Open-loop Roll, Pitch and Yaw Torques for a Robotic Bee
Benjamin M. Finio, and Robert J. Wood
This Paper Presents Measurements of Open-loop Roll, Pitch and Yaw Torques, and Open-loop Flight Experiments for an Insect-sized Robotic Bee. Torques Are Generated Entirely With Flapping Wings via an Actuation Scheme That Uses a Single, Central Power Actuator and Two Smaller Control Actuators That Fine-tune Wing Motion. We Present an Initial 110mg Design Used for Torque Measurements and a Lighter 83mg Prototype That is Capable of Liftoff With External Power and Can Execute Open Loop Pitching and Rolling Maneuvers.
Iii. Torque Generation
A. Wing Kinematics
B. Actuator Signals
Iv. Torque Measurements
V. Open-loop Flight Maneuvers
This Paper Has Presented the First Roll and Yaw Torque Measurements for a Robobee Prototype, as Well as the First Flight Experiments That Were Not Mechanically Tethered for Stability. This is Just One Step on the Path to a Vehicle Capable of Untethered, Controlled Hover. All of the Experiments Presented in This Paper Were Open-loop and Did Not Make Use of System Identification or Feedback Control.
Due to the Lack of a Six-axis Force/torque Sensor With Appropriate Range and Resolution, We Also Cannot Claim That the Torques Measured Were Entirely Decoupled. However, the Preliminary Flight Experiments Give a Qualitative Sense That the Vehicle Has a Reasonable Ability to Independently Control Body Torques, and Thus Should Be Capable of Free Flight With a Sufficient Controller. System Identification of Both Torque Data and Free Flight Data, as Well as Controlled Flight Experiments, Are Currently in Progress and Will Be the Subject of Future Publications.
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