Manufacturing Flexible Packaging – Materials, Machinery, and Techniques

Manufacturing Flexible Packaging – Materials, Machinery, and Techniques
اسم المؤلف
Thomas Dunn
التاريخ
16 أغسطس 2023
المشاهدات
195
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Manufacturing Flexible Packaging – Materials, Machinery, and Techniques
Thomas Dunn
Table of contents
Introduction
Background
Reference

  1. Basics of Web Processes
    Web Tension
    Web Winding
    Cross-Web Variation
    Web Dimensional Analysis
  2. Rotogravure Printing
    Gravure Process
    Gravure Cylinders
    Halftone Image Reproduction
    Ink Metering
    Gravure Process Innovation
    Cylinder Cost and Cycle Time
    Reference
  3. Flexographic Printing
    The Flexo Process
    Reference
  4. Adhesive Lamination
    Adhesive Laminating Process
    Adhesive Lamination Strength
    Other Coating Processes
    Adhesive Laminating Innovation
    Reference
  5. Extrusion Lamination and Coating
    Extrusion Laminating Process
    Extrusion Coating Process
    Extrusion Laminating Innovation
    References
  6. Finishing and Slitting
    Communicating Slit Roll Requirements
    Slitting Options
    Rewind Options
    References
  7. In-Line Processes
    Equipment Requirements
    Operational Considerations
    Success Criteria
  8. OEE Effectiveness
    Overall Equipment Effectiveness
    Availability
    Performance
    Quality
    OEE Calculation
    References
  9. Efficiency and Cost Accounting
    Efficiency
    Cost Accounting
    References
  10. Basics of Control Systems
    Distributed Control Systems
    Data Inputs
    Process Feedback
    References
  11. Rotogravure Presses
    Press Components
  12. Flexographic Presses
    Press Components
    Reference
  13. Adhesive Laminators
    Dry Bond Laminators
    Solventless Laminators
    Online Coating Measurement
  14. Flexible Packaging Extrusion Coating/Laminating Line
    Line Configuration
    Gauge Measurement and Control
  15. Slitters
  16. Preventative Maintenance versus Available Production Time
    Availability
    Preventative Maintenance
    Calibration
    Actual Operating Time
  17. Setup/Cleanup versus Scheduled Production Time
    Performance
    Setup and Cleanup
    Decreased Speeds and Minor Stoppages
    Increased Speeds
  18. Saleable Product versus Product Produced
    Quality
    Reference
  19. Paper
    Paper Dimensioning
    Paper Grades
    Paper Coatings
    Paper for Flexible Packaging
    References
  20. Foil
    Production
    Converting
    Commercial Trends
    References
  21. Unoriented Plastic Films
    Flexible Films
    General Film Property Effects
    References
  22. Oriented Plastic Films
    Film Orientation
    Oriented Film Applications
    Special Oriented Film Effects
    References
  23. Bulk Polyolefin Resins
    Polymer Structure
    Functional Description
    Value Provided
    Forms Used
    Reference
  24. Specialty Sealant and Adhesive Resins and Additives
    Polymer Structure
    Additives
    Functional Advantages
  25. Barrier Resins
    Barrier Kinetics
    Polyvinylidene Chloride
    Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol
    Nylon
    Coextrusion
    References
  26. Inks
    Ink Vehicles
    Ink Pigments
    Ink Curing
    Ink Selection
    References
  27. Overprint Varnishes and Coatings
    Overprint Varnish
    Coating Integrity
    Vacuum Deposition
    Reference
  28. Adhesives
    Polyurethane Adhesives
    Acrylic-Based Adhesives
    Energy-Cured Adhesives
    References
  29. Primers
    Polyethylene Imide Primers
    Ethylene Acrylic Acid Copolymer Primers
    Other Primers
    Primer Selection
    Reference
  30. Conditioning
    Standard Conditioning
    Special Conditioning
    References
  31. Intrinsic Material Properties
    Standards
    Intrinsic Property Influences
    Case Study: Intrinsic Property Influences
  32. Secondary Quality Characteristics
    Containment Integrity Characteristics
    Protection/Preservation Characteristics
    Transportation Integrity Characteristics
    Communication Integrity Characteristics
    Flexible Packaging Material Specifications
    References
    Index
    Table of contents
    Introduction
    Background
    Reference
  33. Basics of Web Processes
    Web Tension
    Web Winding
    Cross-Web Variation
    Web Dimensional Analysis
  34. Rotogravure Printing
    Gravure Process
    Gravure Cylinders
    Halftone Image Reproduction
    Ink Metering
    Gravure Process Innovation
    Cylinder Cost and Cycle Time
    Reference
  35. Flexographic Printing
    The Flexo Process
    Reference
  36. Adhesive Lamination
    Adhesive Laminating Process
    Adhesive Lamination Strength
    Other Coating Processes
    Adhesive Laminating Innovation
    Reference
  37. Extrusion Lamination and Coating
    Extrusion Laminating Process
    Extrusion Coating Process
    Extrusion Laminating Innovation
    References
  38. Finishing and Slitting
    Communicating Slit Roll Requirements
    Slitting Options
    Rewind Options
    References
  39. In-Line Processes
    Equipment Requirements
    Operational Considerations
    Success Criteria
  40. OEE Effectiveness
    Overall Equipment Effectiveness
    Availability
    Performance
    Quality
    OEE Calculation
    References
  41. Efficiency and Cost Accounting
    Efficiency
    Cost Accounting
    References
  42. Basics of Control Systems
    Distributed Control Systems
    Data Inputs
    Process Feedback
    References
  43. Rotogravure Presses
    Press Components
  44. Flexographic Presses
    Press Components
    Reference
  45. Adhesive Laminators
    Dry Bond Laminators
    Solventless Laminators
    Online Coating Measurement
  46. Flexible Packaging Extrusion Coating/Laminating Line
    Line Configuration
    Gauge Measurement and Control
  47. Slitters
  48. Preventative Maintenance versus Available Production Time
    Availability
    Preventative Maintenance
    Calibration
    Actual Operating Time
  49. Setup/Cleanup versus Scheduled Production Time
    Performance
    Setup and Cleanup
    Decreased Speeds and Minor Stoppages
    Increased Speeds
  50. Saleable Product versus Product Produced
    Quality
    Reference
  51. Paper
    Paper Dimensioning
    Paper Grades
    Paper Coatings
    Paper for Flexible Packaging
    References
  52. Foil
    Production
    Converting
    Commercial Trends
    References
  53. Unoriented Plastic Films
    Flexible Films
    General Film Property Effects
    References
  54. Oriented Plastic Films
    Film Orientation
    Oriented Film Applications
    Special Oriented Film Effects
    References
  55. Bulk Polyolefin Resins
    Polymer Structure
    Functional Description
    Value Provided
    Forms Used
    Reference
  56. Specialty Sealant and Adhesive Resins and Additives
    Polymer Structure
    Additives
    Functional Advantages
  57. Barrier Resins
    Barrier Kinetics
    Polyvinylidene Chloride
    Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol
    Nylon
    Coextrusion
    References
  58. Inks
    Ink Vehicles
    Ink Pigments
    Ink Curing
    Ink Selection
    References
  59. Overprint Varnishes and Coatings
    Overprint Varnish
    Coating Integrity
    Vacuum Deposition
    Reference
  60. Adhesives
    Polyurethane Adhesives
    Acrylic-Based Adhesives
    Energy-Cured Adhesives
    References
  61. Primers
    Polyethylene Imide Primers
    Ethylene Acrylic Acid Copolymer Primers
    Other Primers
    Primer Selection
    Reference
  62. Conditioning
    Standard Conditioning
    Special Conditioning
    References
  63. Intrinsic Material Properties
    Standards
    Intrinsic Property Influences
    Case Study: Intrinsic Property Influences
  64. Secondary Quality Characteristics
    Containment Integrity Characteristics
    Protection/Preservation Characteristics
    Transportation Integrity Characteristics
    Communication Integrity Characteristics
    Flexible Packaging Material Specifications
    References
    Index
    Index
    Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” refer to figures and
    tables, respectively.
    A
    Acid copolymers, 203
    Acrylates. See Acrylic esters
    Acrylic chemistry, 237
    Acrylic esters, 236
    Acrylic polymer, 237
    Acrylic-based adhesives,
    236237
    Actual operating time, 140141
    Adaptor technology, 169170
    Additives, 200201, 219
    chill-roll-release, 169
    Adhesion primer, 239
    Adhesive(s), 4041
    acrylic-based, 236237
    energy-cured, 237238
    failure, 4344, 233, 264265
    lamination, 39
    coating processes, 44
    innovation, 4547
    process, 4142
    strength, 4344
    laminators, 123
    dry bond laminators,
    123124
    online coating
    measurement, 125126
    solventless laminators, 125
    polyurethane, 234236
    Air gap, 5253
    Alkanes, 187
    Alkene, 187188, 199f
    Alpha olefins, 199, 199f
    Alpha-olefin comonomers,
    199200
    Alpha-olefin copolymers,
    204205
    Aluminum alloys, 161
    Aluminum foil, 161, 267268
    Amphiphiles, 200201
    Anchor coat, 239
    Anilox cylinder, 3435
    Annealing, 162, 163f
    ASTM F99 Specification Guide
    for Flexible Barrier
    Material, 263t, 276
    Attributes, 153
    Automatic die bolt adjustment,
    131
    Automatic ink cleaning systems,
    3536
    Automatic roll indexing,
    145146
    Availability, 7374, 81, 137138
    B
    Barrier kinetics, 207214
    Barrier layer, 39
    Barrier resins, 207
    barrier kinetics, 207214
    coextruded flexible films,
    216217
    277Barrier resins (Continued)
    ethylene vinyl alcohol,
    215216
    nylon, 216
    OTR performance for, 208f
    polyvinylidene chloride
    (PVDC), 214
    WVTR performance for, 208f
    Basis weight, 911, 10t,
    155156
    Benefits of manufacturing
    flexible packaging, 87
    Beta gauge, 130
    Beta systems, 131
    Beta transmission, 126
    Beta-ray, 130
    Between-color (BC) dryers,
    117, 121
    Bleeding edge, 6162
    Blow up ratio (BUR), 170
    Blown film, 167, 171f, 173175
    Bond strength, 266
    Bulk polyolefin resins
    density ranges of, 193f
    forms used, 195196
    functional description,
    189194
    intrinsic material
    characteristics, 190194
    polymer structure, 187189
    value provided, 194195
    Burst strength, 273
    Business plans, 8788
    n-butene, 199
    C
    Calibration, 139140
    Cast (tenter), 180182
    Cast films, 169170, 172173,
    174t
    Catalysts, 187188
    Cellophane, 159, 177
    Centersurface winding, 4, 66
    Center winding, 4, 65
    Central impression (CI) flexo
    press, 71, 117
    Chemical Abstracts System
    (CAS), 221
    “Chemical etching” process,
    1415
    Chemical vapor deposition
    (CVD), 231232
    Chill drum, 129
    “CIE 1976 color space”, 2930
    Clamshell dryer, 111, 129
    Clay-coated paper, 158
    Cleanup time, 9495, 98
    “Closed-loop” control system,
    106108
    Coated paper, 158159
    Coating integrity, 228229
    Coating processes, 44
    Coating weight, 42, 5051
    Coefficient of friction, 149, 264
    Coextruded film, 171172,
    179180
    Coextruded flexible films,
    216217
    Coextrusion, 4950, 216217
    Cohesive failure, 4344,
    264265
    Collapsing frame, 170171
    Color register, 25
    Communication integrity
    characteristics, 274
    scuff resistance, 274
    whiteness, 274
    Comonomers, 188, 198, 198f
    Conditioning, 245
    antifog, 248
    278 INDEXelectrostatic charge, 248
    humidity sensitivity, 246247
    measurement, 245, 248
    sample, 245
    special conditioning, 247248
    standard conditioning,
    246247
    temperature sensitivity,
    246247
    Contact angle, 234f
    Containment integrity
    characteristics, 264266
    bond strength, 266
    coefficient of friction, 264
    hot tack strength, 265266
    seal initiation temperature, 266
    seal strength, 264265
    tear strength, 266
    thickness, 266
    Continuous tone images, 19
    Contract converting, 88
    Control systems, 82, 103
    data inputs, 105106
    distributed control systems
    (DCSs), 103105
    process feedback, 106110
    closed-loop control system,
    107108
    open-loop control system,
    106107
    PID controls, 108110
    shop-floor, 140141
    Converting operation, scheduled
    production time in, 9394
    running time, 94
    setup and cleanup time,
    9495
    Copolymers, 54, 197, 201202
    acid, 203
    α-olefin, 204205
    Cost accounting, 93101
    direct and indirect costs, 9596
    local facility and general
    company costs, 95
    minimum order size, 98101
    Covalent bonding, 52
    Covalent bonds, 52
    Cross-direction, 1, 156157
    Cross-web variation, 58
    Crystalline structures, 172173
    Curing, 4041, 233
    ink, 222223
    D
    Dedicated slitter capability, 135
    Depreciation schedules, 9697
    Designed experiment, 151
    Die gap adjustment, 131
    Diffusion coefficient, 210211
    Digital devices, 115
    Diisocyanate, 234, 235t
    Direct costs, 9697
    Distributed control systems
    (DCSs), 103106
    Distributed Control Systems, 127
    Doctor blade, 21f, 22
    Double bonds, 187188
    Down web variation, 78
    Draw down ratio (DDR), 51,
    173175
    Dry bond laminating, 4041
    Dry bond laminators, 123124
    Drying technology, 121122
    E
    Effective feet per minute (efm),
    9495, 94f, 145
    Effectiveness, defined, 80
    Efficiency, 8893
    defined, 80
    INDEX 279Efficiency (Continued)
    material waste, 9092
    time waste, 9293
    Elastic plastic materials,
    254255
    Electron beam, 237
    Electron beam energy, 223
    Electronic drives, 74, 115
    Electrostatic assist (ESA), 114
    Emerson, Harrington, 7778, 78t
    Energy-cured adhesives, 237238
    Energy-cured inks, 223
    Enterprise resource planning
    (ERP), 7778, 103104
    Equipment automation, 144
    Ethylene acrylic acid (EAA),
    198199, 203, 241242
    copolymer primers, 241242
    Ethylene methyl acrylate,
    202203
    Ethylenepropylene copolymers,
    197
    Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA),
    202, 215
    Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH),
    200201, 207
    Extended gamut, 36
    Extrusion
    coating, 5556
    laminating process, 4955
    innovation, 5759
    promoting adhesion
    melt curtain, 5254
    substrate, 5455
    Extrusion coating/laminating
    line, 127
    equipment components, 128t
    gauge measurement and
    control, 129131
    line configuration, 129
    Extrusion laminating, 4955
    Extrusion primers, 242t
    F
    Falling body technique, 113
    Feedstocks, 187188, 220
    Fibers, 155156, 184185
    Fick’s first law, 210211
    Film orientation, 178180
    Financial accounting, 9597
    Finishing and slitting equipment
    components, 135t
    Fit-for-use product design, 243
    Fit-for-use products, 127129
    Flagging rolls, 115116
    Flex crack resistance, 267
    Flexible films, 167172
    Flexible packaging layers, 50t
    package functions distributed
    into, 40t
    Flexible packaging material
    specifications, 274276
    Flexo ink metering, 3233
    Flexo process, 2837
    innovation, 3537
    Flexographic presses, 117
    finger printing process, 121
    press components, 117122
    drying technology,
    121122
    plate cylinder pressure,
    118119
    plates, mounting tape, and
    plate sleeves, 120121
    Flexographic printing, 27
    halftone printing, 3335
    ink metering, 3233
    numerical color space, 2831
    process, 2837
    process innovation, 3537
    280 INDEXFlotation dryers, 121122
    Foil, 161, 273
    annealing process, 162
    “A-wettable” foil, 162
    commercial trends, 164165
    converting, 163
    production, 161162
    rolling process, 161
    Form-fill-seal packaging,
    177178, 182
    Fourdrinier-paper machine, 156
    Fracture plastic materials,
    254255
    Free radicals, 237
    Frozen storage, 272
    Functional coating, 158159, 227
    Functions of packaging, 40t
    G
    Gamma backscatter, 126
    Gauge bands, 129130
    Gauge measurement and control,
    129131
    Generally Accepted Accounting
    Principles (GAAP), 95
    Glass transition temperature, 178
    Glassine, 157
    Gloss coating, 228
    “Good roll formation”, 4
    Gravure press. See Rotogravure,
    presses
    Gravure. See Rotogravure,
    printing
    H
    Halftone image reproduction,
    1620
    Hazardous air pollutants, 114
    Heat seal coating, 158159,
    177178, 227229
    n-hexene, 199
    High-density polyethylene, 199
    Homopolymers, 197199
    Hot tack strength, 265266
    Humanmachine interface
    (HMI), 103104
    Hydrogen bonds, 52, 215, 240
    Hydrogen chloride gas, 214
    I
    Image monitoring, 114116
    Image screening, 1618
    Impression cutoff, 6162
    Indirect costs, 9596
    Infrared preheating, 121
    Inks, 219
    curing, 222223
    metering, 2022, 3233
    pigments, 221222
    selection, 223225
    vehicles, 219220
    viscosity, 113114
    In-line processes
    equipment requirements,
    7173
    operational considerations,
    7374
    availability, 7374
    performance, 74
    quality, 74
    success criteria, 7475
    In-line quality assessment, 150
    Inside diameter (ID), 63
    Integrated form-fill-seal
    packaging, 177178
    Intrinsic material properties,
    190194, 251
    intrinsic property influences,
    253255
    case study, 255258
    INDEX 281Intrinsic material properties
    (Continued)
    materials, mechanical
    properties of, 256t
    standards, 253
    Ionic bonding, 52
    Ionomer, 203204
    ISO 291: 2008, 246
    J
    Job cost estimate/calculation,
    buildup of, 96f
    K
    Kraft process, 156
    L
    Lamination strength, 4344
    Light barrier, 270271
    Linear low-density
    polyethylenes, 199
    Linear polymers, 173175
    Linear/slot extrusion die, 167
    LLDPE, 204205
    Low-density polyethylene
    (LDPE), 199, 251
    M
    “Machine direction”, 1
    Machine hour rate, 9697
    “Make-ready” stock, 91
    “Make-to-order” business, 137
    “Makeup” solvent, 113114
    Manual devices, 115
    Master web, 61
    Material traceability, 116
    Material waste, 9092
    Materials engineering, 251
    Matte finish, 56, 184185
    Mean time to failure, 140
    Measuring/controlling gauge, 130
    Mechanical linkages, 71
    Melt flow index (MFI), 191
    Melt flow rate (MFR), 191, 192t
    Melt index (MI), 191
    Melt point, 198199
    Metallized films, 164165, 231
    Metallocene catalyst, 200,
    204205
    Meter mixer, 125
    MFI resins, 172
    Migratory additives, 200201,
    201t
    Minimum order size, 98101
    Minor stoppages, decreased
    speeds and, 145146
    MLLDPE, 204205
    Moisture barrier, 270
    Moisture-cured urethane
    reaction, 258f
    “Moisture-proof”, 177
    Monomers, 187188
    N
    Nakajima, Seiichi, 78, 81
    Newton’s laws of motion, 12
    Nip pressure, 34, 78, 118119
    Nitrocellulose (NC) bases,
    219220
    Nonmigratory additives,
    200201, 201t
    Numerical color space, of
    flexographic printing,
    2831
    Nylon, 178, 207, 216, 246247
    Nylon 6, 246247, 247t
    O
    Olefins, 187188
    chemical structure of, 188f
    Online coating measurement,
    125126
    282 INDEXOnline databases, 252
    “Open-loop” control system,
    106107
    Operations waste, 9091
    OPP films, 179
    Oriented films, 172173,
    178180
    Oriented nylon, 164165, 180
    Oriented plastic films, 177
    applications, 180182
    cast (tenter), 180182
    crystalline, 179
    double bubble process, 183f
    film orientation, 178180
    special oriented film effects,
    183185
    tubular (bubble), 182
    Outside diameter (OD), 9, 63,
    103, 107
    Overall Equipment Efficiency
    (OEE), 77, 7980, 135
    availability, 81
    calculation, 8384
    effectiveness, 138t, 144t, 150t
    origins of OEE methods, 78t
    performance, 8182
    quality, 83
    Overhead dryer, 72, 121122
    Overprint varnish, 227228
    Oxygen barrier, 216217, 267
    of polymers and films, 208f
    Oxygen permeation
    dynamics of, 268f
    permeation cell for, 269f
    Oxygen transmission rate
    (OTR), 207
    P
    Paper, 177, 246
    coatings, 158159
    dimensioning, 155156
    for flexible packaging,
    159160
    grades, 156158
    paper/plastic lamination, 160f
    “Pattern coating” process, 44
    Pattern cohesive coatings, 72
    Performance rate, 8182
    Performance rate metric, 143
    Permeability, 207209,
    213214, 269270
    Permeant, 210211
    Permeation coefficient, 211,
    213
    Photoinitiator, 237
    Photopolymer plates, 120
    Physical vapor deposition
    (PVD), 231232
    Pigment, 20, 219, 221, 221t
    chemistry, 221222
    constitution number, 221
    generic name, 221
    Pinholes, 161, 231
    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor
    deposition (PECVD),
    231232
    Plastic, 254255
    additives, 200
    extruder, 4950
    films, 200, 227, 258, 267
    lamination, 160f
    “Plate cylinder”, 28, 32, 117
    pressure, 118120
    Plate mounting tape, 121
    Plate sleeves, 120121
    Polyamides, 178, 216
    Poly-chloro-tri-fluoro-ethylene
    (PCTFE) film, 207
    Polyethylene imide (PEI)
    primers, 239241
    INDEX 283Polyethylenes, 11, 3940, 55,
    168169, 178, 187,
    198199
    Polymer chains, 173175,
    183184, 198, 212213,
    234
    Polyolefin resins, 187
    chemical structure of, 188f
    Polyolefins, 207, 246
    Polypropylene, 5253, 174t,
    187, 195, 216217
    Polyurethane adhesives,
    234236
    diisocyanate, influence of,
    235t
    polyol, influence of, 235t
    solvent-based urethanes, 236t
    solvent-free urethanes, 236t
    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), 215
    Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC),
    207, 214
    Pounds per linear inch (PLI),
    2, 69
    Pounds per ream (ppr), 42,
    155156
    Predictive maintenance, 8182
    Prepolymer, 234, 237
    Prepress, 2324, 3334, 36, 120
    Press fingerprinting, 3133
    Preventative maintenance, 81,
    138139
    versus available production
    time, 137
    actual operating time,
    140141
    availability, 137138
    calibration, 139140
    Primary additive colors, 1819,
    18t
    Primary adhesive failure, 4344
    Primed foil, 239
    Primers, 239, 242
    ethylene acrylic acid
    copolymer primers,
    241242
    hydrogen bonding, 240241,
    243
    ionic bonding, 241, 243
    polyethylene imide primers,
    239241
    primary nitrogen sites, 240
    selection, 242243
    Priming, 5455
    unit, 129
    Print trolley, 111113
    Process, 44
    of adhesive lamination, 4142
    feedback, 106110
    of extrusion coating, 5556
    of extrusion lamination, 4955
    of flexographic printing,
    2837
    innovation
    of flexographic printing,
    3537
    of rotogravure printing, 22
    printing, 3335
    of rotogravure printing, 14
    Process printing, 3335
    Product shelf life, 238, 271
    Production logs, 140
    Productivity, defined, 80
    Programmable logic controllers
    (PLCs), 103104
    Programmed waste, 90
    Proportional-integral-derivative
    (PID) controls, 108110
    Protection/preservation
    characteristics, 266272
    flex crack resistance, 267
    284 INDEXlight barrier, 270271
    moisture barrier, 270
    oxygen barrier, 267
    product shelf life, 271
    Pulp, 156
    Puncture resistance, 273
    Q
    Quality, 27, 83, 115, 149154
    secondary characteristics, 259
    Quality control, 30, 84t
    Quality management, 74
    system (ISO 9000), 7778,
    84t
    variability concerns in, 84t
    Quality rate, 83
    Quick changeover, 9293, 111
    technique, 144145
    R
    Raw materials, 911, 44,
    7778, 8990, 98,
    150152
    and market prices, 8889
    Razor blade (or burst) slitting, 65
    Razor slitting, 65, 66t
    Ream, 10t, 42, 155156
    Relative humidity (RH), 177,
    207, 246247, 270, 272
    Renewable resources, 160
    Resin blends, 198199,
    264265
    Reverse printing, 3536
    Rewind, 1, 6569, 111,
    134135
    chart, 63f
    designation, 12
    options, 6569
    Rework methods, 150
    Roll doffs, 133134
    Roll length estimation, 11
    Roll quality, 135
    Roll rewind designation, 12
    Roll telescoping, 6465
    Rolling oil, 162
    Roll-to-roll quality assessment,
    16, 150
    Rotogravure
    presses, 111
    electrostatic assist, 114
    image monitoring, 114116
    ink viscosity, 113114
    press components, 111116
    printing, 13
    cylinder cost and cycle
    time, 2325
    cylinders, 1415
    halftone image
    reproduction, 1620
    ink metering, 2022
    process, 14
    process innovation, 22
    work practices, 2425
    Running time, 94
    S
    Saleable product versus product
    produced, 149
    overall equipment
    effectiveness, 150t
    quality, 149154
    Scan-a-webs, 115
    Score (or crush) cut slitting, 65
    Scuff resistance, 227, 274
    Seal initiation temperature,
    204205, 266
    Seal strength, 55, 264266
    Sealant layer, 39, 72
    Secondary adhesive failure,
    4344
    INDEX 285Secondary colors, 1819, 18t
    Secondary quality
    characteristics, 259
    communication integrity
    characteristics, 274
    containment integrity
    characteristics, 264266
    flexible packaging material
    specifications, 274276
    performance considerations
    of, 263t
    protection/preservation
    characteristics, 266272
    to product consumption,
    262t
    test methods for, 263t
    transportation integrity
    characteristics, 272274
    properties, 149, 252
    Sensor calibration, 139
    Setup reduction, 9293
    Setup/cleanup, 143145
    overall equipment
    effectiveness, 144t
    versus scheduled production
    time, 143
    decreased speeds and minor
    stoppages, 145146
    increased speeds, 146147
    performance, 143
    Shear slitting, 65
    Shop-floor control systems,
    140141
    Shrinks films, 178
    Side-chain branching, 172, 188,
    192194
    Single bonds, 187
    Single extrusion laminator, 129f
    Slit roll
    inside diameter (ID), 63
    outside diameter (OD), 63
    requirements, 6165
    Slitters, 133
    Slot die extrusion, 182
    Slow solvents, 146147
    100% solids laminating, 4041,
    4950
    Solubility coefficient, 211
    Solute, 210211
    Solvent-based adhesives, 123
    Solventless laminators, 125
    Spare parts inventory, 140
    Special conditioning, 247248
    Special oriented film effects,
    183185
    Specialty sealant and adhesive
    resins, 197
    and additives, 200201
    functional advantages, 201205
    alpha-olefin copolymers
    (LLDPE and mLLDPE),
    204205
    ethylene acrylic acid, 203
    ethylene methyl acrylate,
    202203
    ethylene vinyl acetate, 202
    ionomer, 203204
    neutralization, 203
    polymer structure, 197200
    alpha-olefin comonomers,
    199200
    Standard conditioning, 246247
    Standard industry rewind
    chart, 63f
    Standard operating procedures,
    9193, 110, 143,
    152153
    Statistical process control (SPC),
    84t, 150151, 153154
    feedback system, 151f
    286 INDEXto manufacture product,
    151152
    value of, 153154
    to web processes, 153, 153t
    Statistical product control, 84t
    Sticky back, 28, 121
    Strength, of adhesive lamination,
    4344
    Subtractive colors, 1819, 18t
    Supercalendering, 157
    Supply chain integration, 8788
    Surface printing, 3536
    Surface treatment, 54, 181
    Surface wet-out, 53, 233
    Surface winding, 4, 66
    T
    “Tag” or “Bag” sheet, 156
    Tandem laminators, 72
    Taper tension, 67, 106
    TAPPI conditions, 247
    TAPPI standard, 246
    Taylor, Frederick W., 7778
    Tear strength, 266
    Tensile properties, 195, 254255
    Tension transducer, 105f
    Tenter frame, 180182
    Test methods, 253, 273
    Thermoplastic properties,
    189190
    Thickness, 266
    Time in air gap (TIAG), 53
    “Time to first quality product”,
    144
    Time waste, 9293
    Torque units of measure, 34
    “Total Productive Maintenance”
    methodology, 78, 81
    Total quality management, 83, 84t
    TPM tenkai, 78
    Traction, 45
    Transfer rollers, 125
    Transient defects, 149150
    Transportation integrity
    characteristics, 272274
    burst strength, 273
    puncture resistance, 273
    Tubular biaxially oriented
    films, 182
    Tubular film manufacturing, 170
    Twin-foil rolling process, 162
    U
    Ultraviolet light, 222, 237
    Unoriented plastic films, 167
    cast, 169170
    chill-roll-release, 169
    extrusion, 167
    flexible films, 167172
    frost line, 170171
    general film property effects,
    172175
    internal bubble cooling, 171f
    modulus, 168169
    sheeting, 167168
    surface treatment, 169
    tubular, 170172
    Unplanned maintenance, 140
    Unwind stand, 117, 133
    Urethane formulation, 242
    V
    Vacuum deposition, 229232
    Vacuum-deposited coatings, 231
    Value-add rate (VAR), 9899
    calculation, 99101, 100t
    Van der Waals force, 213, 222
    Variables, 127, 153
    Vendor managed inventory
    (VMI), 140141
    INDEX 287Vinyl acetate (VA), 202, 215
    Viscose, 177
    Viscosity, 190
    Vision systems, 115116
    Voided films, 184
    Volatile Organic Compounds
    (VOCs), 45
    Voluntary consensus standards,
    253
    Vulcanized rubber plates, 120
    W
    Waste in converting, 90
    Water vapor transmission rates
    (WVTRs), 207
    Water-based adhesives, 4546,
    123
    “Waterleaf”, 157158
    Water-quenched film, 167, 172
    Web dimensional analysis, 912
    industry units of measure, 911
    Web length estimation, 11
    Web materials, 1, 6465
    Web processes
    cross-web variation, 58
    roll rewind designation, 12
    web dimensional analysis,
    912
    industry units of measure,
    911
    web length estimation, 11
    web tension, 23
    web winding, 35
    Web width, 64
    Web winding, 35
    Web-converting processes, 103
    Wet bond laminating, 4041
    Whiteness, 274
    Winding processes, comparison
    of, 5t
    Wire-wound (Mayer) rod, 123
    X
    X-ray transmission, 126
    Y
    “Yield” measure, 911, 10t
    Z
    Zahn cups, 11

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