Nondestructive Testing Methods Training Workbook
The Staff of Hobart Institute of Welding Technology
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Glossary of Welding Terms v
Introduction to Nondestructive Testing Methods 1
Principles of Visual Testing 7
Principles of Penetrant Testing 13
Principles of Magnetic Particle Testing 19
Principles of Ultrasonic Testing 25
Principles of Radiographic Testing 3
GLOSSARY OF WELDING TERMS
Acceptable weld – A weld that meets the
Arc strike – A discontinuity resulting from
an arc, consisting of any localized remelted
metal, heat affected metal, or change in the
surface profile of any metal object.
Backing – A material or device placed
against the back side of the joint adjacent
to the joint root, or at both sides of a joint
in electroslag and electrogas welding, to
support and shield molten weld metal. The
material may be partially fused or remain
unfused during welding and may be either
metal or nonmetal.
Backing strip – Backing in the form of a
Codes – A system of principles or rules.
Complete fusion – Fusion over the entire
fusion faces and between all adjoining weld
Contaminants – Implies intrusion of or contact with dirt or foulness from an outside
source, making the piece unfit or unclean.
Crack – A fracture type discontinuity characterized by a sharp tip and high ratio of
length and width to opening displacement.
Crater – A depression in the weld face at
the termination of a weld bead.
Defect – A discontinuity or discontinuities
that, by nature or accumulated effect, render a part or product unable to meet minimum applicable acceptance standards or
specifications. The term designates rejectability.
Discontinuity – An interruption of the typical
structure of a material, such as a lack of homogeneity in its mechanical, metallurgical,
or physical characteristics. A discontinuity is
not necessarily a defect.
Fillet weld – A weld of approximately triangular cross section joining two surfaces approximately at right angles to each other in a
lap joint, T-joint, or corner joint.
Interpass temperature – In a multipass
weld, the temperature of the weld area between weld passes.
Joint design – The shape, dimensions, and
configuration of the joint.
Overlap – The protrusion of weld metal beyond the weld toe or weld root.
Porosity – Cavity-type discontinuities formed
by gas entrapment during solidification.
Procedure – The detailed elements of a process or method used to produce a specific
Slag inclusion – A discontinuity consisting
of slag entrapped in weld metal or at the
Welding procedure qualification record
- A record of welding variables used to produce an acceptable test weldment and the
results of tests conducted on the weldment
to qualify a welding procedure specification.
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