2 and PMBOK
PMBOK and Agile
PRINCE2 Agile
Agile/Scrum software tools
Large-Scale Scrum (LeSS)
DevOps
Summary
CHAPTER4
Organisational strategy and project selection
Introduction
Why project managers need to
understand strategy
The strategic management process: an overview 93
Define and review the organisational vision,
mission and values 94
Set the organisation’s strategic objectives 9 7
Analyse the strategic objectives and identify the
ideal investment mix 98
Implement strategies through portfolios,
programs and projects 98
The need for an effective portfolio, program and
project management system 99
Problem 1: The implementation gap 100
Problem 2: Organisational politics 100
Problem 3: Resource conflicts and multitasking 1O1
An introduction to portfolio management 103
Classification of investments 103
Selection criteria
Multi-criteria selection models
Applying a selection model
The Business Case
Ranking proposals and selection of projects
Responsibility for prioritising
CONTENTS
Managing the portfolio management system 117
Senior management input 117
The priority team or portfolio management office
responsibilities 118
Balancing the portfolio for risks
and dependencies 118
Project portfolio management (PPM) systems 121
Features of Project Portfolio Management (PPM)
systems 121
Prominent PPM systems 123
Summary 124
ONLINE►
Case: Hector gaming company
Additional exercises and solutions to selected exercises
CHAPTERS
Project organisational structures and cultures 131
Introduction 132
Project management structures 133
Organising projects within the
functional organisation 133
Organising projects as dedicated teams 135
Organising projects within a matrix arrangement 137
Different matrix forms 138
What is the right project management structure? 141
Organisational considerations
Project considerations
Further discussion on the project
management office
Organisational culture
What is organisational culture?
Identifying organisational cultural characteristics 148
Implications of organisational culture
when organising projects
Working across international cultures
Scrum/Agile considerations
Summary
ONLINE►
Case: ORION systems (PART 8) Rosas’s plan
Case: Moss and McAdams accounting firm
CHAPTER&
Project integration management 159
Introduction 160
Establishing the project, including developing the
project charter and assigning and determining
the authority of the project manager 162CONTENTS
Project planning and design, including developing
the Integrated Project Management Plan 163
Executing the project in the work environment,
as defined in the Project Management Plan
and associated documents 166
Managing project control: tracking, reporting and
reviewing project information 168
Managing change, or change control, across
the project, including implementing approved
changes and updates to deliverables, project
processes, project documents, and the Project
Management Plan 169
Managing project finalisation, including the
closure of a phase, contracts for portions of
outsourced work or overall project closure 170
Managing project knowledge across the project,
including requisite protocols and systems 17 1
Governance and the project environment 173
Integrative thinking across the knowledge areas 176
Project scope integration 177
Project schedule integration 177
Project cost integration 178
Project quality integration 179
Project resource integration 180
Project stakeholder integration 181
Project communication and information
��ro�n 182
Project risk integration 183
Project procurement integration 183
Summary 185
PART 3 Defining a11d managing projects
CHAPTER7
Defining the scope of a project
Introduction
Step 1: Defining the project scope
Typical project scope contents
Establishing project priorities:
The triple constraints
Step 2: Capturing requirements
Scrum/Agile considerations: Requirements
Step 3: Creating the work breakdown
structure (WBS)
How WBS helps the project manager
WBS development
Practice techniques used to develop the WBS 212
Step 4: Integrating the WBS with the organisation 213
Step 5: Estimating-moving towards a
draft budget and schedule 214
The Scope Management Plan 217
Change request management 218
Scrum/Agile considerations 222
Summary 222
CHAPTERS
Estimating time, costs a11d resources 227
Introduction 228
Factors influencing the quality of estimates 229
Planning horizon 229
Project duration 230
��� 231
Project structure and organisation 231
Padding estimates 231
Organisational culture 232
What is being estimated? 232
Resources 232
Time (durations) 233
Costs 233
Estimating guidelines for resources, time and cost 234
Top-down versus bottom-up estimating 236
A hybrid approach: Phase estimating 238
Methods for estimating project resources,
durations (time) and costs 239
Expert judgement 240
Analogous method
Parametric estimating
Three-point estimate
Consensus methods (decision-making voting)
Alternative analysis (a type of data analysis)
Reserve analysis
Cost of quality
Vendor bid analysis
Estimating tools and systems
(project management information systems)
Lessons-learned
Function point methods for software
and system projects
Template methods
Range estimating
244Additional estimating considerations
Level ofdetail in estimating
Refining estimates
Summary
ONLINE ►
Appendix 8. 1: Learning curves for estimating
Cases: Delphi Method, Sharp Printing AG
and Function Points
CHAPTER9
Project schedule management
Introduction
Planning schedule development
Developing the project schedule
From work package to network
Constructing a project network
Terminology
Two approaches
Basic rules to follow in developing
project networks
Activity-on-node (AON) fundamentals
The process ofbuilding the
activity-on-node network
Using the forward and backward
pass information
Level ofdetail for activities
Practical considerations
Extended network techniques to come
closer to reality
Laddering
Use ofleads and lags
Network relationship types
Reducing project duration
Rationale for reducing project duration
Options for accelerating
project completion
Options when resources are not constrained
Options when resources are constrained
What ifcost, not time, is the issue?
The resource scheduling problem
Types ofresource constraints
Classification ofa scheduling problem
Resource allocation methods
Time-constrained projects: smoothing
resource demand
CONTENTS
Resource-constrained projects 288
The impacts ofresource-constrained scheduling 292
Splitting activities 292
Benefits of scheduling resources 293
Assigning project work 293
Multi-project resource schedules
Using the resource schedule to develop a
project cost baseline
Scrum/Agile considerations
Summary
ONLINE ►
Additional cases, exercises and solutions to
selected exercises
CHAPTER10
Project cost management
Introduction
Early considerations for project
cost management
Large capital items
Long lead-time items
Cost management plan
Identification of costs
Estimation of costs
Simple time-phased project budgets
Simple time-phased project budget
structure, by category
Simple time-phased project budget, by WBS
Simple time-phased project budget,
by WBS and OBS
Project cost control and monitoring
Contingency planning
Project heath checks and audits
Cost closure
Premature project closure
Scrum/Agile considerations
Summary
CHAPTER11
Progress and performance measurements
Introduction
Structure of a project monitoring system
What data is collected?
Collecting data and analysis
328CONTENTS
Reports and reporting
Communications Management Plan
Types of reports
Controlling project costs, resources
and schedules
Step 1: Setting a baseline plan
Step 2: Measuring progress and performance
Step 3: Comparing plan against actual
Step 4: Taking action
Monitoring time performance
Tracking Gantt chart
Control chart
Developing an earned value (EV)
cost/schedule system
Per cent complete rule
What costs are included in baselines?
The basis of EVM
Developing a status report: A hypothetical
example
Assumptions
Baseline development
Development of the EVM status report
Earned value management (EVM) indexes
to monitor progress
Performance indexes
Project per cent complete indexes
Technical performance measurement
Software for project cost/schedule systems
Additional earned value (EV) rules
Forecasting final project cost
Other control issues
Scope creep
Baseline changes
The costs and problems of data acquisition
Further project performance considerations
Summary
ONLINE►
Additional exercises, solutions to selected
exercises and appendices
CHAPTER 12
Project q,ualitu management
Introduction
Quality and project management
Cost of quality (CoQ) and the cost of
poor quality (CoPQ) 370
Continuous improvement 372
Plan, Do, Check, Act (PDCA) 372
Lean Six Sigma 372
Total quality management (TOM) 373
The Quality Management Plan 373
Processes: helpful techniques 376
Planning for quality assurance and quality control 379
Carrying out quality control 384
Run chart 386
The Pareto chart (also known as the 80/20 rule) 38 7
Control charts 388
Check sheets 388
Checklists 388
Benchmarking 390
Histograms 390
Bar charts 391
Box plots, or box and whisker diagrams 391
Scatter diagrams 391
Root-cause analysis 392
‘5 whys’ 393
The cause-effect diagram
(fishbone or Ishikawa diagrams) 394
Scrum (Agile) considerations 396
Summary 396
CHAPTER 13
Project resource management 399
Introduction 400
What are resources? 400
The Resource Management Plan 401
Resource identification 404
Resource breakdown structure 404
Leverage the work breakdown structure (WBS) 405
Lessons-learned and previous projects 406
Using the RAM to validate resources
Capturing further human resource information
Acquiring resources
Monitoring and controlling resources
Resource release/disposal
Scrum (Agile) considerations
Summary
413CHAPTER14
The project manager and project teams
Introduction
Understanding the role of a modern project
manager
Technical project management
Managing versus leading a project
Building and leveraging your networks
Mapping dependencies
Management by wandering around (MBWA)
Managing upward relations
Leading by example
Ethics and the project manager
Building trust: the key to exercising influence
The project manager as a leader
Project teams
Sourcing project teams 432
Project sponsor 432
Project manager 433
Recruiting project members 433
Building project teams 434
Creating a shared vision 435
Tuckman and Jensen’s five-stage team
development model 437
Ensuring clarity ofroles and responsibilities 438
Situational factors affecting team development 439
Building high-performance project teams 440
Generational theory and project teams 440
Orchestrating the decision-making process 44 1
Managing project teams 443
Managing project reward systems 444
Managing conflict within the project 445
Encouraging functional (healthy) conflict 446
Managing dysfunctional conflict 446
Rejuvenating the project team 448
Conducting project meetings 448
Managing subsequent project meetings 45 1
Managing virtual project teams 452
Disbanding project teams 454
Servant leadership 455
Summary 457
ONLINE ►
Additional case studies and appendices
CHAPTER15
Project stakeholder management
Introduction
Stakeholder co-creation
Identifying stakeholders
The Stakeholder Register
Analysing stakeholders
Stakeholder currencies
Stakeholder analysis using various grids
Managing stakeholders
Managing the impact of change
on stakeholders
Scrum/Agile considerations
Summary
CHAPTER16
Project information and communications
management
Introduction
Communication and project management
Communication challenges
Pitching your project: The big picture
Communication models
Sender- receiver model
The SMCR model (Berlo’s modelj
Further communication considerations
Non-verbal communications
Learning styles
Generational communications
Cultural differences
The Communications Management Plan
Planning, developing and tracking
communications
Developing communications
Project reporting
Project Management Information
Systems (PMIS)
Configuration management (Cl)
Project knowledge management
Scrum/Agile considerations
Summary
ONLINE ►
Solutions to selected exercises
513CONTENTS
CHAPTER 17
Project risk management
Introduction
A risk management
process overview
The Risk Management Plan
Step 1: Establishing the risk context
Step 2: Risk identification
Risk breakdown structure and the
work breakdown structure
Risk profile (list of questions)
Lessons-learned
Groupthink methods
The Project Management Plan,
subsidiary plans and other
project artefacts
Step 3: Risk analysis
Further complexity in risk analysis
Step 4: Risk evaluation
Step 5: Risk treatment
Threat risk response options
Escalate risk
Mitigating risk
Avoiding risk
Transferring risk
Accepting (retaining) risk
Continuing the risk discussion
Opportunity risk explored
Step 6: Contingency planning
Common methods for handling risk
Technical risks
Schedule risks
Schedule risks and time buffers
Cost risks
Funding risks
Budgets, contingency and risk
Risk monitoring and review
Risk closure
Communication and consultation
Risk management tools
Scrum/Agile considerations
Summary
CHAPTER 18
Project procurement management
Introduction
Procurement and project management
Identifying procurement requirements
Procurement Management Plan
Purchase order decision
Tender decision: Suppliers and supplier selection 558
Tenders and the tender process 558
Outsourcing project work 561
Best practices in outsourcing project work 563
Partnering practices 564
Well-defined requirements and procedures 564
Extensive training and team-building activities 565
Well-established conflict management
processes in place 565
Frequent review and status updates 567
Co-location when needed 568
Fair and incentive-laden contracts 568
Long-term outsourcing relationships 568
Contract decision and contract types 569
Build, own, operate, transfer (BOOT) 569
Build, own, operate (800) 569
Build, operate, transfer (BOT) 570
Partnerships 570
Fixed- price contracts 570
Cost- reimbursable contracts 571
Time and material contracts (T&M)
Contracts: Four essential elements
of a contract
Extended contract considerations
The art of negotiating
Procurement closure activities
Scrum/Agile considerations
Summary
ONLINE►
Appendix 1 8.1 Request for Tender (RFT)
579CHAPTER19
Project closure
Introduction
Types of project closure
Normal
Premature
Stage
Perpetual
Failed project
Changed priority
Closure activities
Creating the final project report
Other important closure activities
Performance evaluation
Post-implementation review (PIR)
Team evaluation
Performance reviews
Contractor and supplier evaluation
Lessons-learned
Initiating the review
Use of an independent facilitator
Managing a review
Overseeing a post-project review
BONUS ONLINE CONTENT
Utilisation oflessons-learned
Archiving lessons
Concluding notes: Lessons-learned
Benefits realisation
Project celebration
Summary
CHAPTER 20
Project management career paths
Introduction
Career paths
Temporary assignments
Pursuing a career
CONTENTS
Professional training, certifications and qualifications 4
Gaining visibility 5
Mentors 7
Networking 7
Success in projects
Summary
Epilogue
Recommended reads
Glossary
Index
The following additional material is available online via McGraw-Hill Connect as well as at www.mhhe.com/
au/pearson2e:
■ Project management career paths (Chapter 20)
■ Case studies, detailed competency mapping, video playlist, teacher implementation guide,
PowerPoints, testbank questions and solutions to end-of-chapter questions.
PART 4 Project wrap-upA
acceptance (contract law) 571
actio11 trackil1g log 452
activities
burst 256, 259, 264
closure, 586, 589- 595, 609
defined 255
hammock 276
merge 255, 258- 259, 261, 266
numbering 268-269
parallel 255, 2 5 8 -259, 280
predecessor 258
procurement 552
seq,uence 255, 283
splitting 292- 293
successor 258
team building 403, 440, 448, 565
i11 team dynamics 401
Activity-on-Arrow (AOA) method 257
Activity-on-Node (AON) method 2 5 7 -270
critical path 254, 256, 261
examples of 260-263
forward and backward pass 260- 264,
267- 268, 275- 277
level of detail for activities 268
practical considerations 268- 270
slack (float) 264–266
actual value 313
ad hoe purchasing 558
adjourning stage (teams) 458
admilustrative support groups, as
stakeholders 469
age diversity, in project teams 400-401
Agile Alliance 29, 59
Agile Project Management 25-35,
37-40
agreement (co11tract law) 572
ALARP (acronym) 521
‘all-or-nothing’ projects 540
alternative a11alysis 242
analogous estimating method 240
Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) 111
apartment build project 383
Apple 14, 92, 95, 96, 120
approvals
of communications 502
delivery acceptance 590
of scope document 190
arbitration 447
arrows 257
artefacts
communication plaruung 501-502
co11figuration management 508- 510
estimation of 190-191
product 218
project 218, 438
assumptions
in human resource ma11agement 253
in risk management 525
in scope document 196
attitude
to outsourcing 563
ofproject manager 418
to risk management 525, 542
to stakeholder relationships 475
Australia11 Government
gateway review process 595
PRINCE2® used by 32- 33
Australia11 Institute of Project
Management (AIPM) 7-8
Australia11 Skills Quality Authority
(ASQA) 7, 376
B
backward pass 260- 264, 2 6 7 -268,
275-277
balance 418
balanced matrix 139, 141
Bansi, Vimal 386
bar (Gantt) charts 269- 270, 273,
332- 233
baseline
cha11ges i11 253- 255
costs included i11 339
development of 177, 345
plan settil1g 330
baseline Gantt chart 332, 333
BATNA (Best Alternative to a Negotiated
Agreement) 577
BELBIN®TEAM ROLES 447
benchmarking 95, 390
Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) 98, 104, 106, 115
benefits identification and
analysis 98, 115
Berlo’s model 491- 492
best practice benchmarks 390
BHP Billiton 385
Bill of Material (BoM) 244
blocks, in Scrum process 163
bonuses 444 445
Botanical Garden project 286- 287
bottom-up approach 114, 116
bottom-up estimates 229, 2 3 6 -239
BP Deepwater Horizon oil platform
disaster 356
brainstorming
during contract negotiations 573
cost-saving options 282
in project selection 112
in project teams 442
q,uality criteria 383, 384
in risk management 522
in WBS development 212
Brooks, Frederick 278
budget see also cost
in Agile PM 81-82
as constraint 9, 198-199
draft 214- 217
in organisation breakdown
structure 213
q,uality considerations 382- 383
simple time-phased 312-317
budget baseline see baseline
budget reserves 544
Build-Own-Operate (BOO)
conditio11S 569
Build-Own-Operate- Transfer (BOOT)
conditio11S 533, 569, 572
Build-Own-Transfer (BOT)
conditio11S 570
burst activity 256, 259, 263
business case 83, 98, 100
Business Process Ma11agement a11d
Notation (BPMN) 378
business risk analysis 98 see also risk
analysis
business skills, ofproject managers 418
C
calendar dates 269
Calhoun, Chad 281
capital items 307- 309, 552- 556
Casey, W. 142
cause-effect diagrams 394
celebration, of project closure 609
centralisation ofprocesses 18- 19, 295
Certificate IV i11 Project
Management 7, 29
certificatio11 4, 7, 38
Certified Associate in Project
Management (CAPM) 7
Certified Practicing Project
Administrator (CPPA) 7
Certified Practicing Project Director
(CPPD) 7
Certified Practicing Project Manager
(CPPM) 7
chains of command 425
change management
baseline cha11ges 353-354
estimates and 24 7
outsourcing and 565- 567
priority changes 558- 559
project manager’s role in 416 – 421
req,uest forms/logs 220- 222
scope creep 353
in scope document 401
systems 18, 218- 219
character ethic 430
checklist(s) 388
project closure 590
IndexINDEX
checklist models 1 0 8 -109
check sheets 388
Clem Jones tunnel (CLEM7) 308- 309, 572
closed tender 559
Closing phase 13 see also project closure
communications in 594
cost management in 1 7 8 -179
procurement in 184
project scope in 177
q,uality manageme11t in 178
Closing process group 36, 46
Coady, Gerry 111
code of conduct 453
co-location ofteam members 435, 568
Comanche helicopter 540
commitme11t/contribution grid
(stakeholders) 474475
committee charter 499
communication(s)
challenges of 487-488
during co11tract negotiations 486-487
cost management and 306
cross-cultural 440-441, 562, 564–565
defined 486-487
development of 504–506
dynamics of 487
email 452-453, 505
integration of 182
models of 489-492
with outsourcers 562-564, 568
pitching a project 488-489
planning 501-506
during project closure 594
Project Management Information
System (PMIS) 69, 499, 507- 511
in project network development 268
in project teams 440- 441, 452-453
reporting see reporting
risk management 544–545
Communication: YourKey to Sitccess
(Taylor & Lester) 488
communication processes (ISO
21500:2012) 37
Communications Manageme11t Plan 329,
487, 498- 500, 506
communications manager 503
Communications Matrix 501, 507
Communications Sent Register 501, 506
competitive benchmarking 95
complexity of projects 16
compliance projects 1 0 3 -104
comprehension 504
co11current engineering 273
co11current relationship 258
co11ductor, project manager as 471
co11ferencing 452-454
co11fidentiality agreements 573
Configuration Management (CI) 508- 510
co11flict ma11agement 445-446
contracting 572- 573
outsourcing 565- 567
resource allocation 101-103, 293
conflict tolerance 147
Confluence 182
co1mection 506
consensus estimating methods 239
consent (contract law) 571
conseq,uence (impact) 526- 528, 531
consideration (contract law) 571
constraints
cost 9, 199, 278, 281- 282
human resources 403
physical factors 285
reducing project duration 2 7 7 -278
resource 2 7 8 -282, 288- 292
in risk ma11agement 525
in scope document 196
time 9, 1 9 8 -199, 2 8 6 -287
triple 9, 198- 201, 355
co11sultative approach, to risk
management 544- 545
contagiousness 506
Content Ma11agement Systems
(CMSS) 508
continge11cy funds 541
continge11cy planning 218, 536- 537
cost manageme11t and 309
defined 537
in estimates 232, 234
methods of 5 3 7 -539
continuous improvement 378- 379
continuum, stakeholder 473
contract( s)
closing out 591
dissolution of 573
essential eleme11ts of 571- 573
extended consideratio11S 572-573
negotiation of 569, 573- 577
types of 569- 571
contracting 552, 569- 571 see also
outsourcing
contractors
evaluatio11 of 600-601
partnerships with 564–569
as stakeholders 470
contribution/commitment grid
(stakeholders) 473- 475
control see monitor and control
control charts 332-334, 341- 346
Controlling process group (ISO
21500:2012) 36
control tower PMO 142
cooperation
by project managers 426
in risk ma11agement 544–545
core compete11cies 108
corporate downsizi11g 16
cost(s) see also budget
as constraint 9, 198-201, 277,
281-282
co11trolling 331- 332
estimation of, 309 – 310 (see also
estimate)
final, forecasting of 349- 352
in scope document 196
cost baseline see baseline
cost manageme11t
overview 306
communications 502
integratio11 of 1 7 8 -179
outsourcil1g 562, 568
during project closure 593
from project perspective 306- 309
risk control 307, 518- 519, 534, 541
time-phased budgeting
simple 312- 317
Cost Management Plan 309- 310
Cost of Quality (CoQ) 236, 370- 372
Cost Performance I11dex (CPI) 347
cost plus award fee (CPAF)
contracts 571
cost plus fixed fee (CPFF) contracts 571
cost plus ince11tive fee (CPIF)
contracts 571
cost processes (ISO 21500:2012) 36
cost reimbursable contracts 571
cost risks 540
cost/schedule graph 339- 341
cost/schedule systems software 348- 349
cost variance (CV) 315, 340, 341
countercultures 148
Covey, Stephen 430, 575
CPORT 504–506
crashing 278, 539
credibility 504
crisis management, example of 111
critical-chain project management
(CCPM) 280
critical path (CP) 254, 256
in Activity- on -Node method 264, 265, 267
shortening of 277
Critical Path Method (CPM) 266
critical success factors (CSFs) 194, 591
cultural diversity, in project teams 441
culture, organisational see organisational
culture
currencies 471-472
customer(s)
delivery acceptance from 589
met-expectations model 477
as stakeholders 465, 467 (see also
stakeholder)
customer focus 16- 17
customer involvement
in Agile PM 81
management of 477
project duration and 283
in risk management 525
Customer Relationship Management
(CRM) software 476
D
daily Scrum meetings 67- 68
dangler paths 269
data, defined 510
databases
for estimating 244–245
for progress indexes 347
WBS dictio11ary 211
data collection
for fil1al report 592
for outsourcing review 568
for performance evaluation 596-598
for post-project retrospective 604- 606forproject control 328, 355
Dawso11, Blake 5
deadlines 278
decision gates (points) 49- 50, 588,
603-604
Decision Lens 112
decision- making
‘make or buy’ 554
il1 project meetil1gs 449
decision tree(s) 529- 530
decision tree analysis 529- 530
dedicated project teams 132, 1 3 5 -137
defect(s)
co11tract arrangements for 573
knock-on effects of 375
delay (lag) 271- 272, 349
delay (lag) relationships 272- 277
combinations of 275
example of 275- 277
deliverable(s)
accepta11ce of 589- 590
il1 Agile PM 37
forproject closure 587
purpose of 20
il1 scope document 196
il1 Work Breakdown Structure 207- 212
Deliverable IDs (DID) 590- 591
Delphi Method 242, 524
Deming, W. Edwards 372
Denver International Airport 354
Department of Parliame11tary Services
(DPS) 34
depe11dencies
mapping 422-423
portfolio 1 1 8 -121
project management structure
and 471- 472
il1 scope document 194
Descamps, JP 93
design flaws, estimates a11d 247
development team see also project team
il1 Scrum process 27
Digital Eq,uipment 435
Diploma in Project Manageme11t 7
direct costs 314
directory, project team 498
direct sourcil1g 558
distribution control 509
documentation
of change req,uests 220- 222
Communications Sent Register 501, 506
co11tractor registers 600
Lessons-Learned Register 521, 524
project closure 577
project library 604, 607
of project meetings 451-452
risk analysis 526- 528
Risk Register 499, 525, 531, 534,
537, 541
document distribution control 509
Document Management Systems
(DMSS) 508
document version control 508
dovetailing 576
downsizing 16
Dump and DU11e Drillers 386
dysfunctional conflict 446-448
E
earned value (EV) 331, 334- 341
pseudo approach to 354
rules 349
EarnedValue Mai1agement (EVl\lI) 334-341
baseline costs 339
basis of 339- 341
indexes 347 – 349
per ce11t complete rule 338- 339
reporting 507
status reports 341- 346, 350- 351
education 7 – 8
80/20 rule 387- 388
electronic communication 452-454
Elevator Pitch (EP) 488-489
Els, Neels 386
email 452-453, 505
emergency projects 103
emotion(s), in contract
negotiations 575
emotional intelligence (EQ) 419
empathetic listening 575
e11gagement grid (stakeholders) 473
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
system 123, 216,310, 478
e11terprise risk assessme11t 115
e11vironmental performance
reporting 356
e11vironmental scanning 9 4 -96, 118
eq,uipment, as constraint 285
estimate(s)
overview 2 2 8 -229
artefacts 190-191
costs 233-234, 309- 310 (see also cost
management)
defined 228
examples of 238
guidelines for 234-236
level of detail in 246- 248
methods for 239- 246
q,uality of, factors influencing 229- 232
refinement of 246-248
resources 232-233
tools and systems for 243
top- down versus bottom-up
236-239, 245
WBS as structure for 2 14 -217
Estimated Cost at Completion
(EACre) 349
estimating trumpet 230
ethics, of project managers 427
exception reporting 329- 330
exclusio11s (out-scope) 196
Executing process group 46
Execution phase 49
communications in 177, 182
conflicts arising in 446
cost management in 179
earned value management il1 338
procurement in 184
project scope in 177
q,uality management in 180, 382
risk management in 183
executive summary 592
expenditures 313
experience, estimating from 229
expertjudgement 240
explicit knowledge 510
external benchmarks 390
external environment, scanning
of 94-97, 118
INDEX
external resources, q,uality criteria 384
F
facilitator, for retrospectives 603- 604
failure mode a11d effects analysis
(FMEA) 42
failure of project 588
reasonsfor 191, 234, 247, 255, 292, 486
fast trackil1g 273, 280
features, inAgile PM 37-40
feedback
in commU11ication 502
for performance evaluation 596- 499
for q,uality control 179
in Scrumprocess 27
The F(fth Discipline: The Art and
Practice o.fthe Learning
Organisation 601
50/50 rule 253
file sharing 508
finalisation stage 592
final report 592- 593
finance systems 310, 508
financial criteria see also budget; cost
for project selection 104-108
finesse 418
finish-to-finish (FF) relatio11ship 274
finish- t o -start (FS) relationship 271, 272
change to start-to-start relationship
273, 280
firm fixed price (FFP) contracts 570
fishbo11e diagrams 394
5 Whys 525
fixed price contracts 570
fixed price incentive fee (FFIF)
contracts 570
fixed price with economic price
adjustment (FP-EPA)
contracts 570
float (slack) 264-266
flow charts 378-379
forecasting, of final project cost 349-352
forming stage (teams) 438
forward pass 2 6 0 -263, 2 6 7 -268, 275- 277
4Cs ofTruth about Communication 504-506
Frame, David 434
frameworks
overview 26- 29
Agile PM see Agile Project
Management
ISO 21500:2012 18, 35- 37
PMBoK see Project Management Body
of Knowledge
PRINCE2® see PRINCE2®
629INDEX
Freedom o,fIY?formation Act (1982) 600
free slack (FS) 266
friend, project manager as 424
Frontier Airline Holdings 111
full reporting 329
functional conflict 446, 458
functional managers, as
stakeholders 469
functional organisational structure
132-135
function points 244
funding risks 540
funding sources
cost management and 310
in scope docume11t 196
funding summary 98, 118
G
Gantt charts 269- 270, 332- 333, 341- 346
gates 49- 51, 588, 603, 604
Gates, Bill 334
gateway reviews 49- 51, 544, 595
ge11eral and administrative (G&A)
costs 233
ge11erational theory 440-441
geographical separation, of project team
members 452-453
Germany, electronic toll-collection
system in 308
Gold Coast teachil1g hospital 18
Goleman, Daniel 420
governance 35, 49- 51
cost management and 309
human resource management and 402
procurement issues 556
project roles 438- 439
government agencies, as
stakeholders 470
government projects, funding risks 540
ground rules, for project meetings 449
group decision-makil1g 442
group ra11ge estimating 244- 246
group rewards 444 445
groupthink 524- 525
guard activities 458
H
Habitat for Humanity 281
hammock activities 276
Harvard Business School 436
heatmap 542
heuristics
for estimating 247
for resource allocation 288, 295
hierarchical decomposition 206
holistic approach 1 8 -21, 37- 39, 418
Hope Downs rail project 238
hub structure 14
Human Resource (HR) Management
Plan 133
human resources
as constraint 284
cost management and 306- 307
in estimates 231- 232
monitoring 356
human resources consultants 470
human resources manageme11t
overview 400
examples of 446
integratio11 of 180-181
leadership 421-422
leadership style co11tinuum 430- 432
network building 422-427
during project closure 594
project manager’s role 416-421
project meetings 448-452
resource/skills identification 407-409
team management see project team
trust building 428-430
hybrid estimating approach 238- 239
Hyron, Michele 209
I
Iacocca, Lee 101
IBM 278
identity, member 146
illogical loop 268
impact (conseq,uence) 526- 527, 531, 534
impact assessment
in change management 220
in scope document 194, 196
impact rating, extended 528- 529
impact scales 527, 528
implementation gap 100
implementation of strategies 9 9 -100
Impleme11ting process group (ISO
21500:2012) 37
improvement changes 218
incentives 277- 278, 444-445, 568, 570-571
inclusions (in-scope) 194-196
income 312- 315
independent facilitator, for
retrospectives 603-604
indexes, for progress monitoring 347-349
India, outsourcing to 561, 564
indirect costs 233, 314
individual performance reviews 599- 600
information, defined 510
information overload syndrome (IOS) 488
inherent risk a11alysis 526- 527
Initiating process group 35-36, 46, 51
Initiation phase 12
communications in 504, 511
conflicts arising in 446
cost management in 179
draft budget and schedule 214-217
human resource management in 180
procurement in 183
project scope in 177
q,uality management in 179, 383
risk management in 183, 518
time management in 177
innovation process 114, 116
mspiration-related currencies 436
insurance 533
Integrated Project Management
Information Systems (PMISS) 508
integration processes (ISO
21500:2012) 37
integrative project ma11agement 48- 50
communications in 182
cost manageme11t in 179
defined 19
earned value ma11agement i11 338
human resource management
in 180 -181
organisation breakdown
structure 207, 213- 215
procurementin 183- 184
q,uality management in 179- 180
risk ma11agement i11 183
scaling 27
scope in 177
strategic issues see strategic
management
time management in 1 7 7 -178, 255-256
integrity, of project manager 418
INTEL Corporation 92, 607
intellectual property (IP) 573
intention (contract law) 572
interaction costs, in estimates 246- 24 7
interactive communication 489
interest/power grid
(stakeholders) 472-473
intergenerational project teams 441
internal benchmarks 390
internal environment,
scanning of 95- 96
l11ternal Rate of Return (IRR) 98, 115
internal resources, q,uality criteria 384
l11ternational Organization for
Standardization (ISO)
ISO 9001 381, 382
ISO 21500:2012 26, 35- 37
interpersonal skills 444
interval rule 349
intranets 508
investment business case 98
investment mix 98
. .
1nvo1ces
documentation of 316
fil1alisation of 592
Ishikawa diagrams 394
iterative approaches 30- 31, 46, 48
J
Jobs, Steve 95, 96, 101
K
Katz, Ralph 435
Kerth, Norman 603
Key Performance Indicators
(KPis) 98, 407
kick-off meetings 448-451
kill points (gates) 49- 51, 588, 603-604
knock-on effects 375
knowledge, defined 510
knowledge manageme11t 510- 512
knowledge transfer 591
Korea11 Midland Power Co 13
630L
laddering 271
lag (delay) 271- 272, 349
laggiI1g performance indicators 355
lag relationships 272- 277
combinations of 275
example of 275
large capital items 307- 308, 553,
556- 557
law of reciprocity 471
lead (overlap) 271- 272
leadership
by example 425-427
versus management 421-422, 444
shared vision and 436
style continuum 430-432
leadership continuum (Taru1enbaum &
Schmidt) 430
leading performance iI1dicators 355
lead relationships 272- 277
LEAN 373
legal capacity (contract law) 572
lessons learned see al,so review
cost management and 310
defined 601
estimates and 234
iI1 final report 592- 593
gateway reviews 595
iI1 human resource management 403
post-project review of 587, 593
procurement 557
retrospectives see retrospectives
risk management 524
iI1 scope document 197
Lessons-Learned Register 499, 524
levelling techniq,ues 286- 287
library (project) 507, 604, 607
life-cycle model see project life cycle
likelihood (probability) 526- 527,
531, 534
likelihood (probability)
analysis 528- 531
lines of communication 490
logic rules 268
London Olympic Games (2012) 208- 209
long lead-time items 308-310, 553, 556-557
long-term outsourcing 568-569
looping 268
Lower Co11trol Limits (LCL) 388
M
Macmaho11 Holdings 238
make or buy analysis 309
‘make or buy’ decisio11s 554
management
versus leadership 421-422, 444
project see project manager
senior see senior manageme11t
Management by WanderiI1g Around
(MBWA) 423-424, 442
management focus 146
management pla11s 217
management styles 418, 423, 425
materials, as constraint 285
matrix structures 132, 138-141
maturity assessment tool 390
means versus end orientation 147
mediation 447
medium of communication 502
meetings
project 448-451, 499
Scrum 38
member ide11tity 146
merge activity 255, 258-259, 262, 266
met-expectatio11s model 4 77
methods review 605- 606
metrics, for project control 328
micro manager 466
Microsoft® 104, 334
Excel 106
Project 216, 254, 272, 293, 508
SharePoint 508
middle management 16
milestone(s) 196, 334, 603
milestone summary 98, 115
mind-mapping 212- 213
mining industry 385
miscommunication 488
mission 92, 94-97
mitigation strategy
(risk respo11se) 527, 531- 535
monitor and control 13
overview 328
baseline changes 353- 354
data collection for 328- 329, 355
earned value cost/schedule
system 334-341
environmental performance 355- 356
forecasting final project
cost 349- 352
organisational culture and 147
outsourcing 568
process of 331
progress indexes 347 – 349
q,uality 355, 385-386 (see al,so q,uality
management)
safety 355
scope creep 353
status reports 331, 334, 343, 345, 351
in strategic ma11agement 98
system for 328-330
time performance 333- 334
motivation
of stakeholders 476
ofteam members 441-442
multi-criteria selection
models 108 -113
multiple starts 270
multi-project e11vironment 17- 18
resource conflicts in 101-103
resource scheduliI1g iI1 294-295
time management in 269
multitasking 101-103
project duration and 279
multi-weighted scoriI1g
models 109-111
‘must do’ projects 103, 118
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® 447
INDEX
N
negative remforcement 445
negative synergy 443-444
negotiatio11, of contracts 569, 573- 577
negotiatio11 jujitsu 576
Net Present Value (NPV) 98, 105-106, 115
network logic errors 268
node 257
Nominal Group Techniq,ue
(NGT) 112-113, 447
non-agreeme11t (contract law) 573
Nonaka, Ikujiro 27
non-disclosure agreements 573
non-fiI1ancial criteria, for project
selection 108
non-productive engagement
behaviour 476
non-verbal commwucation 488
normal conditions, estimates based
on 234-236, 247
normal project closure 588
0
objectives
duriI1g contract 11egotiations 576
in risk management 521
strategic 92, 94, 97, 194
offer (contract law) 572
TM
OGC Gateway 544
Olympic Games
(London, 2012) 208-209
100 per ce11t rule 216
open-systems focus 147
open tender 559
OpenText ECM suite 508
operational projects 103
OPM3® (Organisational Project
Management Maturity Model) 390
opportunities, assessment of 9 5 -96, 114
opportunity risk 519, 531, 536, 537
options analysis 98, 115
Oracle Corporation 123
organisational change management see
change ma11agement
organisational culture
overview 146
analysis of 148-150
characteristics and functions of 146
countercultures 148
defiI1ed 146
estimates and 231-232
ethics 427
examples of 148
implications for project
management 150-151
stakeholder relationships 475
subcultures 14 7
orga11isational politics see politics
organisational review 605-606
organisational risk 119
organisational strategy, project
alignme11t with see strategic
managementINDEX
organisational structure,
functional 132-135
organisation breakdown structure
(OBS) 206, 213, 214
outdoor team-building activities 448
outsourcing 561- 564
accelerating project completion
by 279, 282
advantages of 562
best practices in 562- 569
co-location 568
communication strategies 565
conflict management 565- 567
contracting see co11tract
defined 560
disadvantages of 562
dowi1sizing and 16
examples of 567
long-term relationships 568
resource allocation via 295
in virtual environment 562
overhead costs 278, 314
overlap (lead) 271-272
overlapping relatio11ship 46
overlap (lead) relationships 272- 277
overtime, accelerating project
completion by 279
p
pack see work package
padding estimates 231- 232, 247
padding/slush factor 273
pair-wise criterion 111
parallel activities 255, 259, 280
parallel method of resource
allocation 288- 289
parallel relationship 258
parametric estimating method 241
Pareto chart 387
partnering charter 565
partnerships, with contractors 563- 570
passing risk 533
past experience, estimating from 229
path, defined 256
paving q,ua11dary 372
payback model 1 0 4 -105
payment schedules, in contracts 573
pay reviews 599
PDCA cycle 372- 373
Peck, W. 142
people factor see human resources
per cent complete indexes 347- 348
per cent complete rule 338-339
pseudo approach to 364
with weighted monitoring gates 253
perceptions
estimates a11d 234
of q,uality 370
performance
as constraint 8, 198 -199
rewards for 444-445
performance evaluation
contractors 600- 601
environmental 355- 356
individual 599- 600
Post Implementatio11 Review
(PIR) 582, 596
project teams 355, 596- 597
q,uality 355
q,uantitative measures 331
(see also monitor and control)
safety 355
suppliers 6 0 0 -601
performance indexes 347
performance manageme11t
information 409
performance reporting 507
performance schedules, in contracts 573
performance standards, of project
managers 427
performing stage (teams) 438
perpetual project closure 588
perso11ality ethic 430
PERT method 241, 529
PERT simulation 529
phase estimating 238- 239
phase exits (gates) 49- 51, 603- 604
physical factors, as constraints 285
pitching a project 488-489
planned value (PV) 313, 335, 339
planning
communications 501- 506
co11tingency see contingency planning
rolling wave 48
strategic 92 (see also strategic
management)
planning horizon 229- 230 see also
timeline
Pla1ming phase 12-13
communications in 504
co1ulicts arising in 446
cost management in 178
draft budget and schedule 214-217
earned value management in 338
project scope in 177
q,uality management in 179
risk management in 521, 539
Planning process group 36, 46
PMBoK see Project Management Body of
Knowledge
PMI see Project Management Institute
policy and procedures
communications 498
cost management and 309- 310
procurement 556
politics
organisational 100- 101, 118
project managers and 418
project teams and 433-434
portfolio(s)
defined 10
risk and dependencies 118-119
strategy implementation through 98
portfolio management
defined 10-11
functions of 20
need for 9 9 -103
system for 103-114
management of 1 1 7 -121
software 121-124
portfolio ma11agement office 108,
1 1 7 -118, 121-122
Portland Ge11eral Electric
Company 351- 352
positive (opportunity) risk 519, 5 3 6 -537
positive sy11ergy 443-444
Post Implementation Review
(PIR) 586, 596
Post-it® notes 212, 523
post-project retrospectives 604- 606
precede11ce diagram method
see Activity-on-Node (AON)
method
predecessor activities 258
premature project closure 323
primary stakeholders 470
Primavera 123
PRINCE2® 31- 35
governance 50
international use of 34-35
versus PMBoK 51
principles 31-32
processes 32-33
tailoring 34-35
themes 32
principled negotiation 574
priorities
changed 588- 589
of project managers 426
strategic management of 1 1 7 -118
triple constraints 199, 200
priority matrix 199
priority system 102
priority team 110, 1 1 7 -118
proactive approach 418
probability (likelihood) 526-527,
531, 534
problem solving
by project managers 426
in project teams 433-434, 442
process groupings 46- 49
process review 604-605
procureme11t
overview 552
activities 552
contracting 552, 569- 571 (see also
contract)
cost manageme11t and 306- 307
defined 552
integration of 186-188
outsourcil1g see outsourcil1g
during project closure 595
req,uirements 552- 556
suppliers 558- 561
tenders 558- 559
Procureme11t Management Plan
(Pl\lIP) 552, 556
procurement processes (ISO
21500:2012) 37
product artefacts 218
product backlog 39
product life cycle, compression of 15- 16
product q,uality management see q,uality
managementprogram(s)
versus portfolio 10-11
versus project 10
strategy implementation through 98
program management 10-11
progress measurement 331 see also
monitor and control
project(s)
classification of 103-104, 118
complexity of 16
defined 8 – 11
versus program 10- 11
small, in multi-project
environment 17- 18
project approach, in scope
document 193
project artefacts 218, 438 see also
artefacts
project backgroU11d, iI1 scope
document 193
project be11efits, in scope document 193
project change management see change
management
project charter 190, 198
project closure see also Closing phase
overview 586
celebration 609
checklist for 590- 591
deliverables for 586
examples of 586
performance evaluation 595- 601
types of 5 8 7 -588
project duration 230- 231
outsourcing and 562
reduction of 277- 278
project failure 588
reasons for 191, 234, 255, 292, 486
project governance 35, 49- 50
projectised organisation 1 3 5 -136
projectitis 136
project library 508, 604
project life cycle see also spec(ficphases
ISO 21500:2012 35-37
PMBoK 12- 15
project closure throughout 587
project management
overview 4
certification in 4-6, 45
ethics 427
examples of 13, 17
frameworks for see frameworks
holistic approach to 18-21, 418
importance of 15- 18
iI1tegratio11 ofsee integrative project
management
organisational culture and 1 4 6 -150
skill set 6
sociocultural dime11sions of 20- 21
technical dimensions of 20- 21
training programs 7 – 8
Project Manageme11t Body of
Knowledge (PMBoK) 29
governance and gates 49- 50
life -cycle model 12- 15
on premature closure 588
versus PRINCE2® 51
process groupings 45- 51
project definition 9
project life cycle 12- 15, 46-48
q,uality ma11agement guidelines 379
reporting guideliI1es 507
risk defiiution 518
stakeholder engagement grid 473
Project Management Informatio11
System (PMIS) 121, 499, 507- 511
Project Management Institute (PMI)
PMBoK see Project Management Body
of Knowledge
Practice Standard .forEarned Value
Management 335
q,uality control definition 382
Project Management Office
(PMO) 50, 141
Project Management Plan (PMP) 331
project management structures 132-141
dedicated project teams 132, 1 3 5 -137
estimates and 231
fU11ctional organisation 1 3 2 -135
matrix structures 132, 138 – 141
in scope document 194
selection of 141-143
organisational factors 141
project-specific factors 141-143
project ma11ager(s) 15
commo11 mistakes by 93
competition among 101
as co11ductor 471
interpersonal skills of 21, 416, 418
performance reviews 598- 600
as role models 425-427, 446, 451
role of 92- 93
as stakeholders 467
team building activities of 435, 440,
448, 563
project meetings 448-454, 499
project network (schedule) see also time
management
as co11straint 9, 198 -199
controlling 331- 332
defined 254
development of 254-257
AON method see Activity-on-Node
method
exte11ded techniq,ues 271- 277
guidelines for 254-257
draft 214- 217
q,uality consideratio11S 379
resource-constrained 282- 286 (see also
resource allocation)
software for 216, 254, 268- 269, 272, 508
project portfolio see portfolio
Project Portfolio Management (PPM)
software 121-124
project priority matrix 199- 200 see also
priorities
project proposals
ranking of 116
sources of 114
Project Retrospectives (Kerth) 603
project scoring matrix 110-112
project selection
criteria for
application of 114-117
financial models 104-108
multi- criteria models 108- 1 14
non-financial models 108
INDEX
in multi-project environment 101-103
political factors in 100-101, 118
screening process 116
strategic alignment of 92
project-specific risk 118
project sponsors 425
as stakeholders 470
project success, key factors for
603- 604
project team(s)
communication in 425, 441, 452-454
conflict manageme11t 445-454
core, project duration a11d 279
cultural diversity in 440-441
decision-makiI1g in 441-443
dedicated 132, 135-137
development of
project manager’s role in 440
situational factors affecting 439-440
intergenerational 440-441
internal dy11amics of 448
management of 443- 454
members of
co-location of 435, 568
performance reviews 598- 600
recruitment of 433- 434
relatio11ships among see working
relationships
reward system for 444-445
shared vision of 435-437
naming of 435
orga11isational culture and 147
performance evaluation 596- 598
priority 109, 118
rejuvenatiI1g 448
release of 594
retrospective session 606
roles and responsibilities
in 438- 439
skills identification 408
as stakeholders 467
team building activities 403, 435, 448
team charter 451
team rituals 435
Tuckman’s five-stage developme11t
model of 437-438
virtual 452- 454, 562
WBS development by 212- 213
project team agreements 402
project team directory 498
Project Team Management Systems
(TMS) 447
project uncertainty 421
project work, assignment of 293- 294
prototyping 532
project duration and 279
pull communicatio11 489
punctuated eq,uilibrium model of group
development 439-440INDEX
purchasing 557 see also procurement
ad hoe 558
push communicatio11 489
Q
q,ualitative measures 331
Quality Assurance (QA) 379
Quality Control (QC) 379- 380, 387- 392
q,uality criteria grid 375
q,uality defects
contract arrangements for 573
knock-011 effects of 375
q,uality manageme11t
overview 370
configuration ma11agement 510
cost management and 306- 307
Cost of Quality (CoQ) 236, 370- 371
estimates a11d 235
examples of 383
integration of 179 -180
planning for 379- 384
process of 384-392
during project closure 593
project duration and 280
scope documentation of 194
Quality Manageme11t Plan 370, 376, 379
q,uality processes (ISO 21500:2012) 37
q,uantitative measures 331, 529
Queensland
Gold Coast teaching hospital 18
Health Service 198
paving q,uandary il1 372
R
range estimating 244-245
RASCI Matrix 401-402, 438- 439, 499
reactive approach 519
reciprocity, law of 471
recommendations, in fil1al report 592
recordkeeping 452 see also
documentation
Registered Training Organisations
(RTOs) 7, 376
relationship types (network) 272- 277
reporting 507
enviro11me11tal performance 356
progress 328-330
req,uirements for 498
status 334, 341- 346, 351, 507
repository (project library) 507, 604
Req,uest for Information (RFI) 243, 559
Req,uest for Proposal (RFP) 560
Req,uest for Quotation (RFQ) 559
Req,uest for Quote (RFQ) 243
Req,uest for Tender (RFT) 243, 560
residual risk 527, 531, 534
resource(s)
constrained 278- 286, 288- 292
controlling 331- 332
cost management and 306- 307
durations of 233
estimation of 233 (see also estimate)
q,uality criteria 384
types of 233
resource allocation
assessment of 293
be11efits of 293
co11flicts in 101-102, 293
methods of 286–292
in multi-project environment 294- 295
outsourcing and 568-569
project cost baseline developed
using 295
project management structure and 141
scheduling problems with 282- 286
software for 288
strategic management of 94, 98, 117
resource-constrained projects 286,
288- 292
resource-constrained scheduling 283
resource matrix 401
resource pool PMO 142
resource smoothing 283, 286–287
resources processes (ISO 21500:2012) 37
respo11sibilities
for communication 501, 503
estimates and 234
for monitoring 328
portfolio management 1 1 7 -118
project duration and 283
in project teams 438-439
for q,uality management 371
for risk management 544
retrospectives 601-608
defined 601
indepe11dent facilitator for 603-604
initiation of 603
management of 604
post-project 604-606
purpose of 452
in team management 436
review see also lessons learned
of communications 501, 502, 506
in final report 592
of group decisions 446
of outsourcil1g 568
Post Implementatio11 Review
(PIR) 586, 595- 596
procurement 5 5 6 -557
of project meetings 435
risk see risk monitoring and review
reward criteria 147
reward systems 402, 444 445
risk
acceptance of 533- 534
defined 518
portfolio 1 1 8 -121
sources of 519
transfer of 533
types of 118
risk analysis
estimates and 235
methods of 525-531
procurement 5 5 6 -557
in scope document 196
strategic 53, 65
risk avoidance 533
Risk Breakdown Structures (RBS) 522
risk context 521
risk evaluation 531
risk event graph 518- 520
risk identification 522- 526
risk management
overview 518
communication and consultation
584-585
cost issues 307, 518- 519, 534
examples of 5 1 8 -519
integration of 520- 521
process of 518- 520
step 1 (context) 521
step 2 (identification) 522- 526
step 3 (analysis) 5 2 6 -528
step 4 (evaluation) 531
step 5 (treatment) 531-535
step 6 (contingency planning)
5 3 7 -539
during project closure 594
q,uality issues 382
Risk Management Plan 518, 520- 521,
531, 537
risk monitoring and review
of communications 501
of huma11 resource activities 402
methods of 542- 544
risk processes (ISO 21500:2012) 37
risk profile 523- 524
Risk Register 499, 526, 531, 534, 537, 542
risk response (mitigation strategy) 527,
531- 535
risk response matrices 537
risk tolerance 147
rituals, team 435
riverboat trip (metaphor) 151
RiverCity Motorway 572
role models, project ma11agers
as 425-427, 446
rollil1g wave plannil1g 48
RSV Gem 385
rubber baseline 355
rules of thumb
s
for estimating 289
for resource allocatio11 288, 295
run charts 384, 386- 387
sacred cows 100-101
safety monitoring 355
schedule see project 11etwork
Schedule Performance Index (SPI) 347
schedule risks 537
schedule variance (SV) 339-340
scope
overview 190
changes il1
reducing project duration via
280, 281
as constrail1t 9, 1 9 8 -199
scope
example of 2 0 8 -209
integration of 177
process of determining 191-198project closure and 593
termiI1ology used for 190
scope creep 1 9 8 -199, 353
scope document
co11tents of 191-198
defined 190
technical dimension of 20, 190, 196
scope management pla11 190, 217
scope process (ISO 21500:2012) 37
scoring models, for project
selection 109 -111
Scrum meetings 38
secondary stakeholders 470
security, outsourcing and 562, 564
selection of projects see project selection
sender-receiver model 490- 491
Senge, Peter 601
senior ma11agement
portfolio ma11agement by 117
progress reporting to 328-330
stakeholder relationships 475
as stakeholders 470
working relationship with 424- 425
sensitivity 265
seq,uence activities 255, 280
seq,uential relationship 46
Seven Habits o.fHighly E.ffective People
(Covey) 430
Sharu1011 and Weaver model 490-491
situatio11al factors, affecting team
development 439-440
Six Sigma 373
skills identification 407-409
slack (float) 264-266
slush/paddiI1g factor 273
small projects, in multi-project
environment 17- 18
SMARTA techluq,ue 97, 194
SMCR model 491-492
SMEs see Subject Matter Experts
Smith, Jeff 79
social media tools 454, 513
sociocultural dimensio11s 20- 21
software
Co11tent Management Systems
(CMSS) 508
for cost/schedule systems 348-349
Customer Relationship Management
(CRM) 476
Document Manageme11t Systems
(DMSS) 508
Integrated Project Ma11agement
Information Systems (PMISS) 508
Microsoft products see Microsoft®
portfolio ma11agement 121-124
project scheduling 216, 252, 269- 270,
272, 508
recordkeeping 452
resource management 288, 508
virtual team ma11agement 454
space, as constraint 284
splitting activities 292- 293
sponsors 101, 425
as stakeholders 469
sq,ueaky wheel syndrome 100
staffing ma11agement iluormatio11 407
stage gates 49- 50, 588, 603- 604
stakeholder(s)
analysis of 471-475
continuum 473
contribution/commitment grid
474475
engagement grid 473
organisational currencies 471-472
power/interest grid 472-473
defined 467
engagement cycle 466
ide11tification of 465-470
listed in scope document 194
management interaction with 423
management of 475-477
primary 470
progress reportiI1g to 328-330
project closure and 594
risk management by 525
secondary 470
‘Stakeholder E11gagement: A Road
Map to Meaningful Engagement’
(Jeffery) 475
Stakeholder Matrix 502
stakeholder process (ISO 21500:2012) 37
standards
configuration management 510
ISO 9001 381, 382
ISO 21500:2012 11, 35- 37
Sta11ding Offer Arra11gements
(SOA) 558
Standish Group 4
start-to-finish (SF) relationship 274
start-to-start (SS) relationship 2 7 2 -273
finish-to-start relationship changed
to 274, 280
Statement of Work (SOW) 198 see also
scope document
status reports 331, 334, 341- 346, 351, 507
storming stage (teams) 438
story-teller, project manager as 419
strategic alignment
of communications 498
criteria for 98, 115
in scope document 194
strategic management
overview 92
examples of 93, 96, 110
holistic approach to 18- 19
ISO 21500:2012 standard 35
ofportfolios see portfolio management
process 93- 99
reasons for 92- 93
strategic objectives 92, 95, 97, 194
strategic planning 92, 102
strengths, assessment of 95-96
strong matrix 139 -141
structured English list format, for WBS
development 213
subcontracting 572- 573
subcultures 14 7
sub-deliverables 208- 209,214
subject groups (ISO 21500:2012) 37
Subject Matter Experts (SMEs)
estimating by 239
project managers as 416
inproject teams 148
successor activities 257
Suncorp 79- 80
suppliers 558
evaluation of 600- 601
selection of 558- 559
INDEX
sustainable business practices 16
SWOT analysis 95, 525
Sydney Water Corporation 198
synergy 443-444
systems thinker, project ma11ager
as 418
T
tacit knowledge 511
Takeuchi, Hirotaka 58
Tate, Nick 198
teams see project team
technical dime11Sions 20-21
in scope document 196
technical performance, measurement
of 348
technical risks 539
teleconferencing 452- 454
template methods 244
tenders 558- 561
terminology
earned value management 334- 335
project network construction
255- 257
risk management 519, 526
scope document 190
Work Breakdown Structure 212- 213
testing 532
threat risk 519, 531- 533
threats, assessme11t of 95
3M 1 5 0 -151, 453
3-point estimate 241
360-degree feedback 598
time
communications and 488, 502
as constraint 9, 198-199, 286-287
risk analysis and 542
time and material (T&M)
contracts 571
time buffers 539
time-co11strained project 286
timeliI1e
for estimates 229, 235
in scope document 196
time management
overview 252
accelerating project
completio11 2 7 8 -282
assigning project work 293- 294
outsourcing and 562
duriI1g project closure 593
project manager’s skills in 419
reducing project duration 2 7 7 -278
resource allocation 282- 285
(see also resource allocation)
scheduling see project network
635INDEX
time performance, monitoring of 332-334
time-phased budgeting
simple 312- 317
time processes (ISO 21500:2012) 37
time to market 15-16
time units 235
To Complete Performance Index
(TCPI) 350
top-down approach 116
top-down estimates 229, 236-238
Total Quality Manageme11t (TQl\1) 373
tracking Gantt chart 332, 345-346
tracking information 316
Training Needs Analysis
(TNA) 408-409
training orga11isations, q,uality
framework 376
training programs 7 – 8, 565- 567
TRIM (records management system) 508
triple bottom line 16
triple constraints 9, 1 9 8 -201, 355
Trojan Nuclear Plant decommissionil1g
project 351- 352
trust
in stakeholder relatio11ship 475
in working relationships 428- 430
Tuckma11, Bruce 438
Tuck1nan’s five-stage team developme11t
model 437-438
u
uncertainty 421
United Kingdom (UK) Goven1me11t
framework see PRINCE2®
unit integratio11 146
urgency, of project managers 426
US Depart1nent of Defense (DOD) 334
US Forest Service 354-355
V
value creation 35
values, organisational 94-97
variance
cost 314, 339- 340
schedule 339-340
Variance at Completion
(VAC) 341
variation control management 218- 222
vendor bid analysis 243
version control 508
for scope document 198
VET q,uality framework 376
virtual project teams 452-454, 562
vision 92, 94-97
shared, creation of 435-436
vocational education and training
(VET) 7 – 8
volunteers, for project teams 434
w
WBS see Work Breakdown Structure
weak matrix 1 3 8 -139, 141
weaknesses, assessment of 95
weather statio11 PMO 142
web-confere11cing 452- 454
weighted scoring models 109 -112
win-win positio11 575-576
wisdom 510- 511
withholding arrangeme11ts
(contracts) 573
work assignments 293- 294
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
baseline derived from 331, 341
communications sourced from 504
cost estilnate from 307
defined 190
development of 206- 213
methods for 212- 213
dictionary 211
draft budget and schedule 2 1 4 -215
examples of 207, 211- 212
organisational il1tegratio11 of 206,
213- 214,312
procurement issues 552
purpose of 20- 2 1
Risk Breakdown Structures used
with 522- 523
schedule developed from 254
terminology used in 212- 213
tune-phased budgeting by 315-316
working relatio11Ships
building 422-427, 436, 448
contract negotiations and 575
leadership and 421
with se11ior management 424-425
with stakeholders 475
trust in 428-430
working time, accelerating project
completion via 279
work package 207, 209, 211
project network developed from 254- 255
skills identification using 407
X
Xerox 101
Xerox Docushare® 508
y
Yammer 511
yellow sticky (Post-it®) 11otes 212- 213,
261, 523
z
0/100 rule

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