Occupational Safety and Health Simplified for the Industrial Workplace

Occupational Safety and Health Simplified for the Industrial Workplace
اسم المؤلف
Frank R. Spellman
التاريخ
29 ديسمبر 2023
المشاهدات
173
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Occupational Safety and Health Simplified for the Industrial Workplace
Frank R. Spellman
Contents
Introduction vii
1 Occupational Safety and Health Practice 1
2 Safety and Health Terminology and Hispanic Outreach 25
3 Regulatory Requirements 49
4 Occupational Safety and Health Management 61
5 Industrial Hygiene Concepts—Including Ventilation and Noise Controls 85
6 Worker Right-To-Know 111
7 Emergency Response and Process Safety 129
8 Industrial Facility Design 157
9 Ergonomics and Manual Lifting 193
10 Toxic Substances and Hazardous Wastes 209
11 Noise Control 245
12 Fire, Welding, and Hot-Work Safety 257
13 PPE, First Aid, and Thermal Hazards 277
14 Confined Space Entry 301
15 Lockout/Tagout 333
16 Electrical Safety 339
17 Fall Protection 349
18 Pressure Vessel Safety 357
19 Rigging and Material Handling Safety 367
20 Radiation Safety 389
21 Machine Guarding 395
22 Worksite Security 411
23 Violence in the Industrial Workplace 421
24 Recordkeeping 435
Appendix: Sample Confined Space Certification Exam 441
Index 451
About the Author 471
Index
abatement period, 27
absolute pressure (psia), 360
absorption, 27, 91, 219, 225
acceptable entry conditions, 304
acceptable lift (AL), 204–5
acceptable risk, 219
accident analysis, 27
accident investigation: accident reporting,
73–74; in analytical approach to hazard
avoidance, 69–74; benefits, 74; company
policy, 73; Employer’s First Report
of Accident, 73–74; fact-oriented, 72;
process, 72–74; purpose, 72; reducing
repetition, 72
accident prevention, 3–5, 27, 71
accidents, 26–27, 70, 73–74, 152
accommodation, 27
accumulator, 360
ACGIH. See American Conference of
Governmental Industrial Hygienists
acoustics, 27
action level, 28
acts of nature, 71
acute, 28, 219
acute toxicity, 28
adjustable guards, 400
administrative controls: in back injury
prevention, 201–5; control methods,
105–8; housekeeping practices, 107;
noise control, 254; PEL and, 106–7;
TLV and, 106–7; worker training and
awareness, 108
adsorption, 28
AED. See Automated External Defibrillator
aerosols, 28, 226, 286
affected employee, 334–35
Affordable Care Act (Obamacare), 16
Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease
Registry (ATSDR), 216
AIHA. See American Industrial Hygiene
Association
air contamination, 28
air dose, 391
Airline Hose Mask systems, 285
airline respirators, 287–88
air pollution, 28, 212
air-purifying respirators, 283
air sampling, 28
air-supplying respirators, 283
alkaloid, 219
allergens, 28
Alpaugh, E. L., 295
AL. See acceptable lift
ambient, 28
American Conference of Governmental
Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), 90, 94,
106, 113, 228
American Gas Association, 360
American Industrial Hygiene Association
(AIHA), 34, 85
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI), 90, 100, 160; on emergency
eyewash/showers, 166; machine hazard
warnings, 407–8, 408; Practice for Office
Lighting, 161; website, 332, 392
American Petroleum Institute (API), 363452 Index
American Red Cross, 293
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
(ASME), 360, 365, 375; Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Code, 359, 362, 363
Ames assay, 219
analytical approach to hazard avoidance:
accident investigation, 70–74; hazard
analysis, 68–69; hazard assessment, 70
Anderson, C. K., 200
anesthetic, 219
angle of loading, 369
animal toxins, 221, 222
ANSI. See American National Standards
Institute
anthrax, 221–22
anti-fatigue mats, 206
API. See American Petroleum Institute
aprons, 280
arc welding, 269–70
Army Corps of Engineers, U.S., 136
arsenic, 92, 235; CCA, 211; changing form,
212; exposure, 212, 215; ingesting, 216;
naturally occurring, 210
asbestos, 28, 86, 92, 202, 222, 286
asbestosis, 34, 86, 92, 222
ASME. See American Society of Mechanical
Engineers
asphyxiation, 28, 222, 303, 306, 308, 323
ASSE Dictionary of Safety Terms, 27
atmosphere: defined, 28; explosive, 30, 265;
hazardous, 305; oxygen deficient, 36,
306; oxygen enriched, 306; stratified,
314, 328
atmospheric testing: confined space entry,
314, 327–29; duration, 328; evaluation
testing, 327–28; instrument calibration,
329; OSHA and, 328–29; procedures,
327–28; for stratified atmospheres, 328;
training, 328; verification testing, 328
at-risk behaviors, 75
ATSDR. See Agency for Toxic Substances
& Disease Registry
attendant, 304, 321–22
attenuation, 29, 249
audible range, 29, 249
audiogram, 29, 249
audiologist, 249
audiometric testing, 29, 248–50, 252–54
authorized employee, 335
authorized entrant, 304
authorized person, 29
auto-ignition temperature, 29
Automated External Defibrillator (AED),
293–94
avian influenza, 222
awareness: administrative controls, 108;
barriers, 403; first aid, 293–94; hazardous
waste, 209; OSH Act raising, 86;
worker, 108
Ayoub, M., 201
background checks, 412
background noise, 249
back injuries: causes of, 198–99; controlling
on-the-job, 199–201; statistics, 197–98.
See also material handling
back injury prevention, 197–99;
administrative controls, 201–5;
engineering controls, 203–5;
recommended lifting procedures, 203;
selection and, 201–2; training and, 203
baghouse, 29
banana oil, 286
Bardo, Robert, 422
barriers, 278, 311, 403
baseline audiogram, 249
baseline data, 29
basket hitch, 369
beams, 162–63, 163
behavior-based management models, 29;
ABC principles of observation, 77;
behavior modification theory and, 75–76;
extinction, 76; for hazard avoidance,
75–77; human factors and, 77; identifying
at-risk behaviors, 75; linked steps, 76;
negative and positive reinforcement, 76;
success and disadvantages, 77
behavior modification theory, 75–76
bel, 29
benchmarking: defined, 29; in hazard
avoidance, 77–79; process, 78, 79; results
and targets, 78; steps, 79
bending forces, 372
best-in-class programs, 77
Bhopal gas tragedy, 4–5, 111–13, 137
bioactive substances, 213
bioassay, 219
biohazard, 29
biological aerosols, 29
biological stressors, 89Index 453
biomechanical approaches to material
handling, 199–201, 200
blanking and blinding, 304
blasting abrasive, 286
blocks, 403
bloodborne pathogens, 222, 293
Bloodborne Pathogens and Needlestick
Prevention, 222
BOCA. See Building Officials and Code
Administrators
boiler code, 29
boots, 280
botulism, 222
Boyle’s Law, 29
brainstorming, 75
Brauer, R. L., 200, 258, 398
breathing resistance, 286
bridle wire rope sling, 369
briefing sessions, 18–19
Bugbee, P., 257
Building Officials and Code Administrators
(BOCA), 159
Bureau of Labor Statistics, 199, 302,
353, 421
Bush, George W., 194–95
CAAA. See Clean Air Act Amendments
cable laid endless sling-mechanical joint, 369
cable laid rope, 369
cable laid rope sling-mechanical joint, 369
cadmium, 92, 235, 268, 286, 306
Caillet, R., 199
Caligula, 211
calorie, 296
capable of being locked out, 335
capacitance grounds, 344
carbon monoxide, 28, 222, 230, 287–88, 314
carcinogens, 29, 219, 228–29
cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR), 25,
293–94, 324
cardiotoxic effects, 227
carelessness, 350, 395
carpal tunnel syndrome, 29
Carson, R., 206, 209, 230, 231
Caruey, A., 334
casual factor, 30
catalyst, 29, 235
catastrophe, 30, 130, 137
Catteral, M. J., 200
caution, 21–22
CCA. See copper chromate arsenate
CCPS. See Center for Chemical Process
Safety
CDC. See Centers for Disease Control
Census for Fatal Occupation Injury
Statistics, 421
Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS),
68, 143
Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 216, 421
central nervous system (CNC), 223–24, 227
CERCLA. See Comprehensive
Environmental Response, Compensation,
and Liabilities Act of 1980
Certified Industrial Hygienist (CIH), 328
Certified Safety Professional (CSP), 328
CFR. See Code of Federal Regulations
Chapanis, A., 194
Charles’s Law, 30
chemical, 125
chemical cartridge respirators, 287
chemical change, 30
chemical engineering exposure, 4
chemical hazards, 30, 286
Chemical Hygiene Plan, 35
chemical name, 125
chemical spill, 30
chemical stressors, 89
chemical suits, 280
Chernobyl nuclear power disaster, 4–5, 389.
See also radiation safety
choker, 369
choker hitch, 369
chronic, 30, 219
CIH. See Certified Industrial Hygienist
circuit breakers, 342
civil engineering exposure, 3
Claudius, 211
Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), 137
cleaning respirators, 286
clothing: aprons, coveralls, gloves, 280;
checklist, 190; machine guarding and,
409; PPE, 108, 268
CNCI. See cyanogens chloride
CNC. See central nervous system
coating, 369
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 28, 35
coefficient of friction, 30
cold hazards, 298
cold stress, 298
collective leadership style, 65454 Index
columns, 164–65
combustible gas indicator, 30
combustible liquids, 30, 125, 261–62
combustibles, 184–85, 263–65
combustion, 30
commercial chemical products, 235–36
common law, 54
common name, 125
company policy, 73, 355. See also safety
policy
competent person, 30
Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation, and Liabilities
Act of 1980 (CERCLA), 238. See
also Superfund Amendments and
Reauthorization Act
compressed gas, 125
compression forces, 372
conduction, 294
confined space entry: alternative protection
methods, 325–27; assignment of on-site
personnel, 321–22; atmospheric testing,
314, 327–29; attendance roster, 317;
attendant duties, 321–22; authorized
entrants’ duties, 321; barriers and
shields, 311; certification exam, 319–20;
Confined Space Entry Standard, 18;
entry supervisor duties, 322; equipment
testing and monitoring, 309–10; fatalities,
301–2; hierarchy of permit-required
confined space entry, 325–27; ladders,
311–12; lighting, 310–11; non-entry
rescue, 324–25; OSHA audit items,
329–31; OSHA’s Confined Space
Entry Program, 302–7, 303; overview,
301–2; permit-required written program,
308–13; permit requirements, 316; permit
system, 315–16; PPE, 310; pre-entry
requirements, 314–15; rescue equipment,
312–13; rescue services, 323–24; rescue
services by outside contractors, 324;
terms and definitions, 304–7; training,
316–21; unauthorized entry and, 314;
ventilating equipment, 310; workplace
evaluation, 307–8
confined spaces: checklist, 181–82; defined,
30, 304; hot work in, 272; PPE and, 268;
welding, 265–66
conflict resolution, 429
containers, 125; cutting used, 265; portable,
126; stationary, 127
containment, 30
contingency plan, 30
continuous lifting, 204
contractor training: briefing sessions
and, 18–19; case study, 18; hostcontractor safety interface, 17–20;
OSHA compliance and, 16–17; outside
contractor safety briefing roster, 19, 20;
profit and, 15–16; safety inspections and,
20; stopping operations and, 20
control methods: administrative controls,
105–8; engineering, 94; industrial
hygiene, 93–108; industrial noise control,
100–105; ventilation, 94–100
controls: environmental controls checklist,
182–84; pressure vessel safety, 361;
radiation safety, 392, 393; safety,
400–401; for workplace violence,
430–32; worksite security, 414. See also
administrative controls; engineering
controls
convection, 294
copper chromate arsenate (CCA), 211
corrosive material, 30, 234
Cote, A., 257
cots, 280
cotton dust, 222
CoVan, J., 134
CPR. See cardio-pulmonary resuscitation
criterion sound level, 249
critical or buckling load, 164
cross rod, 369
CSP. See Certified Safety Professional
Cullen, L., 56
cumulative injury, 31
cumulative trauma, 31
customers, 80
custom houses, 11
cyanide, 219–20, 223, 236
cyanogens chloride (CNCI), 223
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures, 31
danger: IDLH, 283, 287, 306, 308; pressure
vessel safety and, 357–58; signal word,
21–22
data protection, 417–18
Dateline, 56–57
decibel (dB), 31, 249
decontamination, 31
Delaney Clause, 221
density, 31Index 455
Department of Health and Human Services,
U.S., 210
Department of Homeland Security (DHS), 34
Department of Labor, U.S., 334
Department of Transportation (DOT):
employee training and, 12; on hazardous
material, 232–33
depressurizing valve, 363
dermal contact, 219
dermatitis, 31
designated, 369
design load, 31
devices: electromechanical sensing, 401;
energy isolating device, 335–36;
feeding and ejection, 398, 402; gates,
402; lockout, 336; machine guarding,
400–402; overcurrent, 341; personal
monitoring, 391; personal protective,
250; photoelectric sensing, 400; pointof-operation, 398; presence sensing, 400;
pullback, 401; radiofrequency sensing,
400–401; restraint, 401; safety trip, 401;
switching, 342; tagout, 336; temperature
limit, 364; two-hand control, 401;
two-hand trip, 402
DHS. See Department of Homeland Security
dike, 31
dilute, 31
dilution ventilation, 99–100
dioxin (TCDD), 220
discharge, 364
distribution, 225, 288
distribution of stress, 162
dose, 31, 217, 391
dose response, 217, 218
dosimeter, 31
DOT. See Department of Transportation
double block and bleed, 304
double hearing protection, 249–50
dual capacity doctrine, 56
ducts, 265
dusts, 31, 90, 93, 222, 226, 286
dynamic pressure, 360
ear plugs, 279
education, 13, 248, 253. See also training
88:10:2 ratio, 66–67
elastic buckling, 165
elastic stability, 165
electrical circuits, 347
electrical engineering exposure, 4
electrical grounding, 31, 345
“Electrical Grounding: Safe or Hazardous”
(Lee), 345
electrical safety: checklist, 186–88; circuit
breakers, 342; control of electrical
hazards, 341–42; fuses, 341–42;
grounding and bonding, 342–47, 343;
interlocks, 342; lockouts, 342; lowvoltage systems installation, 341; OSHA
and, 340; overcurrent devices, 341; over
speed switch, 342; overview, 339–40;
precautions for electrical circuits, 347;
program elements, 340; switching
devices, 342; thermal cutout, 342
electrolytes, 297
electromechanical sensing devices, 401
elephant trunk, 310
elevated falls, 354
Ellis, J. L., 349, 354
emergency eyewash/showers, 166
emergency lighting, 161
emergency plan, 31
emergency response: bottom line, 153–54;
defined, 31, 133–34; emergency response
plan, 132–36, 135, 136; OSHA and,
131–36; overview, 129–31; PSM and,
137–45; RMP and, 145–53
emergency response plan, 30, 132–36,
135, 136
employee participation, 141
employee training: acknowledgment of
training and understanding statement,
14, 15; for all, 13; employee input, 15;
frequency, 13–14; needs assessment,
13; New Employee Safety and
Health Orientation Training, 13–14;
OSHA, DOT, EPA and, 12; PSQ, 14;
videotaping, 15; worker right-to-know,
123
employers: compensation fraud, 57;
Employer’s First Report of Accident,
73–74; OSH Act requirements, 6; posting
information checklist, 168
empowerment, 65
energized, 31, 335
energy: defined, 32; KE, 32, 35; PE, 32;
stored pressure, 360; zero energy state,
38, 333
energy isolating device, 335–36
energy isolation, 333
energy source, 336456 Index
enforcement, 13; approach to hazard
avoidance, 65–66; machine guarding,
404–5; OSH Act, 59
engineering, 13; chemical engineering
exposure, 4; civil engineering exposure,
3; definition, 26, 32; environmental
engineering exposure, 4; hazard
avoidance, 66–67; human factor, 34;
industrial engineering exposure, 3
engineering controls: in back injury
prevention, 203–5; defined, 32; in
industrial hygiene, 94; industrial noise
control, 103–4; noise control, 254
engineering rigging concepts: determining
safety factor, 372; force vector quantities,
373; inclined plane, 380, 380–82, 381;
materials and principles of mechanics,
382; parallelogram law, 376; resolution
of forces, 371–75; for rigging safety,
370–82; slings, 375–79; triangle law,
373, 374
English markings, 22
engulfment, 304
entry, 304–5; primary routes of entry, 126;
routes of entry, 219. See also confined
space entry
entry permit, 305
entry supervisor, 305
environmental engineering exposure, 4
environmental heat, 295
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),
22, 113; CAAA duties, 137; employee
training and, 12; on hazardous substances,
233; on hazardous waste, 230, 233–34;
listed hazardous waste, 235–36;
mandatory modeling parameters, 147–48;
on pesticides, 220; PPCPs and, 215; RMP
and, 134, 139, 145–46
Epidemiological Theory, 32
EP Toxicity Test. See extraction procedure
equipment: checklist, 173–74; confined
space entry, 309–10, 312–13; equipment
grounds, 344–45; oxyacetylene, 271;
protection, 417–18; rescue, 312–13;
retrieval, 313; rigging safety, 385;
worksite security, 414. See also personal
protective equipment
equivalent entity, 369
ergonomics: back injury prevention,
197–99, 201–6; controlling on-the-job
back injuries, 199–201; defined, 32;
final thoughts, 206; lower back pain
and standing, 206; OSHA and, 193–95;
overview, 193–96; program elements,
195, 196–97; stressors, 89
ergonomics program elements, 195;
evaluation, 197; hazard identification,
prevention, control, 196; management
commitment and employee participation,
196; medical management, 196–97;
training, 197
etiology, 32
evaporative cooling, 296
exclusive remedy, 56
excretion, 214, 226
exhaust ventilation, 96
explosions, 31, 135–38, 145, 226, 261, 357
explosives, 137–39, 160, 232; atmospheres,
265; defined, 125; LEL, 35;
manufacturing, 161; UEL, 38
exposure, 32, 125, 219
exposure ceiling, 32
extinction, 76
extraction procedure (EP Toxicity Test), 234
extremely hazardous substances, 233
face shields, 279
facility design, 206, 278; codes and
standards, 159–60; emergency eyewash/
showers, 166; fatality incident, 157; high
hazard potential work areas, 161–62;
illumination, 161; ladders, 165; loadbearing components, 162–65; minimum
levels for industrial lighting, 161;
personal and sanitation facilities, 165–66;
plant layout, 160; safety inspection
checklist, 166–90; workplace health and
safety, 157–59
facility visibility, 416
failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA),
69, 145
fall arresting system, 32
fall protection: causes of falls, 349; defining
problem, 350–54; elevated falls and,
354; factors at work in fall, 351–52;
friction, momentum, gravity and, 351–52;
measures, 354–55; overview, 349–50;
policy, 355; program elements, 350; slips
and, 352–53; stair falls and, 353–54; trips
and, 353Index 457
fatalities, 395; confined space entry,
301–2; facility design, 157; industrial
hygiene, 85; occupational safety and
health practices, 1; PPE, 277; regulatory
requirements, 49; safety and health
management, 61; safety and health
terminology, 25
fault tree analysis, 69, 145
f/cc. See fiber per cubic centimeter
FDA. See Food and Drug Administration
Federal Emergency Management Agency
(FEMA), 136
feeding and ejection devices, 398, 402
FEMA. See Federal Emergency Management
Agency
fencing, 416
Ferry, Ted, 49–54, 74, 395, 396, 435
FEV1. See forced expiratory volume
fiber per cubic centimeter (f/cc), 28
fire: defined, 32; Fire Emergency Plan,
260–61; Fire Prevention Plan, 259–60;
fire safety, 258; fire triangle, 258, 259;
flammable and combustible liquids,
261–62; hazards, 263; OSHA and fire
safety, 258–59; overview, 257; prevention
and control, 259–61; prevention and
control checklist, 168–69; protection
program, 259; temperature, fuel, oxygen
for, 258, 259; welding safety, 263–66.
See also heat
fire extinguishers, 261, 263, 313
fire watch: hot work, 273–74; welding,
263–64
first aid: AED and, 293–94; awareness
and training, 293–94; first aid kits, 313;
overview, 292; services, 293
fit-testing: defined, 286; facial hair and,
290–91; initial and annual, 290; for
leakage, 290; negative pressure check
procedure, 290; positive pressure check
procedure, 290; pre-use self-testing, 290;
in respiratory protection, 289–91
fixed guards, 399
flammable aerosol, 125
flammable gas, 125
flammable liquids, 32, 261–62
flammable solid, 125
flash point, 32, 126
floods, 71, 135
floors, 163–64, 164, 264
FMEA. See failure mode and effect analysis
Food Additives Amendment, 221
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 221
foodborne illnesses, 223
foot-candle, 32
foot rails, 206
footwear, 206, 280
force: parallelogram, 382; resolution of,
371–75; tensile, compression, torsional,
bending, 372; vector quantities, 373
forced expiratory volume (FEV1), 286, 291
forced vital capacity (FVC), 286, 291
forklifts checklist, 179–80
Foster, Jodi, 422
frangible discs, 364
frequency, 250, 400–401
friction, 30, 351–52
frostbite, 298
frostnip, 298
full-body harness, 313
fumes, 32, 93, 286
fungi, 223
furans, 220
fuses, 341–42
FVC. See forced vital capacity
GAO. See General Accounting Office
gas, 287; Bhopal gas tragedy, 4–5, 111–13,
137; characteristics, 226; combustible
gas indicator, 30; defined, 32; flammable
gas, 125; industrial health hazard, 93;
Institute, West Virginia, gas spill, 5, 113;
“Standards of Acceptable Concentrations
of Toxic Dusts and Gases,” 90
Gasaway, D. C., 245–46
gas welding, 270–71
gate devices, 402
gathering ring, 370
gauge pressure (psig), 360
Geller, E. Scott, 75
General Accounting Office (GAO), 193
general ventilation, 99–100
GFCI. See ground-fault circuit interrupter
The Ghost in the Looking Glass
(Walkley), 11
GHS. See Globally Harmonized System
Giachino, J., 271
Gifford, Kathy Lee, 12
Globally Harmonized System (GHS):
HazCom alignment, 113–15; signal458 Index
words and, 21–22; worker right-to-know
communication, 115–17
gloves, 280
Goetsch, D. L., 157
goggles, 267, 267–68, 279
gravity, 351–52
grounded system, 33
ground-fault circuit interrupter (GFCI), 33,
311, 346, 346
grounding and bonding: capacitance grounds,
343; electrical safety, 342–47, 343;
equipment grounds, 344–45; GFCI, 346,
346; grounding and grounded wire, 343;
reactive grounds, 343; requirements, 345;
resonant grounds, 343; solid grounds,
343; static electricity, 346; system
ground, 343; voltage to ground, 343–44
growth industries, 3
guards: adjustable, 400; fixed, 399;
interlocked, 399–400; for machine
guarding, 399–400; point-of-operation,
398; self-adjusting, 400; welding, 263
Haddon, W., Jr., 27
Hammer, Willie, 70–72, 159, 339, 342, 359
Hammurabi, 159, 160
handle eye, 369
handles, 369
hand shields, 266–67
hand tools, 403
hantaviruses, 223
harassment, 425
hardhats, 66, 109, 279. See also helmets
harm, 1, 418
Hawthorne Effect, 75
Hazard, W. G., 98
hazard analysis, 69; in analytical approach
to hazard avoidance, 68–69; defined, 33;
fault tree analysis, 69; FMEA, 69; what-if
checklist, 68–69; what-if questions, 68
hazard assessment: in analytical approach to
hazard avoidance, 70; defined, 33; PPE
and, 281–82; RMP and, 146–47
hazard avoidance: analytical approach,
68–75; behavior-based models for,
75–77; benchmarking, 77–79, 78,
79; collective leadership style, 65;
controlling, 63; dealing with unknown,
66; directing, 63; enforcement approach,
65–66; engineering approach, 66–67;
management aspects, 62–65; organizing,
63; participative management, 64;
planning, 63; PPE for, 67; psychological
approach, 66; right way of, 62–65; TQM
and, 79–80
hazard communication program, 123,
124–25
Hazard Communication Standard (HazCom),
35; audit items, 127–28; changes
and worker right-to-know, 117–20;
classification under, 117–18; defined,
33; definition of terms, 125–27; GHS
alignment, 113–15; labels, 118, 119,
120, 124, 126; occupational safety and
health professionals and, 120–25; OSHA
mandate, 113–14; phase-in period,
116, 116–17; SDS requirement,
12, 114
hazard control, 33
hazard-free work places, 5
hazard identification, 33
Hazard Operability Analysis (HAZOP), 69;
defined, 33; PSM and, 144–45
hazardous atmosphere, 305
hazardous chemical inventory list, 126
hazardous chemicals, 113, 126
hazardous material (HazMat): checklist,
185–86; defined, 33; DOT on, 232–33;
hazardous waste, 232–33; release of, 133;
responders, 130–31; teams, 136
Hazardous Material Identification System
(HMIS), 120
hazardous substances: defined, 33; EPA and
OSHA on, 233; hazardous waste,
233, 234
hazardous waste: America as throwaway
society, 231–32; awareness of, 209;
commercial chemical products, 235–36;
defined, 33; EPA list, 235–36; EPA
on, 230, 233–34; extremely hazardous
substances, 233; handling, 230–31;
hazardous chemicals, 233; hazardous
material, 232–33; hazardous substances,
233, 234; ignitability, corrosive, reactive,
toxicity, 234; legislation, 236–38;
nonspecific source wastes, 235; origins,
236; OSHA’s hazardous waste standard,
238–39; overview, 233–35; RCRA on,
237–38; safety program, 239–41, 240;
specific source wastes, 235Index 459
Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency
Response (HAZWOPER), 133
hazards, 219; action, 398–99; chemical, 30,
286; cold, 298; defined, 33; engineeringout, 341; fire, 263; health, 126; industrial
health, 92–93; PPE and, 277; workplace
violence checklist, 432–33. See also
thermal hazards
hazard statement, 118
hazard warning, 126
HazCom. See Hazard Communication
Standard
HazMat. See hazardous material
HAZOP. See Hazard Operability Analysis
HAZWOPER. See Hazardous Waste
Operations and Emergency Response
HCN. See hydrogen cyanide
health, 51; Department of Health and
Human Services, U.S., 210; hazards, 126;
IDLH, 283, 287, 306, 308; industrial
hazards, 92–93; New Employee Safety
and Health Orientation Training, 13–14;
ventilation and health protection, 268–69;
workplace, 157–59. See also National
Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health; Occupational Safety and Health
Act; Occupational Safety and Health
Administration; occupational safety and
health practices; occupational safety
and health professional; safety and
health management; safety and health
terminology
hearing acuity tests, 202
hearing conservation: defined, 33; Hearing
Conservation Record, 250; OSHA
Hearing Conservation Standard, 247–51;
program, 246
hearing loss, 245
hearing protection, 252–53
heat: body’s response to, 295–96; cramps,
297; defined, 296; disorders, 296–97;
environmental, 295; exhaustion, 297;
fatigue, 297; metabolic, 35, 294–95, 296;
radiant, 36, 295; rashes, 297; stress, 295;
terms and definitions, 296
heatstroke, 33
heavy metals, 220
HEHS, 193–94
Heinrich, H. W., 66–67
helmets, 266–67, 279
hematoxic effects, 227
Henry, K., 411
hepatotoxic effects, 227
hertz (Hz), 250
high-radiation area, 391
Hinckley, John, Jr., 422
Hispanic outreach: English to Spanish
dictionary, 40–47; examples, 40; OSHA
priority, 38; OSHA Workplace Poster, 39;
tools, 38
hitch, 369
HMIS. See Hazardous Material Identification
System
Homeland Security, 34
Hood, Thomas, 12
hot tap, 336
hot work: checklist, 175–77; in confined
spaces, 272; defined, 34; fire watch
requirements, 273–74; overview, 257,
271–72; permit procedure, 271–73, 273,
305; permits, 140, 142. See also fire;
welding
human factor engineering, 34
hurricanes, 71
hydrogen cyanide (HCN), 223
hypothermia, 298
Hz. See hertz
Iacocca, Lee, 79
IAQ. See Indoor Air Quality
IARC. See International Agency for
Research on Cancer
ICRP. See International Commission on
Radiological Protection
IDLH. See Immediately Dangerous to Life
or Health
ignitability, 234
ignition temperature, 34
IH. See industrial hygienist
illumination, 32, 34, 161
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health
(IDLH), 283, 287, 306, 308
immediate use, 126
immune system, 227
impulse noise, 34
inclined plane, 380, 380–82, 381
individual susceptibility, 218
Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), 34
industrial engineering exposure, 3
industrial health hazards, 92–93460 Index
industrial hygiene: control methods,
93–108; defined, 34; fatality incident,
85; industrial health hazards and, 92–93;
industrial toxicology and, 90–92;
organization size and type, 87; overview,
85–89; PPE, 108–9; workplace stressors
and, 88–89
industrial hygienist (IH), 66, 86–88, 90
industrial noise control: as control method,
100–105; daily noise dose, 103;
determining noise levels, 100–103;
engineering controls, 103–4; permissible
noise exposures, 101, 102; vibration
control, 104–5
industrial toxicology: exposure and, 91;
industrial hygiene and, 90–92; ingestion,
injection, absorption, inhalation, 91;
overexposure effects, 92; short- and longterm effects, 92; threshold levels and, 90;
toxicity and, 90
Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of
Recommended Practice, 94
inerting, 306, 309
infrared radiation, 390–91
ingestion, 34, 91, 126, 165, 216
injuries, 34; Census for Fatal Occupation
Injury Statistics, 421; cumulative, 31;
definition, 26; Injuries Resulting From
Falls on Stairs, 353; Log and Summary
of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, 35;
machine-related, 397; maiming, 395; RSI,

  1. See also back injuries; back injury
    prevention
    insecticides, 219, 224
    inspections: contractor training and,
    20; facility design, 166–90; machine
    guarding, 404–5; pressure vessel safety,
    365; recordkeeping, 439; regulatory
    requirements, 51–53; respirators, 288–89;
    rigging safety, 385–86
    Institute, West Virginia, gas spill, 5, 113
    interlocked guards, 399–400
    interlocks, 34, 342
    International Agency for Research on Cancer
    (IARC), 113, 228
    International Commission on Radiological
    Protection (ICRP), 230
    ionizing radiation, 34, 391–92, 393
    irritants, 34, 224
    irritant smoke, 287, 290. See also stannic
    oxychloride
    isolation, 88, 94, 254, 306, 333
    JHA. See Job Hazard Analysis
    jigs, 403
    job hazard analysis, 34
    Job Hazard Analysis (JHA), 75
    John Wayne syndrome, 302
    Kaliokin, Alex, 202
    KCN. See potassium cyanide
    Kelleher, M. D., 421–25
    KE. See kinetic energy
    Keyserling, W. M., 205
    kinetic energy (KE), 32, 35
    kneeling pads, 280
    Kohr, R. L., 349
    labels: defined, 126; HazCom, 118, 119, 120,
    124, 126; NFPA Hazardous Chemical
    Label, 126
    Laboratory Safety Standard, 35
    ladders, 165, 311–12; checklist, 172–73
    LD50/LC50. See Lethal Dose 50/Lethal
    Concentration 50
    lead toxicity, 92, 211–12
    Lee, R. H., 345
    Legionnaires’ disease, 223
    LEL. See lower explosive limit
    LEPCs. See Local Emergency Planning
    Committees
    Lethal Dose 50/Lethal Concentration 50
    (LD50/LC50), 218
    LFL. See Lower Flammable Limit
    lighting, 161, 161, 310–11
    light radiation, 390–91
    lightsticks, 311
    line breaking, 306
    links, 369, 370
    load-bearing components: beams, 162–63,
    163; columns, 164–65; distribution of
    stress, 162; in facility design, 162–65;
    floors, 163–64, 164
    Local Emergency Planning Committees
    (LEPCs), 136
    local exhaust ventilation, 98–99, 99
    lockout, 336
    lockout device, 336Index 461
    lockout/tagout procedure: checklist,
    169–70; defined, 35; electrical safety,
    342; elements, 335; informing outside
    contractors, 338; machine guarding, 409;
    overview, 333–34; sample, 336–38; terms
    and definitions, 334–36; when authorized
    employee is absent, 337–38
    Log and Summary of Occupational Injuries
    and Illnesses, 35
    loss, 35, 245
    lower back pain, 206
    lower explosive limit (LEL), 35
    Lower Flammable Limit (LFL), 259
    low-voltage systems installation, 341
    machine guarding: accessories, 403;
    awareness barriers, 403; basics of,
    396–99; checklist, 174–75, 405–7;
    clothing and jewelry and, 409; common
    methods, 399–403; devices, 400–402;
    feeding and ejection devices, 398, 402;
    guards, 399–400; hand tools, 403; by
    location and distance, 402–3; lockout/
    tagout, 409; machine hazard warnings,
    407–8, 408; machine-related injuries,
    397; mechanical motion and action
    hazards, 398–99; overview, 395; pointof-operation devices, 398; point-ofoperation guards, 398; program elements,
    397; purpose of, 396; push sticks,
    blocks, jigs, 403; required types, 398;
    safeguarding defined, 396, 398; safe work
    practices, 403–4; shields, 403; spreaders,
    403; training, enforcement, inspections,
    404–5
    machine hazard warnings, 407–8, 408
    maiming injuries, 395
    Management Information Systems (MIS),
    417–18
    manometer, 97
    Mansdorf, S. Z., 277, 357
    manual lifting, 198; AL and MPL, 204–95;
    occasional and continuous, 204;
    recommended procedures, 203; Work
    Practices Guide for Manual Lifting, 201,
    204–5
    Manuele, F. A., 74
    master link, 370
    Material Data Safety Sheet (MDSS), 325
    material handling: biomechanical
    approaches, 199–201, 200; checklist,
    189–90; NIOSH, 199; physiological
    approach, 201;
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), 35
    Mathis, T., 75
    maximum acceptable weight of load
    (MAWL), 201
    maximum permissible lift (MPL), 204–5
    McElroy, F. E., 262
    McSween T., 75, 77
    means of retrieval, 313
    mechanical coupling link, 370
    mechanical state, 333
    medical emergencies, 132
    medical monitoring, 35
    medical pathology, 250
    medical records, 439–40
    medical surveillance, 291
    mercuric nitrate, 223
    mesothelioma, 92, 222
    metabolic heat, 35, 294–95, 296
    metabolism, 225–26, 295, 297
    metal mesh, 369
    methyl alcohol, 223
    methylene chloride, 223
    methyl isocyanate (MIC), 223
    Meyer, Eugene, 389
    microwave radiation, 390–91
    MIC. See methyl isocyanate
    Minter, J. G., 145
    MIS. See Management Information Systems
    mists, 35, 93, 287
    Mital, A., 201
    mixture, 31, 121, 126
    molds, 35, 223
    momentum, 351–52
    monitoring: equipment testing and, 309–10;
    medical, 35; noise levels, 247, 251–52;
    personal monitoring devices, 391
    Moretz, S., 238
    MPL. See maximum permissible lift
    MSDs. See musculoskeletal disorders
    MSDS. See Material Data Safety Sheet;
    Material Safety Data Sheet
    musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), 40, 193,
    195
    mutagens, 219, 228–29
    mycotoxins, 35462 Index
    NaCN. See sodium cyanide
    National Coalition on Ergonomics (NCE),
    195–96
    National Electric Code (NEC), 150,
    269–70, 340
    National Fire Prevention Code, 159
    National Fire Protection Association
    (NFPA), 120, 160, 258
    National Institute for Occupational Safety
    and Health (NIOSH), 28, 113; on
    carcinogens, 228; material handling and,
    199; Occupational Health Guidelines
    for Health Hazards, 92; Work Practices
    Guide for Manual Lifting, 201, 204–5
    National Priorities List (NPL), 238
    National Safety Council (NSC), 199, 258,
    302, 333, 349, 367
    natural disasters, 34, 71, 135
    NCE. See National Coalition on Ergonomics
    NEC. See National Electric Code
    negative consequences/punishment, 76
    negative pressure check procedure, 290
    negative reinforcement, 76
    NEL. See no effect level
    nephrotoxic effects, 227
    Nero, 211
    Newton’s second law of motion, 372
    NFPA Hazardous Chemical Label, 126
    NFPA. See National Fire Protection
    Association
    NIOSH. See National Institute for
    Occupational Safety and Health
    NOAEL. See no observed adverse effect
    level
    no effect level (NEL), 218
    noise control: administrative and engineering
    controls, 254; audiometric testing, 252;
    checklist, 188–89; hearing conservation
    program, 246; hearing protection,
    252–53; monitoring program, 251;
    occupational noise exposure, 248;
    overview, 245–47; permissible noise
    exposures, 249; recordkeeping, 253–54;
    safe work practices, 253; sound level
    survey, 251–52; training, 253; written
    program, 248–51. See also OSHA
    Hearing Conservation Standard
    noise dose, 250
    noise dosimeter, 250
    noise hazard area, 250
    noise hazard work practice, 250
    noise level measurement, 250
    noise reduction ratio, 250
    nonionizing radiation, 35, 390–92, 393
    non-permit confined space, 306, 308
    nonspecific source wastes, 235
    no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL),
    217–18
    normal production operation, 336
    NPL. See National Priorities List
    NSC. See National Safety Council
    OCA. See offsite consequence analysis
    occasional lifting, 204
    Occupational Health magazine, 238
    occupational noise exposure, 248
    Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH
    Act), 35; employer requirements, 6;
    enforcement, 59; General Duty Clause,
    8; for occupational safety and health
    professionals, 5–8; passage, 85; raising
    awareness, 86; workers’ rights, 6, 8
    Occupational Safety and Health
    Administration (OSHA): on accidents, 70;
    action level use, 28; atmospheric testing
    and, 328–29; Bloodborne Pathogens and
    Needlestick Prevention, 222; compliance
    and contractor training, 16–17; confined
    space entry audit items, 329–31; Confined
    Space Entry Program, 302–7, 303;
    Confined Space Entry Standard, 18;
    electrical safety and, 340; emergency
    response and, 131–36; employee training
    and, 12; English markings and, 22;
    ergonomics and, 193–95; exposure
    limits, 106; fire safety and, 258–59;
    General Duty Clause, 194; on hazardous
    substances, 233; hazardous waste
    standard, 238–39; HazCom mandated,
    113–14; Hispanic outreach as priority,
    38; job safety health poster, 7; lockout/
    tagout procedure, 35, 333–38; machine
    hazard warnings, 408; Occupational
    Health Guidelines for Health Hazards,
    92; Occupational Safety and Health
    Standards for General Industry, 304;
    OSHA Subpart Q, 262–63; OSHA-
    200/300 logs, 17; PPE requirements,
    281–82; PPE standard, 279–82, 280;
    pressure vessel safety requirements, 359;Index 463
    radiation safety requirements, 391–93;
    recordkeeping requirements, 437;
    regulating worker health and safety, 158;
    respiratory protection standard, 284–85,
    285; rigging safety standard, 367
    occupational safety and health practices:
    contractor training, 15–21; employee
    training, 12–15; fatality incident, 1;
    organization’s safety policy, 9–12; signal
    words, 21–22
    occupational safety and health professionals:
    bottom line in industry, 21; chemical
    engineering exposure, 4; civil engineering
    exposure, 3; electrical engineering
    exposure, 4; environmental engineering
    exposure, 4; HazCom and, 120–25;
    industrial engineering exposure, 3;
    knowledge and expertise, 2; mechanical
    engineering exposure, 3–4; OSH Act
    for, 5–9; OSHA Standards and, 8–9;
    overview, 2–3; preventing major
    accidents and disasters, 3–5; regulatory
    influence, 5–8
    Occupational Safety Management and
    Engineering (Hammer), 70–72, 342
    Office of the Federal Register, 315–16
    offsite, 152
    offsite consequence analysis (OCA),
    146–47, 151
    Olishifski, J. B., 85
    organic peroxide, 126
    organochlorine insecticides, 224
    organophosphate insecticides, 224
    OSHA auditor, 19, 51, 127–28, 324,
    328–29, 436
    OSHA Form 300, 36
    OSHA Hearing Conservation Standard:
    audiometric testing, 152; education and
    training, 248, 253; hearing protection,
    252–53; medical surveillance, 247;
    monitoring noise levels, 247, 251–52; for
    noise control, 247–48; personal protection
    and, 247–48; recordkeeping, 253–54; safe
    work practices, 253; written program,
    248–51
    OSHA. See Occupational Safety and Health
    Administration
    OSHA Standards: occupational safety
    and health professionals and, 8–9;
    recordkeeping, 440
    OSHA-200/300 Log, 17, 35, 437–39
    otolaryngologist, 250
    otoscopic examination, 250
    outside contractor safety briefing roster,
    19, 20
    overcurrent devices, 341
    oxidation, 36
    oxidizer, 36, 126
    oxyacetylene equipment, 271
    oxygen bottles, 313
    oxygen deficiency, 287
    oxygen deficient atmospheres, 36, 306
    oxygen enriched atmosphere, 306
    paradichlorobenzene, 224
    parallelogram law, 374–75
    participative management, 64
    particulate matter, 32, 36, 287
    particulates, 93, 287
    PCBs, 224
    Peirce, D., 89
    PEL. See permissible exposure limit
    permanent threshold shift (PTS), 250
    permissible exposure limit (PEL), 36,
    106–7, 287
    permit-required confined space, 306, 308
    permit space program, 306
    personal and sanitation facilities, 165–66
    personal monitoring devices, 391
    personal protective device, 250
    personal protective equipment (PPE), 5,
    35, 241; case study, 278–79; checklist,
    170; classifications, 279–82; clothing,
    108, 268; confined space entry, 310;
    confined spaces, 268; defined, 36;
    drawbacks and problems, 108–9; fatality
    incident, 277; goggles, 267, 267–68;
    hand shields, 266–67; hazard assessment
    and, 281–82; for hazard avoidance,
    67; hazards and, 277; head, eye, hand,
    foot protection, 108; helmets, 266–67;
    industrial hygiene and, 108–9; need
    for, 277; OSHA requirements, 281–82;
    OSHA standard, 279–82, 280; overview,
    277–78; providing barrier, 278; railing
    and welding cable, 266; respiratory
    protection, 108; role of, 157–58;
    training, 282; welding, 266–68. See also
    respiratory protection; specific equipment
    Personnel Qualification Standard (PSQ), 14464 Index
    PE. See potential energy
    pesticides, 21, 209–12, 219–23, 232, 236
    pharmaceuticals and personal care products
    (PPCPs), 213–15
    PHA. See Process Hazard Analysis
    Phillips Petroleum Company explosion, 137
    photoelectric sensing devices, 400
    physical hazard, 126
    physical stressors, 89
    physiological approach to material
    handling, 201
    pictogram, 118
    pilot tube, 98
    pipes, 189, 265
    plague, 224
    plant layout, 160
    plant toxins, 220
    Plog, B. A., 85
    PM. See preventive maintenance
    point-of-operation devices, 398
    point-of-operation guards, 398
    Poisson processes, 67
    pollutants, 35, 210, 213, 230
    polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 224
    portable container, 126
    positive pressure check procedure, 290
    positive reinforcement, 75–76
    potassium cyanide (KCN), 223
    potential energy (PE), 32
    pounds per square inch (psi), 28
    PPCPs. See pharmaceuticals and personal
    care products
    PPE. See personal protective equipment
    precautionary statement, 118
    preliminary assessment, 36
    presbycusis, 250
    presence sensing devices, 400
    pressure, 36; Boiler and Pressure Vessel
    Code, 362, 363; Dalton’s Law of Partial
    Pressures, 31; dynamic, 360; negative
    pressure check procedure, 290; positive
    pressure check procedure, 290; psia,
    360; psig, 360; SP, 96–98, 360; standard
    atmospheric, 360; standard water
    pressure, 360; stored pressure energy,
    360; ventilation total, 96–98; VP, 96–98;
    water, 360
    pressure regulator, 360
    pressure relief systems: depressurizing valve,
    363; discharge, 364; frangible discs, 364;
    in pressure vessel safety, 362–64; relief
    valves, 363; safety valve, 363; shut-off
    valves, 363; temperature limit devices,
    364; water draws, 364
    pressure relief valve, 360
    pressure vessel safety: checklist, 177–79;
    controls, 361; dangers of high and low
    pressure, 357–58; OSHA requirements,
    359; overview, 357–58; pressure
    definitions, 359–61; pressure relief
    systems, 362–64; pressure vessel defined,
    358–59; program elements, 358, 361–65;
    proof testing, 362; required inspections,
    365; training, 361–62; written safe work
    practices, 361
    preventive maintenance (PM), 166
    primary routes of entry, 126, 219
    Process Hazard Analysis (PHA), 139, 141,
    147; checklist, 144; what-if checklist,
    144; what-if questions, 143–44
    process safety management (PSM):
    application, 138–40; compliance audits,
    143; contractors, 142; definition of terms,
    138; emergency response and, 137–45;
    employee participation, 141; fault tree
    analysis, 145; final word on, 143–45;
    FMEA and, 145; HAZOP and, 144–45;
    hot work permits, 140, 142; incident
    investigation, 142; management of
    change, 142; mechanical integrity, 142;
    operating procedures, 141–42; PHA, 139,
    141, 143–44; planning and response,
    142; pre-startup safety review, 142;
    process safety information, 141; RMP
    similarities and differences, 150–52;
    SDS, 139; SOPs, 140; trade secrets, 143;
    training, 142
    Profiling the Lethal Employee: Case Studies
    of Violence in the Workplace (Kelleher),
    421–25
    prohibited condition, 306
    proof load, 370
    proof test, 370
    protection from harm, 418
    psia. See absolute pressure
    psig. See gauge pressure
    psi. See pounds per square inch
    PSM. See process safety management
    PSQ. See Personnel Qualification Standard
    psychological approach hazard avoidance, 66Index 465
    psychological approach to material
    handling, 201
    PTS. See permanent threshold shift
    pullback devices, 401
    pulmonary effects, 227
    pulmonary function, 202
    purging, 265
    The Purple Book, 115
    push sticks, 403
    Putnam, A., 197–98
    PVC. See polyvinyl chloride
    pyrophoric, 126
    rad, 391
    radiant heat, 36, 295
    radiation: defined, 36, 220, 391; ionizing, 34,
    391–92, 393; nonionizing, 35, 390–91,
    393; ultraviolet, light, infrared, and
    microwave, 390–91
    radiation area, 391
    radiation safety: controls, 392, 393;
    ionization and, 390; nonionizing radiation
    and, 390–91; OSHA requirements,
    391–93; overview, 389; program
    elements, 390; terms and definitions, 391;
    training, 392
    radioactive materials, 220, 389, 391
    radiofrequency sensing devices, 400–401
    radios, 313
    rated capacity, 370
    RCRA. See Resource Conservation and
    Recovery Act
    reactive, 36, 234
    reactive grounds, 343
    reactivity hazard, 36
    recordkeeping: bottom line, 440; CYA file,
    436; medical records, 439–40; OSHA
    requirements, 437; OSHA Standards,
    440; OSHA-200/300 Log, 437–39;
    overview, 435–37; training and inspection
    records, 439
    regulatory requirements: costly modifications
    and, 51; fatality incident, 49; inspections,
    fines, legal hearings, 51–53; network
    of confusing and constraining rules and
    standards, 51; OSH Act enforcement,
    59; overview, 49–54; record keeping
    and paperwork burden, 53; Title 29, 58;
    workers’ compensation, 54–57
    relief valves, 363
    rem, 391
    repetitive strain injury (RSI), 197
    reportable quantity (RQ), 36
    representative exposure, 250
    reproductive system, 228
    rescue and retrieval line, 313
    rescue equipment, 312–13
    rescue service, 306
    resonant grounds, 343
    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
    (RCRA), 36, 233–34; on hazardous
    waste, 237–38; tracking, permitting,
    disposal control systems, 237
    respirators, 279; airline, 287–88; airpurifying, 283; air-supplying, 283;
    chemical cartridge, 287; cleaning
    respirators, 286; defined, 283, 287;
    inspection, maintenance, cleaning,
    storage, 288–89; SCBA, 283, 285, 288,
    310; selection and distribution, 288
    respiratory hazard, 287
    respiratory protection: documentation
    procedures, 292; medical surveillance,
    291; OSHA Standard, 284, 284–85;
    overview, 282–83; program, 283–92,
    284; program evaluation, 292; respirator
    fit-testing, 289–91; respirator inspection,
    maintenance, cleaning, storage, 288–89;
    respirators, 283, 287–88; respirator
    selection and distribution, 288;
    responsibilities, 285–86; terms, 286–87;
    training, 291
    restraint devices, 401
    restricted area, 391
    retrieval equipment, 313
    retrieval system, 307
    ricin, 224
    Ridge, Tom, 411
    rigging safety: chains, 384; checklist,
    179; engineering concepts, 370–82;
    inspections, 385–86; OSHA standard,
    367; overview, 367–68; proof testing
    equipment, 385; rope slings, 383–84;
    safe work practices, 386–87; terms and
    definitions, 369–70; training, 384–85;
    wire rope, 384; written program, 368,
    368–70
    “right to know” station binder, 126
    “right to know” work station, 127
    risk, 36, 215–20, 230466 Index
    risk assessment, 37, 229–30
    risk characterization, 37
    risk management, 37
    Risk Management Planning (RMP):
    definitions and requirements, 149;
    emergency response and, 145–53;
    environmental receptor, 149; EPA and,
    134, 139, 145–46; hazard assessment,
    146–47; plan versus program, 146;
    prevention program, 148; process, 149;
    program levels, 149–50; PSM similarities
    and differences, 150–52; public
    receptor, 149; regulated substance, 149;
    requirements, 146; response program,
    148–49; SIC codes, 150; stationary
    source, 149; summary, 152–53; terms,
    152; threshold quantity, 149; vessel, 149
    routes of entry, 219
    RQ. See reportable quantity
    RSI. See repetitive strain injury
    rupture disc, 361
    saccharin, 287
    safeguarding, 396, 398
    safety: definition, 26, 37; view of, 1.
    See also electrical safety; National
    Institute for Occupational Safety and
    Health; Occupational Safety and Health
    Act; Occupational Safety and Health
    Administration; occupational safety and
    health practices; occupational safety and
    health professionals; pressure vessel
    safety; process safety management;
    radiation safety; rigging safety;
    specific topics
    safety and health management: bottom
    line, 62–65; fatality incident, 61; hazard
    avoidance concepts, 65–80; hazard
    avoidance management aspects, 62–65;
    overview, 61
    Safety and Health: Management Planning
    (Ferry), 51
    safety and health terminology: accident
    definition, 26–27; fatality incident, 25;
    overview, 26; terms, 27–38
    Safety Compliance Alert, 194
    safety controls, 400–401
    Safety Data Sheets (SDS), 114, 120, 127; for
    caustics, 166; location of, 123; minimum
    information for, 121–22; in PSM, 139
    safety policy, 10; legal ramifications of
    workplace provisions, 9–10; tell-it-likeit-is, 9; Victorian seamstress case study,
    10–12
    safety standard, 37
    safety trip devices, 401
    safety valve, 363
    safe work practices: arc welding, 269–70;
    fiber and synthetic rope slings, 386–87;
    gas welding, 270–71; machine guarding,
    403–4; noise control, 253; OSHA Hearing
    Conservation Standard, 253; pressure
    vessel safety, 361; rigging safety, 386–87;
    workplace violence, 433–34
    SARA. See Superfund Amendments and
    Reauthorization Act
    SARS. See Severe Acute Respiratory
    Syndrome
    SCBA. See self-contained breathing
    apparatus
    Schaeffer, Rebecca, 422
    SDS. See Safety Data Sheets
    secondary containment, 37
    security assessment, 37
    selective toxicity, 216
    self-adjusting guards, 400
    self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA),
    283, 285, 288, 310
    selvage edge, 370
    sensitive sub-population, 218
    sensitivity, 219
    sensitizers, 37
    sensorineural, 251
    September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks,
    411, 415
    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
    (SARS), 224
    shields: confined space entry, 311; face, 279;
    hand, 266–67; machine guarding, 403
    shoe inserts, 206
    shoes, 280
    short term exposure limit (STEL), 37
    SIC codes, 150
    sick water, 212–15
    signal words, 118, 127; danger, warning,
    caution, 21–22; English markings, 22;
    GHS and, 21–22
    significant accidental release, 152
    Silent Spring (Carson), 231
    silica, 37, 224Index 467
    sit/stand chairs, 206
    Skinner, B. F., 29, 75–76
    sling manufacturer, 370
    slings, 376; alloy steel chain sling load angle
    factors, 379; angle and load examples,
    378; chain, 384; defined, 370; examples,
    375–79; rated sling loads, 379; rope,
    383–84; safe work practices, 386–87
    slips, 352–53
    Slote, L., 363
    smallpox, 224
    Smith, R. B., 230
    smoke, 93, 287, 290
    sodium cyanide (NaCN), 223
    solid grounds, 343
    solvents, 220
    “Song of the Shirt” (Hood), 12
    SOPs. See Standard Operating Procedures
    sound level, 251
    sound level meter, 251
    sound level survey, 251–52
    specific gravity, 37
    specific source wastes, 235
    speed switch, 342
    spiral, 370
    spirometric evaluation, 287
    spreaders, 403
    SP. See static pressure
    stair falls, 353–54
    standard atmospheric pressure, 360
    Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), 140
    “Standards of Acceptable Concentrations of
    Toxic Dusts and Gases,” 90
    standard water pressure, 360
    standing, 206
    stannic oxychloride, 287
    static electricity, 346
    static pressure (SP), 96–98, 360
    stationary container, 127
    stationary source, 152
    STEL. See short term exposure limit
    Sterlington, Louisiana, explosion, 137
    stored pressure energy, 360
    strand laid endless sling-mechanical
    joint, 370
    strand laid rope, 370
    stratified atmosphere, 314, 328
    stressors, 88–89
    sulfur dioxide, 92, 133
    Sultana explosion, 357
    Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization
    Act (SARA), 13, 228, 233
    Superman Scenario, 67
    supply ventilation, 96
    sweatshops, 12
    switching devices, 342
    system ground, 343
    tagout, 336. See also lockout/tagout
    procedure
    tagout device, 336
    talc, 222
    target organ, 219
    TCDD. See dioxin
    TCLP. See Toxicity Characteristics Leaching
    Procedure
    technological advances, 3
    temperature limit devices, 364
    temporary employees, 16
    temporary threshold shift (TTS), 251
    tensile force, 372
    teratogens, 219, 228–29
    terrorism, 34, 415, 422
    testing, 307; equipment for confined space
    entry, 309–10; proof testing, 362, 385.
    See also atmospheric testing; audiometric
    testing; fit-testing
    thalidomide, 224
    thermal cutout, 342
    thermal hazards: conduction and, 294;
    convection and, 294; environmental heat
    and, 295; metabolic heat and, 294–95;
    overview, 294; radiant heat and, 295;
    thermal comfort and, 294–95
    threat assessment team: hazard assessment,
    412–13; workplace security analysis,
    413; workplace survey, 413; for worksite
    safety, 412–13
    threatening behavior, 425
    Three Mile Island nuclear power disaster,
    4–5, 389. See also radiation safety
    three-way winch system, 313
    threshold dose, 217–18
    threshold limit value (TLV), 113;
    administrative control and, 106–7;
    carcinogens and, 228; defined, 37
    throwaway society, 231–32
    time, 80
    time-weighted average (TWA), 28, 37,
    249, 251468 Index
    Title 29, 58
    TLV. See threshold limit value
    torsional forces, 372
    total quality management (TQM), 65;
    defined, 37; elements and characteristics,
    80; hazard avoidance and, 79–80
    toxic, 216
    toxicant, 216
    toxic effects, 216
    toxic effects = potency x exposure, 229
    toxicity, 37, 219–20; factors affecting,
    225–26; hazardous waste, 234; industrial
    toxicology and, 90; scale of relative
    toxicity, 220
    Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure
    (TCLP), 234, 235
    toxicology: carcinogens, mutagens,
    teratogens, 228–29; chemical and
    biological toxins and effects, 221–25;
    chemical world and, 210–15;
    classification of toxic agents, 220–21;
    classification of toxic materials,
    226–27; defined, 37, 209; definitions,
    219–20; factors affecting toxicity,
    225–26; industrial, 90–92; for industrial
    workplace, 209–10; overview, 209; risk
    and, 215–20; risk assessment, 229–30;
    scale of relative toxicity, 220; sick water,
    212–15; targets affected by toxins,
    227–28; terms, 216–19; toxic effects =
    potency x exposure, 229
    toxic symptom, 216
    toxins: animal, 221, 222; chemical and
    biological and effects, 221–25; defined,
    216; inhaled, 11; mycotoxins, 35; plant,
    220; targets affected by, 227–28
    TQM. See total quality management
    trade secrets, 120, 138, 143, 153
    training: administrative controls, 108;
    atmospheric testing, 328; back injury
    prevention and, 203; confined space
    entry, 316–21; ergonomics program
    element, 197; first aid, 293–94; IH, 87;
    machine guarding, 404–5; noise control,
    253; OSHA Hearing Conservation
    Standard, 248, 253; PPE, 282; pressure
    vessel safety, 361–62; PSM, 142;
    radiation safety, 392; recordkeeping, 439;
    respiratory protection, 291; rigging safety,
    384–85. See also contractor training;
    employee training
    trenchfoot, 298
    triangle law, 373, 374
    trips, 353
    TTS. See temporary threshold shift
    tuberculosis, 11
    tularemia, 224
    TWA. See time-weighted average
    two-hand control devices, 401
    two-hand trip devices, 402
    two-way winch system, 313
    typhoons, 71
    Tyvek®, 107
    UEL. See upper explosive limit
    UFC. See Uniform Fire Code
    UFL. See Upper Flammable Limit
    ullage, 361
    ultraviolet radiation, 390–91
    Uniform Fire Code (UFC), 159
    United Nations Hazard Class Number
    System, 232–33
    United Steelworkers of America (USWA),
    194–95
    unrestricted area, 391
    unsafe condition, 37–38
    unstable reactive chemical, 127
    upper explosive limit (UEL), 38
    Upper Flammable Limit (UFL), 259
    USWA. See United Steelworkers of America
    vacuum, 360
    vapor, 93, 220, 226, 287. See also fumes;
    mists
    velocity pressure (VP), 96–98
    ventilation: components, 96; concepts,
    95–98; as control method, 94–100;
    exhaust and supply, 96; functions, 95;
    general and dilution, 99–100; industrial,
    94; local exhaust, 98–99, 99; SP, 96–98;
    spray paint operations checklist, 180–81;
    supply, 96; total pressure, 96–98; VP,
    96–98; welding, 268–69
    vents, 265
    verbal abuse, 425
    vertical hitch, 370
    VHFs. See viral hemorrhagic fevers
    vibration control, 104–5
    Victorian seamstress case study, 10–12
    vinyl chloride, 224–25
    violence. See workplace violence
    viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs), 225Index 469
    voltage to ground, 343–44
    VP. See velocity pressure
    vulnerability assessment, 38
    Walkley, Christina, 11
    Wal-Mart, 12
    warnings: hazard, 126; machine hazard,
    407–8, 408; signal words, 21–22; of
    workplace violence, 429–30
    waste: defined, 80; nonspecific source, 235;
    specific source, 235. See also hazardous
    waste
    wastewater, 214
    water draws, 364
    water pressure, 360
    Weeks, W., 271
    welding: arc welding, 269–70; authorization,
    264; combustible cover, 265; combustible
    material, 263; combustible walls, 265;
    confined spaces, 265–66; cutting used
    containers, 265; defined, 262; ducts, 265;
    fire extinguishers, 263; fire hazards, 263;
    fire precautions, 265; fire prevention and
    protection, 263–66; fire watch, 263–64;
    floors, 264; gas welding, 270–71; guards,
    263; managers and supervisors, 266;
    OSHA Subpart Q, 262–63; overview, 257;
    pipes, 265; PPE, 266–68; prohibited areas,
    264–65; relocation of combustibles, 265;
    restrictions, 263; safety program, 263–69,
    264; ventilation and health protection,
    268–69; venting and purging, 265
    windchill factor, 298
    wire rope, 384
    work center, 127–28, 315, 416
    work center supervisors, 13, 21, 73, 127,
    288–89, 291
    worker right-to-know: better communication
    with GHS, 115–17; Bhopal gas tragedy
    and, 111–13; changes to HazCom and,
    117–20; employee training, 123; hazard
    communication program, 123, 124–25;
    Hazard Communication Right to Know
    Stations, 14; HazCom and occupational
    safety and health professionals, 120–25;
    HazCom audit items, 127–28; HazCom
    terms, 125–27; overview, 112–14
    workers: OSH Act rights, 6, 8; OSHA
    regulating health and safety, 158; training
    and awareness, 108; USWA, 194–95; in
    worksite security, 414–15
    workers’ compensation: defined, 38;
    exclusive remedy, 56; financing, 55;
    fraud, 56–57; insurance companies and,
    55; objectives of laws, 54–55; regulatory
    requirements, 54–57
    working load limit, 370
    workplace: confined space entry evaluation,
    307–8; environment checklist, 170–71;
    facility design, 157–59; industrial hygiene
    and, 88–89; OSHA Workplace Poster, 39;
    radiation safety, 390–91; safety policy,
    9–10; toxicology for, 209–10; walkways
    and exits checklist, 171–72
    workplace violence: case study, 421–25;
    CDC on, 421; conflict resolution, 429;
    controls for, 430–32; defined, 425;
    early warning signals, 429–30;
    examples, 425, 426; hazards checklist,
    432–33; media-intensive events, 421;
    preventing, 419–30; reasons for, 425–27;
    reporting, 427–28; safe work practices
    for external violence, 433–34; what to do,
    427–28
    Work Practices Guide for Manual Lifting,
    201, 204–5
    worksite security: background checks
    and, 412; for buildings, workstations,
    areas, 413–14; checklist questions, 415;
    equipment, 414; equipment and data
    protection, 417–18; facility visibility and,
    416; fencing and, 416; hazard control
    and prevention, 413–14; in industrial
    setting, 415–18; knowing fellow
    workers, 414–15; meeting security needs,
    415–16; protection from harm, 418; theft
    protection, 416–17; threat assessment
    team, 412–13; upgrading security,
    411–13; work practice controls and
    procedures, 414
    xenobiotic, 220
    zero energy state, 38, 333

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