Multilayer Flexible Packaging

Multilayer Flexible Packaging
اسم المؤلف
John R. Wagner, Jr.
التاريخ
10 أغسطس 2023
المشاهدات
335
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Multilayer Flexible Packaging
Edited by
John R. Wagner, Jr.
Table of contents
Part I: Introduction

  1. Introduction
    Abstract
    1.1 Materials: A Historical Perspective
    1.2 Markets: A Global Economy
    1.3 Processes, Materials, Needs
    1.4 Materials and Barrier
    1.5 Materials and Sealing
    1.6 Bringing Things Together
    References
    Part II: Resins
  2. Polyethylene
    Abstract
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Polyethylene History and Basic Characterization
    2.3 Melt Index
    2.4 Density
    2.5 Gel Permeation Chromatography
    2.6 Low-Density Polyethylene
    2.7 Free Radical Polymerization Processes
    2.8 Autoclave Reactor
    2.9 Tubular Reactor
    2.10 Polar Ethylene Copolymers
    2.11 Low-Pressure Polymerization Processes
    2.12 Gas-Phase Process
    2.13 Solution Process
    2.14 Slurry Processes
    2.15 Catalyst Chemistry
    2.16 Chrome Oxide–Based Catalyst
    2.17 Single-Site (Metallocene) catalyzed Polyethylene
    2.18 Tie Chain Molecules
    2.19 Summary
    Acknowledgment
    References
  3. Polypropylene
    Abstract
    3.1 Managerial Overview
    3.2 Summary
    References
  4. Introduction to Bio-Based Polymers
    Abstract
    4.1 Commercially Important Novel Biopolymer
    References
  5. Additives to Design and Improve the Performance of Multilayer Flexible Packaging
    Abstract
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Overview
    5.3 Additive Handling, Addition, and Dosing
    5.4 Additive Types and Principal Mode of Action
    5.5 Suppliers and Contacts
    Appendix 5.1
    Appendix 5.2
    References
  6. Rheology of Molten Polymers
    Abstract
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Viscosity and Melt Flow Index
    6.3 Mathematical Relations
    6.4 Extensional Viscosity and Melt Strength
    6.5 Normal Stress Differences and Extrudate Swell
    6.6 Stress Relaxation and Dynamic Measurements
    6.7 Constitutive Equations
    6.8 Sharkskin, Melt Fracture, and Die Lip Buildup
    6.9 Rheological Problems in Coextrusion
    6.10 Rheology of Filled Polymers
    6.11 Rheology of Nanocomposites
    6.12 Rheometers
    6.13 Concluding Remarks
    References
    Part III: Technologies
  7. Coextrusion Equipment for Multilayer Flat Films and Sheets
    Abstract
    7.1 Designing and Manufacturing Multilayer Flexible Plastic Films with Multilayer Coextrusion Die Technology
    7.2 Summary
    References
  8. Multilayer Blown (Tubular) Film Dies
    Abstract
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Conventional Coextrusion Dies
    8.3 Stacked Dies
    8.4 Interfacial Instability
    References
  9. Process Engineering
    Abstract
    9.1 Managerial Summary
    9.2 Process Engineering: What Is It and Why Is It Essential?
    9.3 Some Process Engineer Tools
    9.4 Examples of How Process Engineers Can Save Time and Money
    9.5 Conclusion
  10. Blown Film, Cast Film, and Lamination Processes
    Abstract
    10.1 Blown Film
    10.2 Cast Film
    10.3 Extrusion Coating and Lamination
    References
  11. Machine Direction–Oriented Film Technology
    Abstract
    11.1 Managerial Summary
    11.2 Description of MDO Hardware and Technology
    11.3 How a Machine Direction Orientor Works
    11.4 The Process and Its Effect on the Film
    11.5 Properties of MD-Oriented Films
    11.6 Summary
    References
  12. Oriented Film Technology
    Abstract
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Orienting Technologies
    12.3 Oriented Film Types—Applications
    12.4 Trends for Oriented Films
    References
  13. Polymer Blending for Packaging Applications
    Abstract
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Why Blend?
    13.3 Blending Processes
    13.4 Physics of Blending
    13.5 Morphology Development in Blown Film
    13.6 Dispersion of Rigid Particles and Nanocomposites
    13.7 Rheology of Polymer Blends
    13.8 Conclusion
    References
  14. Water- and Solvent-Based Coating Technology
    Abstract
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 Coating Structures
    14.3 Web-Coating Machine Hardware and Functions
    14.4 Coating Applicators
    14.5 Effect of Solvent
    14.6 Hot Melt Coaters
    14.7 Selecting a Coating Method
    14.8 Drying and Solidification
    References
  15. Vacuum Metallizing for Flexible Packaging
    Abstract
    15.1 Introduction
    15.2 Decorative Coatings
    15.3 Barrier Coatings
    15.4 Functional Coatings
    15.5 Security Applications
    15.6 Metallization Basics
    15.7 Pattern Metallization
    15.8 Trends
    15.9 Summary
    References
  16. Web Handling and Winding
    Abstract
    16.1 Web Handling Essentials
    16.2 Rollers
    16.3 Tension Control
    16.4 Nip Control
    16.5 Temperature Control
    16.6 Guiding and Path Control
    16.7 Wrinkles and Spreading
    16.8 A Word About Slitting and Other Converting Processes
    16.9 Winding Is Essential
    16.10 Winding Tightness and the TNT’s
    16.11 Winding Classes and Arrangements
    16.12 Theory Applied
    16.13 Other Common Wound Roll Defects
    References
    Part IV: Multilayer Films – Descriptions, Performance Characteristics, Uses, Considerations, Properties
  17. PE-Based Multilayer Film Structures
    Abstract
    17.1 Introduction
    17.2 Polymer Selection
    17.3 Mechanical Properties
    17.4 Barrier Properties
    17.5 Polymer Sealability
    17.6 Adhesive Polymers
    17.7 Applications for Flexible Packaging Film Structures
    17.8 Summary
    References
  18. Multilayer-Oriented Films
    Abstract
    18.1 Introduction
    18.2 Technology for Multilayer-Oriented Films
    18.3 Structures
    18.4 Trends for Multilayer-Oriented Films
  19. Regulatory Aspects of Food Packaging—A Global Matter
    Abstract
    19.1 Introduction
    19.2 Determining the Regulatory Status of Components of a Food-Contact Material in the United States
    19.3 Regulatory Report: FDA’s FCS Notification Program
    19.4 Preservation of Foods by Irradiation
    19.5 Regulatory Aspects of Recycled Plastics—US FDA View
    19.6 EU Legislation on Food-Contact Plastics
    19.7 EU Legislation for Recycled Plastics
    Acknowledgment
    References
    x
    Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” refer to figures and tables, respectively.
    A
    Acid copolymer resin, 10
    Acrylates, 9-10
    Active and passive microwave packaging,
    239f
    Adapter, 99, 101-103
    Addition point, 53-54, 54f, 74t, 75t
    Additives
    addition and dosing, 53-55
    for designing and performance
    improvement, 53
    overview, 53
    for polyamide, 75t
    for polyester, 75t
    for polyvinylchloride, 75t
    suppliers and contacts, 71-73
    types and principal mode of action,
    55-71
    antiblock additives, 68-70
    antioxidants, 56-63
    antistats, 70-71
    optical brighteners, 65-66
    polyamide, 62-63
    polyolefins, 58-60
    polyvinylchloride, 61-62
    slip additives, 66-68
    UV stabilizers, 63-65
    Adhesion, 12-13, 174, 211, 245, 292
    Adhesive laminations, 283-284
    Adhesive layer, 9, 314
    Adhesive polymers, 292-294
    Agglomeration, 196
    Air knife coating, 215-216
    advantage, 216
    components of, 215-216
    disadvantages, 216
    operating parameters for, 216
    in squeegee mode, 216
    Alpha crystallinity, 41
    Aluminum vacuum metallizer system,
    243f
    Amorphous nylon, 174
    Amorphous regions, 148-149, 148f
    Antiblock additives, 68-70
    Antioxidants, 56-63
    Antistatic additive, 70-71
    Antistatic coating, 239
    Antistatic/electromagnetic screening
    applications, 240
    Antistats, 70-71
    Apparent shear rate, 81
    Applications
    bakery, 8, 301
    cereal box liners, 300-301
    cheese, 302
    fish, 297-299
    fresh-cut, 284, 304
    frozen food, 302-304, 304t
    grocery, 307
    meat, 296-299
    medical, 295-296
    milk, 302
    retortable pouches, 304
    shrink, 296
    snack, 301
    stretch wrap, 305-306
    trash bags, 306, 307t
    Aqueous coating, 228
    Aroma barrier, 9, 288
    Aromatic amines, 63
    Atactic polypropylene, 40
    Atomic layer deposition (ALD),
    238-239
    Autoclave reactor, 22-23
    Avantium, 52
    B
    Baggy webs, 263, 275f
    Bag-in-box, 305, 305t
    Bagley correction, 82, 94
    Bakery packaging, 301
    Banks, Robert, 3-4
    Barrier, 283
    gas, 100, 237-239
    light, 237
    materials, 10-12
    moisture, 147, 297
    oxygen, 11, 237
    properties, 151, 158-159, 169, 174,
    284, 287-289
    ultra, 247
    water vapor, 237
    Barrier film, 11, 288, 314
    Barrier layer, 9, 252, 283
    Basfia succiniciproducens, 50
    Batch sheet coaters, 208
    Benzophenone, 338
    Berthelot, Marcelin, 4
    Beta crystallinity, 41-42
    Biaxial orientation, 155f
    Biaxially oriented polyamide (BOPA)
    films, 166-169, 167f, 311
    Biaxially oriented polyethylene (BOPE)
    films, 169
    Biaxially oriented polyethylene
    terephthalate (BOPET) films, 154,
    163-166, 311
    applications, 166
    coextrusion trends in, 165f
    Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP)
    films, 4, 154, 160-163, 252, 283,
    311
    Biaxially oriented polystyrene (BOPS)
    films, 168, 169f, 311
    Biaxially stretched PP (BOPP) versus cast
    PP (CPP), 154f
    Binary distribution, 126-127
    BioAmber, 50
    Bio-based polymers, 47
    polybutylene succinate, 49-50
    polyethylene furanoate, 51-52
    polyhydroxyalkanoate, 50-51
    polylactic acid, 47-49
    Birtwhistle, W.K., 4
    Bisphenol A, 320-321
    Blade coaters, 217
    operating parameters for, 218
    Blending processes, 174-179
    melt blending, 176-179
    pellet pre-mixing, 175-176
    physics of, 179-192
    reasons to, 173-174
    375Blocking defect, 273-274
    Blow molding, 8, 363
    Blown film, 137-139, 192-195, 282
    draw ratio, 194-195
    extruder RPM, 194
    extruder temperatures, 194
    frost line height and process time, 195
    interfacial tension, 193
    minor phase concentration, in blend,
    193
    polymer elasticity, 192-195
    screw design, 194
    shear stress in extruder, adaptor and
    die, 194
    viscosity ratio, 193
    Blown process, 155-156
    Blow-up ratio (BUR), 194
    Blyth, John, 4
    Bond strength, 13
    BOPP multilayer film, layer thickness of,
    311-312
    Bowed roller, 263, 264f
    Brampton Engineering, 125
    Branched polymers, 77, 89
    Branching long chain, 18-19, 21f
    Branching short chain, 21f
    Brandenberger, Jacques E., 3
    Buckle defect, 273, 273f
    1,4-Butanediol, 49
    Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT),
    134-135
    C
    Calcium carbonate, 92-93
    Caliper ridge, 275
    Caliper valley, 275
    Camber, 262, 275
    Capillary, 81, 82f, 94
    Capillary number, 184, 212-214
    Capillary rheometer, 106
    Capillary viscometers, 83, 94
    Carothers, Wallace, 4
    Carreau-Yasuda, 82
    Cascade, 212, 214
    Cast films, 139-141
    extrusion, 282
    Cast PP (CPP) versus biaxially stretched
    PP (BOPP), 154f
    Cast sheet, 4, 100, 168
    Catalyst
    chemistry, 27-28
    chrome oxide-based, 28
    metallocene, 4, 17-18, 28-32, 29f, 36,
    39, 83
    Ziegler-Natta, 17-18, 27-28, 36
    CD wrinkles, 263
    Cellophane, 3
    Cellulose, 47
    Center fed die, 110-111
    Center-surface winder, 267-268
    Cereal box liners, 300-301
    Cheese packaging, 302, 303t
    Chemical contaminants, exposure to,
    336-337
    Chloroform, 338
    Choker bar, 114
    Chrome oxide-based catalysts, 28
    Cling, 305
    Cloeren feedblock systems, 110
    Coat hanger die, 112-113
    Coat hanger manifold, 112
    Coatability limits, 212
    Coaters
    air knife, 215-216
    blade, 217
    curtain, 221
    dip, 212-213
    extrusion, 142-144, 219
    forward roll, 213-214
    gravure, 222
    kiss, 213
    knife, 216
    laboratory, 208
    Mayer rod, 215
    meniscus, 213
    microgravure, 223
    pilot, 208
    precision curtain, 221
    reverse roll, 209, 212-214
    sheet, 208
    slide, 220
    slot die, 218, 224-225
    wire-wound rod, 215
    Coating, 209, 216, 220, 262, 264
    barrier, 237-239
    barrier opaque, 238
    barrier transparent, 238
    decorative, 235-237
    functional, 239-242
    Coating applicators
    classification of, 208-210
    coatabilty limits, 212
    coating methods, description of,
    212-224
    substrate, role of, 210-212
    Coating methods, 212-224
    doctored methods
    air knife coaters, 215-216
    blade coaters, 217
    knife coaters, 216
    Mayer rod or wire-wound rod
    coaters, 215
    hybrid methods
    gravure coaters, 222
    Microgravuret coaters, 223
    pre-metered methods
    curtain coaters, 221
    extrusion coaters, 219
    precision curtain coaters, 221
    slide coaters, 220
    slot die coaters, 218
    standard curtain coaters, 221
    selection, 225-227
    self-metered methods
    dip coaters, 212-213
    forward roll coaters, 213-214
    kiss coaters, 213
    meniscus or bead-roll coaters, 213
    reverse roll coaters, 214
    Coating solution ingredients, 206
    Coating structures, 205-206
    Coating uniformity, 205
    Coca-Cola Company, 52
    ‘Coex tie’ resins, 12-13
    Coextruded film, 9, 11
    Coextrusion, 8, 137, 281, 312-313
    Coextrusion adhesive technology, 293f
    Coextrusion equipment, 97, 114-115
    adapter, 101-103
    die, 104
    designs, 110-114
    and feedblock design parameters,
    109-110
    feedblock, 103
    design of, 112
    layer instabilities, causes and
    prevention of, 115-119
    practical examples, 119-121
    Coextrusion issues, 8
    Coextrusion non barrier, 123
    Cohesive energy density, 181, 181f
    Combining Block, 143
    Combining plug, 313, 313f
    Compatibilizers, 189, 199
    Computer numerical controlled (CNC)
    machining capabilities, 104
    Concave spreader, 263, 263f
    Conductive filler, 70
    Cone-and-plate instrument, 82
    Confidence limits, 205
    Consistency, 80
    Constant rate drying, 228-229
    Constant rate period, 228
    Constitutive equation, 88-89
    Consumer requirements, of multilayer
    oriented films, 317
    Continuous coaters, 208
    Continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs),
    27
    Continuum hypothesis, 77
    Control charts, 132
    Conventional coextrusion dies, 123-125
    Corbion Purac, 49
    Core crush, 274-275, 274f
    ‘Cornflakes’, 236
    Corrugation, 263, 275
    Cost efficiency, of multilayer oriented
    films, 317
    Couette viscometer, 104
    Cox-Merz rule, 87
    376 INDEXCross model, 82, 88-89
    Crosshead die, 111
    Crossover point, 87
    Crystalline, 19
    Crystallinity, 24
    alpha, 41
    beta, 41-42
    gamma, 42
    mesomorphic, 42
    smectic, 42
    Crystals, 148-149
    Curl, 263
    Curtain coaters, 221
    Curtain coating, 212
    D
    Dacron, 4
    Dancers, 259
    Danone, 52
    Data interrogation, 134
    Data recommendations for 3° recycling
    processes for PET and PEN, 342
    Deborah numbers, 88
    Decorative coatings, for packaging,
    235-237
    Defect detection capability, 231
    Degradation, 40, 44, 60-61
    Delamination peel-seal mechanism,
    292
    Density, 9, 19
    Design of experiments (DOEs), 131
    Diagonal shear wrinkles, 263
    Dickson, James Tennant, 4
    Die, 104
    designs, 110-114
    cylindrical, 123
    modular, 127
    rotating, 124
    stacked, 125-127
    and feedblock design parameters,
    109-110
    Die drool, 90-91
    Die land, 92
    Die lip build-up, 90-91
    Die swell, 86
    Differential gravure coating, 222
    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),
    28
    Dilatent fluid, 105
    Dip coating, 212-213
    Direct gravure coating, 222
    Dispersion, 65
    Dispersive mixing, 176
    Doctored coating
    air knife coaters, 215-216
    blade coaters, 217
    knife coaters, 216
    Mayer rod/wire-wound rod coaters, 215
    methods, 209
    Double bubble process, 155-156
    Double wave screw, 178
    Dow feedblock, 103, 109
    Draw down ratio (DDR), 194-195
    Draw ratio, 194-195
    Droplet breakup, 184, 189, 191
    Dryers, 207, 225, 227
    Drying, 227
    conduction, 228
    constant rate, 228-229
    falling rate, 228-229
    infrared, 228
    microwave, 228
    online defect characterization, 230-234
    basic principles, 230
    defect detection capability, 231
    online coating weight measurement,
    231-234
    surface inspection system, 230-231
    online quality control systems,
    229-230
    traditional quality control systems,
    229-230
    and solidification, 227-234
    constant rate and falling rate drying,
    228-229
    pollution considerations in, 229-234
    Duplex rewinder, 269-270
    DuPont Company, 11, 174
    Dynamic measurements, 86-87
    ‘Dyneema’ fiber, 4
    E
    Edible oil packaging, 305
    Effective barrier, use of, 341-342
    E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co, 3
    Einstein-Batchelor equation, 93
    Elastomers, 43
    Electromagnetic interference (EMI), 242
    Electron beam evaporation, 243-244
    Elongational viscosity, 84, 193
    Encapsulation, 109, 116
    End-fed dies, 110-111
    Energy transfer screw, 178
    Engineer
    maintenance, 129
    process, 129-135
    product, 129
    project, 129
    Escherichia coli, 50
    Ethylene, 17
    Ethylene acrylic acid (EAA), 24
    Ethylene methyl acrylate (EMA), 24
    Ethylene methyl acrylic acid (EMAA), 24
    Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), 24, 174,
    282
    EVA resin, 13
    Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH), 11, 169,
    174, 194, 282
    Ethylene-propylene copolymers, 43
    Ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR), 43,
    182
    Ethylene-propylene-butene terpolymers,
    43
    Ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM),
    174
    EPDM elastomers, 43
    EU Legislation for Recycled Plastics,
    358-359
    Recycled Plastics in Food-Contact
    Materials, 358-359
    EU Regulation No. 10/2011 on plastic
    materials, 344
    European Commission (EC), 320
    European Food Safety Authority’s
    (EFSA), 320
    Evaporation, electron beam, 243-244
    Exfoliation, 196-197
    Expanded polystyrene (EPS), 5
    Extensional viscosity, 84
    External antistat, 70
    Extrudate swell, 85-86
    Extruder, adaptor and die
    shear stress in, 194
    Extruder RPM, 194
    Extruder temperatures, 194
    Extrusion, 261-262
    Extrusion coating, 219
    and lamination, 142-144, 282
    operating parameters for, 220
    F
    Falling rate drying, 228-229
    Farrel continuous mixer, 178
    Fatty acid amides, classification of,
    66-67
    Fawcett, Eric, 3
    FCS Notification Program, 322-326
    definitions, history, and scope,
    322-323
    FCS formulations, 325-326
    increasing the odds of success, 325
    notification process, 323-325
    FDA regulations for treatment of foods
    with radiation, 327
    Feedblock coextrusion, 99-101, 116
    Feedblock profiling, 91-92
    Feedblock technology, 103, 109-110
    Filled polymers, rheology of, 92-93
    Fillers, 53
    Film, antistatic, 241
    Films and multilayer structures packaging,
    writing guide for, 363
    Films oriented biaxially, 160-170
    BOPA films, 166-169, 167f
    BOPE films, 169
    BOPET films, 163-166
    BOPP films, 160-163
    INDEX 377Films oriented biaxially (Continued)
    BOPS films, 168, 169f
    polylactide (PLA), 169-170, 170f
    Fitness for use (FFU), 135
    Five-layer film applications, 315f
    Five-layer film structures, 311f, 314
    Fixed geometry adaptors, 102
    Flake metallic pigment production
    process, schematic of, 237f
    Flat spiral distribution, 126
    Flexible packaging, 5, 281
    Flexible packaging applications
    common polymers used for, 285t
    performance requirements for,
    284-286
    Flexible packaging film structures,
    293-294
    food packaging, 296-307
    bag-in-box, 305
    bakery, 301
    cereal box liners, 300-301
    cheese packaging, 302, 303t
    edible oil packaging, 305
    fresh-cut produce, 304
    frozen foods, 302-304, 303t, 304f
    grocery sacks (merchandise bags),
    307, 307t
    heavy duty bags (shipping bags),
    306, 306t
    high clarity shrink film (oriented),
    307, 307t
    milk pouches, 302, 303t
    poultry/fish packaging, 297-299
    primal meat packaging (shrink), 296
    processed meat packaging, 297
    retortable pouches, 304
    salty snack packaging, 301
    snack food packaging, 301
    stretch wrap, 305-306, 305f, 306t
    trash bags, 306, 307t
    medical packaging, 295-296
    Flow simulation software, 127-128
    Fluorescence, 65
    Fluorocarbon polymers, 90
    Foamed plastics, 210
    Food additive, definition of, 322-323
    Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 319
    FCS Notification Program, 322-326
    Food Radiation Specifications, 326t
    recycled plastics, regulatory aspects of,
    333-344
    regulations for treatment of foods with
    radiation, 327
    Food contact substance (FCS), 321
    Food packaging, 296-307
    bag-in-box, 305
    bakery, 301, 303t
    cereal box liners, 300-301
    cheese packaging, 302, 303t
    edible oil packaging, 305
    fresh-cut produce, 304
    frozen foods, 302-304, 303t, 304f
    grocery sacks (merchandise bags), 307t
    heavy duty bags (shipping bags), 306t
    high clarity shrink film (oriented), 307t
    milk pouches, 302, 303t
    poultry/fish packaging, 297-299
    primal meat packaging (shrink), 296
    processed meat packaging, 297
    retortable pouches, 304
    salty snack packaging, 301
    snack food packaging, 302t
    stretch wrap, 305-306, 306t
    trash bags, 307t
    Food packaging, regulatory aspects of, 319
    bisphenol A (BPA), 320-321
    EU Legislation for Recycled Plastics,
    358-359
    FDA’s FCS Notification program,
    322-326
    food preservation, by irradiation,
    326-332
    FDA regulations for treatment of
    foods with radiation, 327
    Title 21 CFR 179, 327-332
    food-contact material components,
    321-322
    Food-Contact Formulation
    Compliance Notification, 322
    food-contact plastics, EU Legislation
    on, 344-358
    Chapter I—General Provisions,
    351-353
    Chapter II: Compositional
    Requirements, 353-354
    Chapter III: Specific Provisions for
    Certain Materials and Articles, 355
    Chapter IV: Declaration of
    Compliance and Documentation,
    355-356
    Chapter V: Compliance, 356-357
    Chapter VI: Final Provisions,
    357-358
    consolidating paragraphs, 344-351
    EU Regulation No. 10/2011 on
    plastic materials, 344
    recycled plastics (US FDA view),
    333-344
    chemistry considerations, 333-344
    elimination of data recommendations
    for 3° recycling processes for PET
    and PEN, 342
    exposure to chemical contaminants,
    336-337
    plastic containers from nonfoodcontact applications as feedstock,
    339-341
    processes, 335-336
    surrogate contaminant testing,
    337-339, 343-344
    use of an effective barrier, 341-342
    Food preservation, by irradiation,
    326-332
    FDA regulations for treatment of foods
    with radiation, 327
    Title 21 CFR 179
    Subpart B: Radiation and Radiation,
    327-331
    Subpart C: Packaging Materials for
    Irradiated Foods Sources,
    331-332
    Food-contact material components in the
    United States, 321-322
    Food-Contact Formulation Compliance
    Notification, 322
    Food-contact plastics, EU Legislation on,
    344-358
    Chapter I—General Provisions,
    351-353
    Chapter II: Compositional
    Requirements, 353-354
    Chapter III: Specific Provisions for
    Certain Materials and Articles, 355
    Chapter IV: Declaration of Compliance
    and Documentation, 355-356
    Chapter V: Compliance, 356-357
    Chapter VI: Final Provisions, 357-358
    consolidating paragraphs, 344-351
    EU Regulation No. 10/2011 on plastic
    materials, 344
    Forward gravure coating, 222
    Forward roll coaters, 213-214
    operating parameters for, 214
    Forward roll coating, 212
    Fountain fed coaters, 213
    Four-roll pan-fed reverse roll coater, 214f
    Free radical polymerization processes, 22
    Fresh-cut produce, 304
    Frost line height and process time, 195
    Frozen food packaging, 303, 304f, 304t
    Functional coatings, 239-242
    2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), 51
    G
    Gamma crystallinity, 42
    Gap winding, 268
    Gas-phase process, 25-26
    Gel permeation chromatography (GPC),
    20-22, 36
    Generally recognized as safe (GRAS)
    status, 321
    Gibson, Reginald, 3
    Good and Girifalco equation, 183-184
    Gravimetric pellet mixers, 176
    Gravure cell patterns, 223f
    Gravure coating, 209-210, 222
    operating parameters for, 223
    Grocery sacks (merchandise bags), 307t
    Gross melt fracture, 90
    378 INDEXH
    Heat seal strength versus seal bar
    temperature, 290f
    Heat sealing, 290
    Heavy duty bags (shipping bags), 306t
    Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), 244f,
    245
    High barrier, 288
    High clarity shrink film (oriented), 307t
    High melt index, 80
    High-density polyethylene (HDPE),
    17-18, 25, 147, 174
    High-impact polystyrene (PS) blend, 179
    Histogram, 130
    Hogan, J. Paul, 3-4
    Hologram, 242
    Holographic embossing, 236
    Holographic packaging, 235
    Homopolymer, 23, 35
    Horizontal form-fill-seal (HFFS), 291, 294
    Hot melt coaters, 225
    Hot tack performance, 291f
    Hot tack strength, 285
    Hot transfer, 235-236
    Hot/cold stamping foil
    foil construction, 235-236, 236f
    transfer process, 235-236, 236f
    Hybrid coating
    gravure coaters, 222
    Microgravuret coaters, 223
    Hybrid coating methods, 209-210
    Hybrid methods, 209-210
    Hydrolysis, 60
    I
    I.G. Farben, 4-5
    Imperial Chemical Company (ICI), 4, 17
    Induction heated evaporation, 243
    Industrial Technology Research Institute
    (ITRI), 52
    Infinite cavity designs, 110
    Infrared dryers, 228
    In-line coating-process, of multilayer
    oriented films, 311-312
    In-line lamination, of multilayer oriented
    films, 311-312
    Inline mixers, 175
    In-line process, of multilayer oriented
    films, 311
    Inorganic antiblock additives, 68
    Instability, 92
    Interfacial instabilities, 92, 116-117, 119,
    127-128
    Interfacial instability, 116-117
    Interfacial peel-seal mechanism, 292
    Interfacial tension, 193
    Interlayer adhesion, 12-13, 292
    Internal antistat, 70
    Intrinsic viscosity, 80-81
    In-vacuum polymer deposition, schematic
    of, 248f
    Inverted preland die, 113-114
    Ionomers, 24-25, 289
    Irradiation, food preservation by, 321,
    326-332
    Isotactic polypropylene, 40-42
    K
    Kaminsky, Walter, 4
    K-BKZ integral model, 89
    Kiss coating, 213
    Kiss roll, 213
    Knife coating, 216
    operating parameters for, 217
    Krieger-Dougherty equation, 93
    K-value, 80-81
    L
    Laboratory sheet coater, 208, 212f
    Lactic acid, 47-48
    Lamination, 261-262, 283-284
    Lamination process, 137, 287
    Laser system advantages, 231
    Layer instability, 116-117
    Layer nonuniformity, 91
    Layer rearrangement, 116
    Linear low density polyethylene
    (LLDPE), 17-18, 28, 84, 150,
    174, 182, 282
    LLDPE polymer, 286
    Linear polymers, 77, 193-194
    Linear viscoelasticity, 87
    Liquidambar orientalis, 4
    LISIM (linear motor simultaneous
    stretching system) technology,
    157-158, 158f
    Load cell, 259
    Load control, 260
    Long chain branching (LCB), 182
    Longitudinal-transverse (MD/TD) process,
    164-165
    Longitudinal-transverse-longitudinal (MD/
    TD/MD) processes, 164-165
    Loop reactors, 27
    Loss modulus, 87, 89, 94-95
    Low density polyethylene (LDPE), 17, 22,
    84, 174, 182, 286
    LDPE homopolymer, 23, 23f
    Low melt index, 80
    Low-pressure polymerization processes,
    25
    Lubricants, 62, 71
    M
    Machine direction (MD), 150-151,
    194-195, 263, 272-273
    Machine direction orientation (MDO), of
    films, 147, 158-159
    description of, 147
    machine direction orientor, working of,
    147-148
    managerial summary, 147
    process and effects on film, 148-149
    properties, 149-152
    recent advances, 151-152
    Maddock mixer, 177-178
    Manifold dies, 104
    Market driver, 8
    Markets
    global economy, 5-8
    Masterbatches, 173-174
    Matching layer viscosity, 92
    Materials, 8-10
    and barriers, 10-12
    coextrusion structures, assembling,
    12-13
    historical perspective, 3-5
    and sealing, 12
    Mathematical relations, 81-83
    Maxwell model, 88
    Mayer rod/wire-wound rod coaters, 215
    Medical device packaging structures,
    295-296
    Medical packaging, 295-296
    Melt blending, 176-179
    Melt disturbance, 115-117
    Melt flow index (MFI), 80. See also Melt
    index (MI)
    Melt flow rate (MFR), 80
    Melt fracture, 79, 90
    Melt index (MI), 18-19, 25-26, 80, 291
    Melt indexers, 80f, 94
    Melt strength, 44, 84
    Meniscus or bead-roll coaters, 213
    Meredian, 51
    Metabolix, 51
    Metallization, 284
    basics, 243-249
    pattern, 249-250
    Metallizing, 235
    Metallocene, 4, 28-32, 39-40
    Metallocene catalyst, 4
    Metallocene polyethylene plastomer
    (mPE), 174
    Metastyrol, 4
    Microgravure coaters, 223
    Microwave radiation, 228, 239-240
    Migrating slip additives, 66
    Migration, 55, 66
    Milk packaging, 303t
    Miscibility of polymer blends, 182
    Mixing equipment, 206
    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), 237
    Modifiers, 53, 55
    antiblock additives, 68-70
    antistats, 70-71
    optical brighteners, 65-66
    slip additives, 66-68
    INDEX 379Modulus, 87, 94
    Moisture, 288
    barrier, 10
    Moisture permeability coefficients, 289t
    Moisture transmission rate, calculation of,
    288t
    Molecular weight (MW), 18-21, 35-36,
    79
    Molecular weight distribution (MWD),
    20-21
    Molten polymers, rheology of, 77
    constitutive equations, 88-89
    die lip build-up, 90-91
    dynamic measurements, 86-87
    extensional viscosity, 84
    extrudate swell, 85-86
    mathematical relations, 81-83
    melt flow index (MFI), 80
    melt fracture, 90
    melt strength, 84
    normal stresses differences, 85-86
    rheological problems, in coextrusion,
    91-92
    rheometers, 94-95
    sharkskin, 90
    stress relaxation, 86-87
    viscosity, 78-81
    Mono-axially oriented propylene (MOPP)
    films, 170
    Monoethylene glycol (MEG), 51
    Monsanto Company, 11
    Multicavity dies, 99-101, 114
    Multilayer, 281
    Multilayer blown (tubular) film dies, 123
    conventional coextrusion dies, 123-125
    interfacial instability, 127-128
    stacked dies, 125-127
    Multilayer coextrusion, 99
    Multilayer films, 97, 100
    stiffness, 286
    for syringe package, 295
    Multilayer oriented films
    structures, 313-316
    technology for, 311-313
    trends for, 317-318
    consumer requirements, 317
    cost efficiency, 317
    sustainability, 317-318
    Multivariate statistical process control,
    132-135
    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT),
    197
    Myriant, 50
    N
    Nanocomposites, 195-197
    rheology of, 93-94
    Nanosized reinforcements, 93
    Natta, Giulio, 25
    NatureWorks, 48-49
    Neutralizers, 71
    Newlight Technologies, 51
    Newtonian fluid, 86, 105
    Newton’s law of viscosity, 78
    Nip, 271-272
    dynamic impression, 261f
    static impression, 261f
    Nip control, 260-261
    fixed load, 260f
    fixed position, 260f
    Nip-fed coaters, 213
    Nitrogen, 287, 301
    Nitrogen blanket, 224
    Non-barrier coextrusion, 123
    Non-migrating slip additives, 66
    Non-Newtonian behavior, 193-194
    Non-Newtonian fluids, 81, 185
    Normal stress, 85-86
    Normal stress difference, 8, 85-86
    Noryl, 179
    Number average molecular weight (Mn),
    77
    Nylon, 11
    O
    Octene, 19
    Off-line winders, 269-270
    Online defect characterization, 230-234
    basic principles, 230
    defect detection capability, 231
    online coating weight measurement,
    231-234
    surface inspection system, 230-231
    Online quality control systems, 229-230
    advantages, 229
    disadvantages, 229
    Opaque barrier coatings, 238
    Operator interrogation, 133-134
    Optical brighteners, 65-66
    Optics, 147
    Organic antiblock additives, 68-69
    Orientation process, 4, 154
    Orientation Technology
    Machine, 154-159
    sequential, 157-159
    simultaneous, 147, 157-159
    transverse, 171
    Oriented film technology, 153
    films oriented biaxially, 160-170
    BOPA films, 166-168
    BOPE films, 169
    BOPET films, 163-166
    BOPP films, 160-163
    BOPS films, 168
    polylactide, 169-170
    in machine direction, 170-171
    in transverse direction, 171-172
    trends for, 171-172
    Original equipment manufacturers
    (OEMs), 123
    Oxygen, 283-284, 287, 304
    Oxygen barrier, 11
    Oxygen permeability coefficients, for
    polymers, 288t
    P
    Packaging, 3
    Pan-fed forward roll coaters, 213
    Pattern metallization, 249-250
    PE (poly-ethylene), 3
    PE based multilayer film structures, 279
    adhesive polymers, 292-294
    barrier properties, 287-289
    conversion factors, list of, 308t
    flexible packaging film structures,
    293-294
    food packaging, 296-307
    medical packaging, 295-296
    mechanical properties, 286-287
    polymer sealability, 290-292
    polymer selection, 284-286
    Peel Seal/Easy Seal resin, 10
    Peelable seal blends, 193
    Pellet mixers, 175
    Permeability, 288
    Permeation rates, 288
    Perrin, Michael, 3
    PET (polyester), 3
    PET heat-seal laminate barrier-lidding
    material, 252f
    Petroleum-based polymers, 47
    Phase inversion, 176, 192
    Phenolic antioxidant, 58-59, 63
    Phillips catalyst, 3-4
    Phosphites, 61, 63
    Physical properties, 9
    Pinhole, 238, 247-248, 252, 283
    Pivoting dancer, 259f
    Plasma enhanced chemical vapor
    deposition (PECVD), 239, 245
    Plastic containers from nonfood-contact
    applications as feedstock,
    339-341
    Plastic film stretching, 155f
    Plasticizer, 62
    Polar ethylene copolymers, 24-25
    Pollution considerations, 229-234
    Polyamide, 10, 62-63
    Polybutene-1 (PB), 193
    Polybutylene succinate (PBS), 49-50
    Polycarbonate (PC), 174, 320
    Polydispersity index (PDI), 77
    Poly-D-lactic acid (PDLA), 47-48
    Polyester, additives for, 75t
    Polyethylene (PE), 3, 15, 17, 205-206,
    253, 282-283, 287
    catalyst chemistry
    380 INDEXchrome oxide-based catalysts, 28
    single-site catalysts, 28-32
    Ziegler-Natta, 27-28
    gas-phase process, 25-26
    history and basic characterization,
    17-18
    linear low density polyethylene, 25
    low density polyethylene
    autoclave reactor, 22-23
    density, 19
    free radical polymerization processes,
    22
    gel permeation chromatography,
    20-22
    LDPE homopolymer, 23, 23f
    tube reactor, 23-24
    low-pressure polymerization processes,
    25
    melt index, 18-19
    transition metal catalyst polymerization
    processes
    slurry process, 27
    solution process, 26
    Polyethylene compatibility, 179
    Polyethylene furanoate (PEF), 51-52
    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET/PETE),
    4, 11-12, 52
    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), 50-51
    Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), 50
    Polylactic acid (PLA), 47-49, 169-170,
    180
    PLA stereocomplex, 47-48
    Polylactide. See Polylactic acid (PLA)
    Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), 47-48
    Polymer blending
    compatibilizers, role of, 189
    free energy of mixing, 180
    immiscible blends, 179
    melting, role of, 176-179, 190
    miscibility, 179, 182
    morphology, 173
    in blown film, 192-195
    phase inversion, 176, 192
    physics, 179-192
    single droplet breakup mechanisms, 183
    solubility parameter, 181-182, 181t,
    182t
    specialty compounding devices, 178, 198
    thermodynamics, 180-183
    twin screw extruders, 178
    Polymer blending, for packaging
    applications, 173
    blending processes, 174-179
    melt blending, 176-179
    pellet pre-mixing, 175-176
    physics of, 179-192
    reason to, 173-174
    morphology development
    in blown film, 192-195
    in immiscible blends, 183-192
    rheology of, 197-198
    rigid particles and nanocomposites,
    dispersion of, 195-197
    thermodynamics, 180-183
    Polymer blends
    dispersion of rigid particles, 195-197
    improving properties, 174
    melt flow index, 197
    reasons to, 173-174
    rheology, 197-198
    single screw extrusion, 174-175
    single-screw extrusion, 176
    Polymer deposition in vacuum, 248
    Polymer elasticity, 193-194
    Polymer films, 282-283
    Polymer molecular weight, 35-36
    Polymer sealability, 290-292
    Polymer selection, 284-286
    Polymer thermal and sealing properties,
    290t
    Polymer viscosity, 117
    Polymerization free radical, 22
    Polymerization process, 4
    gas phase, 25-26
    slurry, 27
    solution, 26
    Polymethylene, 3
    Polyolefin elastomers (POEs), 31
    Polyolefin plastomer (POP), 31, 282
    Polyolefins (PO), 54, 58-60
    additives for, 74t
    Polyphenylene oxide, 179
    Polypropylene (PP), 49, 210
    atactic, 40
    copolymers, 43
    gas phase polymerization, 39
    isotactic, 40-42
    liquid propylene polymerization, 37-38
    managerial overview, 35-44
    metallocene catalyzed polymerization,
    39-40
    molecular weight characterization,
    35-36
    and polyethylene, 58-60
    processing, 43
    semicrystalline structure, 41f
    slurry process polymerization, 37
    solution polymerization, 39
    syndiotactic, 42-43
    tacticity, characterizing, 36
    usage, challenges of, 43-44
    Ziegler-Natta catalyzed polypropylene,
    39
    Polyvinyl alcohol, 182t
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 61-62, 80-81,
    283
    Pom-Pom polymer model, 89
    Porosity, 210-211
    Position control, 260
    Postmetallocene, 4
    Postmetallocene catalysts, 4
    Poultry/fish packaging, 297-299
    Power law, 79
    Power law fluid, 106-107
    Power-law index, 107-108, 112-113
    Power-law model, 81
    PP (polypropylene), 3
    Precision curtain coaters, 221
    Premetered coating, 209, 219, 221
    curtain coaters, 221
    extrusion coaters, 219
    precision curtain coaters, 221
    slide coaters, 220
    slot die coaters, 218
    standard curtain coaters, 221
    Primal meat packaging (shrink), 296
    Primary effect, 55
    Process
    gas phase, 39
    liquid, 37-38
    slurry, 37
    solution, 39
    Process engineering, 129
    essential of, 129
    statistical tools
    design of experiments (DOEs), 131
    histogram, 130
    multivariate statistical process
    control, 132-135
    scatter diagram, 130
    univariate control charts, 132
    time and money, saving, 135-136
    tools of, 129-135
    Processed meat packaging, 297
    Processing aids, 90
    Profile, 8
    PS (polystyrene), 3, 9
    Pseudo-plastic behavior, 79
    Pseudoplastic material, 105
    PTT Chemical, 50
    PTTMCC Biochem (PTTMCC), 50
    PVdC (polyvinylidene chloride), 3, 10,
    282
    R
    Rabinowitsch correction, 81, 95, 106
    Radio frequency identification (RFID),
    242
    Radio frequency interference (RFI), 242
    Rayon, 3
    Reactors
    autoclave, 22-23
    tube, 23-24
    Reclaim, 9, 136
    Rectangular manifolds, 113, 116
    Recycled plastics, regulatory aspects of,
    333-344
    chemical contaminants, exposure to,
    336-337
    INDEX 381Recycled plastics, regulatory aspects of
    (Continued)
    effective barrier, use of, 341-342
    elimination of data recommendations
    for 3° recycling processes for PET
    and PEN, 342
    plastic containers from nonfood-contact
    applications as feedstock, 339-341
    recycling processes, 335-336
    chemical reprocessing, 336
    physical reprocessing, 335-336
    preconsumer scrap, 335
    surrogate contaminant testing,
    337-339, 343-344
    choice of surrogates, 338
    contamination of the plastic,
    338-339
    Registration (position control), 260
    Regulatory status, 56
    Relaxation, 86-87
    Reptation, 89
    Residence time, 124, 127
    Retortable pouches, 304
    Reverdia, 50
    Reverse gravure coating, 222
    Reverse roll coaters, 212, 214
    Rheological problems, in coextrusion,
    91-92
    Rheology, 77
    Rheometers, 94-95
    Ribbing, 213-214
    Rigid particles and nanocomposites,
    dispersion of, 195-197
    Ritchie, C.G., 4
    Rollers, 258-259
    Rotary pallet stretch cling wrapper, 305f
    Rotating die systems, 124
    Rotational rheometers, 94
    Rotational viscometers, 82-83
    S
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 50
    Salty snack packaging, 301
    Samsung Fine Chemicals, 51
    Saxton mixer, 177-178
    Scatter diagram, 130
    Screw design, 119, 194
    Seal bar pressure, 292
    Sealability, 285
    Sealant layer, 12
    Sealing, 12
    Seashore, 214
    Secondary effect, 56
    Secondary flow, 116f
    Security applications, 242-243
    Security packaging, 242
    Self-metered coating methods, 209
    free meniscus mode, 209
    free meniscus plus film splitting, 209
    Self-metered methods
    dip coaters, 212-213
    forward roll coaters, 213-214
    kiss coaters, 213
    meniscus or bead-roll coaters, 213
    reverse roll coaters, 214
    Semi-crystalline, 19
    Sequential orientation, 157-158
    Service life, 56-58
    Seven-layer configuration, 316f
    Seven-layer multichannel die, in
    ABCDCBA configuration, 313
    Sharkskin, 90
    Shear rate, 78-79, 81, 90, 106
    Shear stress, 78-79, 81, 85, 105, 107,
    116
    Shear thinning, 79
    Shear viscosity, 104, 106
    Shrink film applications, 171, 171f
    Side feed, 125
    Simon, Eduard, 4
    Single screw extrusion – polymer blends,
    191
    Single site catalysts (SSC), 28-32
    Single-screw extruder, 176
    Single-sided drying, 227
    Sinn, Hansjo¨rg, 4
    Size exclusion chromatography, 36
    Slide coaters, 220
    operating parameters for, 221
    Slip, 83
    Slip additives, 66-68
    Slipped core winding, 270, 270f
    Slitter rewinder, 269-270
    time cycle, 271f
    Slitting, 262, 264
    Slot die coaters, 218
    operating parameters for, 219
    Slot die coating, 205, 212
    Slurry, 27
    Small electron beam gun, schematic of,
    244f
    Smectic/mesomorphic crystallinity, 42
    Snack food packaging, 302t
    Sodium, ionomers of, 24-25, 25f
    Solegear Bioplastic, 49
    Solubility parameter, 181, 182t
    Solution, 26
    Solution preparation, 206
    Solvent coating, 224-225
    Solvents, 224-225
    Sorption of surrogate contaminants into
    plastic, 343-344
    Spiral mandrel, 124-126
    Stabilizers, 53, 55
    antioxidants, 56-63
    polyamide, 62-63
    polyolefins, 58-60
    polyvinylchloride, 61-62
    UV stabilizers, 63-65
    Stacked die system, 125-127
    Standard curtain coaters, 221
    operating parameters for, 221
    Starch, 47
    Starring, 275-276, 276f
    Statistical techniques, 129-130
    Stiffness, 3, 9, 211
    Storage modulus, 87
    Strain, 77
    Stress, 77
    Stress relaxation, 86-87
    Stretch cling pallet wrap, 306t
    Stretch wrap, 305-306
    Stretching, 153-156
    Styrol, 4
    Styrol oxide. See Styroloxyd
    Styroloxyd, 4
    Subbing layers, 212
    Substrate, role of, 210-212
    closed structures, 210
    embossed plastic substrates, 211
    foamed plastics, 210
    open porous structure, 210
    porosity, 210-211
    stiffness, 211
    technical importance for, 210
    thickness, 210-211
    wettability, 211
    Succinic acid, 49
    Succinity, 50
    Surface area, 124-125, 127
    Surface inspection system, 230-231
    advantages, 230
    Surface mattness, 90
    Surface treatment
    corona, 245
    flame, 245
    plasma, 245, 247-248
    Surface winder, 267-268
    Surging, 133-134
    Surrogate contaminant testing, 337-339
    choice of surrogates, 338
    contamination of the plastic, 338-339
    Sustainability, of multilayer oriented
    films, 317-318
    Swell ratio, 86
    Syndiotactic polymer, 35
    Syndiotactic polypropylene, 42-43
    T
    Tacticity, 36
    Taghleef Industries, 49
    Tamper evident labels, 242-243
    Tear drop manifolds, 112
    Temperature control, 261-262
    Tensile properties, 152
    Tension control, 259-260, 271
    Terylene, 4
    Thermal degradation, 60-61
    382 INDEXThermodynamics of polymer blends,
    180-183
    Thermoform/fill/seal packaging, 294
    Thermo-oxidation, 62
    Thin film coating, nucleation and growth
    of, 247f
    Tie chain molecules, 32-33
    Tie resin, 12-13
    Time-temperature superposition, 94
    Title 21 CFR 179
    Subpart B: Radiation and Radiation,
    327-331
    Subpart C: Packaging Materials for
    Irradiated Foods Sources,
    331-332
    Toluene, 338
    Tools, 129-135
    Torque, 272, 272f
    Torque rheometers, 94
    Tortuous path, 248
    Toyota, 93
    Traction, concept of, 258-259
    Traditional quality control systems,
    229-230
    disadvantages, 230
    Transmission, 288
    Transparent barrier coatings, 239, 244, 252
    Transverse direction orienter (TDO),
    154-157
    Transverse direction (TD), 150, 151f,
    194-195
    Transverse-longitudinal (TD/MD) process,
    164-165
    Trash bags, 306, 307t
    Trouton ratio, 84
    T-slot die, 110-111
    Tube reactor, 23-24
    Tubing and Sheathing, 8
    Turret winder, 268
    Twin-screw extruders, 177-178
    Twin-screw extrusion-polymer blends,
    178
    Two-sided drying, 227
    U
    Uniformity index (UI), 111
    Univariate control charts, 132
    US Plastic Film Market, 7-8
    UV stabilizers, 65
    V
    Vacuum, 218-219
    Vacuum deposited coating, 235
    Vacuum metallizing, for flexible
    packaging, 235
    barrier coatings, 237-239
    gas barrier, 237-239
    light barrier, 237
    oxygen barrier, 237
    water vapor barrier, 237
    decorative coatings, 235-237
    functional coatings, 239-242
    metallization, basics of, 243-249
    pattern metallization, 249-250
    security applications, 242
    trends, 250-253
    Variable barrier energy transfer screw,
    178
    Variable geometry feed block, 103
    Velocity profile, 107
    Vendors, 7-8
    Vertical form-fill-seal (VFFS), 294
    Vinyl acetate (VA), 24
    Viscoelastic, 88-89
    Viscoelastic models, 89
    Viscosity, 78-81, 104, 106
    of polymer blends, 83
    Viscosity ratio, 193
    Volume factor, 222-223
    von Hofmann, August Wilhelm, 4
    von Pechmann, Hans, 3
    W
    Wall slip, 83, 95
    Water- and solvent-based coating
    technology, 205
    coating applicators
    classification of, 208-210
    coatabilty limits, 212
    coating methods, description of,
    212-224
    substrate, role of, 210-212
    coating method selection, 225-227
    coating structures, 205-206
    coating uniformity, 205
    drying and solidification, 227-234
    constant rate and falling rate drying,
    228-229
    pollution considerations in drying,
    228-229
    hot melt coaters, 225
    solvent, effect of, 224-225
    web coating machine hardware and
    functions, 206-208
    Waves, 220-221
    Web, 207
    Web bagginess, 275
    Web breaks, 259, 266-267, 270-271
    Web coating machine hardware and
    functions, 206-208
    Web handling
    common wound roll defects, 274-277
    essentials, 257-258
    guiding and path control, 262
    nip control, 260-261
    rollers, 258-259
    slitting and converting processes, 264
    temperature control, 261-262
    tension control, 259-260
    theory applied, 271-274
    and winding, 264-265
    classes and arrangements, 267-271
    tightness and TNT’s, 265-267
    wrinkles and spreading, 262-263
    Web Handling Research Center (WHRC),
    257
    Web transport system, 220
    Weight average molecular weight (MW),
    77
    Weissenberg effect, 85-87, 85f
    Weld line, 125-126
    WELEX feedblock design, 109-110
    Wettability, 207, 211
    Whinfield, John Rex, 4
    Winding, 264-265
    classes and arrangements, 267-271
    tightness and TNT’s, 265-267
    Winding defects, 271, 277
    Wound roll defects, 274-277
    Wrinkles and spreading, 262-263
    Wrinkling, 274
    X
    X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques,
    40-41
    Y
    Yasui Seiki CAD laboratory coater,
    208f
    Z
    Ziegler, Carl, 17-18
    Ziegler, Karl, 4
    Ziegler-Natta catalyst, 25, 27-28
    Ziegler-Natta catalyzed polypropylene,
    39
    Zig-zag instability, 92
    Zinc, ionomers of, 24-25

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