Micro Electro Mechanical System Design

Micro Electro Mechanical System Design
اسم المؤلف
James J. Allen
التاريخ
19 فبراير 2021
المشاهدات
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Micro Electro Mechanical System Design
James J. Allen
Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Historical Perspective .1
1.2 The Development of MEMS Technology .3
1.3 MEMS: Present and Future .6
1.4 MEMS Challenges .12
1.5 The Aim of This Book .13
Questions 14
References 14
Chapter 2 Fabrication Processes .17
2.1 Materials .17
2.1.1 Interatomic Bonds 17
2.1.2 Material Structure 18
2.1.3 Crystal Lattices 19
2.1.4 Miller Indices .21
2.1.5 Crystal Imperfections 23
2.2 Starting Material — Substrates .25
2.2.1 Single-Crystal Substrate 25
2.2.1.1 Czochralski Growth Process 25
2.2.1.2 Float Zone Process .27
2.2.1.3 Post-Crystal Growth Processing 27
2.2.2 Silicon on Insulator (SOI) Substrate .28
2.3 Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) .30
2.3.1 Evaporation 32
2.3.2 Sputtering .34
2.4 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) .35
2.5 Etching Processes .38
2.5.1 Wet Chemical Etching .38
2.5.2 Plasma Etching 39
2.5.3 Ion Milling .43
2.6 Patterning 43
2.6.1 Lithography 43
2.6.2 Lift-Off Process .48
2.6.3 Damascene Process 50
2.7 Wafer Bonding .50
2.7.1 Silicon Fusion Bonding .51
2.7.2 Anodic Bonding .51
2.8 Annealing .512.9 Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) 53
2.10 Material Doping .54
2.10.1 Diffusion 56
2.10.2 Implant .60
2.11 Summary 61
Questions 62
References 63
Chapter 3 MEMS Technologies 65
3.1 Bulk Micromachining 68
3.1.1 Wet Etching .70
3.1.2 Plasma Etching 72
3.1.3 Examples of Bulk Micromachining Processes .74
3.1.3.1 SCREAM .75
3.1.3.2 PennSOIL .76
3.2 LIGA 79
3.2.1 A LIGA Electromagnetic Microdrive .80
3.3 Sacrificial Surface Micromachining 83
3.3.1 SUMMiT™ 88
3.4 Integration of Electronics and MEMS Technology (IMEMS) 94
3.5 Technology Characterization .95
3.5.1 Residual Stress .98
3.5.2 Young’s Modulus .101
3.5.3 Material Strength .102
3.5.4 Electrical Resistance 103
3.5.5 Mechanical Property Measurement for Process Control 105
3.6 Alternative MEMS Materials .106
3.6.1 Silicon Carbide 106
3.6.2 Silicon Germanium 108
3.6.3 Diamond .108
3.6.4 SU-8 .109
3.7 Summary 109
Questions 110
References 110
Chapter 4 Scaling Issues for MEMS 115
4.1 Scaling of Physical Systems 115
4.1.1 Geometric Scaling .115
4.1.2 Mechanical System Scaling .117
4.1.3 Thermal System Scaling 121
4.1.4 Fluidic System Scaling 124
4.1.5 Electrical System Scaling 129
4.1.6 Optical System Scaling .134
4.1.7 Chemical and Biological System Concentration 1354.2 Computational Issues of Scale .137
4.3 Fabrication Issues of Scale 139
4.4 Material Issues .141
4.5 Newly Relevant Physical Phenomena .144
4.6 Summary 145
Questions 149
References 152
Chapter 5 Design Realization Tools for MEMS 155
5.1 Layout .155
5.2 SUMMiT Technology Layout 158
5.2.1 Anchoring Layers 159
5.2.2 Rotational Hubs .164
5.2.3 Poly1 Beam with Substrate Connection .170
5.2.4 Discrete Hinges 170
5.3 Design Rules 176
5.3.1 Manufacturing Issues .176
5.3.1.1 Patterning Limits 176
5.3.1.2 Etch Pattern Uniformity .178
5.3.1.3 Registration Errors .178
5.3.1.4 Etch Compatibility .179
5.3.1.5 Stringers .179
5.3.1.6 Floaters .180
5.3.1.7 Litho Depth of Focus .180
5.3.1.8 Stiction (Dimples) 181
5.3.1.9 Etch Release Holes 181
5.3.1.10 Improper Anchor (Area of Anchor) .182
5.3.2 Design Rule Checking .182
5.4 Standard Components 183
5.5 MEMS Visualization 184
5.6 MEMS Analysis .186
5.7 Summary 188
Questions 189
References 190
Chapter 6 Electromechanics .193
6.1 Structural Mechanics 194
6.1.1 Material Models .194
6.1.2 Thermal Strains 200
6.1.3 Axial Rod .201
6.1.4 Torsion Rod .203
6.1.5 Beam Bending .205
6.1.6 Flat Plate Bending .208
6.1.7 Columns .2116.1.8 Stiffness Coefficients .213
6.2 Damping .216
6.2.1 Oscillatory Mechanical Systems and Damping 217
6.2.2 Damping Mechanisms .220
6.2.3 Viscous Damping .222
6.2.4 Damping Models .224
6.2.4.1 Squeeze Film Damping Model 224
6.2.4.2 Slide Film Damping Model .226
6.3 Electrical System Dynamics 228
6.3.1 Electric and Magnetic Fields .229
6.3.2 Electrical Circuits — Passive Elements 234
6.3.2.1 Capacitor 234
6.3.2.2 Inductor 235
6.3.2.3 Resistor .236
6.3.2.4 Energy Sources 238
6.3.2.5 Circuit Interconnection 238
Questions 240
References 241
Chapter 7 Modeling and Design .243
7.1 Design Synthesis Modeling .243
7.2 Lagrange’s Equations .244
7.2.1 Lagrange’s Equations with Nonpotential Forces 246
7.2.2 Lagrange’s Equations with Equations of Constraint .247
7.2.3 Use of Lagrange’s Equations to Obtain Lumped Parameter
Governing Equations of Systems 248
7.2.4 Analytical Mechanics Methods for Continuous Systems .257
7.3 Numerical Modeling 262
7.4 Design Uncertainty 267
Questions 270
References 271
Chapter 8 MEMS Sensors and Actuators .273
8.1 MEMS Actuators 273
8.1.1 Electrostatic Actuation .273
8.1.1.1 Parallel Plate Capacitor 273
8.1.1.2 Interdigitated Comb Capacitor 278
8.1.1.3 Electrostatic Actuators .278
8.1.2 Thermal Actuation .285
8.1.3 Lorentz Force Actuation 288
8.2 MEMS Sensing 290
8.2.1 Capacitative Sensing 290
8.2.2 Piezoresistive Sensing 298
8.2.2.1 Piezoresistivity .2988.2.2.2 Piezoresistance in Single-Crystal Silicon 299
8.2.2.3 Piezoresistivity of Polycrystalline and Amorphous
Silicon 304
8.2.2.4 Signal Detection .304
8.2.3 Electron Tunneling .306
8.2.4 Sensor Noise 308
8.2.4.1 Noise Sources 311
8.2.5 MEMS Physical Sensors .314
8.2.5.1 Accelerometer 314
8.2.5.2 Gyroscope 319
8.2.5.3 Pressure Sensors .324
8.2.6 Chemical Sensors 328
8.2.6.1 Taguchi Gas Sensor .330
8.2.6.2 Combustible Gas Sensor 331
Questions 332
References 333
Chapter 9 Packaging .339
9.1 Packaging Process Steps 339
9.1.1 Postfabrication Processing .340
9.1.1.1 Release Process 341
9.1.1.2 Drying Process .341
9.1.1.3 Coating Processes 342
9.1.1.4 Assembly 345
9.1.1.5 Encapsulation .348
9.1.2 Package Selection/Design 350
9.1.3 Die Attach 352
9.1.4 Wire Bond and Sealing .353
9.2 Packaging Case Studies .353
9.2.1 R&D Prototype Packaging 355
9.2.2 DMD Packaging 357
9.2.3 Electrical-Fluidic Packaging 359
9.3 Summary 361
Questions 362
References 363
Chapter 10 Reliability .367
10.1 Reliability Theory and Terminology .367
10.2 Essential Aspects of Probability and Statistics for Reliability .370
10.3 Reliability Models 380
10.3.1 Weibull Model .380
10.3.2 Lognormal Model 383
10.3.3 Exponential Model 386
10.4 MEMS Failure Mechanisms 38610.4.1 Operational Failure Mechanisms .388
10.4.1.1 Wear .388
10.4.1.2 Fracture 390
10.4.1.3 Fatigue 391
10.4.1.4 Charging .391
10.4.1.5 Creep 391
10.4.1.6 Stiction and Adhesion 391
10.4.2 Degradation Mechanisms 392
10.4.3 Environmental Failure Mechanisms 392
10.4.3.1 Shock and Vibration .392
10.4.3.2 Thermal Cycling 393
10.4.3.3 Humidity 393
10.4.3.4 Radiation 393
10.4.3.5 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) .393
10.5 Measurement Techniques for MEMS Operational, Reliability, and
Failure Analysis Testing .394
10.5.1 Optical Microscopy .394
10.5.2 Scanning Electron Microscopy 396
10.5.3 Focused Ion Beam .396
10.5.4 Atomic Force Microscope .397
10.5.5 Lift-Off .397
10.5.6 Stroboscopy 397
10.5.7 Blur Envelope 398
10.5.8 Video Imaging .399
10.5.9 Interferometry 399
10.5.10 Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) 400
10.6 MEMS Reliability and Design 400
10.7 MEMS Reliability Case Studies 403
10.7.1 DMD Reliability 403
10.7.2 Sandia Microengine .407
10.8 Summary 412
Questions 412
References 413
Appendix A — Glossary .417
Appendix B — Prefixes 419
Appendix C — Micro–MKS Conversions 421
Appendix D — Physical Constants .423
Appendix E — Material Properties .425Appendix F — Stiffness Coefficients of Frequently Used MEMS Flexures .427
Appendix G — Common MEMS Cross-Section Properties 433
Appendix H 437
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