Ionizing Radiation and Polymers – Principles, Technology and Applications

Ionizing Radiation and Polymers – Principles, Technology and Applications
اسم المؤلف
Jiri George Drobny
التاريخ
28 أغسطس 2023
المشاهدات
199
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Ionizing Radiation and Polymers – Principles, Technology and Applications (2012)
Jiri George Drobny
Table of contents
Dedication
Preface
Abbreviations

  1. Introduction
    1.1 Radiation Types and Sources
    1.2 Ionizing Radiations
    1.3 Ion Beam Radiation
    1.4 Laser Beam Radiation
    References
    Recommended Further Reading
  2. Fundamentals of Radiation Chemistry and Physics
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Interaction of High-Energy Electrons with Organic Matter
    References
    Recommended Further Reading
  3. Equipment Used for Radiation Processing of Polymers
    3.1 γ-Ray Irradiation Equipment
    3.2 EB Irradiation Equipment
    3.3 X-Ray Processing Equipment
    3.4 Current Developments in EB Processing Equipment and Technology
    References
    Recommended Further Reading
  4. Electron Beam Processes
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Methods to Enhance EB Radiation Cross-linking by Prorads
    4.3 Retarders of Radiation Cross-linking
    References
    Recommended Further Reading
  5. Electron Beam Processing of Commercial Polymers, Monomers, and Oligomers
    5.1 Processing of Thermoplastics
    5.2 EB Processing of Elastomers
    5.3 EB Processing of Liquid Systems
    5.4 Grafting and Other Polymer Modifications
    References
    Recommended Further Reading
  6. Industrial Applications of Ionizing Radiation
    6.1 EB Process in Wire and Cable Technology
    6.2 EB Process in Tire Technology
    6.3 EB Process in the Manufacture of Polyolefin Foams
    6.4 EB Process in the Production of Heat-Shrinkable Materials
    6.5 Cross-linked PE Pipes
    6.6 EB Process in Coatings, Adhesives, Paints, and Printing Inks
    6.7 Production of Fluoroadditives
    6.8 Radiation Curing of Polymeric Composites
    6.9 Hydrogels
    6.10 Sterilization of Medical Devices
    6.11 Other Applications for Ionizing Radiation
    References
    Recommended Further Reading
  7. Radiation-Resistant Polymers and Their Applications
    7.1 Degradation and Stability
    7.2 Applications of Radiation-Resistant Polymers
    References
    Recommended Further Reading
  8. Dosimetry and Real-Time Process Monitoring
    8.1 Dosimetry
    8.2 Real-Time Monitors
    References
    Recommended Further Reading
  9. Safety and Hygiene
    9.1 EB Equipment Health and Safety
    9.2 γ-Ray Health and Safety
    9.3 Chemical Hazards
    References
    Recommended Further Reading
  10. Current State of Technology and Trends
    10.1 Current New Developments and Trends in Equipment and Chemistry
    10.2 New Developments and Trends in Process Technology
    10.3 Other New Development and Trends
    References
    Appendix I. Major EB Equipment Manufacturers
    Appendix II. Standards and Specifications Applicable to Ionizing Radiation
    AII.1 ASTM Standards
    AII.2 ISO/ASTM Standards
    AII.3 Other Resources for Dosimetry
    Appendix III. Units of Exposure, Absorbed Dose, and Conversions
    AIII.1 Exposure
    AIII.2 Absorbed Dose
    AIII.3 Equivalent Dose
    Appendix IV. Equation Used
    Appendix V. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry
    Bibliography
    Glossary
    Index
    Note: Page numbers followed by “f ” and “t” refer to figures and tables, respectively.
    A
    Absorbed dose, 1112, 261
    Absorbed energy, 11
    Accelerating voltage, 7
    Acrylic compounds, 9195
    Adhesives, 191195
    laminating, 194195
    pressure-sensitive, 192194
    Advanced composites, 196
    Advanced fiber-reinforced composites,
    196200
    AEB emitter, 75f
    Aerospace applications, of radiation-resistant
    polymers, 218220
    Alanine dosimeters, 232
    ALARA (as low as reasonably
    achievable), 239
    Aliphatic polyesters, 111
    Allylic compounds, 9195
    Antirads, 95
    Applications of ionizing radiation
    artificial joints, 204205
    battery separators, 204
    filter membranes, 204
    Artificial joints, ionizing radiation
    application as, 204205
    ASTM Standards, for ionizing
    radiation, 259
    Atmospheric plasma processing (APP), 252
    B
    Battery separators, ionizing radiation
    application as, 204
    Bequerel (Bq), 4
    Bias-oriented PP (BOPP), 252
    Bremsstrahlung, 6
    BROADBEAMt, 4851
    EP series, 66, 68f
    LE series, 6466, 68f
    OSD series, 6668, 69f
    Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP),
    43, 257258
    C
    Cable, 150
    qualification tests of, 222
    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), 203
    Cast and Curet system, 251
    Cathode ray, 1
    Cellophane films, 228
    Cellulose degradation for paper and viscose
    production, 254
    Cericcerous dosimetry, 232
    Chain scission, 16, 18t
    CharlesbyPinner equation, 17, 19f, 20, 263
    Chemical hazards, of EB equipments,
    240242
    Chemistry, new developments and trends in,
    251252
    CHV (compact high-voltage systems), 59, 59f
    Coatings, EB process in, 186187
    applications of, 186187
    on flexible substrates, 187
    on rigid substrates, 187
    Coaxial cable, 150152
    Cobalt-60, 28, 28f
    CockcroftWalton generators, 37, 52f
    Comet AG, 69, 70f, 257258
    Comet e-beam Emitter
    modular design of, 77f
    schematic of, 77f
    Commercial EB reactors, performance
    and use, 5168
    Composite materials, 200202
    Copolymer of ethylene and
    tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), 109
    291Copolymer of ethylene and
    trichlorofluoroethylene (ECTFE),
    109
    Corex, 257258
    Coulomb per kilogram (C/kg), 261
    Cross-head die, 153f
    Crosshead extrusion process, 153
    Cross-link density, 264
    Cross-link promoters, 8889
    Cross-linked PE (PEX) pipes, 181184
    irradiation of PE pipes, 183184
    production of, 182183
    Cross-linking, defining, 16
    Cure yield, measuring, 229
    Curie (Ci), 4
    Custom systems, 5859, 58f
    Cyclotron, 8f
    D
    Degradation by ionizing radiation,
    216218
    Delivered dose, 264265
    Depth-dose distribution, 32, 229
    Dimaleimides, 90
    Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), 136
    Direct accelerators, 3334
    Discoloration, 214215
    Dose limit ratio, 32
    Dose reader, 229230, 230f
    Dose uniformity, measuring, 229
    Dose uniformity ratio (DUR), 32
    Dose-rate effects, 216
    Dosimetry, 225233
    criteria for selecting, 226227
    examples of, 226t
    functions of, 225226
    Dynamitron, 3739, 59, 60f
    E
    Easy-e-Beam, 4951, 50f, 6364, 64f, 158f
    E-beam Test Lab, 69
    EBOCAMs, 47
    EBOGEN processing unit, 47, 48f
    EC-Beam, 51, 53f
    EC-LAB 400, 6971, 70f
    EC-Print, 5153, 54f
    EC-Scanner, 51, 53f
    EC-Tube, 5354, 54f
    Effective polyfunctional prorads, 94t
    Elastomers
    electron beam processing of, 112132
    vulcanization of, 114
    Electrical conductivity, radiation-induced, 215
    Electrocure Casette, 5657, 57f
    Electrocurtains, 4547
    Electromagnetic radiation, 2, 2t
    Electron beam processes, 8389, 149
    in adhesives, 191195
    laminating adhesives, 194195
    pressure-sensitive adhesives, 192194
    in coatings, 186187
    cross-linked PE (PEX) pipes, 181184
    irradiation of PE pipes, 183184
    cross-linking, 182
    by polythiols, 92t
    by prorads, 8995
    curable systems with common solvents
    toxicity and properties, comparison
    of, 241t
    direct cross-link promoters, 9095
    acrylic and allylic compounds, 9195
    maleimides, 9091
    thiols (polymercaptans), 91
    of elastomers, 112132
    individual elastomers, effects of
    radiation on, 118132
    radiation cross-linked elastomers,
    physical properties of, 116117
    equipments
    for health and safety, 237239
    manufacturers, 257258
    personal radiation monitoring, 238239
    radiation monitoring systems, 239
    grafting, 134138
    indirect cross-link promoters, 8990
    bases, 90
    halogenated compounds, 89
    nitrous oxide, 8990
    sulfur monochloride, 90
    irradiation equipment, 3272
    design and operation of industrial EB
    reactors, 3251
    direct accelerators, 3439
    indirect accelerators, 3943
    particle accelerators, 3351
    irradiators, 13
    liquid systems, 132134
    market, by continent, 152f
    292 INDEXin magnetic media, 186
    in manufacture of polyolefin foams,
    170174
    applications, 173174
    chemical and radiation processes,
    comparison of, 173
    foam expansion and its control, 171172
    manufacturing processes, 172
    polymer modifications, 139
    in printing and graphic arts, 187191
    flexography, 188189
    rotogravure printing, 189191
    in production of heat-shrinkable materials,
    174181
    heat-shrinkable sheets and films,
    178181
    heat-shrinkable tubing, 176177
    radiation cross-linking, retarders of, 95
    thermoplastics, 101112
    engineering plastics, 111112
    fluoroplastics, 107111
    poly(methyl methacrylate), 107
    polyolefins, 101105
    polystyrene, 105106
    polyvinyl chloride and polyvinylidene
    chloride, 106107
    in tire technology, 165170
    in wire and cable technology, 150165
    equipment and processes, 153161
    materials, 163165
    radiation equipment and process,
    161163
    recent developments and trends, 165
    Electron penetration range, 8586
    Electron processors, 4344
    Electron volts (eV), 7
    Electrostatic generators, 3536
    Elektron Crosslinking AB (Sweden), 5154,
    6971, 257258
    ELV accelerators, 51
    Energy deposited equation, 264
    Energy Sciences Inc. (Massachusetts), 5459,
    71, 257258
    Engel/peroxide method, in PEX
    production, 182
    Engineering plastics, processing of, 111112
    high-performance engineering plastics, 112
    regular service engineering plastics, 111
    Equal-entrance exposure, 8687
    Equal-exit exposure, 8687
    Equipments
    new developments and trends in, 246247
    4 in 1 flexible packaging line, 251
    cellulose degradation for paper and
    viscose production, 254
    ethanol/biofuel production, cellulose
    degradation for, 254
    integrated shield roll, 247248
    low-profile systems, 247
    municipal waste recycling by
    irradiation, 254
    sealed tube emitters based EB systems,
    249251
    ultralow-energy EB systems, 247
    for polymers radiation processing, 27
    commercial EB reactors, performance
    and use, 5168
    current developments, in EB
    processing equipment and
    technology, 7478
    design and operation of industrial EB
    reactors, 3251
    EB irradiation equipment, 3272
    γ-ray irradiation equipment, 2732
    laboratory EB units, 6972
    X-ray processing equipment, 7273
    Equivalent dose, 261
    Ethanol/biofuel production, cellulose
    degradation for, 254
    Ethylenepropylenediene rubber (EPDM)
    terpolymers, 125126
    Ethylene propylene rubber (EPR), 160161
    Ethylenepropylene copolymers, 125126
    Exposure, 261
    Extrusion, 153154
    EZCure DF, 54, 55f
    EZCure F-1, 5456, 55f
    EZCure-CR, 56, 56f
    EZCure-LS, 56, 57f
    EZLab, 71, 71f
    F
    Fast check strips dosimeters, 253
    FEP, electron beam processing of, 109
    Fiber optic cables, 150152
    Fiber-reinforced composites, 196
    Film badge dosimeters, 238239
    Film dosimetry, 227, 229
    INDEX 293Filter membranes, ionizing radiation
    application as, 204
    Flexography, 188189
    FloryRehner equation, 115116, 263
    Fluoroadditives, production of, 195196
    Fluorocarbon elastomers, 128129
    Fluoroplastics, processing of, 107111
    copolymer of ethylene and
    tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), 109
    copolymer of ethylene
    and trichlorofluoroethylene
    (ECTFE), 109
    FEP and PFA, 109
    polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE), 109
    polytetrafluoroethylene, 108
    polytrifluoroethylene (PF3E), 111
    polyvinylfluoride (PVF), 110111
    polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 110
    Fluorosilicone elastomers, electron beam
    processing of, 129
    4 in 1 flexible packaging line, 251
    Four-side irradiation, of W&C, 164f
    Free-radical polymerization, 18t
    Fundamentals of radiation chemistry
    and physics, 11
    high-energy electrons with organic matter,
    interaction of, 1324
    G
    Gamma rays (γ-ray), 34, 1213
    health and safety, 239240
    Gaseous products, formation of, 215
    Gel fraction, 171
    Gel level, 171
    Gel point, 1819
    Graft copolymer, 135
    Grafting, 17, 18t, 134138
    Graphite calorimeter, 231f
    Graphite-fiber-reinforced composites, 198
    Gray (Gy), 261
    Green chemistry, principles of, 267268
    Grun range, 263
    H
    Half-life, 4
    Halogenated compounds, 89
    Heat-shrinkable materials production,
    EB process in, 174181
    alternative patented method of, 178f
    heat-shrinkable sheets and films,
    178181
    heat-shrinkable tubing, 176177
    plastic memory effect of, 179f
    Raychem patent for, 177f
    High-density polyethylene (HDPE), 102,
    181182
    pipes, cross-linking of, 183
    High-energy EPS processor with scanner,
    65f, 66t
    Hydrogels, 202203
    Hypalons, 165
    I
    IBA Industrial (Belgium), 5961,
    257258
    ILU accelerators, 43
    Indirect accelerators, 3334
    Industrial applications, of ionizing
    radiation, 149
    applications for
    artificial joints, 204205
    battery separators, 204
    filter membranes, 204
    cross-linked PE pipes (PEX), 181184
    irradiation of PE pipes, 183184
    EB (electron beam) process
    adhesives, 184195
    laminatingadhesives, 194195
    pressuresensitiveadhesives, 192194
    cable manufacture, equipment and
    processes in, 153161
    extrusion, 153154
    radiationversuschemicalcrosslinking,
    155161
    vulcanization(crosslinking), 154155
    chemical and radiation processes,
    comparison of, 173
    coatings, 184195
    foam expansion and its control, 171172
    heat-shrinkable sheets and films,
    178181
    heat-shrinkable tubing, 176177
    magnetic media, 186
    manufacturing processes, 172
    materials, 163165
    in manufacture of polyolefin foams,
    170174
    in paints, 184195
    294 INDEXpolyolefin foams, applications of,
    173174
    printing and graphic arts, 187191
    in printing inks, 184195
    in production of heat-shrinkable
    materials, 174181
    recent developments and trends, 165
    in tire technology, 165170
    in wire and cable technology, 150165
    W&C manufacture, radiation equipment
    and process in, 161163
    fluoroadditives, production of, 195196
    hydrogels, 202203
    polymeric composites, radiation curing of,
    196202
    advanced fiber-reinforced composites,
    196200
    composite materials, 200202
    sterilization of medical devices, 203204
    Infrared (IR) radiation, 1
    Insulating core transformers (ICTs), 37
    Integrated shield roll, 247248
    International Commission on Radiological
    Protection (ICRP), 240
    Ion beam radiation, 1, 78
    Ionizing radiations, 27
    EB radiation, 7
    gamma rays, 34
    sources comparison, 5t
    X-rays, 46
    Iron core transformers, 37
    ISO/ASTM Standards, for ionizing radiation,
    259260
    J
    Jacketing, 153
    K
    K-shell, 6
    L
    LambertBeer law, 4, 263
    Laminar wood-plastic composites (WPCs),
    201202
    Laminating adhesives, 194195
    Laser beam radiation, 1, 8
    Linacs, 39
    standing wave (SW), 40
    traveling wave (TW), 3940
    Linear cathode electron accelerators,
    4547, 46f
    Linear energy transfer (LET), 78
    Linear induction accelerator (LIA), 4041
    Linear low-density polyethylene
    (LLDPE), 102
    Liquid systems, electron beam processing
    of, 132134
    Long-chain branching, 16
    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE), 102
    Low-energy EB equipment, 253
    Low-energy electron accelerators, 4351
    Low-profile systems, 247
    M
    Magnetic media, 186
    Maleimides, 9091
    Manmachine interfaces (MMI), 4547
    Medical devices, sterilization of, 203204
    Medium-Energy EPS series, 67t
    Mevex, 257258
    Microwave linear accelerator, 39
    Microwaves, 1
    MooneyRivlin equation, 116, 264
    Multiconductor cable, 150152, 152f
    Multifilament linear cathode electron
    accelerators, 4851
    Multifunctional monomers, 91
    Multimode fiber, 150152
    Multipass wire irradiation, 164f
    Municipal waste recycling by
    irradiation, 254
    N
    Natural rubber
    cross-links and scissions in, 96t
    and synthetic polyisoprene, 118120
    NHV Corporation (Japan), 64, 257258
    Nitrile rubber (NBR), 127
    Nitrous oxide, 8990
    Nuclear industry applications, 221222
    N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), 139
    P
    Paints, EB process in, 184195
    Panoramic irradiators, 31
    Particle accelerators, 3351
    direct accelerators, 3439
    indirect accelerators, 3943
    INDEX 295PCT Engineered Systems, LLC, Davenport,
    Iowa, 6469, 257258
    PE dosimetry, 232233
    Perfluoroelastomers, 129
    Peroxidation radiation procedure, 135
    Personal radiation monitoring, 238239
    PFA, electron beam processing of, 109
    Plastic fiber, 150152
    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA),
    processing of, 107
    Polyamides, 111
    Polybutadiene, electron beam processing
    of, 120124
    Polycarbonates, 111
    Polychloroprene, 126127
    Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE), 109
    Polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS), 128
    Polyethylene (PE), 9091, 102104
    Polyfunctional monomers, 9193
    Polyfunctional prorads, in various
    polymers, 94t
    Polyisobutylene, electron beam processing
    of, 124125
    Polymeric composites, radiation curing of,
    196202
    advanced fiber-reinforced composites,
    196200
    composite materials, 200202
    Polymerization, 16, 2022
    anionic, 252
    cationic, 132133
    emulsion, 126
    free-radical, 18t
    grafting, 134135
    Polymer modifications, 139
    Polyolefins, 174
    foams manufacturing, EB process in,
    170174
    applications of, 173174
    comparison of chemical and radiation
    processes, 173
    foam expansion and its control,
    171172
    processes, 172
    pipes, irradiation of, 183184
    processing of, 101105
    polyethylene, 102104
    polypropylene, 104105
    Polypropylene (PP), 104105
    Polystyrene
    processing of, 105106
    radiation resistance of, 215
    Polytetrafluoethylene resins, properties of, 195t
    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), electron
    beam processing of, 108
    Polytrifluoroethylene (PF3E), 111
    Polyvinylacetate, 9091
    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), 203
    Polyvinyl chloride, processing of, 106107
    Polyvinylfluoride (PVF), 110111, 160
    Polyvinylidene chloride, 107
    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 110
    Postirradiation oxidation effects, 216217
    Potential drop accelerators, 3334
    Pre-radiation procedure, of radiation
    grafting, 135
    Pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs),
    192194, 252
    Primary insulation, 153
    Printing and graphic arts, EB process in,
    187191
    flexography, 188189
    printing inks, 184195
    rotogravure printing, 189191
    Process dose, 3132
    Process technology, new developments and
    trends in, 252254
    Programmable process controllers (PLC),
    4547
    Prorads, 8889
    R
    Rad, 261
    Radiation cross-linked elastomers, physical
    properties of, 116117
    Radiation curing, 16
    Radiation grafting, see Grafting
    Radiation monitoring systems, 239
    Radiation rapid curing (RRC), 138
    Radiation sterilization, 220221
    Radiation types and sources, 12
    Radiation versus chemical cross-linking,
    155161
    Radiation-induced electrical conductivity,
    215
    Radiation-resistant polymers, 213
    applications of, 218222
    aerospace applications, 218220
    296 INDEXnuclear industry applications, 221222
    radiation sterilization, 220221
    degradation and stability, 213218
    in absence of oxygen, 213216
    in air, 216218
    specific polymers, 218
    Radical scavengers, 217
    Radioactive decay, 34
    Radioactive isotope, 34
    Radioactivity, 4
    Radiochromic films, 227
    Radionuclide, 28
    Radionuclide Cobalt-60, 29f
    REACH (Registration, Evaluation,
    Authorisation and Restriction of
    Chemicals), 242
    Reactive thinners, 133134
    Real-time monitors, 233
    Rem, 261
    Resin-transfer molding (RTM), 198
    Resonant cavity accelerators, 40
    Resonant transformers, 3637
    Rhodotron, 6162, 61f
    Rhodotron accelerators, 4142
    Rhodotron TT 200, 62, 62f
    Rhodotron TT 300, 62, 62f
    Rhodotron TT 1000, 63, 63f
    RisøScan, 229230
    Ro¨ntgen (R), 261
    Ro¨ntgen radiation, see X-radiation
    Rotogravure printing, 189191
    ROTO-JET system, for grinding irradiated
    fluoropolymers, 197f
    S
    Safety and hygiene, of EB equipments, 237
    Scanning-type electron accelerators, 44
    Sealed tube emitters based EB systems,
    249251
    Sekisui process, 172
    for polyolefin foams, 173f
    Self-contained irradiators, 3031
    Self-shielding processor, 47f, 50f, 52f, 65f
    Semicrystalline polymers, 24
    Sheathing, see Jacketing
    Short fibers, 196
    Sievert (Sv), 261
    Silane method, of PEX production, 182
    Silicone elastomers, 127128
    Simultaneous radiation grafting method,
    135136
    Single-mode fiber, 150152
    Single-stage scanned beam accelerator, 45, 46f
    Source Rack Module, 29f
    Stabilizers for radiation degradation in air,
    217218
    Standards and Specifications, for ionizing
    radiation, 259260
    Standing wave linacs, 40
    Steigerwald Strahltechnik GmbH, 257258
    Sterilization of medical devices, 203204
    Sulfur monochloride, 90
    Sunna dosimeter, 232
    Surface area rate, measuring, 229
    Sustainability features, 246
    T
    Terpolymers, 125126
    Tetrafluoroethylene-propylene
    (TFE-P), 129
    Thermoluminiscent dosimeters (TLDs), 239
    Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), 129132
    polyolefins-based, 132
    Thermoplastics, processing of, 101112
    engineering plastics, 111112
    fluoroplastics, 107111
    poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), 107
    polyolefins, 101105
    polystyrene, 105106
    polyvinyl chloride and polyvinylidene
    chloride, 106107
    Thin film dosimeters, 227, 253254
    Thiols (polymercaptans), 91
    Throughput, 264
    Tire technology, EB process in, 165170
    Toray process, 172
    for polyolefin foams, 174f
    Traveling wave linacs, 3940
    Triallyl cyanurate (TAC), 93
    Triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC), 93
    Trimethylolpropane triacrylate
    (TMPTA), 106
    Trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate
    (TMPTMA), 106
    Trommsdorff peak, 136
    Trunk polymer, 134135
    Twisted pairs cable, 150152
    Two-sided irradiation, of wire/cable, 163f
    INDEX 297U
    U-electront, 7172, 72f
    Ultralow-energy EB systems, 247
    Unsaturation, 214215
    Ushio America, 7172, 257258
    UV and EB radiations, 2
    comparison of, 3f
    UV-curable laminating adhesives, 195
    V
    Van de Graaff generator, 3536, 36f
    Vinylidene fluoride (VDF), 128129
    Vitons A, 128129
    Volatile organic compounds (VOC), 237
    Vulcanization, 113114, 154155
    W
    Wasik Associates, Inc, 257258
    Wire and cable technology, EB process in,
    150165
    equipment and processes, 153161
    extrusion, 153154
    radiation versus chemical cross-linking,
    155161
    vulcanization (cross-linking), 154155
    materials, 163165
    radiation equipment and process in,
    161163
    recent developments and trends, 165
    Wood-fiber-reinforced plastics
    (WFRPs), 201
    Wood-plastic composites (WPCs), 201
    World electron beam market, 152f
    X
    X-radiation, 46, 7273
    X-rays, 1, 46, 13, 7273
    298 INDEX

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