Material Selection for Thermoplastic Parts – Practical and Advanced Information for Plastics Engineers

Material Selection for Thermoplastic Parts – Practical and Advanced Information for Plastics Engineers
اسم المؤلف
Michel Biron
التاريخ
17 أغسطس 2023
المشاهدات
407
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Material Selection for Thermoplastic Parts – Practical and Advanced Information for Plastics Engineers
Michel Biron
Table of contents

  1. Thermoplastic Material Selection: Some Ways of Thinking for a Systematic Approach
    1.1. Specific Plastics Design Issues: Some Ins and Outs among Others
    1.2. Checklist Proposal
  2. Thermoplastic Specific Properties
    2.1. Do not Confuse Raw Polymer and Plastic Grade (or Compound)
    2.2. Raw TPs Are Organic Macromolecules
    2.3. Supramolecular Structure
    2.4. Viscoelasticity, Time, and Temperature Dependency
    2.5. From Raw Polymers to Actual Grades: Upgrading and Customization
    2.6. Isotropy and Anisotropy
    2.7. Dimensional Stability
    2.8. Market Appeal: Sensory Properties Are of the Prime Importance
  3. Thermoplastics: Economic Overview
    3.1. Overview of the Global Plastics Industry Today and Tomorrow
    3.2. Market Shares of the Various Thermoplastic Families
    3.3. Market Shares of Composites
    3.4. Market Shares for the Main Application Sectors
    3.5. Importance of the Various Processing Modes
    3.6. Consumption Trends
    3.7. The North American Market
    3.8. The Western European Market
    3.9. The Asian Market
    3.10. Structure of the Plastics Processing Industry
    3.11. Plastic Costs
    3.12. The Future: Two Important Issues Linked to Crude Oil: Costs and Drying Up
    3.13. Price Index Hypotheses for 279 Plastics
    3.14. Useful Source Examples for Initiation of In-depth Studies
  4. Elements for Analogical Selections: Survey of the 10 Top Markets
    4.1. Packaging
    4.2. Building and Civil Engineering
    4.3. Automotive and Transportation
    4.4. Electrical and Electronics Market
    4.5. Household, Entertainment, and Office Appliances
    4.6. Mechanical Engineering
    4.7. Sports and Leisure
    4.8. Medical Market
    4.9. Furniture and Bedding
    4.10. Agriculture
  5. Avoid Some Pitfalls
    5.1. Balance Well-Estimated Part Requirements and Properties of the Used Compound: Objectively Fill Out Your Checklist
    5.2. Mechanical Properties: At Break, at Elastic Limit, at Yield, after Creep
    5.3. Do not Confuse Local and Bulk Properties: Take into Account the Statistical Distribution of Properties
    5.4. Chemical Behavior: Nature of Chemicals, Time, Temperature, Environmental Stress Cracking
    5.5. Ambient Humidity Can Plasticize Polymers and Change Their Properties Including Electrical Properties
    5.6. Often Properties Evolve Abruptly: Glass Transition, Yield, Knees, Frequency- Dependent Properties
    5.7. Modeling and Predictions of Lifetimes: Very Useful if Carefully Used; Very Hazardous in Other Cases
    5.8. Helpful, Hazardous, and False Comparisons
  6. Density, Actual Weight Savings, Cost, and Property per Volume Advantages
    6.1. Density of 280 Thermoplastics, Statistical Analysis, and Modeling
    6.2. Specific Yield Strength and Specific Modulus
    6.3. Cost per Volume Examples
    6.4. Actual Weight Savings
    6.5. Density Reduction Using Structural Foam Techniques and Hollow Parts
  7. Mechanical Properties
    7.1. Plastics are not Ideal Materials Obeying to Simple Physical Laws
    7.2. First of All, Fully Understand Information and Make Your Requirements Understandable
    7.3. Tensile Properties
    7.4. Flexural Properties
    7.5. Compressive Properties
    7.6. Shear Properties
    7.7. Comparison of Tensile, Flexural, Compressive, and Shear Properties
    7.8. Impact Strength
    7.9. Hardness
  8. Thermal Properties
    8.1. Overview
    8.2. Glass Transition Temperature (See Also Section 2.3.3)
    8.3. Thermal Behavior above Room Temperature (See Also Section 1.1.3)
    8.4. Low-Temperature Behavior (See Also Section 1.1.4)
  9. Dimensional Stability
    9.1. Coefficients of Thermal Expansion—CTE or CTLE
    9.2. Shrinkage after Molding
    9.3. Warpage
    9.4. Water Uptake
    9.5. Releasing of Organic Additives: Choose High-Molecular Weight or Reactive Additives
    9.6. Some Other Causes of Dimensional Variations
  10. Advanced Mechanical Properties
    10.1. Thermal Dependency of Mechanical Properties
    10.2. Time-Dependent Mechanical Properties
    10.3. Poisson’s Ratios
    10.4. Friction and Wear; Tribological Thermoplastics
  11. Fire Behavior
    11.1. Preliminary Remarks: Define the Problem Correctly
    11.2. Predisposition to Burn: More or Less Easily, All Thermoplastics Burn
    11.3. Inherently FR polymers
    11.4. FR Solutions
    11.5. The Top Solutions: HFFR and FST grades
    11.6. Examples of Effect of FR Modifications on Properties
  12. Electrical Properties
    12.1. Volume Resistivity
    12.2. Relative Permittivity or Dielectric Constant
    12.3. Alternating Current Loss Tangent or Loss Factor
    12.4. Dielectric Strength
    12.5. Surface Resistivity
    12.6. Arc Resistance
    12.7. Frequency, Temperature, Moisture, Physical, and Dynamic Aging Effects
    12.8. Electrically Conductive Thermoplastics
  13. Sensory Issues: Optical Properties, Aesthetics, Odor, Taste, Touch
    13.1. Refractive Index
    13.2. Transparent Thermoplastics
    13.3. Aesthetics
    13.4. Odor and Taste Transfer
    13.5. Touch
    13.6. Acoustics, NVH
    13.7. Sensory Testing Needs the Complementarity of Instrumental Measurements and Sensory Panel Evaluations
  14. Resistance to Chemicals, Light, and UV
    14.1. Chemical Resistance of Unstressed Materials
    14.2. Environmental Stress Cracking
    14.3. Photooxidation: Weathering, Light, and UV Behavior
  15. EcoDesign
    15.1. Well-Established Routes
    15.2. Replacement of Fossil Materials by Renewable Materials
    15.3. Take Advantage of Thermoplastics Versatility for a More Sustainable Use Phase
    15.4. Overview of Some Environmental Indicators and Benchmarks Relating to LCAIndex
    Acronyms and Abbreviations
    5V UL Fire Rating
    AAGR Average annual growth rate
    ABS Acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene
    ACM-V Vulcanized Acrylate Rubber
    ACS Acrylonitrile chlorinated Polyethylene styrene
    AES or AEPDS Acrylonitrile EPDM styrene
    AMC Alkyd molding compound
    ArF or AF Aramid fiber
    ASA Acrylonitrile styrene acrylate
    ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
    ATBC Acetyl tributyl citrate
    ATH Aluminum trihydrate
    BF Boron fiber
    BMC Bulk molding compound
    BMI Bismaleimide
    BOD Biochemical oxygen demand
    BOPLA Biaxially oriented polylactic acid
    BOPP Biaxially oriented polypropylene
    BRIC Brazil–Russia–India–China
    CA Cellulose acetate
    CAB Cellulose acetobutyrate
    CAD Computer-aided design
    CAGR Compound annual growth rate
    CBT Cyclic Polybutadiene terephthalate
    CE Cyanate ester
    CF Carbon fiber
    CFC Chlorofluorocarbon
    CFRP Carbon fiber-reinforced plastic
    CFRTP Carbon fiber-reinforced thermoPlastic
    CIC Continuous impregnated compound
    CM or CPE Chlorinated polyEthylene
    CNT Carbon nanotube
    COC or COP Cyclic olefin copolymers or Cyclic olefin polymers
    COD Chemical oxygen demand
    Conc. Concentrated Solution
    COP or COC Cyclic olefin polymers or Cyclic olefin copolymers
    COPE or TPEE Copolyester TPE
    CP Cellulose propionate
    CPE or CM Chlorinated polyEthylene
    CPVC or PVC-C Chlorinated PVC
    CS Compression set
    CTI Comparative tracking indexxxii Acronyms and Abbreviations
    CTLE Coefficient of thermal linear expansion
    CUT Continuous use temperature Under Unstressed State
    Cy Polycyanate
    DAP DiAllyl phthalate
    DCPD Poly(Dicyclopentadiene)
    DMC Dough molding compound
    DMTA Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis
    DRIV Direct resin injection and venting
    DSC Differential scanning calorimeter
    DTA Differential thermal analysis
    DWNT Double-wall nanotubes
    EB Elongation at break
    EBA, EGMA, EMAH, EEA, EAA Ethylene-acid and ethylene-ester copolymers, e.g., Ethylene-butylacrylate
    ECO Prefix concerning ECOlogy or the environment, i.e., Eco-profile
    ECTFE Ethylene monochlorotrifluoroethylene
    EE, E&E Electrical and electronics
    EMA Ethylene-methacrylate ionomers
    EMI Electromagnetic interference
    EP Epoxy
    EPA Environmental Protection Agency
    EPDM rubber Terpolymer ethylene, propylene, diene
    EPS Expandable (or Expanded) polystyrene
    ESBO Epoxidized soybean oil
    ESC Environmental stress cracking
    ESD Electrostatic discharge
    ETFE Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene
    EU European Union
    EVA, E/VAC, EVAC, VAE, EVM Ethylene-vinylacetate copolymers
    EVOH Ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers
    F-PVC Flexible PVC
    FDA Food and Drug Administration
    FEP Fluorinated ethylene propylene
    FIM Film insert molding
    FR Fire retardant
    GB Glass bead
    GF Glass fiber
    GFRP Glass fiber-reinforced plastic
    GFRTP Glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastic
    GHG Greenhouse gas
    GMT Glass mat thermoplastic
    GWI Glow wire ignition
    GWP Global warming potential
    HB UL fire rating
    HDPE or PE HD High-density polyethylene
    HDT Heat deflection temperature
    HFFR Halogen-free fire-retardant
    HIPS High impact PS
    HPGF High-performance short glass fiber-reinforced polypropylene
    HSCT High speed civil transport (aircraft)
    HTPC Hybrid thermoplastic composite
    HTV High temperature vulcanizationAcronyms and Abbreviations xxiii
    HVAC Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning
    HWI Hot wire ignition
    ICP Inherently conductive polymer
    IDP Inherently dissipative polymer
    ILSS Interlaminar shear strength
    IMC In-mold coating
    IMD In-mold decoration
    IML In-mold labeling
    IPN Interpenetrating polymer network
    IRHD International rubber hardness
    IRM International referee material
    ISO International standardization organization
    LCA Life-cycle assessment
    LCI Life-cycle inventory
    LCP Liquid crystal polymer
    LCTC Low-cost tooling for composites
    LDPE or PE LD Low-density polyethylene
    LED Light-emitting diode
    LEFM Linear elastic fracture mechanics
    LFRT Long fiber-reinforced thermoplastic
    LFT Long fiber-reinforced thermoplastic
    LGF Long glass fiber
    LIM Liquid injection molding
    LLDPE Linear low-density polyethylene
    LOI Limiting oxygen index
    LRI Liquid resin infusion
    LRTM Light RTM
    LSR Liquid silicone rubber
    LWRT Lightweight-reinforced thermoplastic
    MABS Methylmethacrylate–acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene
    MAH Maleic anhydride
    MBS Methyl methacrylate–butadiene–styrene
    MDPE Medium-density polyethylene
    MF Melamine
    MFI Melt flow index
    MPR Melt processable rubber (TPE)
    MVTR Moisture vapor transmission rate
    MWNT Multiwalled carbon nanotubes
    NB No break
    NF Natural fiber
    NOx Nitrous oxides
    NVH Noise vibration harshness
    O&M Organization and methods department
    OIT Oxygen induction time
    OLED Organic light-emitting diode
    OPET Oriented PET
    OPP Oriented PP
    OPS Oriented PS
    OTR Oxygen transmission rate
    PA Polyamide
    PA-T Transparent amorphous polyamidexxiv Acronyms and Abbreviations
    PAA Polyarylamide
    PAI Polyamide imide
    PAEK Polyaryletherketone
    PAN Polyacrylonitrile
    PAS Polyarylsulfone
    PB Polybutene-1 or Polybutylene-1
    PBB Polybrominated biphenyls
    PBDE Polybrominated diphenyl ethers
    PBI Polybenzimidazole
    PBO Polyphenylenebenzooxazole
    PBT or PBTP Polybutyleneterephthalate
    PC Polycarbonate
    PCB Printed circuit board
    PC-HT Polycarbonate—high temperature
    PCL Polycaprolactone
    PCT Polycyclohexylene-dimethylene terephthalate
    PCTA Terephthalate/isophthalate
    PCTFE Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
    PCTG Polycyclohexylene-dimethylenediol/ethyleneglycol terephthalate
    PDMS Polydimethylsiloxane
    PE Polyethylene
    PEAA Polyethylene acrylic acid
    PEAR Polyetheramide resin
    PEBA Polyether block amide
    PECVD Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition
    PEEK Polyetherether ketone
    PEF Polyethylene furanoate
    PEG Polyethylene glycol
    PEI Polyetherimide
    PEK Polyetherketone
    PEKK Polyetherketoneketone
    PEN Polyethylene naphthalenedicarboxylate
    PES or PESU Polyethersulfone
    PET or PETP Polyethylene terephthalate
    PETG Polyethylene glycol modified
    PETI Phenylethynyl with imide terminations
    PEX Cross-linked polyethylene
    PF Phenolic resin
    PF1Ax PF general purpose, ammonia-free
    PF2Cx PF heat-resistant, glass fiber-reinforced
    PF2Dx PF impact-resistant, cotton-filled
    PF2E1 PF mica-filled
    PFA Perfluoroalkoxy
    PGA Polyglycolic acid
    PHA Polyhydroxyalkanoate
    PHB Polyhydroxybutyrate
    PHBH Polyhydroxybutyrate-hexanoate
    PHBV Polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate
    PHV Polyhydroxyvalerate
    PI Polyimide
    PIR PolyisocyanurateAcronyms and Abbreviations xxv
    PK Polyketone
    PLA Polylactic acid
    PMI Polymethacrylimide
    PMMA Poly methylmethacrylate
    PMP Polymethylpentene
    PO Polyolefin
    POE Polyolefin elastomer
    POM Polyoxymethylene or Polyacetal
    POP Polyolefin plastomer
    POSS Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane
    PP Polypropylene
    PPA Polyphthalamide
    PPE Polyphenylene ether
    PP/EPDM Unvulcanized EPDM blended with polypropylene or block copolymerized
    PP-EPDM (reactor TPO)—(TPE) (TPO)
    PP/EPDM-V Vulcanized EPDM dispersed in polypropylene (TPE) (TPV)
    PP/IIR-V Vulcanized butyl rubber dispersed in polypropylene (TPE) (TPV)
    PP/NBR-V Vulcanized nitrile rubber dispersed in polypropylene (TPE) (TPV)
    PPO Polyphenylene oxide
    PPS Polyphenylene sulfide
    PPSU Polyphenylenesulfone
    PPT or PTMT or PTT Polypropylene terephthalate
    Prepreg Preimpregnated
    PS Polystyrene
    PSU Polysulfone
    PS-X or XPS Cross-linked polystyrene
    PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene
    PTMT or PBT Polytetramethylene terephthalate or Polybutyleneterephthalate
    PTMT or PPT or PTT Poly(trimethylene terephthalate)
    PTT Polytrimethylene terephthalate
    PUR Polyurethane
    PV Pressure*velocity
    PVA or PVAL or PVOH Polyvinyl alcohol
    PVAC Polyvinyl acetate
    PVAL or PVA or PVOH Polyvinyl alcohol
    PVB Polyvinyl butyrate
    PVC Polyvinyl chloride
    PVDC Polyvinylidene chloride
    PVC-C or CPVC Chlorinated PVC
    PVC-U Unplasticized PVC
    PVDF Polyvinylidene fluoride
    PVF Polyvinyl fluoride
    PVOH or PVAL or PVA Polyvinyl alcohol
    r Recycled, i.e., rPET, rPP
    REACH Registration Evaluation Authorization and Restriction of CHemicals
    RF Radio frequency
    RFI Resin film impregnation
    RH Relative humidity or hygrometry
    RIM Reaction injection molding
    RIRM Resin injection recirculation molding
    RoHS Restriction of hazardous substancesxxvi Acronyms and Abbreviations
    RP Reinforced plastic
    RRIM Reinforced reaction injection molding
    RT Room temperature
    RTI Relative thermal index
    RTM Resin transfer molding
    RTP Reinforced thermoplastic
    RTV Room temperature vulcanization
    SAN Styrene acrylonitrile
    SAP Super absorbent polymer
    SATUR Saturated solution
    SB Styrene butadiene
    SBC Styrenic block copolymer
    SBS Styrene–butadiene–styrene (TPE)
    SCRIMP Seeman’s composite resin infusion molding process
    SEBS Styrene ethylene/butylene styrene (TPE)
    SEPS Styrene ethylene/propylene styrene (TPE)
    SFRT Short fiber-reinforced thermoplastic
    SGF Short glass fiber
    Si Silicium
    Si Silicone
    SiOx Silicon oxide
    SIS Styrene isoprene styrene (TPE)
    SMA Styrene maleic anhydride
    SMC Sheet molding compound
    SMMA Styrene-methyl methacrylate
    SN curve Plot of stress or strain (S) leading to failure after N cycles of repeated loading
    SOL Solution
    SP-polyimides Condensation polyimides
    SPC Statistical process control
    SPDF Super plastic diaphragm forming
    SR Self-reinforced
    SRRIM Structural (reinforced) resin injection molding
    SWNT Single-walled carbon nanotubes
    TAC Triallyl cyanurate
    TDI Toluene-2,4-disocyanate
    TFE Tetrafluoroethylene
    T
    g Glass transition temperature
    TGA Thermogravimetric analysis
    TGV High-speed train
    TMC Thick molding compound
    toe Ton of oil equivalent
    TP Thermoplastic
    TPE Thermoplastic elastomer
    TPE/PVC PVC-based TPE, alloys of PVC and rubber (TPE) (TPO or TPV)
    TPEE or COPE Thermoplastic elastomer ester
    TPI Thermoplastic imide
    TPO Thermoplastic olefin
    TPR Thermoplastic rubber
    TPS Thermoplastic styrenic
    TP/Si-V TPV of a vulcanized silicone rubber dispersed in a thermoplastic phase
    TPU Thermoplastic polyurethaneAcronyms and Abbreviations xxvii
    TPV Thermoplastic vulcanizate
    TR Temperature-retraction procedure
    TS Tensile strength
    UD Unidirectional composite
    UF Urea-formaldehyde
    UHMWPE or PE-UHMW Ultrahigh molecular weight PE
    UL Underwriters laboratories
    Unkn. Unknown
    UP Unsaturated polyester
    USB United Soybean Board
    UV Ultraviolet
    V0 to V2 UL fire rating
    VAE Ethylene-vinylacetate copolymers
    VARI Vacuum-assisted resin injection
    VARTM Vacuum-assisted RTM
    VE Vinylester
    VGCNF Vapor-grown carbon nanofibers
    VIP Vacuum infusion process
    VOC Volatile organic compounds
    VST Vicat softening temperature
    WPC Wood plastic composite
    XLPE Cross-linked LDPE
    XPE or PEX Cross-linked polyethylene
    XPS or PS-X Cross-linked polystyrene
    ZMC A highly automated process using molding comp
    Index
    Note: Page numbers followed by “f” indicate figures and “t” indicate tables.670 Index
    ASTM D1292-10, 20
    ASTM D1729, 534
    ASTM D1822-13, 319
    ASTM D2444-99(2010), 319
    ASTM D2843, 18
    ASTM D4272-09, 319
    ASTM D4495-12, 319
    ASTM D4496-13, 502
    ASTM D4508-10, 320
    ASTM D4812-11, 320
    ASTM D5420-10, 320
    ASTM D5628-10, 320
    ASTM D6110-10, 320
    ASTM D6272-10, 302
    ASTM D6395-11, 320
    ASTM D7136/D7136M-12, 320
    ASTM E460-12, 20
    ASTM E691, 219, 220t
    ASTM E1870, 20–21
    ASTM E2454-05(2011), 20
    ASTM E2609-08, 20
    ASTM F736-95(2011), 320
    ASTM oils, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 544t–545t
    ASTM STP 434, 20
    ASTM STP 758, 20, 534
    ASTM Subcommittee E18.05 on Sensory
    Applications, 533–534
    Antistatic specialties, 479, 515–516
    Automotive sector, 132–145
    airbag systems, 141
    ancillary equipment, 142
    body elements, 144
    bumpers, 141
    dashboards, 140–141
    developing applications, 140
    emerging applications, 140
    engine covers, 142
    fenders, 144
    fuel tanks, 140
    glazing, 144
    intake manifolds, 142
    interior trims, 141
    lenses, 141
    market segmentation of, 139f
    mono-material concept, 140
    radiator fan, 142–144
    ready-to-install modules, 140
    sealing, 144
    seating, 144
    shields and barriers, 144–145
    thermoplastic applications in, 145,
    146t–152t
    under-the-hood parts, 142, 143t
    weight saving in, 613, 639–641
    GHG emissions, 640t
    opposite way towards, 639
    Avantium Research and Technology,
    636
    Average temperature, 6–7
    B
    Ball indentation, 320
    Banned substances, 13
    Barriers, in automotive sector, 144–145
    Bases, chemical resistance of polymers
    in, 552–559, 556t–557t
    Bedding sector, 198–199
    Benzaldehyde, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 568t
    Benzene, chemical resistance of polymers
    in, 540t–541t
    Benzyl alcohol, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 564t–565t
    Benzyl chloride, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 583t–584t
    Bio-additives, 98
    Bio-based polyethylene terephthalate
    (PET), 633
    Biocarbon content, 14
    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 645
    Biodegradable plastics, 14–15
    use in packaging, 117
    BIO-FLEX®, 630
    example of properties, 631t
    BioFormPX™, 636
    BIOFRONT™, 624, 628–629
    Biofuel, 98
    Biograde®, 624, 629–630
    property examples of, 624t
    BioHybrid, 630
    example of properties, 632t
    Biological degradation, 30
    Biomass, 14
    BIOPAR®, 628
    Bioplastics, 798, 169, 619
    consumption of, 99f
    raw material costs, 99t
    Biopolyethylene, 620
    Biopolyols, 620
    Bio-sourced composites, 630–631
    Bio-sourced thermoplastics, 619–631
    life cycle examples, 652t
    Bio-TPU family, 636
    Bleeding, 11–12
    Blow molding, 82
    containers, 119
    Body elements, in automotive sector, 144
    Bottles, packaging, 119
    Braskem, 632–633
    Brittle point, 9, 373
    Building/civil engineering, 120–132
    applications, 126, 127f
    exteriors, 127–128
    geomembranes, geotextiles, geogrids,
    130–132
    interiors, 129–130, 129f
    pipes and tubing, 130
    thermoplastic applications in, 132,
    133t–138t
    wood thermoplastic composites, 126
    Bulk compression, 315–316
    Bulk modulus, 404
    Bulk molding compounds (BMCs), 83
    for engine covers, 142
    Bulk properties, 216–221
    Bumpers, 141
    Burning, rate of, 19
    Butane, chemical resistance of polymers
    in, 540t–541t
    Butanol, chemical resistance of polymers
    in, 564t–565t
    Butanone, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 571t–572t
    Butyl acetate, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 574t–575t
    Butylamine, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 560t–561t
    C
    Cable coating, 155–156
    CAD software, 608t
    Cadmium, 13–14
    Canvas, 128
    Carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics
    (CFRTP), 212, 612–613
    properties of, 68, 68t
    Carbon fibers (CFs), 54–55, 55f, 63, 445
    composite fuselage, 94–95
    -reinforced polyamide front ends
    molding, 639
    Carbon footprint, 15
    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), 516
    reinforcement with, 612–613
    Carbon tetrachloride, chemical resistance
    of polymers in, 583t–584t
    Cellulose, 620
    -based plastics, ready-to-use, 624
    fiber composite console armrest, 641
    Cellulosics, 620
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    600
    Ceramis® Barrier Films, 609
    Certification Process for recycled plastics,
    614
    Chain architecture, 45
    Charpy impact test, 5, 228f, 318
    notched, 318f–319f
    unnotched, 319f
    Checklist, 210–215
    proposal, 32–38
    Chemical behavior, 221–222
    resistance of stressed samples, 222
    resistance of unstressed samples,
    221–222
    Chemical oxygen demand (COD), 645
    Chemical resistance
    in alcohols, 563–567
    in aldehydes, 567–570
    in amines, 559–563
    in bases, 552–559Index 671
    in chlorinated hydrocarbons,
    580–586
    in esters, 570–577
    in ethers, 577–580
    in hydrocarbons, 539–543
    influencing factors, 537–538
    in ketones, 570
    in mineral/inorganic acids, 548–552
    in oils and fuels, 543–548
    in organic acids, 552
    in oxidants, 586–590
    in phenols, 580
    Chemical Safety Report (CSR), 13
    Chemical uptake, 10–11
    Chemicals
    and heat, 214–215
    and stress/time, 214
    China reed reinforced pallets, life cycle
    environmental performance of,
    645t
    Chinese market, 85–86
    Chlorinated hydrocarbons, chemical
    resistance of polymers in,
    580–586, 583t–584t
    Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE)
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    598
    Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C),
    598
    and environmental stress cracking, 593
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    597–598
    Chloroethane, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 583t–584t
    Chloroform, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 583t–584t
    Chloroparaffins, 13
    Chromic acid, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 587t–588t
    Chromium, 14
    Civil engineering. See Building/civil
    engineering
    Clash & Berg test, 9, 373
    CML, 645
    CO2
    -based polymers, 98
    and global warming, 11
    Coca Cola, 633
    Coefficient of friction (CoF), 416,
    445–451, 447t–450t
    Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE),
    8–10, 10t, 72–74, 378–386
    deformation due to mechanical
    stresses, 73
    effect of additives on, 385–386
    effect of molecular orientation on, 386,
    386t
    effect of morphology on, 385
    Poisson’s Ratio and Young’s
    Modulus, 73
    releasing of organic additives, 74
    residual internal stresses, 73
    shrinkage, 73
    structural effect of tested polymer,
    378–385
    warpage, 73
    water uptake, 73
    Coefficient of thermal linear expansion
    (CTLE), 378–386, 379t
    of traditional materials, 385t
    Color, effect on polymers, 596
    Colorants, 74
    problems related to, 530–531
    Coloration, 530–532
    Commodity thermoplastics, 116, 212
    dense/foamed, property of, 256t, 259t
    recycling and reuse of, 98
    strength and stress retentions for, 411t
    Comparative tracking index, 511
    and performance level categories,
    correlation between, 512t
    Comparisons, 227–230
    hazardous, 227–228
    for information purposes, 229
    risk minimization, 227
    special cautions, 228–229
    unexpected and questionable, 229–230
    Compensate for higher plastic costs,
    28–29
    Composites
    in automotive sector, 144
    consumption of, 81f, 81t, 84, 86t
    market shares of, 79–80, 81f, 84f, 84t
    processings, market share for, 85f
    with wood, in building, 130
    Compostable polymers, 14–15
    Compounds, formulation of, 58–63
    improvement of general behavior,
    58–61
    improvement of special features, 61–63
    Compressive modulus, vs. tensile
    modulus, 317f
    Compressive properties, 303–316, 315t
    bulk compression, 315–316
    shear properties, 316, 316t
    uniaxial compression, 303–315
    Compressive strength, 316t
    vs. tensile strength, 317f
    Conductive carbon and steel fibers, 515
    Conductive carbon blacks, 515
    Conductive grades, properties of, 70, 70t
    Conductive polymers, 62–63
    Cone calorimeter, 18
    Consumption
    of bioplastics, 99f
    of composites, 81f, 81t
    of plastics, 78t, 79f
    global, 78, 78f, 78t
    of thermoplastic and thermoset
    composites, 84, 86t
    of thermoplastics, 83–84, 85t
    Contact, testing chemical resistance by,
    221–222
    Containers, packaging, 119
    Continuous fiber-reinforced sheet
    overmolded by injection, 57–58
    Continuous use temperature (CUT), 7
    assessments concerning, 356–362,
    357t–362t
    vs. stress yield, 212, 212f
    Control equipments, 158
    Conventional conductive additives,
    examples of, 514–516
    COPE (copolyesters), example of, 477t
    Copolyester thermoplastic elastomers
    (Hytrel), 620
    FR solutions, 471
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    601
    Copper, 13
    Corrosivity, and fire behavior, 18
    Corrugated pipes, service life of, 226,
    226f
    Cost per volume, and density, 241–251,
    252t, 253f
    Cost savings, induced by weight savings,
    613
    CoverForm® process, 532
    Cradle to factory gate, 644
    Cradle to grave, 644
    Crankshaft cover with integrated oil seal,
    641
    Creep, 50–51, 416–437
    Creep deformation, vs. time, 214f
    Creep modulus, 216, 217t, 416, 425t–427t
    vs. time
    at room temperature, 428t–432t
    at various temperatures, 433t–437t
    Creep strength, 216, 416, 438t
    Cresol, chemical resistance of polymers
    in, 581t
    Critical stresses, 214, 214t
    Crude oil
    vs. bio-sourced plastics, 96–99, 97f
    vs. polymer cost, price comparison,
    95–96, 95f–96f, 96t
    Crystalline polymers, 49–50, 49f
    Crystallization, 50, 51f
    Crystallization test, 9, 375
    Crystalsev, 633
    Current frequency, effect on electrical
    properties, 17
    Cyclic olefin copolymer
    weathering, light, and UV resistance, 598
    Cyclohexane, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 540t–541t
    Cyclohexanol, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 564t–565t
    Cyclohexanone, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 571t–572t672 Index
    D
    D495 (arc resistance), 508–511
    and performance level categories,
    correlation between, 512t
    Damping, in automotive sector, 144–145
    Dashboards, 140–141
    Decorations, 530–532
    in building, 128
    Deflection temperature. See Heat
    deflection temperature (HDT)
    Deformation
    creep deformation, 214f
    due to mechanical stresses, 73
    in-plan shear deformation, 316f
    Density, 231–260
    and cost per volume, 241–251, 252t
    examples, 232t–240t
    vs. modulus and strength, 258f
    reduction
    foaming of glass fiber-reinforced
    thermoplastics, 259
    hollow parts, 258–259
    microcellular thermoplastics,
    257–258
    using structural foam techniques,
    254–257
    reduction using structural foam
    techniques and hollow parts,
    252–259
    of reinforced or filled grade, 240
    specific yield strength and specific
    modulus, 241, 242t–251t
    statistical analysis, 231–240, 241t
    weight savings, 251–252, 254f
    Design issues, 2–32
    dimensional stability, 9–11
    economics, 23–29, 27f
    electrical properties, 16–17
    fire behavior, 17–19
    heat, 6–8
    lifetime and end-of-life criteria, 29–31,
    30f
    low temperatures, 8–9
    mechanical loading, 3–6
    regulation, health, safety requirements,
    31–32, 31f
    sensory properties, 19–23, 19f
    sustainability, 11–15
    Design rules, 3f
    Desorption, 11–12
    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating,
    609–610
    Diamonex DLC coatings, 609–610
    Dibutyl phthalate, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 574t–575t
    Dichloromethane, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 583t–584t
    Dielectric constant, 489–496
    examples, 490t–495t
    Dielectric strength, 16, 496–502
    examples, 503t–507t
    Diethyl amine, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 560t–561t
    Diethyl ether, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 578t
    Dimensional stability, 9–11, 10f, 72–74,
    377–406
    aging, desorption, bleeding, releasing
    of organic components, 11
    checklist, 33, 34t
    coefficient of thermal expansion,
    72–74, 378–386
    coefficient of thermal linear expansion,
    378–386, 379t
    effects of mechanical loading, 5
    interactions between loaded and
    unloaded axes, 404
    and mechanical hysteresis, 405–406,
    405f
    and relaxation of residual stresses, 405
    releasing of organic additives, 395–404
    shrinkage, 10
    after molding, 386–394, 386f, 387t
    strain recovery, permanent set, 405
    thermal expansion/retraction, 9–10, 10t
    warpage, 10
    water uptake, 395, 395t–396t, 404t
    water/chemical uptake, 10–11
    Dimethyl amine, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 560t–561t
    Dioctyl phthalate, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 574t–575t
    Dissipation factor, vs. frequency, 230,
    230f
    Distortion. See Warpage
    Dow Chemical Company, 633
    DuPont, 633–636
    Durability enhancement, in EcoDesign,
    605–607
    long-lasting parts design, 607
    protective additives for long-lasting
    compounds, 606–607
    switching to another thermoplastic,
    605–606
    Dynamic aging effect, 512–514
    on electrical properties, 17
    Dynamic fatigue, and mechanical
    loading, 5
    Dynamic torsion modulus, 373–375
    E
    ECO proprietary technology, 636
    ECOBRAS, 629
    EcoDesign
    conventional polymers synthesized
    from bio-sourced chemical bricks,
    632–636
    life cycle assessment (or analysis)
    (LCA)
    end-product type, environmental
    impact of, 647–651
    fibers, environmental impact of, 646
    polymer production, environmental
    impact of, 646
    processing, environmental impact of,
    646–647
    recycling, environmental impact of,
    651
    terminology, 644–645
    reinforcement with natural fibers for
    polymer composites, 636–638
    renewable polymers, 619–631
    renewable resources, additives from, 638
    thermoplastics versatility in sustainable
    use, 638–643
    in automotive industry, 639–641
    in energy-efficient house, 638
    in packaging, 642–643
    well-established routes
    durability enhancement, 605–607
    recycled plastics, use of, 614–618
    simulation and modeling tools,
    607–609
    smart coatings, 609–610
    used parts repairing, 619
    weight saving, 610–614
    Eco-Indicator 95, 99, 645
    Economics, 23–29, 27f, 77–112
    additive costs, 27
    Asian market, 84–86, 87t–88t
    Chinese market, 85–86
    Indian market, 86
    Japanese market, 86
    checklist, 35, 37t
    compensate for higher plastic costs,
    28–29
    consumption trends of thermoplastics,
    83–84
    crude oil, 95–99
    vs. bio-sourced plastics, 96–99, 97f
    vs. polymer cost, price comparison,
    95–96, 95f–96f, 96t
    effect of lifetime on cost, 29
    global plastics industry, 77–79
    market shares for main application
    sectors, 80–82, 82f, 82t
    composites, 84f, 84t
    thermoplastics, 83f, 83t
    market shares of thermoplastic
    families, 79
    North American market, 84, 86t
    part costs, 23–27
    plastic costs. See Plastic costs
    price index hypotheses for plastics, 99,
    100t–109t
    processing modes, 82–83, 85f
    raw material costs, 27
    reinforcement costs, 28
    structure of plastic processing industry,
    88, 88t
    useful sources for initiation of in-depth
    studies, 99, 109t–110t
    Western European market, 84, 87tIndex 673
    EcoPaXX™, 633
    Eco-profile, 644
    Ecovio®, 629
    property examples, 629t
    Elastic limit, 216, 263, 314
    Elastic modulus, , 216. See Young’s
    modulus
    Elasticity, of thermoplastic elastomers,
    47, 47f
    Electric components, 156
    Electrical properties, 16–17, 16f
    alternating current loss tangent or loss
    factor, 496
    arc resistance, 16, 508–512
    arc resistance (D495), 508–511
    comparative tracking index, 511
    high-voltage arc tracking rate, 512
    checklist, 33, 35t
    dielectric strength, 16, 496–502
    dynamic aging effect, 512–514
    electrically conductive thermoplastics,
    514–517
    examples of conventional conductive
    additives, 514–516
    innovative solutions, 516–517
    frequency, temperature, moisture,
    physical, dynamic aging effects,
    17
    frequency effect, 512–514
    examples, 513–514
    high voltage arc tracking rate, 16–17
    and humidity, 222–223
    moisture effect, 512–514
    examples, 513
    physical effect, 512–514
    relative permittivity/dielectric constant,
    489–496
    surface resistivity, 16, 502–508
    temperature effect, 512–514
    examples, 512
    volume resistivity, 16, 16t, 480
    Electrical/electronic market, 145–158
    application overview, 154–158
    fuel cells, 157
    lighting, 157
    measuring and control equipment, 158
    photovoltaic solar cells, 156–157
    polymer light-emitting diodes,
    157–158
    substrates for electronic equipment, 158
    thermoplastic applications in, 158,
    159t–166t
    UL fire rating, 154
    UL temperature index, 153–154
    wire and cable coating, 155–156
    wiring equipment, 158
    Electrically conductive thermoplastics,
    514–517
    examples of conventional conductive
    additives, 514–516
    antistatic specialties, 515–516
    conductive carbon and steel fibers,
    515
    conductive carbon blacks, 515
    metal powders or flakes, 515
    innovative solutions, 516–517
    Electromagnetic interference (EMI)
    grades, 515
    property examples, 516t
    Electrostatic dissipative (ESD) polymers,
    479
    Elemental composition, 40–42, 42f,
    43t–44t
    Elongation at break, 278t
    and UV aging, 214f
    vs. temperature, 408f, 414t
    vs. time, 213f
    Elongation work, 264–287
    EMA ionomers
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    598
    End-of-life costs, 212–213
    End-of-life criteria, 29–31
    checklist, 35, 37t
    End-product type, environmental impact
    of, 647–651
    Energy
    consumption, 646, 647t
    requirements, 646, 648t
    of fossil, 647, 651t
    Energy-efficient house, 638
    energy and GHG assessment, 640t
    Engine covers, 142
    Engineering modulus, 241, 242t–250t,
    425t–426t
    Engineering thermoplastics, 116, 214f
    in building, 129–130
    dense/foamed, property of, 256t, 259t
    market shares of, 80t
    strength and stress retentions for, 411t
    Engineering yield strength, 241,
    242t–250t
    E-nose, 21
    Entertainment appliances, 158–169,
    167t–168t
    thermoplastic applications in, 169,
    170t–176t
    Environment
    checklist, 33, 34t
    impact of polymer production, 646
    trends, 12f. See also Sustainability
    Environment of service, 30
    Environmental Design, 604
    Environmental stress cracking (ESC),
    222, 538, 590–594
    and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, 593
    influencing factors, 590–591
    and polyamides, 592
    and polycarbonate, 593
    and polyetherether ketone, 594
    and polyetherimide, 594
    and polymethylmethacrylate, 592
    and polyolefins, 591–592
    and polyoxymethylene, 592–593
    and polyphenylene ether, 593
    and polysulfones, 593–594
    and polyvinyl chloride, 593
    and polyvinylidene fluoride, 593
    and styrenics, 592
    Environment-friendly products, common
    production ways, 604
    Esters, 59
    chemical resistance of polymers in,
    570–577, 574t–575t
    ETFEs
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    600
    Ethanal, chemical resistance of polymers
    in, 568t
    Ethanoic acid, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 553t–554t
    Ethanol, chemical resistance of polymers
    in, 564t–565t
    Ethers, chemical resistance of polymers
    in, 577–580, 578t
    Ethyl acetate, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 574t–575t
    Ethyl chloride, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 583t–584t
    Ethylene monochlorotrifluoroethylenes
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    600
    Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers
    (EVAs)
    weathering, light, and UV resistance, 598
    Ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    598
    E-tongue, 21
    Eutrophication, 11–12, 645
    EXATEC (multilayer coating system),
    610, 641
    Expanded graphite, 470
    Expanded polystyrene (EPS), for
    packaging, 120
    Expected neat grades, 362, 378, 395
    Exteriors, building, 127–128
    decorations, 128
    flexible structures, 128
    insulation, 127
    light structural functions, 127–128
    seals/sealing, 128
    transparency, 128
    waterproofing, 128
    Extrinsic conductive polymers, 62, 514f
    Extrusion, 83
    F
    Fatigue, 438–440, 439f–440f, 441t–442t
    Federal Aviation Administration (FAR),
    31
    Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards
    (FMVSS), 31674 Index
    Fenders, in automotive sector, 144
    Fibers
    energy use for production of, 646, 650t
    environmental impact of, 646
    reinforcements, 54–55, 55f, 55t, 89
    tensile strength and modulus, 611f
    and weight saving, 610–611
    FIBROLON®, 630
    Filled thermoplastics, 53–58
    density of, 240
    with glass beads, 56, 56t
    with mineral fillers, 55–56, 56t
    nanofillers. See Nanofillers
    Film profile cladding, 532
    Films
    for aging protection, 60–61
    packaging, 118–119
    FIM, 532
    Fire behavior, 17–19
    checklist, 35, 36t
    cone calorimeter, 18
    FR modifications effect on properties,
    examples, 471–478
    FR solutions, 468–470
    glow wire test, 19
    ignition temperature, 18
    inherently FR polymers, 460–468
    oxygen index, 18, 18t
    predisposition to burn, 460
    preliminary remarks, 458–459
    rate of burning, 19
    regulations, 458–459
    smoke opacity, toxicity, and corrosivity,
    18
    top solutions
    ABS/PC alloys, 471
    copolyester thermoplastic elastomer,
    471
    polyamides, 470–471
    polycarbonate, 471
    polycarbonate/polyester blend resin,
    471
    polyolefins, 471
    polyphenylene oxide, 471
    thermoplastic polyesters, 471
    thermoplastic polyurethane, 471
    UL94 fire ratings, 18
    Fire requirements, checklist, 35, 37t
    Fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastics, 40,
    61–62
    Flame retardants (FR), 169, 458
    brominated, 459
    families, 459
    predisposition to burn, 460
    Flex modulus
    vs. temperature, 213f
    vs. tensile modulus, 317f
    Flex strength
    vs. temperature, 213f
    vs. tensile strength, 317f
    Flexibility, low-temperature, 9
    Flexible polybutylene, for pipes/tubing,
    130
    Flexible structures, in building, 128
    Flexural modulus, 227–228, 228f–229f,
    228t, 304t
    Flexural properties, 291–303, 303t
    Flexural strengths, 313t
    Flow-coating/clearmelt process, 532
    Fluorinated thermoplastics
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    600
    Fluoroguard®, 445
    FMVSS (Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
    Standards) 302, 19
    Foams
    in automotive sector, 145
    packaging, 119–120
    Fogging, 75, 526
    Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 31
    Food packaging films, 118
    Formaldehyde, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 568t
    Formic acid, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 553t–554t
    Fortron 1140A66, 460
    Fossil
    energy requirement, 647, 651t
    life cycle examples, 652t
    Free radical vinyl polymerization, 45
    Frequency effect, 512–514
    examples, 513–514
    Frequency-dependent properties, 223–225
    prediction through process of
    deduction for, 230, 230f
    FST (Flame, Smoke and Toxicity),
    458–459
    Fuel cells, 157
    Fuel savings, 613–614
    Fuel tanks, 140
    Fuels, chemical resistance of polymers in,
    543–548, 544t–545t
    Furniture sector, 198–199
    indoor furniture, 199
    outdoor furniture, 198–199
    thermoplastic applications in, 199,
    200t–202t
    G
    Gaïalene®, 621
    Gap hider, 641
    Gas-assisted injection molding, 258
    Gehman test, 9
    Geogrids, 130–132
    Geomembranes, 130–132
    Geotextiles, 130–132
    Gevo, Inc., 636
    Glass beads
    filling with, 56, 56t
    reinforcement with, 611–612
    Glass fibers (GFs), 55, 63
    life cycle of, 15t
    Glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics
    (GFRTP), 612–613
    elongation at break of, 66, 66f
    foaming of, 259, 259t
    heat deflection temperature of, 66, 66f
    notched impact strength of, 65, 66f
    pallets, life cycle environmental
    performance of, 645t
    polyamide, density of, 241t
    Rockwell M of, 66, 66f
    tensile and flex modulus of, 65, 66f
    yield stress of, 65f
    Glass mat thermoplastic, 83
    Glass transition temperature (Tg), 50, 50f,
    223–225, 340, 341t–347t, 357t
    Glass-reinforced polyamide (PA), 605
    Glazing, in automotive sector, 144
    Global plastics consumption, 78, 78f, 78t
    Global plastics industry, 77–79
    Global warming, 11
    potential, 644
    Glossy polymers, 21, 74
    Glow wire test, 19
    Grades
    influence on UL temperature, 7
    properties of, 63–70, 64t–65t
    Graphene, 516–517
    -based coatings, 610
    Graphite, 445
    Grätzel technology, 157
    Green attitude checklist, 33, 34t
    Green Design, 604
    Greenhouse effect, 11
    Grilamid 1S, 633
    Grilamid 2S, 633
    Grilamid TR, 633
    Grivory HT3 (PA10T/X), 633
    Growth rates of plastics, 78–79, 78t
    H
    Halogenated derivatives, 62
    Halogen-free FR (HFFR), 458–459, 468f,
    469
    Hardness, 5, 5t, 227–228, 228f, 228t, 320,
    329t–336t
    Harshness, 21–23
    ISO and SAE standards dealing with,
    24t–27t
    Hazardous comparison, 227–228
    Haze, 21, 524t–525t
    Health requirements, 31–32, 31f
    checklist, 35, 37t
    Heat, 6–8, 6f
    absorbing materials, in automotive
    sector, 144–145
    accelerated aging, 8
    average temperature, 6–7
    checklist, 33, 33tIndex 675
    and chemicals, 214–215
    continuous use temperature, 7
    long-term effect on oxidizing aging,
    409–416
    and mechanical loading, 213, 213f
    short-term effects, 408–409
    behavior above room temperature,
    408–409
    behavior below room temperature,
    409
    UL temperature index, 7
    Vicat softening temperature, 7–8
    Heat deflection temperature (HDT), 7–8,
    340–347, 348t–356t
    comparison of HDT A and HDT B,
    347, 357t
    HDT A, 356f
    HDT B, 356f
    prediction of HDT A and HDT B data,
    229, 229f
    Heat dissipaters, 445
    Heavy metals, 13–14
    Hexane, chemical resistance of polymers
    in, 540t–541t
    High impact polystyrene, and environmental stress cracking, 592
    High voltage arc tracking rate (HVTR),
    16–17
    High-density polyethylene (HDPE), 45
    corrugated pipes, long-term service
    of, 226
    vs. crude oil, price comparison, 95f
    High-performance thermoplastics,
    strength and stress retentions for,
    410t
    High-tech thermoplastic, 213, 213f–214f
    High-voltage arc tracking rate, 512
    and performance level categories,
    correlation between, 512t
    Hiprolon® 200, 633
    Hollow parts, density reduction using,
    258–259
    Home medical care, 194
    Hoop stress, 225f
    Household appliances, 158–169,
    167t–168t
    thermoplastic applications in, 169,
    170t–176t
    Humidity, 222–223, 223t
    moisture absorption, 222t
    moisture content vs. time, 222f
    Hydrocarbons, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 539–543, 540t–541t
    Hydrochloric acid, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 549t–550t
    Hydrogen peroxide, chemical resistance
    of polymers in, 587t–588t
    Hydrolysis stabilizers, 60
    protective additives, 606
    Hytrel® RS, 633–636
    I
    IEC 93, 16
    IEC 60243, 496
    Ignition temperature, 18
    Immersion, testing chemical resistance
    by, 221–222
    Impact
    behavior, mechanical loading, 4–5, 5t
    grade, 40
    vs. modulus, 319f
    tests
    low temperature, 9
    processed at low temperatures, 371,
    372t–373t
    Impact enhancers, 58
    Impact modifiers, 58
    Impact strength, 317–320
    above room temperature, 364
    of dry/conditioned polyamides, 224t
    Indian market, 86
    Indoor furniture, 199
    Industrial oils, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 544t–545t
    Inflatable structures, in building, 128
    Initial modulus, 216, 264, 314–315
    Injection molding of structural foams,
    254, 257
    In-mold coating (IMC), 532
    In-mold decoration (IMD), 531–532
    In-mold graining, 532
    Innegra S, 639
    Inorganic acids, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 548–552, 549t–550t
    In-plan shear deformation, 316f
    Inrekor concept, 94
    Institute of Food Technologists, Sensory
    Evaluation Division of, 19
    Instrumental measurements, 19–20,
    533–534
    Insulation, 127
    Intake manifolds, in automotive sector, 142
    Interior trims, in automotive sector, 141
    Interiors, building, 129–130, 129f
    composites with wood, 130
    engineering plastics, 129–130
    polyethylene, 129
    soft and U-PVC, 129
    styrenics, 129
    Intrinsic conductive polymers, 62, 514f
    Intumescent materials, 469
    Inventory of Existing Chemical
    Substances Produced or Imported
    in China (IECSC), 13, 32
    IRHD (international rubber hardness
    degrees), 320
    ISO 48, 320
    ISO 178:2010, 301
    ISO 179-1:2010, 318
    ISO 179-2:1997, 318
    ISO 180:2000, 318
    ISO 527-1:2012, 262–263
    ISO 604:2002, 303
    ISO 6603-1:2000, 319
    ISO 6603-2:2000, 319
    ISO 7765-1:1988, 319
    ISO 7765-2:1994, 319
    ISO 8256:2004, 319
    ISO 9854-1:1994, 319
    ISO 9854-2:1994, 319
    ISO 11673:2005, 319
    ISO 14000, 619
    ISO 14125:1998, 302
    ISO 17281:2002, 319
    Isooctane, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 540t–541t
    Isotropic plastics, 228
    Isotropy, 70–72
    Izod impact strength, 223
    notched, 321t–328t
    Izod impact test, 5, 5t, 217–221, 228f, 318
    notched, 217–221, 318f
    J
    Japanese market, 86
    K
    Kenaf, 169, 630–631
    Ketones, chemical resistance of polymers
    in, 570, 571t–572t
    Kinetics
    changes during long-term tests, 224–225
    and lifetime, 30
    Knees, 223–225
    L
    Land pollution, 11–12
    Layup, 83
    Lead, 13–14
    Leisure. See Sports/leisure
    Lenses, in automotive sector, 141
    LEXAN™, 605, 641
    Life cycle assessment, 15
    end-product type, environmental
    impact of, 647–651
    fibers, environmental impact of, 646
    polymer production, environmental
    impact of, 646
    processing, environmental impact of,
    646–647
    recycling, environmental impact of, 651
    terminology, 644–645
    Life cycle inventory (LCI), 644
    Lifetime, 29–31, 30f
    criteria, 35, 37t
    effect on cost, 29
    enhancement, 30–31
    environment of service, 30
    and mechanical loading, 6
    modeling, 30, 225–226
    predictions, 225–226676 Index
    Light resistance
    alloys, 601
    cellulosics, 600
    fluorinated thermoplastics, 600
    liquid crystal polymers, 601
    polyacetals, 600
    polyamides, 599
    polybenzimidazole, 601
    polycarbonate, 600
    polyetherimide, 601
    polymethylmethacrylate, 599–600
    polyolefins, 597–598
    polyphenylene ether, 600
    polyphenylene sulfide, 600–601
    polysulfone, 600
    PVC, 598
    ranking proposal, 596t
    styrenics, 598–599
    thermoplastic elastomer, 601
    thermoplastic polyesters, 599
    thermoplastic vulcanizate, 601
    Light stabilizers, 60
    protective additives, 606
    Light structural functions, in building,
    127–128
    Lightening and weight savings
    in packaging, 614
    in transport, 613
    Lighting, 157
    Lignin, 620
    Linear low-density polyethylene
    (LLDPE), 45
    Liquid crystal polymer, special behavior
    of, 72
    Liquid crystal polymers (LCPs), 28, 95,
    317
    CTE of, 386, 386t
    frequency effect on, 513
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    601
    Liquid plasticizers, 12
    Liquid wood based on lignin, 626
    Loaded/unloaded axes interactions, and
    dimensional stability, 404
    Local properties, 216–221
    Long glass fibers (LGFs), 57
    -reinforced thermoplastics, properties
    of, 67, 67t
    Long-lasting parts, 605f, 607
    Low corrosivity FR compounds, 458
    Low temperatures, 8–9, 8f
    brittle point, 9
    checklist, 33, 33t
    crystallization test, 9
    rigidity in torsion, 9
    service, 8t
    tests, 8–9
    Low toxicity FR additives, 458
    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE), 45
    vs. crude oil, price comparison, 96f
    Low-temperature
    behavior, 364–375
    tests, 364–375
    assessments and characteristics,
    374t–375t
    brittle point, 373
    standardized impact tests, 371,
    372t–373t
    M
    Machinery, in agriculture, 202
    Magnetic polymers, 63
    Market appeal of thermoplastics, 74–75
    Market segmentation, of automotive
    sector, 139f
    Market shares
    of composites, 79–80, 81f
    processings, 85f
    of engineering and specialty plastics,
    80t
    of plastics, 79, 79t
    of thermoplastic families, 79–80, 80t,
    81f
    of thermoplastic processings, 85f
    for main application sectors, 80–82,
    82f, 82t
    composites, 84f, 84t
    thermoplastics, 83f, 83t
    Mater-Bi®, 621
    Mats, in automotive sector, 145
    Matting, 21, 74
    MBA900H PLA molding compound, 169
    MDMO-PPV, 157
    Mean, 216–217
    Measurements
    equipments, 158
    instrumental, 19–20, 533–534
    noise, 533
    Mechanical engineering, 169–177
    thermoplastic applications in, 177,
    178t–188t
    Mechanical hysteresis, and dimensional
    stability, 405–406, 405f
    Mechanical loading, 3–6, 4f
    checklist, 32, 32t
    combination with other parameters, 6
    dimensional effects, 5
    dynamic fatigue, 5
    hardness, 5, 5t
    and heat, 213, 213f
    impact behavior, 4–5, 5t
    and lifetime, 6
    stress rate and time effect, 4
    temperature effect, 4
    testing chemical resistance by, 222
    type of loading, 4
    Mechanical properties, 215–216,
    261–338, 407–456
    coefficient of friction, 445–451
    comparison of, 317
    compressive properties, 303–316
    flexural properties, 291–303,
    303t–304t, 313t
    hardness, 320, 329t–336t
    impact strength, 317–320
    and physical laws, 261–262
    Poisson’s ratio, 440–444, 442t–443t
    PV limit, 451, 452t
    tensile properties, 262–291
    thermal dependency of, 407–416
    long-term effect on oxidizing aging,
    409–416
    short-term heat effect, 408–409
    time-dependent, 416–440
    tribological additives, 444–445, 446t
    understanding information and
    requirements, 262
    wear and abrasion, 451–454, 452t–454t
    Medical market, 188–198
    thermoplastic applications in, 194–198,
    195t–198t
    MEK, chemical resistance of polymers in,
    571t–572t
    Melamines, 469
    Mercury, 13–14
    Metal functionalized silsesquioxane
    Me-POSS, 470
    Metal hydroxides, 469
    Metal powders or flakes, 515
    Metallization, 531
    Metallocene catalysis polymerization, 45
    Methanal, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 568t
    Methanoic acid, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 553t–554t
    Methanol, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 564t–565t
    Methylene chloride, chemical resistance
    of polymers in, 583t–584t
    Methylmethacrylate-acrylonitrilebutadiene-styrene (MABS)
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    598–599
    Microcellular thermoplastics, 257–258
    Military (MIL), 31
    Mineral acids, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 548–552, 549t–550t
    Mineral filled grades, properties of,
    68–69, 69t
    Mineral fillers, 62
    filling with, 55–56, 56t
    reinforcement with, 55–56, 56t,
    611–612
    Minimum service temperature, 8, 364,
    365t–371t
    Mirel, 625
    Miscellaneous proprietary alloys and
    compounds, 628–630
    Modeling for lifetime forecasting,
    225–226Index 677
    Modified polyvinyl chloride, for pipes/
    tubing, 130
    Modulus of rigidity. See Shear modulus
    Modulus retention, vs. temperature, 409f,
    412t–413t
    Moisture effect, 512–514
    on electrical properties, 17
    examples, 513
    Moldflow, 526
    Molding, 82
    shrinkage after, 386–394, 386f, 387t
    Molecular orientation, effect on CTE,
    386, 386t
    Molecular structure
    of thermoplastic elastomers, 47–48,
    47f–48f
    of thermoplastics, 45–47, 47f
    of thermoset, 48–49, 48f
    Molecular weight, 45
    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), 445
    Monoethyleneglycol (MEG), 636
    Mono-material concept, in automotive
    sector, 140–141
    Montmorillonite, 57, 612
    Morphology
    effect on CTE, 385
    effect on shrinkage, 386
    MuCell process, 257–258, 640
    N
    Nanocomposites, in automotive sector,
    144
    Nanofillers, 56–57, 469–470
    reinforcement with, 612
    Nanorods, 157
    Nanosilicates, 57
    -filled polyamide, 57t
    NaOH, chemical resistance of polymers
    in, 556t–557t
    National Sanitation Foundation Testing
    Laboratory, Inc. (NSF), 31
    Natural additives, 638t–639t
    Natural fibers (NFs), 54–55
    life cycle, 15t
    compared with glass fiber, 643t
    physical and mechanical properties, 637t
    -reinforced composite
    life cycle, compared to neat ABS, 644t
    polymer composites, 636–638
    -reinforced grades, properties of, 68,
    69t
    and wood plastic composites,
    comparison of engineering and
    specific properties, 637t
    Natural polymers, direct processing of, 97
    Natural rubber, 620
    Natural scraps, 97–98
    Neat grades, 231
    density of, 241f
    elongation at break of, 66, 66f
    heat deflection temperature of, 66,
    66f
    notched impact strength of, 65, 66f
    properties of, 64t–65t, 67–70, 67t–70t
    Rockwell M of, 66, 66f
    tensile and flex modulus of, 65, 66f
    yield stress of, 65f
    Net carbon footprint, 646, 649t, 651t
    NH4OH, chemical resistance of polymers
    in, 556t–557t
    Nitric acid, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 549t–550t
    No or low smoke additives, 458
    Noise, 21–23
    ISO and SAE standards dealing with,
    24t–27t
    measurement, 533
    Nonfood packaging films, 119
    Nonoil alternatives, 97, 97f
    Normal distribution, 217f
    North American market, 84, 86t
    Notched impact tests, 5, 5t. See also
    Charpy impact test; Izod impact
    test
    NVH (noise, vibration, harshness),
    533
    Nylon, for engine covers, 142
    O
    Odors, 21, 75, 532–533
    Office appliances, 158–169, 167t–168t
    thermoplastic applications in, 169,
    170t–176t
    Oils, chemical resistance of polymers in,
    543–548, 544t–545t
    Olefin/carbon fiber hybrid, 639
    Oleic acid, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 553t–554t
    Operating costs, 92
    Optical properties, 74–75
    Organic acids, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 552, 553t–554t
    Organic additives release, 74
    and dimensional stability, 395–404
    Organic components, release of, 11–12
    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLED).
    See Polymer light-emitting
    diodes
    Oriented stretched films/fibers, 70
    Outdoor furniture, 198–199
    Outdoor suitability of materials, 594
    Overmolding, 530–532
    Oxalic acid, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 553t–554t
    Oxidants, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 586–590, 587t–588t
    Oxidizing aging, long-term heat effect on,
    409–416
    Oxygen index, 18, 18t, 229, 229f, 460
    examples, 461t–467t
    P
    PA. See Polyamide (PA)
    PA4.10, 633
    PA6, 385
    and environmental stress cracking, 592
    example of, 473t–474t
    performance examples of virgin and
    recycled, 615t
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    597
    PA6.10, 620, 633
    and environmental stress cracking, 592
    PA10.10, 620, 633
    PA11, 633
    and environmental stress cracking,
    592
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    599
    PA12
    and environmental stress cracking, 592
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    599
    PA46
    frequency effect on, 513
    moisture effect on, 513
    PA66
    and environmental stress cracking, 592
    example of, 475t
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    599
    PA66 15PTFE 30 GF, 452
    Packaging, 115–120, 642–643
    bottles and other containers, 119
    cost per volume materials used in, 117f
    films, 118–119
    foams, 119–120
    lightening in, 614
    market, thermoplastic shares in, 116f
    reasons for use of thermoplastics in,
    116
    thermoplastic applications in, 120,
    121t–125t
    Painting, 531
    Panoramic roof system, 94
    Paraxylene, 636
    Parts
    costs, 23–27
    protection, 30–31
    requirements, estimation of, 210–215
    alternative polymers, 212
    downsizing, 212–213
    usual combinations of aggressive
    factors, 213–215
    weak points and average properties,
    211–212
    PC 15PTFE 30 GF, 451
    Pearlbond® ECO, 636
    Pearlthane®, 636
    Pebax®, 620
    Perfluoropolyether (PFPE), 445678 Index
    Petroleum-based components, biocomponents partly replacing, 97
    Phenols, chemical resistance of polymers
    in, 580, 581t
    Phosphorus, 469
    additives, 62
    derivatives, 13
    Photochemical oxidation, 644
    Photooxidation, 594–601
    anti-UV additives, effect of, 597
    color, effect of, 596
    light and UV resistance
    examples, 597–601
    weathering, 594
    Photovoltaic solar cells, 156–157
    Physical aging, effect on electrical
    properties, 17
    Physical aspects of thermoplastics, 21
    defects, 22t
    Physical effects, 512–514
    Pigments, problems related to, 530–531
    Pipes/tubing
    in agriculture, 202
    in building, 130
    acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, 130
    flexible polybutylene, 130
    modified PVC, 130
    PET, 130
    polyethylene, 130
    polypropylene, 130
    rigid PVC, 130
    Plane wings, load compensator on,
    28–29
    PlantBottle®, 633
    Plastic costs, 89–95
    additive costs, 89, 91f
    end-life cost of plastic parts, 86t
    good reasons to use thermoplastics,
    92–95
    processing costs, 91–92, 92f, 93t
    raw material costs, 89, 90f
    reinforcement costs, 89, 91f
    Plastic lamps, 157
    Plastic processing industry, structure of,
    88, 88t
    Plasticization, 58–59
    Plasticizers, 12–13
    Plastics
    action of chemical on, 538
    biodegradable, 14–15
    Plasticulture, 202
    Platamid®, 620
    Plexiglas, 94
    Poisson’s ratio, 5, 73, 404, 440–444,
    442t–443t
    Pollution checklist, 33, 34t
    Polyacetals
    toughening effects on properties of, 58t
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    600
    Polyamide (PA), 620, 633. See also
    PA4.10; PA6; PA6.10; PA10.10;
    PA11; PA12; PA46; PA66; PA66
    15PTFE 30 GF
    dry/conditioned
    electrical properties of, 224t
    impact strength of, 224t
    mechanical properties of, 223t
    and environmental stress cracking, 592
    FR solutions, 470–471
    glass fiber-reinforced, density of, 241t
    industrially recycled, 616t
    moisture effect on, 513
    nanocomposites, 57t
    nanosilicates-filled, 57t
    properties, effect of glass beads on,
    56, 56t
    for radiator fans, 142–144
    totally or partially natural-sourced
    engineering plastics, 634t–635t
    toughening effects on properties of, 58t
    water uptake of, 395t, 404t
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    599
    Polyaryletherketones (PAEK), 95
    Polybenzimidazole (PBI)
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    601
    Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), 13–14
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs),
    13–14
    Polybutylene, and environmental stress
    cracking, 592
    Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 415
    Arrhenius plot for, 415f
    example of, 476t
    Polycaprolactone (PCL)/starch-based
    blends, mechanical performance
    of, 632t
    Polycarbonate (PC), 386, 605
    dense and foamed, properties, 255t
    and environmental stress cracking, 593
    example of, 475t
    FR solutions, 471
    PC/PBT blend, example of, 477t
    PC/polyester blend resin, FR solutions,
    471
    visible light transmission, 523t
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    600
    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 13
    Polychlorotrifluoroethylenes
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    600
    Polyesters
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    599
    Polyethelene (PE)
    and environmental stress cracking, 591
    for packaging, 120
    for pipes/tubing, 130
    properties of, 46t
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    597
    Polyethelene terephthalate (PET), 618
    vs. crude oil, price comparison, 96f
    in packaging, 119
    for pipes/tubing, 130
    Polyether bloc amides (PEBA)
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    601
    Polyether ether ketone (PEEK),
    28–29, 95
    and environmental stress cracking, 594
    Polyetherimide (PEI)
    and environmental stress cracking, 594
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    601
    Polyethersulfone (PES), frequency effect
    on, 513
    Polyethylene (PE)
    in building, 129
    cable, example of, 472t
    creep strain vs. time of, 424f
    frequency effect on, 513
    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET),
    bio-based, 620
    bio-based, 633
    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), 620, 625
    property examples, 625t
    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), 620, 625
    property examples, 627t
    Polyhydroxybutyrate-hexanoate (PHBH),
    625–626
    property examples, 627t
    Polyhydroxybutyrate-valerate (PHBV),
    625
    property examples, 626t
    Polyimide coatings, 610
    Polylactides/polylactic acid (PLA)
    plastics, 169, 620, 630
    ready-to-use, 621–624
    property examples, 622t
    Polymer light-emitting diodes, 157–158
    Polymerization, 45
    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)
    and environmental stress cracking, 592
    visible light transmission, 523t
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    599–600
    Polymethylpentene (PMP)
    and environmental stress cracking, 591
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    598
    Polyolefins, 116, 141, 632–633
    and environmental stress cracking,
    591–592
    FR solutions, 471
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    597–598Index 679
    Polyoxymethylene (POM)
    and environmental stress cracking,
    592–593
    moisture effect on, 513
    temperature effect on, 512
    Polyphenylene ether (PPE)
    and environmental stress cracking, 593
    weathering, light, and UV resistance, 600
    Polyphenylene oxide (PPO), FR
    solutions, 471
    Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS)
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    600–601
    Polyphenylenesulfone, frequency effect
    on, 514
    Polypropylene (PP), 591
    creep strain vs. time of, 424f
    vs. crude oil, price comparison, 96f
    crystallization of, 50, 51f
    and environmental stress cracking, 591
    example of, 473t
    films
    examples of antioxidant efficiencies
    in, 60t
    interaction between antioxidant and
    silica in, 61t
    -grade degradation, 415t
    industrially recycled, 616t
    for packaging, 120
    for pipes/tubing, 130
    properties, effect of mineral fillers on,
    56, 56t
    UV exposure time to reach same level
    of degradation of, 62t
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    597
    PP/EPDM-V, 601
    Polystyrene (PS), 620
    critical stresses, 214t
    vs. crude oil, price comparison, 96f
    and environmental stress cracking, 592
    high impact, and environmental stress
    cracking, 592
    industrially recycled, 616t
    properties of, 41t
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    598
    Polysulfone
    and environmental stress cracking,
    593–594
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    600
    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 386, 445,
    460, 641
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    600
    Polyurethane, coefficient of thermal linear
    expansion of, 385f
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 340, 620
    vs. crude oil, price comparison, 96f
    and environmental stress cracking, 593
    outdoor exposure, 526
    for packaging, 120
    properties according to degree of
    plasticization, 59t
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    598
    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)
    and environmental stress cracking, 593
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    600
    POM 20PTFE, 450–451
    Postconsumer recycled (PCR) bottles,
    618
    Potassium hypochlorite, chemical
    resistance of polymers in,
    587t–588t
    Potassium permanganate, chemical
    resistance of polymers in,
    587t–588t
    Preselection, schematic of, 115f
    Price index hypotheses for plastics, 99,
    100t–109t
    Printing, 531
    Processability, 38
    Processing
    costs, 91–92, 92f, 93t
    environmental impact of, 646–647
    stabilizers, 60
    protective additives, 606
    Propanol, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 564t–565t
    Propanone, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 571t–572t
    Property decay, vs. time, 225f
    Property retentions, vs. temperature and
    time, 417t–424t
    Proportional limit. See Elastic limit
    Proprietary additives, 445
    Prototyping, 529
    PV limit, 444, 451, 452t
    PVDC
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    598
    PVF
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    600
    Pyridine, chemical resistance of polymers
    in, 560t–561t
    R
    RadElast®, 636
    Radiator fan, in automotive sector,
    142–144
    RadiciSpandex Corp., 636
    Raw material costs, 27, 89, 90f, 253f
    for bioplastics, 99t
    Raw polymers
    and organic molecules, 40–45
    vs. plastic grade, 40, 40f
    upgrading and customizing, 51–70, 54f
    REACH (Registration Evaluation
    Authorization and Restriction of
    Chemicals), 13–14, 32, 457
    Ready-to-install modules, in automotive
    sector, 140
    Ready-to-use cellulose-based plastics,
    624
    Ready-to-use polylactic acid grades,
    621–624
    Ready-to-use thermoplastic starch, 621
    Rectangular plates, 71–72
    Recycled high-density polyethylene, 651
    Recycled polyethylene terephthalate, 651
    Recycled plastics, 614–618
    evaluating path, 614
    issues limiting the use of, 618t
    regulations, 614
    Recycling
    of commodity thermoplastics, 15
    and building/civil engineering, 126
    environmental impact of, 651
    and packaging, 118
    Refractive index, 21, 519–521
    examples, 520t–521t
    of transparent thermoplastics, 521–523
    Regulated substances, 13
    Regulations, 31–32, 31f
    checklist, 35, 37t
    Reinforced thermoplastics, 53–58
    continuous fiber-reinforced sheet
    overmolded by injection, 57–58
    density of, 240
    fibers, 54–55, 55f, 55t
    with mineral fillers, 55–56, 56t
    Reinforcement
    with CNTs, 612–613
    costs, 28, 89, 91f
    with mineral fillers and glass beads,
    611–612
    with nanofillers, 612
    ratios, 611t, 613t
    Relative permittivity, 489–496
    examples, 490t–495t
    Relative temperature index (RTI),
    362–364, 363t
    Relaxation, 51, 437–438, 438f, 439t
    Renewable content, 14
    Renewable polymers, 619–631
    aliphatic polyesters, 625–626
    bio-sourced composites, 630–631
    liquid wood based on lignin, 626
    miscellaneous proprietary alloys and
    compounds, 628–630
    ready-to-use cellulose-based plastics,
    624
    ready-to-use PLA grades, 621–624
    ready-to-use thermoplastic starch, 621
    Renewable resources, additives from, 638
    Repeatability, 221, 221f680 Index
    Reproducibility, 221, 221f
    Residual internal stresses, 73
    Residual stress relaxation, and
    dimensional stability, 405
    reSound™ biopolymer compounds, 628
    property examples, 629t
    Restriction of Hazardous Substances
    (RoHS) directive, 14, 457
    Retraction, 9–10
    Rigid polyvinyl chloride, for pipes/
    tubing, 130
    Rigidty in torsion, 9
    Rilsan® Clear Rnew, 633
    Rilsan® Polyamide 11, 620
    Rockwell L hardness, 320
    Rockwell M hardness, 5t, 320, 329t–335t
    vs. Shore D, comparison, 227
    Rockwell R hardness, 320
    Room temperature
    behavior above, 408–409
    thermal behavior, 340–364
    behavior below, 409
    S
    Safety requirements, 31–32, 31f
    checklist, 35, 37t
    Scratch resistance, 526
    improvement, 74
    Seals/sealing
    in automotive sector, 144
    in building, 128
    Seating, in automotive sector, 144
    Secant modulus, 216, 264, 314–315
    Self-lubricating polymer, 29
    replacement of metal bearings by, 95
    Selling prices of thermoplastics, 92t
    Semicrystalline polymers, 49–50
    Seminatural additives, 638t–639t
    Sensory evaluation, 534
    Sensory issues
    acoustics, NVH, 533
    aesthetics, 525–532
    coloration, 530–532
    computer tools for designing,
    526–529
    decoration, 530–532
    overmolding, 530–532
    physical defects are detectable at
    first glance, 529–530
    odor and taste transfer, 532–533
    refractive index, 519–521
    touch, 533
    transparent thermoplastics, 521–523
    Sensory panel evaluations, 19–20,
    533–534
    Sensory properties, 19–23, 19f, 74–75
    checklist, 35, 36t
    instrumental measurements and
    sensory panel evaluations, 19–20,
    533–534
    noise, vibration, harshness, 21–23
    odor and taste properties and transfer,
    21
    optical properties, 74–75
    physical aspect, 21
    touch, 21
    visual aspect, 20–21
    Service life
    and energy saving during, 613–614
    longer average life, 605
    origins of premature part failures
    during, 605
    Shayler, Mark, 605
    Shear modulus, 316, 316t
    vs. tensile modulus, 317f
    Shear properties, 316
    Sheet molding compound, 83
    Shields, in automotive sector, 144–145
    Shore A hardness, 320, 228, 228f, 320
    Shore D hardness, 320, 228, 228f, 320,
    329t–335t
    vs. Rockwell M hardness, comparison,
    227
    Short carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, properties of, 68, 68t
    Short glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, properties of, 65–67, 65t
    Shrink wrap, 119
    Shrinkage, 10, 73, 378
    after molding, 386–394, 386f, 387t
    effects of morphology, 386
    Silicon oxide coating, 609
    Silicone, 445
    Siloxane coating, 610
    Siloxanes, 470
    Smart coatings, 609–610
    diamond-like coating, 609–610
    graphene-based coatings, 610
    Smoke opacity, 18
    SN curves. See Wohler curves
    Sodium hypochlorite, chemical resistance
    of polymers in, 587t–588t
    Soft polyvinyl chloride, 129
    Soft touch, 74
    Software
    for designing long-lasting parts, 607
    for modeling and designing, 528t
    Solvay, 633
    Soranol, 620
    SORONA, 620
    SoRPlas, 618
    Sound absorbing materials, in automotive
    sector, 144–145
    Specialty plastics, 212, 231
    density of, 241f
    market shares of, 80t
    Specific modulus, 241, 242t–250t
    Specific tensile properties for traditional
    materials, 251t
    Specific yield strength, 241, 242t–250t
    Sports/leisure market, 177–188
    thermoplastic applications in, 177–188,
    189t–193t
    Standard deviation, 217, 217f, 218t–219t
    Starch-based plastics, 619–620
    Stereocomplex PLA, 624, 628–629
    Strain at yield, 216, 263–287, 278t, 314
    Strain rate, effect on loading, 4
    Strain recovery, and dimensional strain,
    405
    Stress at yield, 216, 263, 314
    vs. CUT, 212, 212f
    Stress concentration ratio, and radius,
    607, 607f
    Stretch wrap, 119
    Structural foam techniques, density
    reduction using, 254–257
    Styrene acrylonitrile (SAN)
    and environmental stress cracking, 592
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    599
    Styrenics, 620–621
    in building, 129
    and environmental stress cracking, 592
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    598–599
    Substrates for electronic equipment, 158
    Subzero temperatures, vs. mechanical
    property retentions, 414t
    Sulfuric acid, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 549t–550t
    Supercritical fluids (SCF), 257–258
    Surface defects, 529
    Surface resistance, examples, 509t–510t
    Surface resistivity, 16, 502–508
    examples, 509t–510t
    Surgery, plastic parts used in, 28
    Suspect substances, 13
    RoHS, WEEE, 14
    Sustainability, 11–15
    aging, desorption, bleeding, releasing
    of organic components, 12
    air/water/land pollution, 11–12
    banned/regulated/suspect substances, 13
    biodegradable plastics, 14–15
    carbon footprint, 15
    checklist, 33, 34t
    global warming due to greenhouse
    effect, 11
    life cycle assessment, 15
    REACH, 13–14
    renewable content/biocarbon content,
    14
    volatile organic compounds, 12
    Sustainable Design, 604
    T
    Taber abrasion test, 451, 453, 453t–454t
    Taste, 21, 75, 532–533
    TemperatureIndex 681
    average, 6–7
    continuous use temperature, 7
    dependency, 51, 53t
    of crystallization, 50
    effect, 512–514
    examples, 512
    on electrical properties, 17
    on loading behavior, 4
    vs. flex strength/flex modulus, 213f
    glass transition temperature (Tg), 50, 50f
    heat deflection temperature, 7
    low, 8–9
    and mechanical loading, 4f
    UL temperature index, 7
    Tensile modulus, 217t, 229f, 264,
    287–291, 292t–301t
    Tensile properties, 3t, 262–291, 315t
    anisotropy, 71–72
    and yield, 264–287, 265t–278t,
    288t–291t
    Tensile strength, 212, 212t, 218t,
    265t–277t
    vs. temperature, 408f
    vs. time, 213f
    Tensile stress
    retentions, vs. temperature, 408f
    uniaxial, 5
    Tepex dynalite 102 RG 600, 58
    Tetrachloromethane, chemical resistance
    of polymers in, 583t–584t
    Textile fibers, 55
    Theoretical absorbance spectra, 225f
    Thermal conductivity, polymers with
    high, 63
    Thermal dependency, of mechanical
    properties, 407–416
    Thermal expansion/retraction, 9–10
    Thermal properties, 339–376
    behavior above room temperature,
    340–364
    glass transition temperature, 340,
    341t–347t
    Thermoforming, 199
    Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), 74,
    116, 194
    molecular structure of, 47–48, 47f–48f
    weathering, light, and UV resistance, 601
    TPE/PVC, 601
    Thermoplastic olefin
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    601
    Thermoplastic polyesters, 633–636
    FR solutions, 471
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    599
    Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU), 636
    bio-TPU family, 636
    example of, 471
    FR solutions, 471, 478t
    weathering, light, and UV resistance, 601
    Thermoplastic starch, ready-to-use, 621
    Thermoplastic vulcanizate
    weathering, light, and UV resistance,
    601
    Thermosets
    after cross-linking, 48f
    casing for automotive cooling system,
    29, 95
    molecular structure of, 48–49
    Thickness
    influence on UL temperature, 7
    reduction, vs. cycle time, 212, 213t
    Time
    CM/EM ratio vs., 425t–426t
    vs. creep modulus
    at room temperature, 428t–432t
    at various temperatures, 433t–437t
    vs. creep strain, 424f
    and critical stress, 214
    effect on mechanical loading, 4f
    and heat, 213, 213f
    vs. moisture content, 222f
    and permanent stress, 213, 214f
    vs. property decay, 225f
    vs. property retentions, 417t–424t
    vs. tensile strength, 263f
    and UV exposition, 214
    Time dependency, 50–51, 52t
    of crystallization, 50
    of mechanical properties, 416–440
    creep, 416–437, 424f, 425t–438t
    fatigue, 438–440, 439f–440f,
    441t–442t
    relaxation, 437–438, 438f, 439t
    Toluene, chemical resistance of polymers
    in, 540t–541t
    Tonne of oil equivalent (toe), 644
    Total Petrochemicals, IFP Energies
    nouvelles (IFPEN), 633
    Touch, 21, 74, 533
    Toughness, low temperature, 9
    Toxicity, 645
    and fire behavior, 18
    Toyota Motor Corporation, 636
    TPS
    weathering, light, and UV resistance, 601
    Transmission, visible light, 524t–525t
    Transparency, in building, 128
    Transparent thermoplastics
    examples, 522t
    refractive index, 521–523
    Transport, lightening in, 613. See also
    Automotive sector
    Tribological additives, 444–445, 446t
    Trichloromethane, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 583t–584t
    Tricresyl phosphate, chemical resistance
    of polymers in, 574t–575t
    Triethylamine, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 560t–561t
    Tubing. See Pipes/tubing, in building
    U
    UL fire rating, 154, 169
    UL94, 512, 18, 229, 229f, 458
    UL Recognition program, 614
    UL relative temperature index. See
    Relative temperature index (RTI)
    UL temperature index, 512, 7, 153–154,
    168
    influence of characteristics studied, 7
    influence of grade, 7
    influence of thickness, 7
    UL94 V0 glass fiber-reinforced
    engineering thermoplastics, 94,
    94t
    Ultimate stress/strain, 216, 263, 314
    Ultracom product packages, 57–58
    Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene
    (UHMWPE), 45, 194
    Ultramid®, 95
    Ultramid® BALANCE, 633
    Under-the-hood parts, in automotive
    sector, 142, 143t
    Uniaxial compression, 303–315
    Uniaxial tensile stress, 5
    United States Department of Agriculture
    (USDA), 31
    Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride
    (U-PVC), 129
    U.S. Department of transportation,
    National Highway Traffic Safety
    Administration (NHTSA), 31
    U.S. Fire Administration (USFA), 31
    U.S. Pharmacopeia Convention (USP), 31
    US Packaging, hypothesis of replacement
    of plastics with substitutes, 642t
    Used parts repairing, 619
    UV aging, and elongation at break/
    modulus/yellowing index, 214f
    UV resistance
    alloys, 601
    cellulosics, 600
    fluorinated thermoplastics, 600
    liquid crystal polymers (LCPs), 601
    polyacetals, 600
    polyamides, 599
    polybenzimidazole, 601
    polycarbonate, 600
    polyetherimide, 601
    polymethylmethacrylate, 599–600
    polyolefins, 597–598
    polyphenylene ether, 600
    polyphenylene sulfide, 600–601
    polysulfone, 600
    PVC, 598
    styrenics, 598–599
    thermoplastic elastomer, 601
    thermoplastic polyesters, 599
    thermoplastic vulcanizate, 601682 Index
    V
    Vegetable oil, chemical resistance of
    polymers in, 544t–545t
    VESTAMID Terra, 633
    Vibration, 21–23
    ISO and SAE standards dealing with,
    24t–27t
    Vicat softening temperature (VST), 7–8,
    364, 365t
    VICTREX® PEEK injection, 95
    Virent, 636
    Viscoelasticity, 50–51
    Visual Analyzer, 532
    Visual aspects of thermoplastics, 20–21
    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 12
    and dimensional stability, 395–404
    Volume resistivity, 16, 16t, 480
    examples, 481t–489t, 509t–510t
    W
    Warpage, 10, 73, 261, 529
    Waste Electrical and Electronic
    Equipment (WEEE) Directive, 14,
    457–458
    Water
    aging, 214, 214f
    pollution, 11–12
    uptake, 10–11, 73
    and dimensional stability, 395,
    395t–396t, 404t
    Waterproofing, in building, 128
    Weak points, 211–212, 211f
    Wear, 451–454, 452t
    Wear factor, 451
    Weathering, 61, 594, 596
    Weight saving, 610–614
    and density, 251–252, 254f
    and energy saving during the whole
    service life, 613–614
    aeronautics, 613
    automobile, 613
    lightening in packaging, 614
    lightening in transport, 613
    processing cost savings induced by, 613
    raw material weight saving, 610–613
    reinforcement with CNTs, 612–613
    reinforcement with mineral fillers
    and glass beads, 611–612
    reinforcement with nanofillers, 612
    Western European market, 84, 87t
    Windform XT 2.0, 94
    Wires, 155–156
    Wiring equipment, 158
    Wohler curves, 5, 438, 439f–440f
    Wood plastic composites (WPC) grades,
    126, 130
    properties of, 68, 69t
    Work of elongation at yield, 288t–291t
    Y
    Yellowing index, and UV aging, 214f
    Yield point, 216, 223–225, 263, 314
    Yield strain. See Strain at yield
    Yield strength, 264–287, 265t–277t
    Young’s modulus, 73, 216, 263, 314
    YXY chemical catalytic technology,
    636
    Z
    Ziegler-Natta polymerization, 45
    Zinc, 13
    Zytel® RS, 63

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